Fastpath

access control, assurance, attack, audit, authentication, authorization, automated information system, availability, certification, Common Criteria for Information Technology Security, cryptography, cyberspace, evaluation, identity, key management, privacy, requirements, risk, risk management, security, security target, software development, threat, trust, Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria, users,

3DES AADS ABC ACC ACH ACL ACO ADM ADP AE AH AICPA AIG AIN AIN AIRK AIS AJ AJP AK AKDC AKD/RCU AKMC AKMS ALC AMPS AMS AMS ANDVT ANSI AOSS APC API API APU ARPANET ASCII ASIM ASN.1 ASPJ ASSIST ASU ATM AUP AUTH AUTODIN AV AVP BBS BCA BCI BCP BER BIA BIN BLP BPI BPR BS7799 C2 C2W C3 C3I C4 C&A CA CA CAAT CADS CAPI CASE CAW CAW CBC CC1 CC2 CC CCA CCEP CCI CCITSE CCO CCTL CCTP CDMA CDS CDSA CDSA CEM CEOI CEPR CER CER CERT CERT CFB CFD CGI CHAP CIAC CIAC CIK CIK CIO CIP CIPSO CIRK CIRT CISSP CK CKG CKL CM CMCS CNA CNCS CND CNK COAST COBIT CoCo COCOMO COMPUSEC COMSEC CONOP COPS COR COR COSO COTS CPM CPS CPS CPU CRAM CRC CRL CRP CSE CSIRC CSIRT CSOR CSP CSP CSS CSS CSS CSS CSSM CSSO CSTVRP CTAK CTCPEC CT&E CTTA CUP DA DAA DAA DAA DAC DAC DAMA DASD DASS DBA DBMS DCE DCID DCL DCS DCS DCSP DD DDL DDoS DDP DDS DEA DEK DES DFD DIAP DIB DII DISN DITSCAP DLED DMA DML DMS DMZ DN DNS DOI DoS DPL DSA DSN DSS DSS DSVT DTD DTLS DTS DUA EA EAL EAM EAP EBT ECB ECC ECCM ECDSA ECM ECPL EDAC EDC EDESPL EDI EDM EDMS EES EFD EFP EFT EFTO EFTS EGADS EIS EISA EKMS ELINT ELSEC EMC EMI EMRT EMSEC EMSEC EMV EP EPL EQA ERP ERTZ ES ESA ESP ETL ETPL EUC EUCI EV EW FAX FCv1 FDDI FDIU FDMA FEP FIPS140 FIPS FIRST FNBDT FOCI FOUO FPC FPKI FSM FSRS FSTS FTAM FTLS FTP FTS FUD GAO GCA GCCS GETS GIG GNIE GPS GRIP GSS-API GSSP GTS GUI GULS GWEN HDM HIPO HMAC HTML HTTP HUS HUSK I&A I&A IA IAB IANA IBAC IC ICANN ICMP ICQ ICRL ICU IDEA IDIOT IDS IEEE IEMATS IESG IETF IFF IFFN IIA IIRK IKE ILS IMAP4 INFOSEC INFOSEC IO I/O IP IPM IPRA IPsec IPSO IR IRK IRR IS ISA ISACA ISACF ISAKMP ISD ISDN IS/IT ISO ISO ISOC ISP ISS ISSA ISSE ISSM ISSO ISSO IT ITAR ITF ITSEC ITSEC ITU IUT IV IW KAK KDC KEA KEK KEK KG KMASE KMC KMI KMID KMID KMODC KMP KMPDU KMS KMSA KMUA KP KPK KSD KSOS KTC KVG L2F L2TP LAN LDAP LEAD LEAF LKG LMD LMD/KP LME LMI LOCK LOTOS LPC LPD LPI LRIP LSI MAC MAC MAD MAN MAN MATSYM MCA MCCB MDC MEECN MEI MEP MER MHS MI MIB MIJI MIME MINTERM MIPS MISPC MISSI MLS MNS MOSS MRT MSE MSP MTBF MTBO MTSR MTTF MTTR NACAM NACSI NACSIM NAK NAT NCCD NCS NCS NCS NCSC NCSC/TG004 NIAP NIC NII NISAC NIST NKSR NLSP NLZ NORA NPV NQA NSA NSAD NSD NSDD 145 NSDD NSEP NSI NSO NSTAC NSTISSAM NSTISSC NSTISSD NSTISSI NSTISSP NTCB NTIA NTISSAM NTISSD NTISSD NTISSI NTISSP NVLAP OADR OCR OCSP OFAC OFB OID OOP OPCODE OPSEC ORA OSE OSI OSI OSIRM OTAD OTAR OTAT OTP OTP OTT P1363 P2P PAA PAAP PAD PAE PAIIN PAIN PAL PAN PAP PBX PC PCA PCMCIA PCO PCT PCZ PDA PDCA PDR PDS PDS PDU PEM PERT PES PGP PIN PIV PKA PKC PKCS PKI PKSD PNE PNEK POP3 POS PP PPD PPL PPP PPS PPTP PRBAC PROM PROPIN PSE PSL PSYOP PTM PWDS QA QA/QC QC QFD QOP RA RACE RAD RADIUS RAID RAM RAMP RBAC RC2 RC4 RFC RFI RFP RJE ROM RPC RQT RSA SA SABI SAID SAISS SAML SAO SAP SAP SAR SARK SASL SBU SCA SCADA SCI SCIF SCM SDE SDLC SDNRIU SDNS SDR SDSI SENV SET SF SFA SFP SFUG SHA-1 SHA S-HTTP SI SIGSEC SILS SIO SISS SKIP SMDS SMI S/MIME SML SMTP SMU SNMP SOF SP3 SP4 SPC SPC SPI SPI SPK SPKI SPKI/SDSI SPS SQA SQL SRA SRR SS-7 SSAA SSH SSL SSL SSO SSO SSP SSPI SSSO ST STD STE ST&E STS STU SUT SV SV&V SWOT TA TACACS+ TACTED TACTERM TAG TCB TCD TCP TCP/IP TCSEC TCSEC TD TDMA TED TEK TEP TESS TFM TFS TLS TLS TLSO TLSP TNI TNIEG TOE TPC TPEP TPI TQM TRANSEC TRB TRI-TAC TSA TSC TSCM TSEC TSF TSFI TSIG TSK TSP TTR UA UDP UIRK UIS UORA UPP UPS URI URL URN USDE VAN VPN V&V W3 WAIS WAN WAP WBS WWW XDM/X XML

Terms

*-property
(N) (Pronounced 'star property'.) See: 'confinement property' under Bell-LaPadula model. [RFC2828] (see also confinement property, access control, model, Bell-LaPadula security model, property)
2-factor authentication
Authentication processing using two factors, typically: 'something you have' and 'something you know'. [misc] (see also process, 3-factor authentication)
3-factor authentication
Authentication processing using three factors: [misc] (see also biometric authentication, challenge/response, passwords, personal identification number, personal identity verification, process, proof of possession protocol, tokens, authentication) (includes 2-factor authentication, authentication information)
ABA Guidelines
(N) 'American Bar Association (ABA) Digital Signature Guidelines', a framework of legal principles for using digital signatures and digital certificates in electronic commerce. [RFC2828] (see also association, certificate, digital signature, signature)
abend
An unexpected processing termination that may indicate that program coding was incorrectly performed and that earlier testing was not adequate or not adequately controlled. Abend stands for abnormal ending. [SRV] (see also control, failure, process, program, test)
abort
The termination of computer program execution prior to its completion. [SRV] (see also computer, failure, program)
Abrams, Jojodia, Podell essays (AJP)
M. Abrams, S. Jajodia, and H. Podell, eds, Information Security An Integrated Collection of Essays, IEEE Computer Society Press, January 1995. [AJP] (see also computer, information, information security, security)
Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN.1)
(N) A standard for describing data objects. (C) OSI standards use ASN.1 to specify data formats for protocols. OSI defines functionality in layers. Information objects at higher layers are abstractly defined to be implemented with objects at lower layers. A higher layer may define transfers of abstract objects between computers, and a lower layer may define transfers concretely as strings of bits. Syntax is needed to define abstract objects, and encoding rules are needed to transform between abstract objects and bit strings. (C) In ASN.1, formal names are written without spaces, and separate words in a name are indicated by capitalizing the first letter of each word except the first word. For example, the name of a CRL is 'certificateRevocationList'. [RFC2828] (see also certificate, computer, function, information, object, protocols, public-key infrastructure, revocation, standard) (includes Basic Encoding Rules, Distinguished Encoding Rules, object identifier)
abuse of privilege
When a user performs an action that they should not have, according to organizational policy or law. [AFSEC] (see also insider threat, policy, users, threat)
acceptable level of risk
A judicious and carefully considered assessment by the appropriate authority that a computing activity or network meets the minimum requirements of applicable security directives. The assessment should take into account the value of assets; threats and vulnerabilities; countermeasures and operational requirements. [AFSEC] Authority determination of the level of potential harm to an operation, program, or activity as a result of a the loss of information that the authority is willing to accept. [DSS] The level of risk that the organization line manager decides is tolerable. This decision is based on an analysis of threats and vulnerabilities, the sensitivity of data and applications, and cost/benefit, technical, and operational feasibility of available controls. However, some installations are critical to the organization's mission or have the potential to cause the loss of human life or serious injury to humans. For these installations, management may consider controls for implementation that are not cost effective. [NASA] (see also analysis, application, assessment, authority, control, countermeasures, critical, network, operation, requirements, vulnerability, threat)
acceptable risk
A concern that is acceptable to responsible management, due to the cost and magnitude of implementing security controls. [800-37] The level of Residual Risk that has been determined to be a reasonable level of potential loss/disruption for a specific IT system. [CIAO] (see also control, system, risk)
acceptable use policy (AUP)
A set of rules and guidelines that specify in more or less detail the expectations in regard to appropriate use of systems or networks. [RFC2504] It documents permitted system uses and activities for a specific user, and the consequences of noncompliance. [FFIEC] This refers to policies that restrict the way in which a network may be used. Usually, a network administrator makes and enforces decisions dealing with acceptable use. [AFSEC] (see also network, system, users, policy)
acceptance criteria
The criteria that a system or component must satisfy in order to be accepted by a user, customer, or other authorized entity. [IEEE610] (see also authorized, entity, system, users, acceptance procedure, criteria)
acceptance inspection
The final inspection to determine whether or not a facility or system meets the specified technical and performance standards. Note: this inspection is held immediately after facility and software testing and is the basis for commissioning or accepting the information system. [AJP][NCSC/TG004] (see also information, security testing, software, standard, system, test, acceptance procedure)
acceptance procedure
A procedure which takes objects produced during the development, production, and maintenance processes for a Target of Evaluation and, as a positive act, places them under the controls of a Configuration Control system. [AJP][ITSEC] (see also control, control systems, process, system, target, software development, target of evaluation) (includes acceptance criteria, acceptance inspection, acceptance testing, object)
acceptance testing
Formal testing conducted to determine whether or not a system satisfies its acceptance criteria and to enable the customer to determine whether or not to accept the system. [IEEE610] Testing to determine whether products meet the requirements specified in the contract or by the user. [SRV] (see also criteria, requirements, system, users, acceptance procedure, security testing, test)
access
(1) A specific type of interaction between a subject and an object that results in the flow of information from one to the other. (2) The ability and the means necessary to approach, to store or retrieve data, to communicate with, or to make use of any resource of an ADP system. [TNI] (1) The ability and means to communicate with (i.e. input to or receive output from) or otherwise make use of any information, resource, or component in an information technology (IT) product. (2) A specific type of interaction between a subject and an object that results in the flow of information from one to the other. Note: An individual does not have 'access' if the proper authority or a physical, technical, or procedural measure prevents him or her from obtaining knowledge or having an opportunity to alter information, material, resources, or components. [AJP] (I) The ability and means to communicate with or otherwise interact with a system in order to use system resources to either handle information or gain knowledge of the information the system contains. (O) 'A specific type of interaction between a subject and an object that results in the flow of information from one to the other.' (C) In this Glossary, 'access' is intended to cover any ability to communicate with a system, including one-way communication in either direction. In actual practice, however, entities outside a security perimeter that can receive output from the system but cannot provide input or otherwise directly interact with the system, might be treated as not having 'access' and, therefore, be exempt from security policy requirements, such as the need for a security clearance. [RFC2828] 1) The right to enter or use a system and its resources; to read, write, modify, or delete data; or to use software processes or network bandwidth. 2) Opportunity to make use of an information system (IS) resource. [CIAO] A specific type of interaction between a subject and an object that results in the flow of information from one to the other. [NCSC/TG004][TCSEC] A specific type of interaction between a subject and an object that results in the flow of information from one to the other. A subject's right to use an object. [SRV] Ability and means to communicate with (i.e. input to or receive output from), or otherwise make use of any information, resource, or component in an Information Technology (IT) Product. Note: An individual does not have 'access' if the proper authority or a physical, technical, or procedural measure prevents them from obtaining knowledge or having an opportunity to alter information, material, resources, or components. [FCv1] Ability and means to communicate with or otherwise interact with a system, to use system resources to handle information, to gain knowledge of the information the system contains, or to control system components and functions. [CNSSI-4009] Ability and opportunity to obtain knowledge of classified information. [DSS] Ability to make use of any information system (IS) resource. [SP 800-32] Any access that violates the stated security policy. [CNSSI-4009] Opportunity to make use of an information system (IS) resource. [CNSSI] (see also ACL-based authorization, Automated Information System security, Bell-LaPadula security model, Clark Wilson integrity model, Defense Central Security Index, Defensive Information Operations, Department of Defense National Agency Check Plus Written Inquiries, Escrowed Encryption Standard, Freedom of Information Act, IA product, IT security policy, Identification Protocol, Internet Engineering Task Force, Internet Protocol Security Option, KOA agent, Network File System, PHF, PIV issuer, POSIX, Post Office Protocol, version 3, RA domains, SOCKS, SSO PIN, TCB subset, TOE security functions interface, U.S.-controlled facility, U.S.-controlled space, USENET, accreditation range, accredited security parameter, acoustic security, activation data, active wiretapping, ad hoc network, adequate security, adjudication, adjudication authority, adversary, adverse information, alternative compensatory control measures, anonymous and guest login, anonymous login, appeal, applicant, application, application program interface, application proxy, application server attack, archiving, associated markings, attack, attack signature, attribute-based authorization, audit, audit trail, authenticate, authentication, authentication mechanism, authentication period, authority, authorization, authorized, authorized adjudicative agency, authorized investigative agency, authorized person, authorized user, automated information system media control system, availability, availability service, backdoor, balanced magnetic switch, base station, bastion host, benign, between-the-lines-entry, billets, boundary, brute force password attack, buffer overflow, call back, capability, carve-out, category, central office, centralized authorization, certification practice statement, classified, classified contract, classified information procedures act, classified visit, clearance, clearance certification, clearance level, cleared escort, client, client server, closed storage, cloud computing, co-utilization, collateral information, common gateway interface, communications, compartment, compartmentalization, compartmentation, compartmented intelligence, compartmented mode, compelling need, component reference monitor, computer intrusion, computer security, computer security intrusion, confidentiality, confinement property, console logon, continuous operation, contractor/command program security officer, control, controlled security mode, controlled sharing, controlled space, cookies, covert channel, covert channel analysis, cracker, credentials, critical, critical program information, critical system, cross domain solution, cryptographic application programming interface, data asset, data compromise, data integrity service, data management, debriefing, dedicated mode, default account, default file protection, demilitarized zone, demon dialer, denial-of-service, determination authority, device distribution profile, dictionary attack, directory service, disclosure of information, disclosure record, diskette, distributed plant, domain, domain name system, domain parameter, dominated by, dual control, eligibility, encapsulation, entry control, exception, exploit, exploitation, external security controls, external system exposure, extranet, extraordinary security measures, facility security clearance, failed logon, false acceptance, false acceptance rate, false rejection rate, federated identity, federation, fedline, fetch protection, file encryption, file protection, file security, file series, firewall, flooding, flow, foreign disclosure, foreign ownership, control, or influence, foreign travel briefing, foreign visit, formulary, full disk encryption, government-approved facility, granularity, guard, guest system, hackers, high assurance guard, host, https, hyperlink, hypertext, identification, identification and authentication, identification authentication, identity credential issuer, identity verification, identity-based security policy, immediate family member, impersonation, inadvertent disclosure, inadvertent disclosure incident, incident of security concern, individual accountability, individual electronic accountability, indoctrination, inference, information, information assurance, information assurance product, information category, information security, information security risk, information sharing environment, information steward, information systems security, inside threat, insider, insider threat, integrity, intercept, interception, interface, internal security controls, internal system exposure, internal vulnerability, internet protocol security, internet service provider, intranet, intruder, intrusion, intrusion detection, intrusion detection and prevention system, intrusion detection systems, intrusion detection tools, isolator, joint personnel adjudication system, kerberos, key recovery, key-escrow, kiosk, labeled security protections, least privilege, letter of compelling need, list-oriented, local logon, lock-and-key protection system, lockout, logged in, logic bombs, logical completeness measure, login, logoff, logon, maintenance hook, major application, malicious intruder, malicious logic, management client, masquerade, masquerading, minor application, mission critical, mode of operation, modes of operation, motivation, multi-releasable, multilevel mode, multilevel secure, multilevel security, multilevel security mode, national security information, need-to-know, need-to-know determination, network component, network reference monitor, network security, network weaving, nicknames, no-lone zone, non-disclosure agreement, non-discretionary security, non-discussion area, noncomputing security methods, office of personnel management, online attack, open storage area, operations and support, operations manager, operator, overwriting, packet filter, packet filtering, partitioned security mode, password protected, password system, passwords, peer-to-peer communication, penetration, penetration testing, perimeter-based security, permanent records, permissions, personal computer system, personal identification number, personnel security, personnel security - issue information, personnel security clearance, personnel security exceptions, personnel security interview, personnel security investigation, personnel security program, physical and environmental protection, physical security, piggyback, piggyback attack, piggyback entry, pii confidentiality impact level, platform it interconnection, point-to-point tunneling protocol, policy, pop-up box, port, portal, primary services node (prsn), privacy, privilege management, privileged accounts, privileged user, probe, procedural security, process, program channels or program security channels, program material, program office, program security officer, programmable read-only memory, protected network, protection ring, protection-critical portions of the TCB, protective security service, proximity, proxy, proxy server, public-key certificate, real-time reaction, records, reference monitor, reference monitor concept, reference validation mechanism, reinstatement, relying party, remote administration tool, remote authentication dial-in user service, remote login, replay attacks, repository, requirements, resource, resource encapsulation, response force, restricted area, revocation, risk avoidance, rootkit, routine changes, rule-based security policy, rules of behavior, ruleset, salt, sampling frame, sandboxed environment, sandboxing, scattered castles, scoping guidance, screen scraping, secure data device, secure single sign-on, secure state, secure working area, security, security assurance, security attribute, security banner, security clearance, security compromise, security controls, security director, security domain, security incident, security intrusion, security kernel, security label, security level, security management, security management infrastructure, security policy, security safeguards, security service, security violation, security-relevant event, segregation of duties, senior foreign official, senior review group, sensitive activities, sensitive compartmented information, sensitive compartmented information courier, sensitive information, sensitivity label, service, signature, simple network management protocol, simple security condition, simple security property, single scope background investigation - periodic reinvestigation, single sign-on, social engineering, software, software-based fault isolation, source program, special program review group, sponsoring agency, spoof, spoofing, storage object, store, subcontract, subject security level, subset-domain, suspicious contact, system, system entry, system high mode, system resources, system software, system-high security mode, target vulnerability validation techniques, tcpwrapper, technical countermeasures, technical policy, technological attack, technology, technology control plan, temporary help/job shopper, term rule-based security policy, theft, threat, ticket, ticket-oriented, timing attacks, tokens, transaction, trapdoor, trespass, trojan horse, trust relationship, trusted gateway, trusted identification forwarding, trusted subject, two-person integrity, unauthorized disclosure, unauthorized person, unclassified internet protocol router network, unclassified sensitive, unfavorable personnel security determination, uniform resource locator, unprotected network, user PIN, users, vault, verification, virus, vulnerability, war driving, web browser cache, web content filtering software, website, wide-area network, wimax, wireless gateway server, wiretapping, workstation, world wide web, write) (includes Directory Access Protocol, Internet Message Access Protocol, version 4, Law Enforcement Access Field, Lightweight Directory Access Protocol, Terminal Access Controller Access Control System, access approval, access approval authority, access authority, access category, access control, access control center, access control lists, access control mechanisms, access control officer, access control service, access control system, access eligibility determination, access evaluation, access level, access list, access mediation, access mode, access national agency check and inquiries, access period, access point, access port, access profile, access roster, access termination, access type, access with limited privileges, accesses, accessibility, accessioned records, acknowledged special access program, acquisition special access program, administrative access, approved access control device, attribute-based access control, browse access protection, code division multiple access, common access card, context-dependent access control, controlled access area, controlled access program coordination office, controlled access program oversight committee, controlled access programs, controlled access protection, delete access, demand assigned multiple access, direct access storage device, direct memory access, discretionary access control, execute access, failure access, ferroelectric random access memory, file transfer access management, formal access approval, frequency division multiple access, handle via special access control channels only, identity based access control, intelligence special access program, interim access authorization, last mile broadband access, limited access authorization, local access, logical access, logical access control, mandatory access control, media access control address, merge access, multiple access rights terminal, need for access, network access, network access control, non-discretionary access control, non-volatile random access memory, object, on-access scanning, one-time access, partition rule base access control, peer access approval, peer access enforcement, physical access control, policy-based access control, privileged access, program access request, random access memory, read access, remote access, remote access software, risk-adaptable access control, role-based access control, special access office, special access program, special access program facility, special access program/special access required, special access programs central office, special access programs coordination office, special access required programs oversight committee, subject, surrogate access, tactical special access program facility, temporary access eligibility, time division multiple access, umbrella special access program, unacknowledged special access program, unauthorized access, update access, waived special access program, wi-fi protected access-2, wireless access point, write access)
access approval
Formal authorization for an individual to have access to classified or sensitive information within a Special Access Program or a Controlled Access Program, including Sensitive Compartmented Information. Access requires formal indoctrination and execution of a nondisclosure agreement. [DSS] (see also authorization, classified, security clearance, access)
access approval authority
Individual responsible for final access approval and/or denial determination. [DSS] (see also access)
access authority
An entity responsible for monitoring and granting access privileges for other authorized entities. [CNSSI-4009] (see also access)
access category
One of the classes to which a user, program, or process may be assigned on the basis of the resources or groups of resources that each user, program, or process is authorized to use. [SRV] (see also authorized, process, program, resource, users, access)
access control
(1) The limiting of rights or capabilities of a subject to communicate with other subjects, or to use functions or services in a system or network. (2) Restrictions controlling a subject's access to an object. [TNI] (1) The process of limiting access to the resources of an information technology (IT) product only to authorized users, programs, processes, systems (in a network), or other IT products. (Synonymous with controlled access and limited access.) (2) The limiting of rights or capabilities of a subject to communicate with other subjects, or to use functions or services in a system or network. (3) Restrictions controlling a subject's access to an object. [AJP] (I) Protection of system resources against unauthorized access; a process by which use of system resources is regulated according to security policy and is permitted by only authorized entities (users, programs, processes, or other systems) according to that policy. (O) 'The prevention of unauthorized use of a resource, including the prevention of use of a resource in an unauthorized manner.' [RFC2828] 1) Limiting access to information system resources to authorized users, programs, processes, or other systems only. 2) Procedures and controls that limit or detect access to MEI Resource Elements (People, Technology, Applications, Data and/or Facilities) thereby protecting these resources against loss of Integrity, Confidentiality Accountability and/or Availability. [CIAO] A security service that prevents the unauthorized use of information system resources (hardware and software) only to authorized users and the unauthorized disclosure or modification of data (stored and communicated). [IATF] Enable authorized use of a resource while preventing unauthorized use or use in an unauthorized manner. [800-33] Limiting access to information system resources only to authorized users, programs, processes, or other systems. [CNSSI] Process of limiting access to the resources of an IT product only to authorized users, programs, processes, systems, or other IT products. [FCv1] The process of granting or denying specific requests to: 1) obtain and use information and related information processing services; and 2) enter specific physical facilities (e.g., federal buildings, military establishments, border crossing entrances). [CNSSI-4009][FIPS 201] The process of limiting access to the resources of a system only to authorized programs, processes, or other systems (in a network). [NCSC/TG004] The process of limiting access to the resources of a system only to authorized programs, processes, or other systems (in a network). Synonymous with controlled access and limited access. [SRV] (see also *-property, Bell-LaPadula security model, Clark Wilson integrity model, Defensive Information Operations, Escrowed Encryption Standard, Identification Protocol, Internet Engineering Task Force, Internet Protocol Security Option, Network File System, PIV issuer, POSIX, RA domains, SOCKS, TCB subset, TOE security functions interface, U.S.-controlled facility, U.S.-controlled space, accreditation range, active wiretapping, adequate security, adversary, application, application program interface, application proxy, archiving, attack, audit, audit trail, authenticate, authentication, authorized, availability, availability service, backdoor, bastion host, benign, between-the-lines-entry, boundary, boundary host, breach, buffer overflow, call back, capability, category, classified, clearance level, client, client server, common gateway interface, communications, compartment, compartmentalization, compartmented mode, computer intrusion, computer security, computer security intrusion, confidentiality, confinement property, controlled security mode, controlled space, covert channel, covert channel analysis, cracker, credentials, critical, critical system, cryptographic application programming interface, cryptographic equipment room, data compromise, data integrity service, data management, dedicated mode, default account, demilitarized zone, demon dialer, denial-of-service, dictionary attack, directory service, disclosure of information, domain, domain name system, domain parameter, dominated by, dual control, encapsulation, exploit, exploitation, external security controls, external system exposure, extranet, federated identity, federation, fedline, firewall, flooding, formulary, function, guard, hackers, host, https, hyperlink, hypertext, identification, identification and authentication, identification authentication, identity credential issuer, identity verification, identity-based security policy, impersonation, inadvertent disclosure, individual accountability, individual electronic accountability, inference, information, information assurance product, information category, information security, information systems security, integrity, interception, interface, internal security controls, internal system exposure, internet protocol security, internet service provider, intranet, intruder, intrusion, intrusion detection, intrusion detection tools, kerberos, key recovery, key-escrow, kiosk, labeled security protections, list-oriented, lock-and-key protection system, lockout, logic bombs, logical completeness measure, maintenance hook, major application, malicious intruder, malicious logic, masquerade, masquerading, minimum essential infrastructure, mode of operation, modes of operation, motivation, multilevel mode, multilevel secure, multilevel security, multilevel security mode, national security information, network, network component, network security, network weaving, no-lone zone, non-discretionary security, noncomputing security methods, operations manager, operator, packet filtering, partitioned security mode, password system, passwords, peer-to-peer communication, penetration, permissions, personal identification number, personnel security, physical and environmental protection, physical security, piggyback, piggyback attack, piggyback entry, point-to-point tunneling protocol, policy, pop-up box, privacy, probe, procedural security, process, program, protected network, protection ring, protection-critical portions of the TCB, proximity, proxy server, real-time reaction, records, reference monitor, reference monitor concept, reference validation mechanism, remote administration tool, remote authentication dial-in user service, repository, resource, resource encapsulation, restricted area, rootkit, rule-based security policy, rules of behavior, ruleset, salt, sampling frame, scoping guidance, screen scraping, secure single sign-on, security clearance, security compromise, security controls, security domain, security incident, security intrusion, security label, security management, security management infrastructure, security policy, security safeguards, security violation, segregation of duties, sensitive compartmented information, sensitive information, signature, simple network management protocol, simple security condition, simple security property, single sign-on, social engineering, software, source program, spoof, spoofing, storage object, subject security level, subset-domain, system, system high mode, system resources, system software, system-high security mode, tcpwrapper, technological attack, technology, term rule-based security policy, theft, threat, threat consequence, ticket, ticket-oriented, timing attacks, tokens, transaction, trapdoor, trespass, trojan horse, trust relationship, trusted gateway, trusted identification forwarding, trusted subject, two-person integrity, uniform resource locator, unprotected network, user PIN, verification, virus, vulnerability, web browser cache, website, wide-area network, wireless gateway server, wiretapping, workstation, world wide web, Automated Information System security, access, authorization, control, risk management, security, security-relevant event, trusted computing base, users) (includes IT default file protection parameters, centralized authorization, classified information, component reference monitor, controlled sharing, cookies, default file protection, entry control, fetch protection, file protection, file security, granularity, logged in, login, logoff, logon, need-to-know, network reference monitor, privileged, sandboxed environment, secure state, security kernel, security perimeter, sensitivity label, system entry, technical policy)
access control center (ACC)
(I) A computer containing a database with entries that define a security policy for an access control service. (C) An ACC is sometimes used in conjunction with a key center to implement access control in a key distribution system for symmetric cryptography. [RFC2828] (see also computer, cryptography, key, policy, security, system, access, control)
access control lists (ACL)
(1) A list of subjects authorized for specific access to an object. (2) A list of entities, together with their access rights, which are authorized to have access to a resource. [TNI] (1) A mechanism implementing discretionary access control in an IT product that identifies the users who may access an object and the type of access to the object that a user is permitted. (2) A list of subjects authorized for specific access to an object. (3) A list of entities, together with their access rights, which are authorized to have access to a resource. [AJP] (I) A mechanism that implements access control for a system resource by enumerating the identities of the computer system entities that are permitted to access the resource. [RFC2828] 1. A list of permissions associated with an object. The list specifies who or what is allowed to access the object and what operations are allowed to be performed on the object. 2. A mechanism that implements access control for a system resource by enumerating the system entities that are permitted to access the resource and stating, either implicitly or explicitly, the access modes granted to each entity. [CNSSI-4009] A list of the subjects that are permitted to access an object and the access rights of each subject. [SRV] A mechanism that implements access control for a system resource by enumerating the identities of the system entities that are permitted to access the resources. [800-82] A register of: 1. users (including groups, machines, processes) who have been given permission to use a particular system resource, and 2. the types of access they have been permitted. [SP 800-12] Mechanism implementing discretionary access control in an IT product that identifies the users who may access an object and the type of access to the object that a user is permitted. [FCv1] Mechanism implementing discretionary and/or mandatory access control between subjects and objects. [CNSSI][IATF] (see also authorized, communications security, computer, control, object, process, program, resource, subject, system, users, access) (includes ACL-based authorization)
access control mechanisms
(1) Security safeguards designed to detect and prevent unauthorized access, and to permit authorized access in an IT product. (2) Hardware or software features, operating procedures, management procedures, and various combinations of these designed to detect and prevent unauthorized access and to permit authorized access in an automated system. [AJP] Hardware or software features, operating procedures, management procedures, and various combinations of these designed to detect and prevent unauthorized access and to permit authorized access in an automated system. [NCSC/TG004][SRV] Measures or procedures designed to prevent unauthorized access for protecting information or facilities. [DSS] Security safeguard designed to detect and deny unauthorized access and permit authorized access in an IS. [CNSSI] Security safeguards (i.e. hardware and software features, physical controls, operating procedures, management procedures, and various combinations of these) designed to detect and deny unauthorized access and permit authorized access to an information system. [CNSSI-4009] Security safeguards designed to detect and prevent unauthorized access, and to permit authorized access in an IT product. [FCv1] (see also authorized, management, security, software, system, unauthorized access, access, control)
access control officer (ACO)
(see also access, control)
access control service
(I) A security service that protects against a system entity using system resource in a way not authorized by the systems security policy; in short, protection of system resources against unauthorized access. (C) This service includes protecting against use of a resource in an unauthorized manner by an entity that is authorized to use the resource in some other manner. The two basic mechanisms for implementing this service are ACLs and tickets. [RFC2828] (see also authorized, entity, policy, resource, security, system, unauthorized access, access, control)
access control system
Procedure for identifying and/or admitting personnel with proper security clearance and required access approval to information or facilities using physical, electronic, and/or human controls. [DSS] (see also security, access)
access eligibility determination
A formal determination that a person meets the personnel security requirements for access to a specified type or types of classified information. [DSS] (see also classified, requirements, security, access)
access evaluation
Process of reviewing the security qualifications of employees. [DSS] (see also security, access, evaluation)
access level
A category within a given security classification limiting entry or system connectivity to only authorized persons. [CNSSI-4009] Hierarchical portion of the security level used to identify the sensitivity of IS data and the clearance or authorization of users. Access level, in conjunction with the nonhierarchical categories, forms the sensitivity label of an object. [CNSSI] The hierarchical portion of the security level used to identify the sensitivity of data and the clearance or authorization of users. Note: The access level, in conjunction with the non-hierarchical categories, forms the sensitivity label of an object. [AJP][NCSC/TG004][SRV] (see also authorization, identify, object, users, access, security level)
access list
(IS) Compilation of users, programs, or processes and the access levels and types to which each is authorized. (COMSEC) Roster of individuals authorized admittance to a controlled area. [CNSSI] A list of users, programs, and/or processes and the specifications of access categories to which each is assigned. [NCSC/TG004][SRV] Roster of individuals authorized admittance to a controlled area. [CNSSI-4009] (see access control lists) (see also access)
access mediation
Process of monitoring and controlling access to the resources of an IT product, including but not limited to the monitoring and updating of policy attributes during accesses as well as the protection of unauthorized or inappropriate accesses. [AJP][FCv1] (see also authorized, control, policy, process, resource, access)
access mode
(I) A distinct type of data processing operation-- e.g. read, write, append, or execute--that a subject can potentially perform on an object in a system. [RFC2828] (see also object, operation, process, subject, system, access, automated information system)
access national agency check and inquiries
Personnel security investigation for access to classified information conducted by the Office of Personnel Management, combining a national agency check and written inquiries to law enforcement agencies, former employers and supervisors, references, and schools as well as a credit check. [DSS] (see also classified, security, access)
access period
A segment of time, generally expressed on a daily or weekly basis, during which access rights prevail. [AJP][NCSC/TG004][SRV] (see also access)
access point
A device that logically connects wireless client devices operating in infrastructure to one another and provides access to a distribution system, if connected, which is typically an organization's enterprise wired network. [SP 800-48; SP 800-121] (see also access)
access port
A logical or physical identifier that a computer uses to distinguish different terminal input/output data streams. [AJP][NCSC/TG004][SRV] (see also computer, access)
access profile
Associates each user with a list of protected objects the user may access. [CNSSI] Association of a user with a list of protected objects the user may access. [CNSSI-4009] (see also object, users, access, file, profile)
access roster
Database or listing of individuals briefed to a Special Access Program. [DSS] (see also access)
access termination
Removal of an individual from access to a Special Access Program or other program information. [DSS] (see also access)
access type
Account Management, User - Involves 1) the process of requesting, establishing, issuing, and closing user accounts; 2) tracking users and their respective access authorizations; and 3) managing these functions. [SP 800-12] Privilege to perform action on an object. Read, write, execute, append, modify, delete, and create are examples of access types. [CNSSI] Privilege to perform action on an object. Read, write, execute, append, modify, delete, and create are examples of access types. See Write. [CNSSI-4009] The nature of an access right to a particular device, program, or file (e.g. read, write, execute, append, modify, delete, or create). [AJP][NCSC/TG004][SRV] (see also authorization, file, management, object, program, users, access)
access with limited privileges
A user who can circumvent the security controls and processes of a domain or application within an IT system [NASA] (see also application, control, domain, process, security, system, users, access)
accesses
Indoctrination to classified material that has additional security requirements or caveats. This may be Sensitive Compartmented Information, Special Access Program information, or collateral-level accesses such as North Atlantic Treaty Organization or Critical Nuclear Weapons Design Information. [DSS] (see also classified, critical, requirements, security, access)
accessibility
The ability to obtain the use of a computer system resource, or the ability and means necessary to store data, retrieve data, or communicate with a system. [SRV] (see also computer, resource, system, access)
accessioned records
Records of permanent historical value in the legal custody of the National Archives and Records Administration. [DSS] (see also access)
account aggregation
A service that gathers information from many websites, presents that information to the customer in a consolidated format and, in some cases, may allow the customer to initiate activity on the aggregated accounts. Aggregation services typically involve three different entities: (1) The aggregator that offers the aggregation service and maintains information on the customer's relationships/accounts with other online providers. (2) The aggregation target or website/entity from which the information is gathered or extracted by means of direct data feeds or screen scraping. (3) The aggregation customer who subscribes to aggregation services and provides customer IDs and passwords for the account relationships to be aggregated. [FFIEC] (see also entity, information, target)
account authority digital signature (AADS)
relying party obtains public key from its own account registery record for digital signature authentication [misc] (see also authentication, key, public-key, authority, public-key infrastructure, signature)
account fraud
Form of identity theft involving fraudulent transactions against victim's account or opening new accounts in the victim's name [FTC] (see also entity, theft, fraud, identity theft)
account hijacking
assumption of a customer's identity on a valid existing account [FTC] (see account fraud)
account management
Activities such as balance inquiry, statement balancing, transfers between the customer's accounts at the same financial institution, maintenance of personal information, etc. [FFIEC] (see also information)
account takeover
(see account fraud)
accountability
(1) Means of linking individuals to their interactions with an IT product, thereby supporting identification of and recovery from unexpected or unavoidable failures of the control objectives. (2) The quality or state that enables actions on an ADP system to be traced to individuals who may then be held responsible. These actions include violations and attempted violation of the security policy, as well as allowed actions. (3) The property that enables activities on a system to be traced to individuals who may then be held responsible for their actions. [AJP] (I) The property of a system (including all of its system resources) that ensures that the actions of a system entity may be traced uniquely to that entity, which can be held responsible for its actions. (C) Accountability permits detection and subsequent investigation of security breaches. [RFC2828] (IS) Process of tracing IS activities to a responsible source. (COMSEC) Principle that an individual is entrusted to safeguard and control equipment, keying material, and information and is answerable to proper authority for the loss or misuse of that equipment or information. [CNSSI] 1) Principle that responsibilities for ownership and/or oversight of IS resources are explicitly assigned and that assignees are answerable to proper authorities for stewardship of resources under their control. 2) The explicit assignment of responsibilities for oversight of areas of control to executives, managers, staff, owners, providers, and users of MEI Resource Elements. [CIAO] Assigning of a document control number (including copy number) used for establishing responsibility for the document and permits traceability and disposition of the document. [DSS] Means of linking individuals to their interactions with an IT product, thereby supporting identification of and recovery from unexpected or unavoidable failures of the control objectives. [FCv1] Principle that an individual is entrusted to safeguard and control equipment, keying material, and information and is answerable to proper authority for the loss or misuse of that equipment or information. [CNSSI-4009] Property that allows auditing of activities in an automated information system (AIS) to be traced to persons who may then be held responsible for their actions. [IATF] Property that allows the ability to identify, verify, and trace system entities as well as changes in their status. Accountability is considered to include authenticity and non-repudiation. [800-37] The principle that individuals using a facility or a computer system must be able to be identified. With accountability, violations or attempted violation of system security can be traced to individuals who can then be held responsible for their actions. [AFSEC] The property that enables activities on a system to be traced to individuals who may then be held responsible for their actions. [NCSC/TG004][SRV] The property that ensures that the actions of an entity may be traced uniquely to the entity. [SC27] The quality or state which enables actions on an ADP system to be traced to individuals who may then be held responsible. These actions include violations and attempted violation of the security policy, as well as allowed actions. [TNI] The security goal that generates the requirement for actions of an entity to be traced uniquely to that entity. This supports non- repudiation, deterrence, fault isolation, intrusion detection and prevention, and after-action recovery and legal action. [SP 800-27] The security objective that generates the requirement for actions of an entity to be traced uniquely to that entity. This supports non-repudiation, deterrence, fault isolation, intrusion detection and prevention, and after-action recovery and legal action. [800-30][800-33] (see also audit, authority, communications security, computer, control, deterrence, entity, failure, fault isolation, identify, information, intrusion, intrusion detection, intrusion prevention, key, minimum essential infrastructure, non-repudiation, owner, policy, process, property, quality, recovery, resource, security objectives, system, trust, security goals) (includes automated information system, identification, object, users)
accounting legend code (ALC)
Numeric code used to indicate the minimum accounting controls required for items of accountable COMSEC material within the COMSEC Material Control System. [CNSSI] Numeric code used to indicate the minimum accounting controls required for items of accountable communications security (COMSEC) material within the COMSEC Material Control System. [CNSSI-4009] (see also communications security, control, control systems, security, system, code)
accounting number
Number assigned to an item of COMSEC material to facilitate its control. [CNSSI][CNSSI-4009] (see also communications security, control)
accreditation
(1) The procedure for accepting an IT system to process sensitive information within a particular operational environment. (2) The formal procedure for recognizing both the technical competence and the impartiality of an IT test laboratory (evaluation body) to carry out its associated tasks. (3) Formal declaration by a designated approving authority that an Automated Information System (AIS) is approved to operate in a particular security configuration using a prescribed set of safeguards. (4) The managerial authorization and approval granted to an ADP system or network to process sensitive data in an operational environment, made on the basis of a certification by designated technical personnel of the extent to which design and implementation of the computer system meet pre-specified technical requirements, e.g. TCSEC (Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria), for achieving adequate data security. Management can accredit a system to operate at a higher or lower level than the risk level recommended (e.g. by the requirements guideline) for the certification level of the computer system. If management accredits the system to operate at a higher level than is appropriate for the certification level, management is accepting the additional risk incurred. (5) A formal declaration by the DAA (designated approving authority) that the AIS is approved to operate in a particular security mode using a prescribed set of safeguards. Accreditation is the official management authorization for operation of an AIS and is based on the certification process as well as other management considerations. The accreditation statement affixes security responsibility with the DAA and shows that due care has been taken for security. [AJP] (I) An administrative declaration by a designated authority that an information system is approved to operate in a particular security configuration with a prescribed set of safeguards. (C) An accreditation is usually based on a technical certification of the computer system's security mechanisms. The terms 'certification' and 'accreditation' are used more in the U.S. Department of Defense and other government agencies than in commercial organizations. However, the concepts apply any place where managers are required to deal with and accept responsibility for security risks. The American Bar Association is developing accreditation criteria for CAs. [RFC2828] A formal declaration by the DAA that the AIS is approved to operate in a particular security mode using a perscribed set of safeguards. Accreditation is the official management authorization for operation of an AIS and is based on the certification process as well as other management considerations. The accreditation statement affixes security responsibility with the DAA and shows that due care has been taken for security. [NCSC/TG004] A management's formal acceptance of the adequacy of a computer system's security. [SRV] Formal certification by a cognizant security authority that a facility, designated area, or information system has met Director of National Intelligence security standards for handling, processing, discussing, disseminating, or storing Sensitive Compartmented Information. [DSS] Formal declaration by a Designated Accrediting Authority (DAA) that an IS is approved to operate at an acceptable level of risk, based on the implementation of an approved set of technical, managerial, and procedural safeguards. [CNSSI] Formal declaration by a Designated Approving Authority that an IS is approved to operate in a particular security mode using a prescribed set of safeguards at an acceptable level of risk. [GSA] Formal declaration by a designated approving authority that an Automated Information System (AIS) is approved to operate in a particular security configuration using a prescribed set of safeguards. [FCv1] Formal declaration by the responsible management approving the operation of an automated system in a particular security mode using a particular set of safeguards. Accreditation is the official authorization by management for the operation of the computer system, and acceptance by that management of the associated residual risks. Accreditation is based on the certification process as well as other management considerations. [SC27] Has two definitions according to circumstances: a)the procedure for accepting an IT system for use within a particular environment; b)the procedure for recognizing both the technical competence and the impartiality of a test laboratory to carry out its associated tasks. [ITSEC] Of information system. Approval to use an Information System to process classified information in a specified environment at an acceptable level of risk based upon technical, managerial, and procedural safeguards. [DSS] The authorization of an IT system to process, store, or transmit information, granted by a management official. Accreditation, that is required under OMB Circular A-130, is based on an assessment of the management, operational, and technical controls associated with an IT system. [800-37] The managerial authorization and approval, granted to an ADP system or network to process sensitive data in an operational environment, made on the basis of a certification by designated technical personnel of the extent to which design and implementation of the computer system meet pre-specified technical requirements, e.g. TCSEC, for achieving adequate data security. Management can accredit a system to operate at a higher/lower level than the risk level recommended (e.g. by the Requirements Guideline-) for the certification level of the computer system. If management accredits the system to operate at a higher level than is appropriate for the certification level, management is accepting the additional risk incurred. [TNI] The official management decision given by a senior agency official to authorize operation of an information system and to explicitly accept the risk to agency operations (including mission, functions, image, or reputation), agency assets, or individuals, based on the implementation of an agreed-upon set of security controls. [800-60][800-82] Two definitions according to circumstances: 1) Operational system accreditation: The authorization that is granted for use of an IT system to process sensitive information in its operational environment. (ANSI modified) 2) Laboratory accreditation: The formal recognition that a testing laboratory is technically competent to carry out its specified tasks. [JTC1/SC27] (see also Common Criteria Testing Laboratory, approved technologies list, approved test methods list, assessment, association, authority, authorization, cascading, certificate, certificate revocation list, certification phase, certifier, classified, computer, control, controlled security mode, criteria, dedicated security mode, evaluation, external security controls, function, information, intelligence, multilevel security mode, national information assurance partnership, network, operation, partitioned security mode, pre-certification phase, process, requirements, risk, security evaluation, security testing, site certification, standard, system, system-high security mode, test, trust, trusted computer system, type certification, certification) (includes DoD Information Technology Security Certification and Accreditation Process, National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program, Scope of Accreditation, accreditation authority, accreditation body, accreditation boundary, accreditation disapproval, accreditation multiplicity parameter, accreditation package, accreditation phase, accreditation range, approval/accreditation, automated information system, certification and accreditation, designated approving authority, full accreditation, identification and accreditation, interim accreditation, interim accreditation action plan, post-accreditation phase, private accreditation exponent, private accreditation information, public accreditation verification exponent, security, site accreditation, system accreditation, type accreditation)
accreditation authority
Entity trusted by all members of a group of entities for the purposes of the generation of private accreditation information. [SC27] (see also entity, information, trust, accreditation, authority)
accreditation body
An independent organization responsible for assessing the performance of other organizations against a recognized standard, and for formally confirming the status of those that meet the standard. [NIAP] (see also standard, accreditation, national information assurance partnership)
accreditation boundary
1. (IA) - Identifies the information resources covered by an accreditation decision, as distinguished from separately accredited information resources that are interconnected or with which information is exchanged via messaging. (Synonymous with Security Perimeter) 2. (IC) - For the purposes of identifying the Protection Level for confidentiality of a system to be accredited, the system has a conceptual boundary that extends to all intended users of the system, both directly and indirectly connected, who receive output from the system (DCID 6/3, 5 Jun 99) [CNSSI] All components of an information system to be accredited by an authorizing official and excludes separately accredited systems, to which the information system is connected. [800-60] (see also security perimeter, information, resource, security, system, users, accreditation, boundary)
accreditation disapproval
The system does not meet the security requirements and security controls as stated in the security plan; residual risk is too great, and mission criticality does not mandate the immediate operational need. Therefore, the developmental system is not approved for operation or, if the system is already operational, the operation of the system is halted. [800-37] (see also control, critical, operation, requirements, risk, security, system, accreditation)
accreditation multiplicity parameter
Positive integer equal to the number of items of secret accreditation information provided to an entity by the accreditation authority. [SC27] (see also authority, entity, information, accreditation)
accreditation package
Product comprised of a System Security Plan (SSP) and a report documenting the basis for the accreditation decision. [CNSSI] The accreditation letter and supporting documentation and rationale for the accreditation decision. [800-37] (see also security, system, accreditation)
accreditation phase
The accreditation phase is the third phase of the certification and accreditation process. Its purpose is to complete the final risk assessment on the IT system, update the security plan, prepare the certification findings, and issue the accreditation decision. [800-37] (see also assessment, process, risk, security, system, update, accreditation)
accreditation range
The accreditation range of a host with respect to a particular network is a set of mandatory access control levels (according to 'Computer Security Requirements: Guidance for Applying the Department of Defense Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria in Specific Environments,' CSC-STD-003-85) for data storage, processing, and transmission. The accreditation range will generally reflect the sensitivity levels of data that the accreditation authority believes the host can reliably keep segregated with an acceptable level of risk in the context of the particular network for which the accreditation range is given. Thus, although a host system might be accredited to use the mandatory access control levels Confidential, Secret, and Top Secret in stand-alone operation, it might have an accreditation range consisting of the single value Top Secret for attachment to some network. [AJP] (see also access, access control, authority, computer, computer security, control, criteria, evaluation, network, operation, process, requirements, risk, security, system, trust, trusted computer system, accreditation)
accredited
Formally confirmed by an accreditation body as meeting a predetermined standard of impartiality and general technical, methodological, and procedural competence. [NIAP] (see accreditation)
accredited security parameter
Security classification levels, compartments, and subcompartments at which an Information System or network is accredited to operate [for example TOP SECRET or Special Access Required]Security classification levels, compartments, and subcompartments at which an Information System or network is accredited to operate [for example TOP SECRET or Special Access Required] [DSS] (see also access, security)
accrediting authority
Customer official who has the authority to decide on accepting the security safeguards prescribed or who is responsible for issuing an accreditation statement that records the decision to accept those safeguards. [DSS] Synonymous with Designated Accrediting Authority (DAA). See also Authorizing Official. [CNSSI-4009] Synonymous with designated accrediting authority (DAA). [CNSSI] (see also security, authority)
accuracy
A qualitative assessment of correctness, or freedom from error. [SRV] (see also assessment)
ACH debit fraud
unauthorized payment, using fraudulently obtained account number [FTC] (see also authorized, fraud, identity theft)
acknowledged special access program
Special Access Program acknowledged to exist and whose purpose is identified (for example, the B-2 or the F-117 aircraft program) while the details, technologies, materials, techniques, of the program are classified as dictated by their vulnerability to exploitation and the risk of compromise. Program funding is generally unclassified. (Note: Members of the four Congressional Defense Committees are authorized access to the program.) [DSS] (see also authorized, classified, compromise, risk, vulnerability, access)
ACL-based authorization
A scheme where the authorization agent consults an ACL to grant or deny access to a principal. [misc] (see also access, access control lists, authorization) (includes distributed computing environment)
acoustic intelligence
Intelligence information derived from collection and analysis of acoustical phenomena. [DSS] (see also acoustic security, analysis, intelligence)
acoustic security
Security measures designed and used to deny aural access to classified information. [DSS] (see also access, acoustic intelligence, classified, security)
acoustic warfare
Action involving the use of underwater acoustic energy to determine, exploit, reduce, or prevent hostile use of the underwater acoustic spectrum and actions which retain friendly use of the underwater acoustic spectrum. [DOD] (see also warfare)
acquirer
(N) SET usage: 'The financial institution that establishes an account with a merchant and processes payment card authorizations and payments.' (O) 'The institution (or its agent) that acquires from the card acceptor the financial data relating to the transaction and initiates that data into an interchange system.' [RFC2828] (see also authorization, process, system, Secure Electronic Transaction)
acquisition
Networks or systems generally used for industrial controls or to manage infrastructure such as pipelines and power systems. [CNSSI-4009] (see also control)
acquisition plan
A document that records management's decisions; contains the requirements; provides appropriate analysis of technical options and the lifecycle plans for development, production, training, and support of material items. [SRV] (see also analysis, requirements)
acquisition program
Directed, funded effort that provides a new, improved, or continuing materiel, weapon, or information system, or service capability in response to an approved need. [DSS]
acquisition special access program
A Special Access Program established primarily to protect sensitive research, development, testing, and evaluation or procurement activities in support of sensitive military and intelligence requirements. [DSS] (see also evaluation, intelligence, requirements, access)
acquisition strategy
The conceptual framework for conducting systems acquisition, encompassing the broad concepts and objectives that direct and control the overall development, production, and deployment of a system. It evolves in parallel with the system's maturation. It must be stable enough to provide continuity but dynamic and flexible enough to accommodate change. It is tailored to fit the needs for developing, producing, and fielding the system. The set of decisions that determines how products and services will be acquired, including contracting method, contract duration, contract pricing, and quantities. [SRV] (see also control, object, system)
acquisition systems protection
Safeguarding of Defense systems anywhere in the acquisition process as defined in Department of Defense Directive 5000.1, the defense technologies being developed that could lead to weapon or Defense systems, and Defense research data. Acquisition Systems Protection integrates all security disciplines, counterintelligence, other defensive methods for denying foreign collection efforts and preventing unauthorized disclosure to deliver to our forces uncompromised combat effectiveness over the live expectancy of the system. [DSS] (see also authorized, compromise, foreign, intelligence, security)
activation data
Private data, other than keys, that are required to access cryptographic modules. [SP 800-32] (see also access)
active attack
An attack on the authentication protocol where the attacker transmits data to the claimant or verifier. Examples of active attacks include a man-in-the-middle, impersonation, and session hijacking. [800-63] An attack on the authentication protocol where the attacker transmits data to the claimant, Credential Service Provider, verifier, or relying party. Examples of active attacks include man-in-the-middle, impersonation, and session hijacking. [SP 800-63] An attack that alters a system or data. [CNSSI-4009] (see also authentication, impersonation, protocols, attack)
active content
Electronic documents that can carry out or trigger actions automatically on a computer platform without the intervention of a user. [SP 800-28] Software in various forms that is able to automatically carry out or trigger actions on a computer platform without the intervention of a user. [CNSSI-4009] WWW pages which contain references to programs which are downloaded and executed automatically by WWW browsers. [SRV] (see also program, software)
active security testing
Hands-on security testing of systems and networks to identify their security vulnerabilities. [800-115] Security testing that involves direct interaction with a target, such as sending packets to a target. [SP 800-115] (see also system, target, vulnerability, security testing, test)
active state
The key lifecycle state in which a cryptographic key is available for use for a set of applications, algorithms, and security entities. [800-130] (see also deactivated state, algorithm, application, cryptographic, key, lifecycle, security, key lifecycle state)
active wiretapping
The attaching of an unauthorized device, such as a computer terminal, to a communications circuit for the purpose of obtaining access to data through the generation of false messages or control signals, or by altering the communications of legitimate users. [SRV] (see also access, access control, authorized, communications, computer, control, message, users, wiretapping)
activities
An assessment object that includes specific protection-related pursuits or actions supporting an information system that involve people (e.g., conducting system backup operations, monitoring network traffic). [SP 800-53A]
activity
Department of Defense unit, organization, or installation performing a function or mission. [DSS]
activity analysis
The analysis and measurement (in terms of time, cost, and throughput) of distinct units of work (activities) that make up a process. [SRV] (see also process, analysis, security software)
activity security manager
Individual specifically designated in writing and responsible for an activity's information security program who ensures classified and controlled unclassified information is properly handled during its entire lifecycle. That overview includes ensuring material is appropriately identified, marked, stored, disseminated, disposed of, and accounted for, as well as providing guidance on the handling of security incidents to minimize adverse effects and ensure that appropriate corrective action is taken. The security manager may be assigned responsibilities in other security disciplines such as personnel and physical security. [DSS] (see also classified, information security, security incident, security)
activity-based costing (ABC)
(see also business process)
actuator
A pneumatic, hydraulic, or electrically powered device that supplies force and motion so as to position a valve's closure member at or between the open or closed position. [800-82]
ad hoc
Something that is ad hoc or that is done on an ad hoc basis happens or is done only when the situation makes it necessary or desirable, rather than being arranged in advance or being part of a general plan. [OVT]
ad hoc network
A wireless network that dynamically connects wireless client devices to each other without the use of an infrastructure device, such as an access point or a base station. [SP 800-121] (see also access, network)
ad hoc testing
Testing carried out using no recognised test case design technique. [OVT] (see also security testing, test)
ad-lib test
A test executed without prior planning; especially if the expected test outcome is not predicted beforehand. An undocumented test. [OVT] (see also test)
adaptive predictive coding (APC)
add-on security
(I) 'The retrofitting of protection mechanisms, implemented by hardware or software, after the [automatic data processing] system has become operational.' [RFC2828] Incorporation of new hardware, software, or firmware safeguards in an operational IS. [CNSSI] Incorporation of new hardware, software, or firmware safeguards in an operational information system. [CNSSI-4009] The retrofitting of protection mechanisms, implemented by hardware or software, after the computer system has become operational. [SRV] The retrofitting of protection mechanisms, implemented by hardware or software. [AJP][NCSC/TG004] (see also computer, operation, process, software, system, security)
address
A sequence of bits or characters that identifies the destination and the source of a transmission. [SRV]
address indicator group (AIG)
address of record
The official location where an individual can be found. The address of record always includes the residential street address of an individual and may also include the mailing address of the individual. In very limited circumstances, an Army Post Office box number, Fleet Post Office box number or the street address of next of kin or of another contact individual can be used when a residential street address for the individual is not available. [800-63]
address spoofing
A type of attack in which the attacker steals a legitimate network (e.g. IP) address of a system and uses it to impersonate the system that owns the address. [misc] (see also impersonation, network, system, masquerade, spoof, spoofing) (includes ip spoofing)
adequate security
Security commensurate with the risk and magnitude of harm resulting from the loss, misuse, or unauthorized access to or modification of information. [800-37] Security commensurate with the risk and magnitude of harm resulting from the loss, misuse, or unauthorized access to or modification of information. Note: This includes assuring that information systems operate effectively and provide appropriate confidentiality, integrity, and availability, through the use of cost-effective management, personnel, operational, and technical controls. [CNSSI-4009; SP 800-37] Security commensurate with the risk and magnitude of harm resulting from the loss, misuse, or unauthorized access to or modification of information. This includes assuring that information systems operate effectively and provide appropriate confidentiality, integrity, and availability, through the use of cost-effective management, personnel, operational, and technical controls. (OMB Circular A-130) [CNSSI] Security commensurate with the risk and the magnitude of harm resulting from the loss, misuse, or unauthorized access to or modification of information. [SP 800-53; FIPS 200; OMB Circular A-130, App. III] (see also access, access control, authorized, availability, control, information, integrity, management, operation, risk, system, unauthorized access, security)
adjudication
Evaluation of personnel security investigations and other relevant information to determine if it is clearly consistent with the interests of national security for persons to be granted (or retain) eligibility for access to classified information and continue to hold positions requiring a trustworthiness decision. [DSS] (see also access, classified, evaluation, security, trust)
adjudication authority
Entity that provides adjudication for eligibility or access. [DSS] (see also access)
adjudicative process
An examination of a sufficient period of a person's life to make an affirmative determination that the person is an acceptable security risk. [DSS] (see also risk, security)
adjudicator
Personnel security specialist who performs adjudications. [DSS] (see also security)
administration documentation
The information about a Target of Evaluation supplied by the developer for use by an administrator. [AJP][ITSEC] (see also information, target, target of evaluation)
administrative access
Individuals or terminals authorized to perform network administrator or system administrator functions. [FFIEC] (see also authorized, function, system, access)
administrative account
A user account with full privileges on a computer. [SP 800-69] (see also computer, users)
administrative safeguards
Administrative actions, policies, and procedures to manage the selection, development, implementation, and maintenance of security measures to protect electronic health information and to manage the conduct of the covered entity's workforce in relation to protecting that information. [SP 800-66] (see also development, security)
administrative security
(I) Management procedures and constraints to prevent unauthorized access to a system. (O) 'The management constraints, operational procedures, accountability procedures, and supplemental controls established to provide an acceptable level of protection for sensitive data.' (C) Examples include clear delineation and separation of duties, and configuration control. [RFC2828] The management constraints and supplemental controls established to provide an acceptable level of protection for data. [AJP][NCSC/TG004][NSAINT] The management constraints and supplemental controls established to provide an acceptable level of protection for data. Synonymous with procedural security. [SRV] (see procedural security) (see also security)
administrator
A person in contact with the Target of Evaluation who is responsible for maintaining its operational capability. [AJP][ITSEC] (see also operation, target, target of evaluation)
advanced development model (ADM)
(see also software development)
advanced encryption standard
(AES) The Advanced Encryption Standard specifies a U.S. Government- approved cryptographic algorithm that can be used to protect electronic data. The AES algorithm is a symmetric block cipher that can encrypt (encipher) and decrypt (decipher) information. This standard specifies the Rijndael algorithm, a symmetric block cipher that can process data blocks of 128 bits, using cipher keys with lengths of 128, 192, and 256 bits. [FIPS 197] (N) A future FIPS publication being developed by NIST to succeed DES. Intended to specify an unclassified, publicly-disclosed, symmetric encryption algorithm, available royalty-free worldwide. [RFC2828] A U.S. Government-approved cryptographic algorithm that can be used to protect electronic data. The AES algorithm is a symmetric block cipher that can encrypt (encipher) and decrypt (decipher) information. [CNSSI-4009] FIPS approved cryptographic algorithm that is a symmetric block cypher using cryptographic key sizes of 128, 192, and 256 bits to encrypt and decrypt data in blocks of 128 bits. [CNSSI] (see also algorithm, classified, cryptographic, key, National Institute of Standards and Technology, encryption, standard, symmetric cryptography)
advanced intelligence network (AIN)
(see also intelligence, network)
advanced intelligent network (AIN)
An evolving architecture that allows rapid creation and modification of telecommunication services. [SRV] (see also network)
advanced key processor
A cryptographic device that performs all cryptographic functions for a management client node and contains the interfaces to 1) exchange information with a client platform, 2) interact with fill devices, and 3) connect a client platform securely to the primary services node (PRSN). [CNSSI-4009] (see also management, key)
Advanced Mobile Phone Service (AMPS)
The standard system for analog cellular telephone service in the U.S. AMPS allocates frequency ranges within the 800 -- 900 MHz spectrum to cellular telephones. Signals cover an area called a cell. Signals are passed into adjacent cells as the user moves to another cell. The analog service of AMPS has been updated to include digital service. [IATF] (see also standard, system, update, users)
advanced narrowband digital voice terminal (ANDVT)
advanced persistent threats
An adversary that possesses sophisticated levels of expertise and significant resources which allow it to create opportunities to achieve its objectives by using multiple attack vectors (e.g., cyber, physical, and deception). These objectives typically include establishing and extending footholds within the information technology infrastructure of the targeted organizations for purposes of exfiltrating information, undermining or impeding critical aspects of a mission, program, or organization; or positioning itself to carry out these objectives in the future. The advanced persistent threat: (i) pursues its objectives repeatedly over an extended period of time; (ii) adapts to defenders. efforts to resist it; and (iii) is determined to maintain the level of interaction needed to execute its objectives. [SP 800-39] (see also attack, critical, cyberspace, target, threat)
Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET)
(see also network)
advanced self-protection jammer (ASPJ)
(see also assurance, communications security, jamming)
adversary
(I) An entity that attacks, or is a threat to, a system. [RFC2828] Individual, group, organization, or Government that must be denied critical information. An adversary is synonymous with competitor/enemy. [DSS] Individual, group, organization, or government that conducts or has the intent to conduct detrimental activities. [SP 800-30] Person or organization that must be denied accesses to information. [IATF] (see also C2-attack, C2-protect, RED team, access, access control, advisory, attack, camouflage, command and control warfare, communications cover, communications deception, compromise, counterintelligence, countermeasures, cover, critical, cryptographic key, damage, data aggregation, deception, eavesdropping, entity, imitative communications deception, indicator, information, information assurance, information operations, information superiority, information warfare, intelligence, intelligent threat, malware, man-in-the-middle attack, motivation, national information infrastructure, non-technical countermeasure, operations security, operations security indicator, perceived collection threat, radio frequency jamming, random, replay attacks, risk, security environment threat list, security threat, social engineering, system, target, threat, threat analysis, traffic analysis, vulnerability, vulnerability analysis, vulnerability assessment, security) (includes adversary collection methodology, adversary threat strategy)
adversary collection methodology
Resource and method available to and used by an adversary for the collecting and exploiting sensitive/ critical information or indicators thereof. [DSS] (see also critical, adversary)
adversary threat strategy
Process of defining, in narrative or graphical format, a threat presented to an operation, program, or project. The adversary threat strategy should define the potential adversaries, the courses of action those adversaries might take against the operation, and the information needed by the adversaries to execute those actions. [DSS] (see also adversary, threat)
adverse action
Removal from employment, suspension from employment of more than 14 days, reduction in grade, reduction of pay, or furlough of 30 days or less. [DSS]
adverse information
Information that can adversely reflect on the integrity or character of a cleared employee suggested that his or her ability to safeguard classified information may be impaired, or that his or her access to classified information may not be in the interest of national security. [DSS] (see also access, classified, security)
advisory
Notification of significant new trends or developments regarding the threat to the IS of an organization. This notification may include analytical insights into trends, intentions, technologies, or tactics of an adversary targeting ISs. [CNSSI] Notification of significant new trends or developments regarding the threat to the information systems of an organization. This notification may include analytical insights into trends, intentions, technologies, or tactics of an adversary targeting information systems. [CNSSI-4009] (see also Internet Architecture Board, adversary, computer emergency response team, development, target, threat) (includes Computer Incident Advisory Capability, National COMSEC Advisory Memorandum, National Industrial Security Advisory Committee, National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee, National Security Telecommunications and Information Systems Security Advisory/Information Memorandum, National Telecommunications and Information Systems Security Advisory Memoranda/Instructions, TEMPEST advisory group)
affiliate
Entity effectively owned or controlled by another entity. [DSS]
agency
Any executive agency, as section 105, title 5 of the United States Code defines, and any other entity within the executive branch that comes into the possession of classified information. [DSS] Any executive department, military department, government corporation, government-controlled corporation, or other establishment in the executive branch of the government (including the Executive Office of the President), or any independent regulatory agency, but does not include: 1) the Government Accountability Office; 2) the Federal Election Commission; 3) the governments of the District of Columbia and of the territories and possessions of the United States, and their various subdivisions; or 4) government- owned contractor-operated facilities, including laboratories engaged in national defense research and production activities. [FIPS 200; 44 U.S.C., Sec. 3502] Federal department, major organizational unit within a department, or independent agency. [CIAO] (see also classified, control)
agent
A host-based intrusion detection and prevention program that monitors and analyzes activity and may also perform prevention actions. [800-94] A program acting on behalf of a person or organization. [SP 800-95] A program used in distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks that sends malicious traffic to hosts based on the instructions of a handler. [800-61] Person who engages in clandestine activity. [DSS] (see also attack, intrusion, intrusion detection, malicious, program)
agent of the government
Contractor employee designated in writing by the Government Contracting Officer authorized to act on behalf of the Government. [DSS] (see also authorized)
aggregation
(I) A circumstance in which a collection of information items is required to be classified at a higher security level than any of the individual items that comprise it. [RFC2828] (see also classified, information, security)
aggressive mode
Mode used in IPsec phase 1 to negotiate the establishment of an IKE SA through three messages. [800-77] (see also establishment, internet protocol security, internet security protocol, message)
agreement
A document that regulates security-relevant aspects of an intended connection between an agency and an external system. It regulates the security interface between any two systems operating under two different distinct authorities. It includes a variety of descriptive, technical, procedural, and planning information. It is usually preceded by a formal MOA/MOU that defines high-level roles and responsibilities in management of a cross-domain connection. [CNSSI-4009] (see also management, security)
alarm
A device or function that signals the existence of an abnormal condition by making an audible or visible discrete change, or both, so as to attract attention to that condition. [800-82] (see also alert, countermeasures, function)
alarm reporting
An OSI terms that refers to the communication of information about a possible detected fault. This information generally includes the identification of the network device or network resource in which the fault was detected, the type of the fault, its severity, and its probable cause. [SRV] (see also fault, identification, information, network, resource, security software)
alarm surveillance
The set of functions that enable: (1) the monitoring of the communications network to detect faults and fault-related events or conditions; (2) the logging of this information for future use in fault detection and other network management activities; and (3) the analysis and control of alarms, notifications, and other information about faults to ensure that the resources of network management are directed toward faults that affect the operation of the communications network. Analysis of alarms consists of alarm filtering, alarm correlation, and fault prediction. [SRV] (see also analysis, communications, control, fault, function, information, network, operation, resource, security software)
alert
A formatted message describing a circumstance relevant to network security. Alerts are often derived from critical audit events. [NSAINT] A notification of an important observed event. Anomaly-Based Detection: The process of comparing definitions of what activity is considered normal against observed events to identify significant deviations. [800-94] Notice of specific attack directed at an organization's IS resources. [CIAO] Notification that a specific attack has been directed at an organization's information systems. [CNSSI-4009] Notification that a specific attack has been directed at the IS of an organization. [CNSSI] (see also alarm, anomaly, attack, audit, communications security, critical, identify, message, network, process, resource, security)
algorithm
(I) A finite set of step-by-step instructions for a problem-solving or computation procedure, especially one that can be implemented by a computer. [RFC2828] A mathematical procedure that can usually be explicitly encoded in a set of computer language instructions that manipulate data. Cryptographic algorithms are mathematical procedures used for such purposes as encrypting and decrypting messages and signing documents digitally. [AJP] (see also CAST, Clipper chip, Commercial COMSEC Evaluation Program, Common Criteria for Information Technology Security, Computer Security Objects Register, Diffie-Hellman, Digital Signature Standard, Escrowed Encryption Standard, FIPS PUB 140-1, FIPS approved security method, Fortezza, Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol, OAKLEY, Rivest Cipher 2, Rivest Cipher 4, SET qualifier, Simple Key-management for Internet Protocols, Skipjack, Type 4 product, Type I cryptography, Type II cryptography, Type III cryptography, X.509 attribute certificate, X.509 certificate revocation list, X.509 public-key certificate, active state, advanced encryption standard, approved, asymmetric cryptography, asymmetric encipherment system, biometric template, block cipher, break, brute force attack, certification request, checksum, cipher, cipher block chaining, cipher feedback, cipher suite, ciphertext, ciphertext-only attack, code, communications security, computer, computer cryptography, cryptanalysis, cryptographic, cryptographic functions, cryptographic key, cryptographic logic, cryptographic module, cryptographic system, cryptographic token, cryptography, cryptonet, cryptoperiod, cycle time, cyclic redundancy check, data authentication code, data authentication code vs. Data Authentication Code, data encryption standard, decrypt, digital envelope, digital signature, domain of interpretation, effective key length, electronically generated key, elliptic curve cryptography, encipherment, encrypt, encryption, encryption strength, frequency hopping, hash, hash function, hybrid encryption, indistinguishability, initial transformation, initialization value, initialization vector, intelligent threat, internet protocol security, key, key agreement, key distribution, key generating function, key generator, key pair, key recovery, key space, key transport, key-escrow system, keyed hash, known-plaintext attack, link encryption, man-in-the-middle attack, message, message authentication code, message authentication code vs. Message Authentication Code, message digest, metrics, mode of operation, one-time pad, out-of-band, output transformation, parameters, pretty good privacy, private key, process controller, protection suite, pseudo-random, public-key, public-key cryptography standards, public-key forward secrecy, public-key information, secret key, secret-key cryptography, secure hash standard, secure hypertext transfer protocol, secure socket layer, security mechanism, security strength, semantic security, signature generation, signature verification, stream cipher, strength of mechanisms, symmetric cryptography, symmetric key, trapdoor, triple DES, trust, tunnel, type 1 products, type 2 product, type 3 product, validate, virus definitions) (includes Data Authentication Algorithm, El Gamal algorithm, Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm, International Data Encryption Algorithm, Key Exchange Algorithm, MAC algorithm key, NULL encryption algorithm, RSA algorithm, Rivest-Shamir-Adleman algorithm, algorithm transition, asymmetric algorithm, asymmetric cryptographic algorithm, asymmetric encryption algorithm, control algorithm, cryptographic algorithm, cryptographic algorithm for confidentiality, data encryption algorithm, digital signature algorithm, encipherment algorithm, encryption algorithm, hash algorithm, keyed hash algorithm, message authentication code algorithm, message digest algorithm 5, public-key algorithm, secure hash algorithm, symmetric algorithm, symmetric encipherment algorithm, symmetric encryption algorithm)
algorithm transition
The processes and procedures used to replace one cryptographic algorithm with another. [800-130] (see also cryptographic, process, algorithm)
alias
(I) A name that an entity uses in place of its real name, usually for the purpose of either anonymity or deception. [RFC2828] (see also anonymous, entity, masquerade)
alien
Person not a citizen of the United States. [DSS] (see also United States citizen)
alignment
The degree of agreement, conformance, and consistency among organizational purpose, mission, vision, and values; structures, systems, and processes; and individual values, skills, and behaviors. [SRV] (see also process, system)
all-hazards
A grouping classification encompassing all conditions, environmental or manmade, that have the potential to cause injury, illness, or death; damage to or loss of equipment, infrastructure services, or property; or alternatively causing functional degradation to social, economic, or environmental aspects. [NIPP]
allocation
The process an organization employs to determine whether security controls are defined as system-specific, hybrid, or common. The process an organization employs to assign security controls to specific information system components responsible for providing a particular security capability (e.g., router, server, remote sensor). [SP 800-37] (see also control, security)
allowed traffic
Packets forwarded as a result of the rule set of the device under test/system under test (DUT/SUT). Firewalls typically are configured to forward only those packets explicitly permitted in the rule set. Forwarded packets must be included in calculating the bit forwarding rate or maximum bit forwarding rate of the DUT/SUT. All other packets must not be included in bit forwarding rate calculations. [RFC2647] (see also bit forwarding rate, ruleset, system, test)
alternate COMSEC custodian
Individual designated by proper authority to perform the duties of the COMSEC custodian during the temporary absence of the COMSEC custodian. [CNSSI][CNSSI-4009] (see also authority, communications security)
alternate work site
Governmentwide, national program allowing federal employees to work at home or at geographically convenient satellite offices for part of the work week (e.g., telecommuting). [CNSSI-4009]
alternative compensatory control measures
Used to safeguard sensitive intelligence or operations and support information (acquisition programs do not qualify) when normal measures are insufficient to achieve strict need-to-know controls and where Special Access Program controls are not required. [DSS] (see also access, intelligence)
alternative work site
Government-wide, national program allowing Federal employees to work at home or at geographically convenient satellite offices for part of the work week (e.g., telecommuting). [CNSSI] (see also program)
American institute of certified public accountants (AICPA)
American National Standards Institute (ANSI)
(N) A private, not-for-profit association of users, manufacturers, and other organizations, that administers U.S. private sector voluntary standards. (C) ANSI is the sole U.S. representative to the two major non-treaty international standards organizations, ISO and, via the U.S. National Committee (USNC), the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). [RFC2828] organization responsible for approving standards, including computers and communications. [misc] (see also association, automated information system, communications, computer, users, standard)
American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII)
(see also automated information system, code, information, standard)
analog signal
A continuous electrical signal whose amplitude varies in direct correlation with the original input. [SRV]
analysis
Process by which information is examined to identify significant facts and/or derive conclusions. [DSS] The examination of acquired data for its significance and probative value to the case. [SP 800-72] (see also evaluation, test, Federal Standard 1027, Integrated CASE tools, SOF-basic, SOF-high, SOF-medium, TCB subset, acceptable level of risk, acoustic intelligence, acquisition plan, alarm surveillance, assessment, black-box testing, break, brute force attack, business case, chosen-ciphertext attack, chosen-plaintext attack, ciphertext-only attack, code coverage, correctness, counterintelligence assessment, countermeasures, cryptology, cryptoperiod, damage assessment, data historian, diagnostics, digital forensics, electronic security, elliptic curve cryptography, emanations security, emission security, emissions security, error seeding, evaluation assurance, fault injection, financial crimes enforcement network, flaw hypothesis methodology, flooding, formal language, functional test case design, global requirements, hashed message authentication code, independent validation and verification, instrumentation, intelligence, intelligence sources and methods, judgment sample, known-plaintext attack, limited network analyzer, local requirements, measurement and signature intelligence, model, national computer security assessment program, network sniffing, one-time pad, operations security, operations security process, operations security survey, personal computer system, portfolio, privacy impact assessment, reference monitor, reference validation mechanism, remote maintenance, risk assessment, risk identification, risk management, robustness, sanitization, sanitizing, security test and evaluation, significant change, symbolic execution, system development, system development methodologies, target vulnerability validation techniques, telemetry, telemetry intelligence, threat event, threat monitoring, traffic flow confidentiality, transmission security, trust, trust level, verification, vulnerability, vulnerability assessment) (includes SWOT analysis, activity analysis, analysis of alternatives, boundary value analysis, business impact analysis, cost-risk analysis, cost/benefit, cost/benefit analysis, cost/benefit estimate, covert channel analysis, cryptanalysis, cryptosystem analysis, dynamic analysis, emanations analysis, error analysis, gap analysis, information sharing and analysis center, mutation analysis, network behavior analysis system, requirements analysis, risk analysis, risk reduction analysis, root cause analysis, security fault analysis, security flow analysis, sensitivity analysis, signals analysis, stateful protocol analysis, static analysis, target identification and analysis techniques, technical threat analysis, threat analysis, traffic analysis, value analysis, vulnerability analysis)
analysis of alternatives
The process of determining how an organization's information needs will be met. It is an analysis to compare and evaluate the costs and benefits of various alternatives for meeting a requirement for the purpose of selecting the alternative that is most advantageous to the organization. [SRV] (see also information, process, analysis)
ankle-biter
A person who aspires to be a hacker/cracker but has very limited knowledge or skills related to AIS's. Usually associated with young teens who collect and use simple malicious programs obtained from the Internet. [NSAINT] (see also internet, malicious, program, threat)
anomaly
An anomaly is a rule or practice that is different from what is normal or usual, and that is therefore unsatisfactory. Anything observed in the documentation or operation of software that deviates from expectations based on previously verified software products or reference documents. [OVT] Any condition that departs from the expected. This expectation can come from documentation (e.g. requirements specifications, design documents, user documents) or from perceptions or experiences. An anomaly is not necessarily a problem in the software, but a deviation from the expected, so that errors, defects, faults, and failures are considered anomalies. [SRV] (see also alert, bug, failure, fault, operation, problem, requirements, software, users) (includes anomaly detection, anomaly detection model)
anomaly detection
Detecting intrusions by looking for activity that is different from the user's or system's normal behavior. [CIAO] (see also countermeasures, intrusion, system, users, anomaly, security software)
anomaly detection model
A model where intrusions are detected by looking for activity that is different from the user's or system's normal behavior. [NSAINT] (see also intrusion, system, users, anomaly, model, security policy model)
anomaly-based detection
The process of comparing definitions of what activity is considered normal against observed events to identify significant deviations. [SP 800-94]
anonymity
A security service that prevents the disclosure of information that leads to the identification of the end users. [IATF] (see also identification, information, security, users)
anonymous
(I) The condition of having a name that is unknown or concealed. (C) An application may require security services that maintain anonymity of users or other system entities, perhaps to preserve their privacy or hide them from attack. To hide an entity's real name, an alias may be used. For example, a financial institution may assign an account number. Parties to a transaction can thus remain relatively anonymous, but can also accept the transaction as legitimate. Real names of the parties cannot be easily determined by observers of the transaction, but an authorized third party may be able to map an alias to a real name, such as by presenting the institution with a court order. In other applications, anonymous entities may be completely untraceable. [RFC2828] (see also alias, application, attack, authorized, entity, privacy, security, system, users)
anonymous and guest login
Services may be made available without any kind of authentication. This is commonly done, for instance, with the FTP protocol to allow anonymous access. Other systems provide a special account named 'guest' to provide access, typically restricting the privileges of this account. [RFC2504] (see also access, authentication, protocols, system, login)
anonymous login
(I) An access control feature (or, rather, an access control weakness) in many Internet hosts that enables users to gain access to general-purpose or public services and resources on a host (such as allowing any user to transfer data using File Transfer Protocol) without having a pre-established, user-specific account (i.e. user name and secret password). (C) This feature exposes a system to more threats than when all the users are known, pre-registered entities that are individually accountable for their actions. A user logs in using a special, publicly known user name (e.g. 'anonymous', 'guest', or 'ftp'). To use the public login name, the user is not required to know a secret password and may not be required to input anything at all except the name. In other cases, to complete the normal sequence of steps in a login protocol, the system may require the user to input a matching, publicly known password (such as 'anonymous') or may ask the user for an e-mail address or some other arbitrary alphanumeric string. [RFC2828] (see also access, control, file, passwords, protocols, resource, system, threat, users, internet, login)
anti-jam
Countermeasures ensuring that transmitted information can be received despite deliberate jamming attempts. [CNSSI-4009] Measures ensuring that transmitted information can be received despite deliberate jamming attempts. [CNSSI][IATF] (see also information, jamming, communications security)
anti-jamming (AJ)
(see also jamming, communications security)
anti-spoof
Countermeasures taken to prevent the unauthorized use of legitimate Identification & Authentication (I&A) data, however it was obtained, to mimic a subject different from the attacker. [CNSSI-4009] Measures taken to prevent the unauthorized use of legitimate Identification & Authentication (I&A) data, however it was obtained, to mimic a subject different from the attacker. [CNSSI] (see also spoofing, attack, authentication, authorized, identification, security software, subject, spoof)
anti-tamper
Systems engineering activities intended to deter and/ or delay exploitation of critical technologies in a U.S. Defense system intended to impede countermeasure development, unintended technology transfer, or alteration of a system. [DSS] (see also critical, tamper)
anti-tamper executive agent
Department of Defense Anti-Tamper Executive Agent, chartered by the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics, and assigned to the Directorate for Special Programs, Office of the Assistant Secretary of the Air Force for Acquisition. [DSS] (see also tamper)
antispyware software
A program that specializes in detecting both malware and non- malware forms of spyware. [SP 800-69] (see also malware, program, software)
antisubmarine warfare
Operations conducted with the intention of denying the enemy the effective use of submarines. [DOD] (see also warfare)
antivirus software
A program that monitors a computer or network to identify all major types of malware and prevent or contain malware incidents. [800-83][SP 800-83] A program that monitors a computer or network to identify all major types of malware and prevent or contain malware incidents. Application-Based Intrusion Detection and Prevention System: A host-based intrusion detection and prevention system that performs monitoring for a specific application service only, such as a Web server program or a database server program. [800-94] Computer programs that offer protection from viruses by making additional checks of the integrity of the operating system and electronic files. Also known as virus protection software [FFIEC] (see also application, computer, countermeasures, file, identify, incident, integrity, intrusion, intrusion detection, malware, program, system, security software, software, virus)
antivirus tools
Software products and technology used to detect malicious code, prevent it from infecting a system, and remove malicious code that has infected the system. [800-82] (see also code, countermeasures, malicious, software, system, technology, virus)
appeal
Formal request under the provisions of section 5.2 of Executive Order 12968 for review of a denial or revocation of access eligibility. [DSS] (see also access)
appendix
A string of bits formed by the signature and an optional text field. [SC27] (see also signature)
applet
A small program that typically is transmitted with a Web page. [FFIEC] Small applications written in various programming languages which are automatically downloaded and executed by applet-enabled WWW browsers. [SRV] (see also application, program, world wide web)
applicant
A person who has applied to become a key holder, prior to the time at which keys and certificates are issued to and accepted by them. [800-103] An entity (organisation, individual etc.) which requests the assignment of a register entry and entry label. [SC27] Person other than an employee who received an authorized conditional offer of employment for a position requiring access to classified information. [DSS] The subscriber is sometimes called an 'applicant' after applying to a certification authority for a certificate, but before the certificate issuance procedure is completed. [SP 800-32] (see also access, authorized, certificate, certification, classified, entity, key)
applicant assertion
A party undergoing the processes of registration and identity proofing. A statement from a verifier to a relying party that contains identity information about a Subscriber. Assertions may also contain verified attributes. [800-63] (see also entity, identity, information, process, registration)
application
1) All application systems, internal and external, utilized in support of the core process. 2) A software package designed to perform a specific set of functions, such as word processing or communications. [CIAO] A computer program designed and operated to achieve a set of goals or provide a set of services. [800-130] A computer program designed to perform specific functions, such as inventory control, scheduling, and payroll. [SRV] A program that performs a function directly for a user, such as ftp and telnet. [misc] A software program hosted by an information system. [SP 800-37] Software program that performs a specific function directly for a user and can be executed without access to system control, monitoring, or administrative privileges. [CNSSI][CNSSI-4009] Software program that performs a specific function directly for a user and can be executed without access to system control, monitoring, or administrative privileges. Examples include office automation, electronic mail, Web services, and major functional or mission software programs. [DSS] (see also COMSEC end-item, Common Criteria for Information Technology Security, Defense Information Infrastructure, Distinguished Encoding Rules, Europay, MasterCard, Visa, FIPS PUB 140-1, Federal Public-key Infrastructure, Generic Upper Layer Security, IT security certification, IT security support functions, Java, Lightweight Directory Access Protocol, Network File System, OSI architecture, Open Systems Interconnection Reference model, PIV issuer, PKIX, POSIX, S/Key, SOCKS, TOE security functions interface, X.500 Directory, acceptable level of risk, access, access control, access with limited privileges, active state, anonymous, antivirus software, applet, archive, asynchronous transfer mode, automated information system, backup, backup generations, banner grabbing, baseline management, bastion host, bill payment, blacklist, certificate policy, certification, certification authority workstation, certification phase, certification practice statement, circuit proxy, clean system, closed security environment, collaborative computing, command and control warfare, common security, communications, component operations, computer, computer architecture, computer fraud, computer related controls, computing environment, control, control server, cookies, critical system files, cryptographic system, cybersecurity, data dictionary, data encryption key, decrypt, defense-in-depth, degauss, denial-of-service, designation policy, digital forensics, directly trusted CA, disaster recovery plan, distributed computing environment, documentation, dual-homed gateway firewall, email, emanations security, encryption, end entity, end-user, extensible markup language, extension, extranet, fail soft, file infector virus, file transfer protocol, firewall, firmware, formal language, function, general controls, general support system, global information grid, hash function, hijacking, host, host-based firewall, hybrid encryption, hypertext markup language, hypertext transfer protocol, identity management systems, interface, internet vs. Internet, interpretation, interpreted virus, kerberos, key generating function, key management, key-encrypting key, least privilege, legacy systems, line managers, link encryption, lockout, macro virus, malicious applets, malicious code, malicious program, malware, management server, meta-language, middleware, mode of operation, modem, motion control network, multipurpose internet mail extensions, national security system, naval special warfare, network protocol stack, network service worm, on-line system, online certificate status protocol, open security, open security environment, open system interconnection model, operating system, operations security, outcome, packet filter, passive fingerprinting, password cracker, patch, penetration testing, personal identification number, personality label, physical security, platform, portability, pretty good privacy, process, program, protocol analyzer, prototyping, proxy, proxy server, public-key cryptography standards, public-key infrastructure, purge, random, realm, registration authority, rekey, relying party, repair action, reusability, review techniques, risk analysis, routing control, run manual, scalability, scope of a requirement, screened host firewall, secure socket layer, security assertion markup language, security evaluation, security requirements, security support programming interface, security testing, session key, significant change, simple mail transfer protocol, simple network management protocol, single sign-on, site accreditation, smartcards, software security, source code generator, starting variable, statistical process control, support software, system, system accreditation, system software, systems engineering, systems software, target identification and analysis techniques, technical controls, technology area, teleprocessing, telnet, test bed, test facility, transmission control protocol, transmission security, transport layer security, trust-file PKI, trusted gateway, type accreditation, unauthorized access, unit of transfer, user data protocol, user partnership program, users, validate, validation, verification, version scanning, virus, virus signature, vulnerability, vulnerability assessment, water supply system, whitelist, workgroup computing, workstation, world wide web, software) (includes Cryptographic Application Program Interface, Generic Security Service Application Program Interface, application controls, application data backup/recovery, application entity, application gateway firewall, application generator, application level gateway, application program interface, application programming interface, application proxy, application server attack, application software, application system, application-level firewall, cryptographic application programming interface, key management application service element, major application, rapid application development, wireless application protocol)
application controls
Controls related to individual application systems, which help ensure that transactions are valid, complete, authorized, processed, and reported. [SRV] Controls related to transactions and data within application systems. Application controls ensure the completeness and accuracy of the records and the validity of the entries made resulting from both programmed processing and manual data entry. Examples of application controls include data input validation, agreement of batch totals and encryption of data transmitted [FFIEC] (see also authorized, encryption, process, program, security controls, system, validation, application, control)
application data backup/recovery
Data backup is the process of saving software and information on magnetic media and storing the media in a location away from the IT facility. This process provides the means to ensure application recovery; that is, the means to restore the application and/or information after damage to or destruction of the IT hardware, software, or information. [NASA] (see also damage, information, process, software, application, availability, backup)
application entity (AE)
(see also application, entity)
application gateway firewall
A type of firewall system that runs an application, called a proxy, that acts like the server to the Internet client. The proxy takes all requests from the Internet client and, if allowed, forwards them to the Intranet server. Application gateways are used to make certain that the Internet client and the Intranet server are using the proper application protocol for communicating. Popular proxies include Telnet, ftp, and http. Building proxies requires knowledge of the application protocol. [misc] (see also internet, protocols, system, application, firewall, gateway)
application generator
A type of tool that uses software designs and/or requirements to generate entire software applications automatically, including program source code and program control statements. [SRV] (see also code, control, program, requirements, software, application)
application level gateway
A firewall system in which service is provided by processes that maintain complete TCP connection state and sequencing. Application level firewalls often re-address traffic so that outgoing traffic appears to have originated from the firewall, rather than the internal host. [NSAINT] (see also application proxy, connection, firewall, process, system, application, gateway)
application program interface (API)
A set of standard software interrupts, calls, and data formats that application programs use to initiate contact with network services, mainframe communications programs, telephone equipment, or program-to-program communications. [IATF] System access point or library function that has a well-defined syntax and is accessible from application programs or user code to provide well-defined functionality. [AJP][FCv1] (see also access, access control, code, communications, function, network, standard, system, users, application, interface, program, security, software)
application programming interface (API)
The interface between the application software and the application platform (i.e. operating system), across which all services are provided. [GAO] The interface between the application software and the application platform, across which all services are provided. The API is primarily in support of application portability, but system and application interoperability is also supported by a communication API. [SRV] (see also interoperability, software, system, application, interface, program)
application proxy
A proxy service that is set up and torn down in response to a client request, rather than existing on a static basis. Circuit proxies always forward packets containing a given port number if that port number is permitted by the rule set. Application proxies, in contrast, forward packets only once a connection has been established using some known protocol. When the connection closes, a firewall using application proxies rejects individual packets, even if they contain port numbers allowed by a rule set. [RFC2647] An application that forwards application traffic through a firewall. It is also called a proxy server. Proxies tend to be specific to the protocol they are designed to forward, and may provide increased access control or audit. [SRV] (see also application level gateway, access, access control, audit, connection, control, protocols, response, application, firewall, proxy) (includes gateway)
application server attack
A computer responsible for hosting applications to user workstations. An attempt to gain unauthorized access to system services, resources, or information, or an attempt to compromise system integrity, availability, or confidentiality. [800-82] (see also access, authorized, availability, compromise, computer, information, integrity, resource, system, users, application, attack)
application software
Programs that perform specific tasks, such as word processing, database management, or payroll. Software that interacts directly with some nonsoftware system (e.g. human, robot, etc.). [SRV] (see also process, program, system, application, software)
application system
An integrated set of computer programs designed to serve a well-defined function and having specific input, processing, and output activities (e.g., general ledger, manufacturing resource planning, human resource management). [FFIEC] (see also automated information system, computer, function, process, program, resource, application, system)
application-level firewall
A firewall system in which service is provided by processes that maintain complete TCP connection state and sequencing; application level firewalls often re-address traffic so that outgoing traffic appears to have originated from the firewall, rather than the internal host. In contrast to packet filtering firewalls, this firewall must have knowledge of the application data transfer protocol and often has rules about what may be transmitted and what may not. [IATF] (see also connection, process, protocols, system, application, firewall, security)
approach
The method used or steps taken in setting about a task, problem, etc. [SC27]
approval for service use (ASU)
approval to operate
The official management decision issued by a DAA or PAA to authorize operation of an information system and to explicitly accept the residual risk to agency operations (including mission, functions, image, or reputation), agency assets, or individuals. [CNSSI-4009] (see also management, risk)
approval/accreditation
The official authorization that is granted to an ADP system to process sensitive information in its operational environment, based upon comprehensive security evaluation of the computer system's hardware, firmware, and software security design, configuration, and implementation, and of the other system procedural, administrative, physical, TEMPEST, personnel, and communications security controls. [AJP][TCSEC] (see also TEMPEST, authorization, communications, communications security, computer, control, evaluation, information, operation, process, security, software, system, accreditation)
approved
FIPS approved or NIST recommended. An algorithm or technique that is either 1) specified in a FIPS or NIST Recommendation, or 2) adopted in a FIPS or NIST Recommendation. [800-63] FIPS-approved and/or NIST-recommended. [FIPS 140-2] FIPS-approved and/or NIST-recommended. An algorithm or technique that is either 1) specified in a FIPS or NIST Recommendation, 2) adopted in a FIPS or NIST Recommendation, or 3) specified in a list of NIST approved security functions. [FIPS 186] Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS)-approved or National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)- recommended. An algorithm or technique that is either 1) specified in a FIPS or NIST Recommendation, or 2) adopted in a FIPS or NIST Recommendation. [FIPS 201] (see also algorithm, function, security)
approved access control device
Any access control device that meets the requirements of Department of Defense 5220.22-M as approved by the Facility Security Officer. [DSS] (see also requirements, security, access)
approved built-in combination lock
Combination lock, equipped with a top reading dial conforming to Underwriters Laboratory Standard Number UL 768, Group IR. [DSS]
approved combination padlock
Three-position, dial-type changeable combination padlock listed on the Government Services Administration Qualified Products List as meeting the requirements of Federal Specification FF-P-110. [DSS] (see also requirements)
approved electronic, mechanical, or electromechanical device
Specific device meeting the requirements of Department of Defense standard 5220.22-M as approved by the Facility Security Officer. [DSS] (see also requirements, security)
approved key-operated padlock
Padlock meeting the requirements of MIL-SPEC-P-43607 (shrouded shackle), National Stock Number 5340-00-7998248, or MIL-SPEC-P-43951 (regular shackle), National Stock Number 5340-00-799-8016. [DSS] (see also requirements, key)
approved mode of operation
A mode of the cryptographic module that employs only Approved security functions (not to be confused with a specific mode of an Approved security function, e.g., Data Encryption Standard Cipher- Block Chaining (DES CBC) mode). [FIPS 140-2] (see also security)
approved security container
Security file container, originally procured from a Federal Supply Schedule supplier, conforming to Federal specifications and bears a 'Test Certification Label' on the locking drawer attesting to the security capabilities of the container and lock. Such containers must be labeled 'General Services Administration Approved Security Container' on the face of the top drawer. Acceptable tests of the containers can be performed only by a testing facility specifically approved by General Services Administration. [DSS] (see also certification, security)
approved security function
A security function (e.g., cryptographic algorithm, cryptographic key management technique, or authentication technique) that is either a) specified in an Approved Standard; b) adopted in an Approved Standard and specified either in an appendix of the Approved Standard or in a document referenced by the Approved Standard; or c) specified in the list of Approved security functions. [FIPS 140-2] (see also authentication, management, security)
approved technologies list
The list of approved information technology areas maintained by the NIAP Oversight Body which can be selected by a CCTL in choosing its scope of accreditation, that is, the types of IT security evaluations that can be conducted using NVLAP accredited test methods. [NIAP] (see also IT security, accreditation, computer security, evaluation, information, security, technology, test, Common Criteria Testing Laboratory, national information assurance partnership)
approved test methods list
The list of approved test methods maintained by the NIAP Oversight Body which can be selected by a CCTL in choosing its scope of accreditation, that is, the types of IT security evaluations that it will be authorized to conduct using NVLAP accredited test methods. [NIAP] (see also IT security, accreditation, authorized, computer security, evaluation, security, Common Criteria Testing Laboratory, national information assurance partnership, test)
approved vault
Vault constructed in accordance with Department of Defense Standard 5220.22-M and approved by the General Services Administration. [DSS]
approved vault door
Vault door and frame unit originally procured form the Federal Supply Schedule (Federal Supply Classification Group 71, Part III, Section E, Federal Supply Classification Class 7110), meeting Federal Specification AA-D-600. [DSS]
architectural design
A phase of the development process wherein the top-level definition and design of a Target of Evaluation are specified. [AJP][ITSEC] (see also process, target, software development, target of evaluation)
architecture
A description of all functional activities to be performed to achieve the desired mission, the system elements needed to perform the functions, and the designation of performance levels of those system elements. An architecture also includes information on the technologies, interfaces, and location of functions and is considered an evolving description of an approach to achieving a desired mission. [SRV] A highly structured specification of an acceptable approach within a framework for solving a specific problem. An architecture contains descriptions of all the components of a selected, acceptable solution while allowing certain details of specific components to be variable to satisfy related constraints (e.g., costs, local environment, user acceptability). [GSA] (see also function, information, interface, system, users)
archive
(I) (1.) Noun: A collection of data that is stored for a relatively long period of time for historical and other purposes, such as to support audit service, availability service, or system integrity service. (2.) Verb: To store data in such way. (C) A digital signature may need to be verified many years after the signing occurs. The CA--the one that issued the certificate containing the public key needed to verify that signature--may not stay in operation that long. So every CA needs to provide for long-term storage of the information needed to verify the signatures of those to whom it issues certificates. [RFC2828] Long-term storage of system information and records. Items commonly archived include but are not limited to magnetic media copies of operating system software, application software, and data; and hardcopies of system records such as console logs, data listings, and software and firmware listings. [NASA] Long-term, physically separate storage [GSA] To place an electronic cryptographic key into a long-term electronic storage medium which will be maintained even if the storage technology changes. Also, the location where archived keys are stored. [800-130] (see also archiving, application, audit, backup, certificate, cryptographic, digital signature, information, integrity, key, non-repudiation service, operation, public-key, public-key infrastructure, redundancy, retrieval, signature, software, software library, system, technology, uniform resource locator, recovery)
archiving
Moving electronic files no longer being used to less accessible and usually less expensive storage media for safe keeping. [SRV] (see also archive, access, access control, backup, file)
area interswitch rekeying key (AIRK)
(see also key, rekey)
areas of control
Collectively, controls consist of the policies, procedures, practices and organizational structures designed to provide reasonable assurance that business objectives will be achieved and that undesired events will be prevented or detected and corrected. [CIAO] (see also assurance, object, control)
areas of potential compromise
These broad topical areas represent categories where losses can occur that will impact both a department or agency's MEI and its ability to conduct core missions. [CIAO] (see also minimum essential infrastructure, compromise, vulnerability)
ARPANET
(N) Advanced Research Projects Agency Network, a pioneer packet-switched network that was built in the early 1970s under contract to the U.S. Government, led to the development of today's Internet, and was decommissioned in June 1990. [RFC2828] (see also internet, network)
as-is process model
A model that portrays how a business process is currently structured. In process improvement efforts, it is used to establish a baseline for measuring subsequent business improvement actions and progress. [SRV] (see also baseline, business process, model, process)
assessment
Evaluation of the worth, significance, or status of something, especially to give an expert judgment of its value or merit. [DSS] Surveys and Inspections; an analysis of the vulnerabilities of an AIS. Information acquisition and review process designed to assist a customer to determine how best to use resources to protect information in systems. [NSAINT] Verification of a deliverable against a standard using the corresponding method to establish compliance and determine the assurance. [SC27] (see also Common Criteria for Information Technology Security, Common Criteria for Information Technology Security Evaluation, acceptable level of risk, accreditation, accreditation phase, accuracy, analysis, assurance, authorize processing, binding of functionality, certification, certification package, certification phase, cost-risk analysis, deliverable, ease of use, evaluation, evaluation pass statement, evaluator, information, management countermeasure, metrics, monitoring and evaluation, operations security, operations security process, portfolio, pre-certification phase, process, process assurance, rating, resource, risk analysis, risk avoidance, risk management, scheme, security, security category, security fault analysis, site certification, standard, strength of mechanisms, suitability of functionality, system, threat monitoring, verification, vulnerability) (includes computer incident assessment capability, counterintelligence assessment, criticality assessment, damage assessment, independent assessment, national computer security assessment program, operations security assessment, privacy impact assessment, qualitative risk assessment, risk assessment, threat assessment, vulnerability assessment, web risk assessment)
assessment method
One of three types of actions (i.e. examine, interview, test) taken by assessors in obtaining evidence during an assessment. [SP 800-53A]
assessment object
The item (i.e. specifications, mechanisms, activities, individuals) upon which an assessment method is applied during an assessment. [SP 800-53A]
assessment objective
A set of determination statements that expresses the desired outcome for the assessment of a security control or control enhancement. [SP 800-53A] (see also control, security)
assessment procedure
A set of assessment objectives and an associated set of assessment methods and assessment objects. [SP 800-53A]
asset
Anything that has value to the organization, its business operations and their continuity. [SC27] Anything that has value to the organization. [SC27] Anything that has value to the organization. [ISO/IEC PDTR 13335-1 (11/2001)] Anything that has value to the organization, its business operations and their continuity. [SC27] Information or resources to be protected by the countermeasures of a TOE. [CC2][CC21][SC27] Information resources that support an organization's mission. [SRV] Person, structure, facility, information, material, or process that has value. In the context of the NIPP, people are not considered assets. [NIPP] Resource-person, group, relationship, instrument installation, supply-at the disposition of an intelligence agency for use in an operational or support role. A person who contributes to a clandestine mission but is not a fully controlled agent. [DSS] (see also countermeasures, information, intelligence, operation, resource, target of evaluation)
asset identification
Security Content Automation Protocol (SCAP) constructs to uniquely identify assets (components) based on known identifiers and/or known information about the assets. [SP 800-128] (see also security)
asset reporting format
SCAP data model for expressing the transport format of information about assets (components) and the relationships between assets and reports. [SP 800-128]
assignment
A data item that is a function of the witness and possibly of a part of the message, and forms part of the input to the signature function. [SC27] A data item that is a function of the witness and possibly of a part of the message, and forms part of the input to the signature function. [ISO/IEC 14888-1: 1998, ISO/IEC  9796-3: 2000] The specification of an identified parameter in a component. [SC27] Requirement in a protection profile taken directly as stated, without change, from the list of components or derived by placing a bound on a threshold definition. Note: The assignment of environment-specific requirements to generic component requirements is performed when a component requirement corresponds to an environment-specific requirement. [AJP][FCv1] The specification of an identified parameter in a component. [CC2][CC21][SC27] (see also file, function, message, profile, signature, protection profile)
associated markings
Markings, other than those designating classification level, required to be placed on classified documents. These include markings such as 'classified by' line, downgrading and declassification instructions, special control notices, and Special Access Program caveats. [DSS] (see also access, classified)
association
(I) A cooperative relationship between system entities, usually for the purpose of transferring information between them. [RFC2828] (see also ABA Guidelines, American National Standards Institute, IPsec Key Exchange, PCMCIA, U.S. person, accreditation, authentication header, binding, certification authority, cookies, data integrity service, data origin authentication service, dynamic binding, encapsulating security payload, hijack attack, information, internet key exchange protocol, internet protocol security, key establishment, key recovery, key transport, keying material, man-in-the-middle attack, on-line cryptosystem, peer entity authentication, peer entity authentication service, primary account number, protocols, proxy server, repudiation, risk, security parameters index, security situation, spam, static binding, system, transport mode vs. tunnel mode, unit of transfer) (includes Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol, information systems audit and control association, information systems security association, personal computer memory card international association, security association, security association identifier, security association lifetime, symmetric measure of association)
assurance
(1) The degree of confidence that a TOE adequately fulfills the security requirements. (2) A measure of confidence that the security features and architecture of an AIS accurately mediate and enforce the security policy. Note: The two main aspects of assurance are effectiveness and correctness (ITSEC - European Information Technology Security Evaluation Criteria) or development and evaluation assurance (Federal Criteria). [AJP] (I) (1.) An attribute of an information system that provides grounds for having confidence that the system operates such that the system security policy is enforced. (2.) A procedure that ensures a system is developed and operated as intended by the systems security policy. [RFC2828] A measure of confidence that a security feature and architecture of an automated information system mediates and enforces a security policy. [IATF] A measure of confidence that the security features and architecture of an AIS accurately mediate and enforce the security policy. [NCSC/TG004][NSAINT] Confidence that a computer system design meets its requirements, that its implementation meets its specification, or that some specific property is satisfied. [SRV] Grounds for confidence that a system design meets its requirements, or that its implemented satisfies specifications, or that some specific property is satisfied. [CIAO] Grounds for confidence that an entity meets its security objectives. [CC2][CC21][SC27] Grounds for confidence that an entity meets its security objectives. [ISO/IEC 15408-1: 1999] Performance of appropriate activities or processes to instill confidence that a deliverable meets its security objectives. [SC27] Grounds for confidence that the other four security goals (integrity, availability, confidentiality, and accountability) have been adequately met by a specific implementation. 'Adequately met' includes (1) functionality that performs correctly, (2) sufficient protection against unintentional errors (by users or software), and (3) sufficient resistance to intentional penetration or bypass. [800-30][SP 800-27] Grounds for confidence that the other four security objectives (integrity, availability, confidentiality, and accountability) have been adequately met by a specific implementation. 'Adequately met' includes (1) functionality that performs correctly, (2) sufficient protection against unintentional errors (by users or software), and (3) sufficient resistance to intentional penetration or bypass. [800-33] In the context of OMB 04-04 and NIST SP 800-63, assurance is defined as 1) the degree of confidence in the vetting process used to establish the identity of an individual to whom the credential was issued, and 2) the degree of confidence that the individual who uses the credential is the individual to whom the credential was issued. [800-63] In the context of OMB M-04-04 and this document, assurance is defined as 1) the degree of confidence in the vetting process used to establish the identity of an individual to whom the credential was issued, and 2) the degree of confidence that the individual who uses the credential is the individual to whom the credential was issued. [SP 800-63] Measure of confidence that the security features, practices, procedures, and architecture of an IS accurately mediates and enforces the security policy. [CNSSI] Measure of confidence that the security features, practices, procedures, and architecture of an information system accurately mediates and enforces the security policy. [CNSSI-4009; SP 800-39] Performance of appropriate activities or processes to instill confidence that a deliverable meets its security objectives. [SC27] The confidence that may be held in the security provided by a Target of Evaluation. [ITSEC] The degree of confidence that a TOE adequately fulfills the security requirements. Note: The two main aspects of assurance are effectiveness and correctness. [JTC1/SC27] The grounds for confidence that the set of intended security controls in an information system are effective in their application. [SP 800-37; SP 800-53A] (see also Common Criteria for Information Technology Security, Defensive Information Operations, Information Technology Security Evaluation Criteria, RED team, Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria, advanced self-protection jammer, areas of control, assessment, augmentation, authentication, authentication mode, authentication tag, availability, backtracking resistance, bebugging, beyond A1, cardholder certificate, certificate, certification, class 2, 3, 4, or 5, closed security environment, common criteria, communications deception, communications security, component dependencies, component extensibility, component hierarchy, computer, computer security, computer security toolbox, computing security methods, confidentiality, control, controlled access protection, criteria, cross domain solution, cryptographic system, cybersecurity, data privacy, defense-in-depth, deliverable, demilitarized zone, electronic protection, enclave, entity, entity authentication of A to B, environmental failure protection, error seeding, evaluation products list, explicit key authentication from A to B, exploit, extension, fetch protection, file protection, function, functional protection requirements, hardening, identity, implicit key authentication from A to B, information, information protection policy, information systems security manager, infrastructure protection, internal system exposure, key authentication, key confirmation, key confirmation from A to B, level of protection, levels of concern, likelihood of occurrence, lock-and-key protection system, minimum level of protection, mutual authentication, mutual entity authentication, network security, non-repudiation, notarization, object, open security, open security environment, outsourced information technology based process, package, physical protection, platform it interconnection, policy, port protection device, prediction resistance, privacy protection, privileged user, process, product rationale, property, protection needs elicitation, protection philosophy, protection profile, protection profile family, protection ring, protection-critical portions of the TCB, public-key infrastructure, purge, quality of protection, questions on controls, requirements, security evaluation, security mechanism, security objectives, security target, signature validation, software, suspicious activity report, system, system administrator, target, technology, trusted computer system, trusted computing system, trusted foundry, trusted network interpretation, type 3 product, unilateral authentication, users, validation, virtual private network, European Information Technology Security Evaluation Criteria, Federal Criteria for Information Technology Security, evaluation, security, security goals, target of evaluation) (includes assurance approach, assurance authority, assurance case, assurance component, assurance element, assurance level, assurance method, assurance profile, assurance results, assurance scheme, assurance stage, assure, automated information system, confidence, configuration management, development assurance, development assurance component, development assurance package, development assurance requirements, effectiveness, evaluation assurance, evaluation assurance component, evaluation assurance package, evaluation assurance requirements, evidence, high assurance guard, identification and authentication, information assurance, information assurance component, infrastructure assurance, integrity, mission assurance category, process assurance, profile assurance, quality assurance, quality assurance/control, rating, robustness, security assurance, site information assurance manager, software assurance, software quality assurance, supporting information assurance infrastructures, test)
assurance approach
A grouping of assurance methods according to the aspect examined. [SC27] (see also assurance)
assurance authority
A person or body responsible (accountable) for the selection, implementation and acceptance of assurance. NOTE - In specific schemes or organisations, the term for assurance authority may be different such as evaluation authority. [SC27] (see also assurance, authority)
assurance case
A structured set of arguments and a body of evidence showing that an information system satisfies specific claims with respect to a given quality attribute. [SP 800-53A; SP 800-39] (see also assurance)
assurance component
Security assurance components are used to express ordered sets of requirements for developer and evaluator actions, and for the content and presentation of evaluation deliverables. Components are grouped into families (e.g. High Level Design) and into classes (e.g. Development). [CC1] (see also requirements, Common Criteria for Information Technology Security Evaluation, assurance, component)
assurance element
A process or activity of an assurance method, in itself recognised to provide reproducible assurance results. [SC27] (see also process, assurance)
assurance level
(I) Evaluation usage: A specific level on a hierarchical scale representing successively increased confidence that a target of evaluation adequately fulfills the requirements. [RFC2828] A relative measure of confidence in the quality of a credential; when used in Eauth the assurance level ranges from level 1 (little or no confidence) to level 4 (very high degree of confidence) [GSA] In evaluation criteria, a specific level on a hierarchical scale representing successively increased confidence that a TOE adequately fulfills the security requirements. [AJP][JTC1/SC27] The amount of assurance obtained according to the specific scale used by the assurance method. The amount of assurance obtained generally is related to the effort expended on the activities performed. NOTE - The assurance level may not be measurable in quantitative terms. [SC27] (see also confidence, criteria, federation, quality, requirements, target, assurance)
assurance method
Documented set of assurance elements recognised to obtain reproducible assurance results. [SC27] (see also assurance)
assurance profile
An assurance requirement for a TOE whereby different levels of confidence are required in different security enforcing functions. [AJP][ITSEC] (see also confidence, function, assurance, file, profile)
assurance results
Documented numerical or qualitative assurance statement obtained by applying an assurance method. [SC27] (see also assurance)
assurance scheme
The administrative and regulatory framework under which an assurance method is applied by an assurance authority within a specific community or organisation. [SC27] (see also authority, assurance)
assurance stage
The deliverable lifecycle stage on which a given assurance method is focused. The overall deliverable assurance takes into account the results of the assurance methods applied throughout the deliverable lifecycle. [SC27] (see also assurance)
assure
For the purposes of these procedures and guidelines, to guarantee through independent management processes that GRC's IT Security Program elements are carried out. [NASA] (see also IT security, ensure, process, program, assurance)
assured information sharing
The ability to confidently share information with those who need it, when and where they need it, as determined by operational need and an acceptable level of security risk. [CNSSI-4009] (see also risk, security)
assured software
Computer application that has been designed, developed, analyzed, and tested using processes, tools, and techniques that establish a level of confidence in it. [CNSSI-4009] Software that has been designed, developed, analyzed and tested using processes, tools, and techniques that establish a level of confidence in its trustworthiness appropriate for its intended use. [CNSSI] (see also process, test, trust, software)
astragal strip
Narrow strip of material applied over the gap between a pair of doors for protection from unauthorized entry and sound attenuation. [DSS] (see also authorized)
asymmetric algorithm
An encryption algorithm that requires two different keys for encryption and decryption. These keys are commonly referred to as the public and private keys. Asymmetric algorithms are slower than symmetric algorithms. Furthermore, speed of encryption may be different than the speed of decryption. Generally asymmetric algorithms are either used to exchange symmetric session keys or to digitally sign a message. RSA, RPK, and ECC are examples of asymmetric algorithms. [IATF][misc] (see also encryption, key, message, algorithm, asymmetric cryptography) (includes Diffie-Hellman, Rivest-Shamir-Adleman algorithm, elliptic curve cryptosystem, private key, public-key, public-key cryptography standards)
asymmetric cipher
Alternative term for asymmetric encipherment system. [SC27] (see also encipherment, system, asymmetric cryptography, cipher)
asymmetric cryptographic algorithm
An encryption algorithm that requires two different keys for encryption and decryption. These keys are commonly referred to as the public and private keys. Asymmetric algorithms are slower than symmetric algorithms. Furthermore, speed of encryption may be different than the speed of decryption. Generally asymmetric algorithms are either used to exchange symmetric session keys or to digitally sign a message. RSA, RPK, and ECC are examples of asymmetric algorithms. [IATF][misc] (see also message, algorithm, cryptographic, encryption, key)
asymmetric cryptographic technique
A cryptographic technique that uses two related transformations, a public transformation (defined by the public key) and a private transformation (defined by the private key). The two transformations have the property that, given the public transformation, it is computationally infeasible to derive the private transformation. [SC27] A cryptographic technique that uses two related transformations, a public transformation (defined by the public key) and a private transformation (defined by the private key). The two transformations have the property that, given the public transformation, it is computationally infeasible to derive the private transformation. NOTE - A system based on asymmetric cryptographic techniques can either be an encipherment system, a signature system, a combined encipherment and signature system, or a key agreement system. With asymmetric cryptographic techniques there are four elementary transformations: sign and verify for signature systems, encipher and decipher for encipherment systems. The signature and decipherment transformation are kept private by the owning entity, whereas the corresponding verification and encipherment transformation are published. There exist asymmetric cryptosystems (e.g. RSA) where the four elementary functions may be achieved by only two transformations: one private transformation suffices for both signing and decrypting messages, and one public transformation suffices for both verifying and encrypting messages. However, since this is not the general case, throughout ISO/IEC 9798 the four elementary transformations and the corresponding keys are kept separate. [SC27] A cryptographic technique that uses two related transformations, a public transformation (defined by the public key) and a private transformation (defined by the private key). The two transformations have the property that, given the public transformation, it is computationally infeasible to derive the private transformation. NOTE - A system based on asymmetric cryptographic techniques can either be an encipherment system, a signature system, a combined encipherment and signature system, or a key agreement system. With asymmetric cryptographic techniques there are four elementary transformations: sign and verify for signature systems, encipher and decipher for encipherment systems. The signature and decipherment transformation are kept private by the owning entity, whereas the corresponding verification and encipherment transformation are published. There exist asymmetric cryptosystems (e.g. RSA) where the four elementary functions may be achieved by only two transformations: one private transformation suffices for both signing and decrypting messages, and one public transformation suffices for both verifying and encrypting messages. However, since this is not the general case, throughout ISO/IEC 9798 the four elementary transformations and the corresponding keys are kept separate. [ISO/IEC 9798-1: 1997] A cryptographic technique that uses two related transformations, a public transformation (defined by the public key) and a private transformation (defined by the private key). The two transformations have the property that, given the public transformation, it is computationally infeasible to derive the private transformation. [ISO/IEC 11770-1: 1996, ISO/IEC FDIS 15946-3 (02/2001)] A cryptographic technique that uses two related transformations, a public transformation (defined by the public key) and a private transformation (defined by the private key). The two transformations have the property that, given the public transformation, it is computationally infeasible to derive the private transformation. NOTE - A system based on asymmetric cryptographic techniques can either be an encipherment system, a signature system, a combined encipherment and signature system, or a key agreement system. With asymmetric cryptographic techniques there are four elementary transformations: sign and verify for signature systems, encipher and decipher for encipherment systems. The signature and the decipherment transformation are kept private by the owning entity, whereas the corresponding verification and encipherment transformation are published. There exist asymmetric cryptosystems (e.g. RSA) where the four elementary functions may be achieved by only two transformations: one private transformation suffices for both signing and decrypting messages, and one public transformation suffices for both verifying and encrypting messages. However, since this does not conform to the principle of key separation, throughout this part of ISO/IEC 11770 the four elementary transformations and the corresponding keys are kept separate. [ISO/IEC 11770-3: 1999] Cryptographic technique that uses two related transformations, a public transformation (defined by the public key) and a private transformation (defined by the private key). The two transformations have the property that, given the public transformation, it is computationally infeasible to derive the private transformation. [SC27] A cryptographic technique that uses two related transformations, a public transformation (defined by the public key) and a private transformation (defined by the private key). The two transformations have the property that, given the public transformation, it is computationally infeasible to derive the private transformation. NOTE - A system based on asymmetric cryptographic techniques can either be an encipherment system, a signature system, a combined encipherment and signature system, or a key agreement system. With asymmetric cryptographic techniques there are four elementary transformations: sign and verify for signature systems, encipher and decipher for encipherment systems. The signature and the decipherment transformation are kept private by the owning entity, whereas the corresponding verification and encipherment transformation are published. There exist asymmetric cryptosystems (e.g. RSA) where the four elementary functions may be achieved by only two transformations: one private transformation suffices for both signing and decrypting messages, and one public transformation suffices for both verifying and encrypting messages. However, since this does not conform to the principle of key separation, throughout this part of ISO/IEC 11770 the four elementary transformations and the corresponding keys are kept separate. [SC27] Cryptographic technique that uses two related transformations, a public transformation (defined by the public key) and a private transformation (defined by the private key). The two transformations have the property that, given the public transformation, it is computationally infeasible to derive the private transformation. [SC27] (see also cipher, cryptographic system, encipherment, entity, function, key, message, property, public-key, signature, system, verification, asymmetric cryptography, cryptographic)
asymmetric cryptography
(I) A modern branch of cryptography (popularly known as 'public-key cryptography') in which the algorithms employ a pair of keys (a public key and a private key) and use a different component of the pair for different steps of the algorithm. (C) Asymmetric algorithms have key management advantages over equivalently strong symmetric ones. First, one key of the pair does not need to be known by anyone but its owner; so it can more easily be kept secret. Second, although the other key of the pair is shared by all entities that use the algorithm, that key does not need to be kept secret from other, non-using entities; so the key distribution part of key management can be done more easily. (C) For encryption: In an asymmetric encryption algorithm, when Alice wants to ensure confidentiality for data she sends to Bob, she encrypts the data with a public key provided by Bob. Only Bob has the matching private key that is needed to decrypt the data. (C) For signature: In an asymmetric digital signature algorithm, when Alice wants to ensure data integrity or provide authentication for data she sends to Bob, she uses her private key to sign the data (i.e. create a digital signature based on the data). To verify the signature, Bob uses the matching public key that Alice has provided. (C) For key agreement: In an asymmetric key agreement algorithm, Alice and Bob each send their own public key to the other person. Then each uses their own private key and the other's public key to compute the new key value. [RFC2828] Cryptography that uses separate keys for encryption and decryption; also known as public key cryptography. [800-77] See Public Key Cryptography. [CNSSI-4009] (see also algorithm, authentication, confidentiality, digital signature, encryption, integrity, key, key management, owner, public-key, signature, cryptography) (includes asymmetric algorithm, asymmetric cipher, asymmetric cryptographic technique, asymmetric encipherment system, asymmetric encryption algorithm, asymmetric key pair, asymmetric signature system, public-key derivation function, public-key information, public-key system)
asymmetric encipherment system
A system based on asymmetric cryptographic techniques whose public transformation is used for encipherment and whose private transformation is used for decipherment. [SC27] A system based on asymmetric cryptographic techniques whose public transformation is used for encipherment and whose private transformation is used for decipherment. [ISO/IEC 9798-1: 1997, ISO/IEC 11770-3: 1999, ISO/IEC FDIS 15946-3 (02/2001)] System based on asymmetric cryptographic techniques whose public transformation is used for encipherment and whose private transformation is used for decipherment. NOTE - An asymmetric encipherment system is an asymmetric cryptographic technique that is also an encryption algorithm. [SC27] System based on asymmetric cryptographic techniques whose public transformation is used for encipherment and whose private transformation is used for decipherment. NOTE - An asymmetric encipherment system is an asymmetric cryptographic technique that is also an encryption algorithm. [SC27] (see also algorithm, cryptographic, encryption, asymmetric cryptography, cipher, encipherment, system)
asymmetric encryption algorithm
Alternative term for asymmetric encipherment system. [SC27] (see also cipher, encipherment, system, algorithm, asymmetric cryptography, encryption)
asymmetric key pair
A pair of related keys where the private key defines the private transformation and the public key defines the public transformation. [SC27] A pair of related keys where the private key defines the private transformation and the public key defines the public transformation. [ISO/IEC 9798-1: 1997, ISO/IEC 11770-3: 1999, ISO/IEC FDIS 15946-3 (02/2001)] Pair of related keys where the private key defines the private transformation and the public key defines the public transformation. [SC27] Pair of related keys where the private key defines the private transformation and the public key defines the public transformation. [SC27] (see also public-key, asymmetric cryptography, key)
asymmetric keys
Two related keys, a public key and a private key that are used to perform complementary operations, such as encryption and decryption or signature generation and signature verification. [800-63][FIPS 201] (see also encryption, operation, public-key, signature, verification, key)
asymmetric signature system
A system based on asymmetric cryptographic techniques whose private transformation is used for signing and whose public transformation is used for verification. [SC27] (see also cryptographic, verification, asymmetric cryptography, signature, system)
asynchronous attacks
Attacks that take advantage of dynamic system actions and the ability to manipulate the timing of those actions. [AFSEC] (see also system, attack)
asynchronous communication
Two modems communicating asynchronously rely upon each one to send the other start and stop signals in order to pace the exchange of information. [SRV] (see also information, communications)
asynchronous transfer mode (ATM)
A dedicated connection switching technology that organizes digital data into fixed byte cell units and transmits those units over a physical medium using digital signal technology. It is implemented by hardware, therefore, very fast processing and switching speeds are possible. [IATF] A fast-packet technology that was developed for use in area networks using fixed-length cells. It appears to be the best alternative for multimedia applications where data are mixed with voice, images, or full-motion video. [SRV] (see also application, connection, network, process, technology, security)
attack
(I) An assault on system security that derives from an intelligent threat, i.e. an intelligent act that is a deliberate attempt (especially in the sense of a method or technique) to evade security services and violate the security policy of a system. (C) The term 'attack' relates to some other basic security terms as shown in the following diagram:

+ - - - - - - - - - - - - + + - - - - + + - - - - - - - - - - -+
| An Attack: | |Counter- | | A System Resource: |
| i.e. A Threat Action | | measure | | Target of the Attack |
| +----------+ | | | | +-----------------+ |
| | attacker |<==================||<========= | |
| | i.e. | Passive | | | | | Vulnerability | |
| | A Threat |<=================>||<========> | |
| | Agent | or Active | | | | +-------|||-------+ |
| +----------+ Attack | | | | VVV |
| | | | | Threat Consequences |
+ - - - - - - - - - - - - + + - - - - + + - - - - - - - - - - -+
[RFC2828] 1) A discrete malicious action of debilitating intent inflicted by one entity upon another. A threat might attack a critical infrastructure to destroy or incapacitate it. 2) Intentional attempt to bypass the physical or information security measures and controls protecting an IT system. [CIAO] An attempt to bypass security controls on a computer. An active attack alters data. A passive attack releases data. Whether an attack will succeed depends on the vulnerability of the computer system and the effectiveness of existing countermeasures. [AFSEC] An attempt to bypass security controls on a computer. The attack may alter, release, or deny data. Whether an attack will succeed depends on the vulnerability of the computer system and the effectiveness of existing countermeasures. [NSAINT] An attempt to bypass security controls on a computer. The attack may alter, release, or deny data. Whether an attack will succeed depends on the vulnerability of the computer system and the effectiveness of existing countermeasures. The act of trying to bypass security controls on a system. An attack may be active, resulting in the alteration of data; or passive, resulting in the release of data. Note: The fact that an attack is made does not necessarily mean that it will succeed. The degree of success depends on the vulnerability of the system or activity and the effectiveness of existing countermeasures. [OVT] An attempt to exploit an IT system vulnerability. [SC27] An attempt to gain unauthorized access to system services, resources, or information, or an attempt to compromise system integrity. [SP 800-32] An attempt to obtain a Subscriber's token or to fool a verifier into believing that an unauthorized individual possess a claimant's token. [800-63] Any kind of malicious activity that attempts to collect, disrupt, deny, degrade, or destroy information system resources or the information itself. [CNSSI-4009] Attack Sensing and Warning (AS&W) - Detection, correlation, identification, and characterization of intentional unauthorized activity with notification to decision makers so that an appropriate response can be developed. [CNSSI-4009] Attempt to gain unauthorized access to an IS's services, resources, or information, or the attempt to compromise an IS's integrity, availability, or confidentiality. [CNSSI] The act of trying to bypass security controls on a system. An attack may be active, resulting in the alteration of data; or passive, resulting in the release of data. Note: The fact that an attack is made does not necessarily mean that it will succeed. The degree of success depends on the vulnerability of the computer system or activity and the effectiveness of existing countermeasures. [AJP][NCSC/TG004][SRV] The intentional act of attempting to bypass security controls on an automated information system. [IATF] (see also security software, Diffie-Hellman, POP3 APOP, RED team, SOF-basic, SOF-high, SOF-medium, US-CERT, access, access control, advanced persistent threats, adversary, agent, alert, anonymous, anti-spoof, authentication header, authorization, authorized, availability, availability service, bastion host, blinding, blue team, bot-network operators, buffer overflow, challenge-response protocol, checksum, code red, compromise, computer, computer emergency response team, computer emergency response teams' coordination center, computer network operations, control, cookies, countermeasures, cracker, criminal, criminal groups, critical, cross site scripting, cryptanalysis, cybersecurity, defense-in-depth, demilitarized zone, disconnection, electronic warfare, elliptic curve cryptography, emergency action plan, entity, entropy, evasion, exploit, exploit code, firewall, flaw hypothesis methodology, guessing entropy, hackers, handler, hash function, hijacking, honeypot, host-based security, impact, incident of security concern, incident response plan, indicator, information, information security, information system resilience, insider, integrity, internet, intrusion, intrusion detection systems, jamming, kerberos, key validation, keyed hash, layered solution, mailbomb, malicious, man-in-the-middle attack, management message, manipulation detection code, min-entropy, misappropriation, motivation, network, nonce, one-time passwords, operation, pharming, physical security, policy, precursor, privacy system, protected checksum, proxy, purge, radio frequency jamming, remote administration tool, resource, risk plane, risk value, salt, scenario, scrambling, secret key, security audit, security environment threat list, security management infrastructure, signature, spammers, strength of a requirement, strength of function, strength of mechanisms, survivability, system, target, threat action, threat consequence, tiger team, traceability, traffic analysis, trapdoor, tri-homed, trojan horse, trusted process, unilateral authentication, users, victim, virus, vulnerability, vulnerability assessment, white team, zombie, incident, risk, security, threat) (includes Attack Sensing and Warning, C2-attack, ICMP flood, IP splicing/hijacking, Star Trek attack, TTY watcher, active attack, application server attack, asynchronous attacks, attack potential, attack signature, attack signature recognition, attackers, between-the-lines-entry, blended attack, browsing, brute force, brute force attack, brute force password attack, buffer overflow attack, check_password, chosen-ciphertext attack, chosen-plaintext attack, ciphertext-only attack, computer intrusion, computer network attack, cut-and-paste attack, cyberattack, data diddling, data driven attack, demon dialer, denial-of-service, dictionary attack, eavesdropping, eavesdropping attack, electronic attack, flooding, hijack attack, impersonation, insider attack, interleaving attack, key logger, keystroke monitoring, killer packets, known-plaintext attack, laboratory attack, leapfrog attack, man-in-the-middle attack, masquerade attack, masquerading, mimicking, nak attack, off-line attack, online attack, online guessing attack, pagejacking, passive attack, penetration, perpetrator, phreaking, piggyback attack, ping of death, ping sweep, port scan, reflection attack, replay attacks, rootkit, scanning, scavenging, session hijack attack, shoulder surfing, smurf, smurfing, social engineering, spoofing, spoofing attack, subversion, supply chain attack, synchronous flood, tampering, technical attack, technological attack, terminal hijacking, timing attacks, tunneling attack, warehouse attack, wiretapping)
attack potential
The perceived potential for success of an attack, should an attack be launched, expressed in terms of an attacker's expertise, resources and motivation. [CC2][CC21][OVT][SC27] (see also resource, attack)
Attack Sensing and Warning
Detection, correlation, identification, and characterization of intentional unauthorized activity with notification to decision makers so that an appropriate response can be developed. [CNSSI] (see also authorized, identification, response, attack)
attack signature
A characteristic byte pattern used in malicious code or an indicator, or set of indicators, that allows the identification of malicious network activities. [CNSSI-4009] A specific sequence of events indicative of an unauthorized access attempt. [SP 800-12] Activities or alterations to an IS indicating an attack or attempted attack, detectable by examination of audit trail logs. [CIAO] (see also access, audit, attack, signature)
attack signature recognition
To recognize specific identifiable characteristics technical, procedural, or equipment-based of known attack profiles. [CIAO] (see also file, profile, attack, security software, signature) (includes virus signature)
attackers
A party who acts with malicious intent to assault an information system. [800-63] Someone with a strong interest in computers, who enjoys learning about them and experimenting with them. [800-82] (see also computer, information, malicious, min-entropy, system, attack)
attribute
A characteristic that describes a person, thing, or event. An inherent quality that an item either has or does not have. [SRV] Attributes are properties of an entity. An entity is said to be described by its attributes. In a database, the attributes of an entity have their analogues in the fields of a record. In an object database, instance variables may be considered attributes of the object. [SRV] (see also entity, object, quality)
attribute authority
(I) A CA that issues attribute certificates. (O) 'An authority, trusted by the verifier to delegate privilege, that issues attribute certificates.' [RFC2828] An entity trusted by one or more entities to create and sign attribute certificates. Note that a CA may also be an AA. [SC27] An entity, recognized by the Federal Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) Policy Authority or comparable agency body as having the authority to verify the association of attributes to an identity. [SP 800-32] (see also certificate, entity, identity, trust, authority, public-key infrastructure)
attribute certificate
(I) A digital certificate that binds a set of descriptive data items, other than a public key, either directly to a subject name or to the identifier of another certificate that is a public-key certificate. (O) 'A set of attributes of a user together with some other information, rendered unforgeable by the digital signature created using the private key of the CA that issued it.' (O) 'A data structure which includes some attribute values and identification information about the owner of the attribute certificate, all digitally signed by an Attribute Authority. This authority's signature serves as the guarantee of the binding between the attributes and their owner.' (C) A public-key certificate binds a subject name to a public key value, along with information needed to perform certain cryptographic functions. Other attributes of a subject, such as a security clearance, may be certified in a separate kind of digital certificate, called an attribute certificate. A subject may have multiple attribute certificates associated with its name or with each of its public-key certificates. (C) An attribute certificate might be issued to a subject in the following situations: [RFC2828] (see also authority, backup, cryptographic, cryptography, digital signature, function, identification, information, key, owner, public-key, security, signature, subject, users, certificate)
attribute sampling
In attribute sampling, the selected sampling units are measured or evaluated in terms of whether they have the attribute of interest, and some statistical measure (statistic) is computed from these measurements to estimate the proportion of the population that has the attribute. [SRV]
attribute-based access control
Access control based on attributes associated with and about subjects, objects, targets, initiators, resources, or the environment. An access control rule set defines the combination of attributes under which an access may take place. [SP 800-53; CNSSI-4009] (see also target, access, control)
attribute-based authorization
A structured process that determines when a user is authorized to access information, systems, or services based on attributes of the user and of the information, system, or service. [CNSSI-4009] (see also access, authorization)
audit
A family of security controls in the technical class dealing with ensuring activity involving access to and modification of sensitive or critical files is logged, monitored, and possible security violations investigated. [800-37] A service that keeps a detailed record of events. [IATF] An independent examination of a work product or set of work products to assess compliance with specifications, standards, contractual agreements, or other criteria. [IEEE610] Independent review and examination of records and activities to assess the adequacy of system controls, to ensure compliance with established policies and operational procedures, and to recommend necessary changes in controls, policies, or procedures. [CNSSI][SP 800-32] Independent review and examination of records and activities to assess the adequacy of system controls, to ensure compliance with established policies and operational procedures. [CNSSI-4009] Independent review and examination of records and activities to assess the adequacy of system controls, to ensure compliance with established security policies and procedures, and/or to recommend necessary changes in controls, policies, or procedures to meet security objectives. [CIAO] Independent review and examination of records and activities to assess the adequacy of system controls; to ensure compliance with established policies and operational procedures; and to recommend necessary changes in controls, policies, or procedures. [GSA] Independent review and examination of records and activities to determine compliance with established usage policies and to detect possible inadequacies in product technical security policies of their enforcement. [AJP][FCv1] The independent examination of records and activities to ensure compliance with established controls, policy, and operational procedures, and to recommend any indicated changes in controls, policy, or procedures. [NSAINT] The independent examination of records to asses their veracity and completeness. To record independently and examine documents or system activity (e.g. logins and logouts, file accesses, security violations). [AFSEC] The official review, examination, and verification of system records and activities to ensure the adequacy of established IT security controls and procedures; to identify any nonfunctional controls or new vulnerabilities [NASA] The procedures performed by an audit administrator to collect, analyze, and summarize the data required in a report to the system administrator regarding the security of the system. [800-130] (see also Government Accountability Office, IT security, IT security training, Identification Protocol, POSIX, access, access control, accountability, alert, application proxy, archive, attack signature, confidence, control, controlled access program oversight committee, controlled access protection, criteria, critical, distributed computing environment, file, fraudulent financial reporting, function, functional component, gap analysis, host based, identify, independence, intrusion detection, intrusion detection systems, key management, key-escrow, keystroke monitoring, login, network based, network component, object, operation, policy, policy management authority, population, resource encapsulation, sas 70 report, secure single sign-on, security controls, security features, security software, security-relevant event, sniffer, standard, system, system administrator, system security officer, technical countermeasures, threat monitoring, trust, verification, vulnerability, vulnerability analysis, work program, security) (includes COMSEC account audit, audit charter, audit data, audit log, audit plan, audit program, audit record, audit reduction tools, audit service, audit software, audit trail, audit/review, auditing tool, computer operations, audit, and security technology, computer-assisted audit technique, information systems audit and control association, information systems audit and control foundation, institute of internal auditors, multihost based auditing, security audit, test, vulnerability audit)
audit charter
A document approved by the board of directors that defines the IT audit function's responsibility, authority to review records, and accountability. [FFIEC] (see also authority, function, audit)
audit data
Chronological record of system activities to enable the reconstruction and examination of the sequence of events and changes in an event. [GSA][SP 800-32] (see also system, audit)
audit log
A chronological record of system activities. Includes records of system accesses and operations performed in a given period. [CNSSI-4009] (see also audit)
audit plan
A description and schedule of audits to be performed in a certain period of time (ordinarily a year). It includes the areas to be audited, the type of work planned, the high-level objectives and scope of the work and includes other items such as budget, resource allocation, schedule dates, and type of report issued. [FFIEC] (see also object, resource, audit)
audit program
The audit policies, procedures, and strategies that govern the audit function, including IT audit. [FFIEC] (see also function, audit, program)
audit record
An individual item of information contained in an audit trail [NASA] (see also information, audit)
audit reduction tools
Preprocessors designed to reduce the volume of audit records to facilitate manual review. Before a security review, these tools can remove many audit records known to have little security significance. These tools generally remove records generated by specified classes of events, such as records generated by nightly backups. [SP 800-12; CNSSI-4009] (see also audit)
audit service
(I) A security service that records information needed to establish accountability for system events and for the actions of system entities that cause them. [RFC2828] (see also information, system, audit)
audit software
Generic software consisting of computer programs to analyze data stored on computer media. The software can be used to sample data, compare data fields, match data files, perform computations, etc. [SRV] (see also computer, file, program, audit, software)
audit trail
(1) A set of records that collectively provide documentary evidence of processing used to aid in tracing from original transactions forward to related records and reports, and/or backward from records and reports to their component source transactions. (2) A chronological record of system activities that is sufficient to enable the reconstruction, reviewing, and examination of the sequence of environments and activities surrounding or leading to an operation, a procedure, or an event in a transaction from its inception to final results. (3) Information collected or used to facilitate a security audit. Note: Audit trail may apply to information in an IT product or an AIS or to the transfer of COMSEC (communications security) material. [AJP] (1) A set of records that collectively provide documentary evidence of processing used to aid in tracing from original transactions forward to related records and reports, and/or backward from records and reports to their component source transactions. (2) Information collected or used to facilitate a Security Audit. [TNI] A chronological record of system activities that is sufficient to enable the reconstruction, review, and examination of the sequence of events and activities surrounding or leading to each event in the path of a transaction from its inception to the output of final results. The ability to trace data or transactions from origination to output and back. [SRV] A chronological record of system activities that is sufficient to enable the reconstruction, reviewing, and examination of the sequence of environments and activities surrounding or leading to an operation, a procedure, or an event in a transaction from its inception to final results. [NCSC/TG004][SRV] A chronological record of system activities to enable the reconstruction and examination of the sequence of events and/or changes in an event. Note: Audit trail may apply to information in an IT product or an AIS or to the transfer of COMSEC material. [FCv1] A chronological record that reconstructs and examines the sequence of activities surrounding or leading to a specific operation, procedure, or event in a security relevant transaction from inception to final result. [CNSSI-4009] A record showing who has accessed an Information Technology (IT) system and what operations the user has performed during a given period. [SP 800-47] A set of records that collectively provide documentary evidence of processing used to aid in tracing from original transactions forward to related records and reports, and/or backward from records and reports to their component source transactions. [TCSEC] Chronological record of system activities or message routing that permits reconstruction and examination of a sequence of events. [CIAO] Chronological record of system activities to enable the reconstruction and examination of the sequence of events and/or changes in an event. [CNSSI] In computer security systems, a chronological record of system resource usage. This includes user login, file access, other various activities, and whether any actual or attempted security violations occurred, legitimate and unauthorized. [NSAINT] In computer security systems, a chronological record of when users login, how long they are engaged in various activities, what they were doing, whether any actual or attempted security violations occurred. An automated or manual set of chronological records of system activities that may enable the reconstruction and examination of a sequence of events and/or changes in an event. [AFSEC] The chronological record of system activities sufficient to enable the reconstruction, review, or examination of the sequence of internal environments and activities surrounding or leading to each event in the path of a user transaction from its inception to output of final results. [NASA] (see also logging, access, access control, authorized, communications, communications security, computer, computer security, evidence, file, information, login, message, operation, process, resource, system, users, audit, threat monitoring) (includes automated information system, console logs, security audit trail)
audit/review
The assessment of an information system to evaluate the adequacy of implemented security controls, assure that they are functioning properly, identify vulnerabilities, and assist in implementation of new security controls where required. This assessment is conducted annually or whenever significant change has occurred and may lead to recertification of the information system. [CNSSI-4009] The survey of an IT system to evaluate the adequacy of implemented controls, assure that they are functioning properly, identify vulnerabilities, and assist in implementation of new controls where required. This survey is conducted annually or whenever significant change has occurred for all IT systems and may lead to recertification of the IT system. [NASA] (see also certification, control, function, identify, system, vulnerability, audit)
auditing tool
Tools to analyze computer systems or networks in regard to their security status or in relation to the set of services provided by them. COPS (Computer Oracle Password and Security analyzer) and SATAN (Security Administrator's Tool for Analyzing Networks) are famous examples of such tools. [RFC2504] (see also computer, network, passwords, system, audit)
augmentation
The addition of one or more assurance component(s) from Part 3 to an EAL or assurance package. [CC2][CC21][SC27] (see also assurance)
authentic signature
(I) A signature (particularly a digital signature) that can be trusted because it can be verified. [RFC2828] (see also digital signature, trust, signature)
authenticate
(1) To verify the identity of a user, device, or other entity in a system, often as a prerequisite to allowing access to resources in a system. (2) To verify the integrity of data that have been stored, transmitted, or otherwise exposed to possible unauthorized modification. [NCSC/TG004][SRV] (1) To verify the identity of a user, user device, or other entity, or the integrity of data stored, transmitted, or otherwise exposed to unauthorized modification in an IT product. (2) To verify the validity of a claimed identity of a user, device, or other entity in a system, often as a prerequisite to allowing access to resources in a system. (3) To verify the integrity of data that have been stored, transmitted, or otherwise exposed to possible unauthorized modification. [AJP] (I) Verify (i.e. establish the truth of) an identity claimed by or for a system entity. (D) In general English usage, this term usually means 'to prove genuine' (e.g. an art expert authenticates a Michelangelo painting). But the recommended definition carries a much narrower meaning. For example, to be precise, an ISD SHOULD NOT say 'the host authenticates each received datagram'. Instead, the ISD SHOULD say 'the host authenticates the origin of each received datagram'. In most cases, we also can say 'and verifies the datagram's integrity', because that is usually implied. (D) ISDs SHOULD NOT talk about authenticating a digital signature or digital certificate. Instead, we 'sign' and then 'verify' digital signatures, and we 'issue' and then 'validate' digital certificates. [RFC2828] In networking, to establish the validity of a user or an object (i.e. communications server). [AFSEC] To confirm the identity of an entity when that identity is presented. [GSA][SP 800-32] To establish the validity of a claimed identity. [NSAINT][TCSEC] To verify the identity of a user, user device, or other entity, or the integrity of data stored, transmitted, or otherwise exposed to unauthorized modification in an IS, or to establish the validity of a transmission. [CNSSI] To verify the identity of a user, user device, or other entity. [CNSSI-4009] Verify the identity of a user, user device, or other entity, or the integrity of data stored, transmitted, or otherwise exposed to unauthorized modification in an IT product. [FCv1] (see also access, access control, authorized, certificate, communications, digital signature, entity, identity, integrity, network, object, public-key infrastructure, resource, signature, system, users, validate, authentication)
authentication
Authentication is the process of establishing confidence in user identities. This is accomplished by establishing that someone is in fact who he or she claims to be. [GSA] (1) To establish the validity of a claimed identity. (2) To provide protection against fraudulent transactions by establishing the validity of a message, station, individual, or originator. [TNI] (1) To establish the validity of a claimed identity. (2) To provide protection against fraudulent transactions by establishing the validity of a message, station, individual, or originator. (3) Means of verifying an entity's (e.g. individual user's, machine's, or software component's) eligibility to receive specific categories of information. [AJP] (I) The process of verifying an identity claimed by or for a system entity. (C) An authentication process consists of two steps:
  1. Identification step: Presenting an identifier to the security system. (Identifiers should be assigned carefully, because authenticated identities are the basis for other security services, such as access control service.)
  2. Verification step: Presenting or generating authentication information that corroborates the binding between the entity and the identifier.
[RFC2828] A process that establishes the origin of information or determines an entity's identity. [SP 800-21] Authentication refers to mechanisms which are used to verify the identity of a user. The process of authentication typically requires a name and a password to be supplied by the user as proof of his identity. [RFC2504] Encompasses identity verification, message origin authentication, and message content authentication. [FIPS 190] For the purposes of this guide, the process of verifying the identity claimed by a WiMAX device. [800-127] Means of verifying an entity's (e.g. individual user, machine, software component) eligibility to receive specific categories of information. [FCv1] Providing assurance regarding the identity of a subject or object, for example ensuring that a particular user is who he or she claims to be. [SRV] Security measure designed to establish the validity of a transmission, message, or originator, or a means of verifying an individual's authorization to access specific types of information. [CIAO] Security measure designed to establish the validity of a transmission, message, or originator, or a means of verifying an individual's authorization to receive specific categories of information. [800-37][CNSSI][DSS][IATF] The process of confirming an asserted identity with a specified or understood level of confidence. [GAO] The process of establishing confidence in the identity of users or information systems. [800-63][SP 800-63] The process of establishing confidence of authenticity. [FIPS 201] The process of establishing confidence of authenticity; in this case, in the validity of a person's identity and the PIV Card. [GSA] The process of identifying an individual, in computer systems this is usually based on a username and password. In security systems, authentication is distinct from authorization , that is the process of giving individuals access to system objects based on their identity. Authentication merely ensures that the individual is who he or she claims to be, but says nothing about the access rights of the individual. [800-103] The process of identifying an individual, usually based on a username and password. In security systems, authentication is distinct from authorization, which is the process of giving individuals access to system objects based on their identity. Authentication merely ensures that the individual is who he or she claims to be, but says nothing about the access rights of the individual. [VA] The process of verifying that a user requesting a network resource is who he, she, or it claims to be, and vice versa. Trust is a critical concept in network security. Any network resource (such as a file server or printer) typically requires authentication before granting access. Authentication takes many forms, including but not limited to IP addresses; TCP or UDP port numbers; passwords; external token authentication cards; and biometric identification such as signature, speech, or retina recognition systems. The entity being authenticated might be the client machine (for example, by proving that a given IP source address really is that address, and not a rogue machine spoofing that address) or a user (by proving that the user really is who he, she, or it claims to be). Servers might also authenticate themselves to clients. Testers should be aware that in an increasingly mobile society, authentication based on machine-specific criteria such as an IP address or port number is not equivalent to verifying that a given individual is making an access request. At this writing systems that verify the identity of users are typically external to the firewall, and may introduce additional latency to the overall SUT. [RFC2647] The process of verifying the claimed identity of an individual user, machine, software component, or any other entity. [FFIEC] The process of verifying the identity or other attributes claimed by or assumed of an entity (user, process, or device), or to verify the source and integrity of data. [CNSSI-4009] The provision of assurance of the claimed identity of an entity. [SC27] The validation and confirmation of an IT user's claim of identity, occasionally referred to as personal authentication The validation and identification of a computer network node, transmission, or message [NASA] To positively verify the identity of a user, device, or other entity in a system, often as a prerequisite to allowing access to resources in a system. [NSAINT] To positively verify the identity of a user, device, or other entity in a system, often as a prerequisite to allowing access to resources in a system. The verification of the integrity of data that have been stored, transmitted, or otherwise exposed to possible unauthorized modification. [AFSEC] Verifying the identity of a user, process, or device, often as a prerequisite to allowing access to resources in a system. [800-33] Verifying the identity of a user, process, or device, often as a prerequisite to allowing access to resources in an information system. [800-53][800-60][800-82][SP 800-53; SP 800-53A; SP 800-27; FIPS 200; SP 800-30] (see also COMSEC control program, COMSEC equipment, Diffie-Hellman, FIPS approved security method, Generic Security Service Application Program Interface, IA product, IMAP4 AUTHENTICATE, IP splicing/hijacking, IPsec Key Exchange, IT security, Internet Engineering Task Force, Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol, KMI protected channel, Lightweight Directory Access Protocol, OAKLEY, POP3 APOP, POP3 AUTH, Post Office Protocol, version 3, Rivest-Shamir-Adleman algorithm, S-box, S/Key, SOCKS, Secure Electronic Transaction, Terminal Access Controller Access Control System, The Exponential Encryption System, X.509, access, access control, account authority digital signature, active attack, anonymous and guest login, anti-spoof, approved security function, assurance, asymmetric cryptography, authenticity, authorization, authorized, backup, biometric measurement, biometrics, call back, certificate, certificate policy, certificate revocation list, certificate status responder, certification authority digital signature, challenge-response protocol, challenge/response, claimant, code, common data security architecture, communications security, computer, computer cryptography, computer network, confidence, control, credentials, criteria, critical, critical security parameters, cryptographic algorithm, cryptographic key, cryptography, data integrity service, data key, defense-wide information assurance program, dictionary attack, digital id, digital signature, distinguishing identifier, distributed computing environment, domain name system, dongle, eavesdropping attack, electronic credentials, encapsulating security payload, entity, exchange multiplicity parameter, file, file encryption, fingerprint, fraud, full disk encryption, handshaking procedures, hash function, impersonation, individual electronic accountability, information, information assurance, information assurance product, information systems security, information systems security equipment modification, initiator, integrity, interleaving attack, internet protocol security, keyed hash, keyed hash algorithm, keying material, language, man-in-the-middle attack, masquerading, message, message integrity code, network component, non-repudiation, non-repudiation service, nonce, object, off-line attack, one-time passwords, online attack, origin authenticity, passive attack, password system, passwords, point-to-point protocol, practice statement, pretty good privacy, privacy enhanced mail, process, proof of possession protocol, protection suite, protocol run, proxy, proxy server, public key enabling, public-key forward secrecy, public-key infrastructure, realm, registration, registration authority, replay attacks, resource, responder, sandboxed environment, secret, secret seed, secure DNS, secure communication protocol, secure hash standard, secure shell, secure socket layer, security assertion markup language, security association, security association identifier, security controls, security mechanism, security service, session hijack attack, shared secret, signature, simple network management protocol, single sign-on, software, spoof, spoofing, subject, subscriber, symmetric key, system, system entity, system entry, technical countermeasures, test, third party trusted host model, tokens, transport layer security, trust, trusted third party, unsigned data, user identifier, users, validate vs. verify, validation, verification, verifier, verifier impersonation attack, virtual private network, vulnerability, zero-knowledge password protocol, quality of protection, security) (includes 3-factor authentication, Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol, Challenge-Response Authentication Mechanism, Data Authentication Algorithm, Distributed Authentication Security Service, Extensible Authentication Protocol, Password Authentication Protocol, SAML authentication assertion, Simple Authentication and Security Layer, authenticate, authentication code, authentication data, authentication exchange, authentication header, authentication header protocol, authentication mechanism, authentication mode, authentication period, authentication protocol, authentication service, authentication system, authentication tag, authentication token, authentication tools, biometric authentication, challenge and reply authentication, data authentication code, data authentication code vs. Data Authentication Code, data origin authentication, data origin authentication service, electronic authentication, entity authentication, entity authentication of A to B, explicit key authentication from A to B, identification, implicit key authentication from A to B, key authentication, logon, low-cost encryption/authentication device, message authentication code, message authentication key, multifactor authentication, mutual authentication, mutual entity authentication, peer entity authentication, peer entity authentication service, privacy, authentication, integrity, non-repudiation, simple authentication, source authentication, strong authentication, unilateral authentication)
authentication code
(D) ISDs SHOULD NOT use this term as a synonym for any form of checksum, whether cryptographic or not. The word 'authentication' is misleading because the mechanism involved usually serves a data integrity function rather than an authentication function, and the word 'code' is misleading because it implies that either encoding or encryption is involved or that the term refers to computer software. [RFC2828] A cryptographic checksum based on an Approved security function (also known as a Message Authentication Code [MAC]). [FIPS 140-2] (see also computer, cryptographic, cryptography, encryption, function, information, integrity, process, software, system, users, authentication, code)
authentication data
Information used to verify the claimed identity of a user. [CC2][CC21][SC27] (see also entity, identity, information, users, authentication)
authentication exchange
(I) A mechanism to verify the identity of an entity by means of information exchange. (O) 'A mechanism intended to ensure the identity of an entity by means of information exchange.' [RFC2828] (see also entity, identity, information, authentication)
authentication header (AH)
(I) An Internet IPsec protocol designed to provide connectionless data integrity service and data origin authentication service for IP datagrams, and (optionally) to provide protection against replay attacks. (C) Replay protection may be selected by the receiver when a security association is established. AH authenticates upper-layer protocol data units and as much of the IP header as possible. However, some IP header fields may change in transit, and the value of these fields, when the packet arrives at the receiver, may not be predictable by the sender. Thus, the values of such fields cannot be protected end-to-end by AH; protection of the IP header by AH is only partial when such fields are present. (C) AH may be used alone, or in combination with the IPsec ESP protocol, or in a nested fashion with tunneling. Security services can be provided between a pair of communicating hosts, between a pair of communicating security gateways, or between a host and a gateway. ESP can provide the same security services as AH, and ESP can also provide data confidentiality service. The main difference between authentication services provided by ESP and AH is the extent of the coverage; ESP does not protect IP header fields unless they are encapsulated by AH. [RFC2828] A field that immediately follows the IP header in an IP datagram and provides authentication and integrity checking for the datagram. [NSAINT] An IP device used to provide connectionless integrity and data origin authentication for IP datagrams. [IATF] (see also authentication header protocol, association, attack, confidentiality, connection, gateway, integrity, internet, internet security protocol, protocols, tunnel, authentication, internet protocol security, security protocol)
authentication header protocol
IPsec security protocol that can provide integrity protection for packet headers and data through authentication. [800-77] (see also authentication header, integrity, internet protocol security, internet security protocol, authentication, protocols)
authentication information
(I) Information used to verify an identity claimed by or for an entity. (C) Authentication information may exist as, or be derived from, one of the following: [RFC2828] (see also entity, identity, 3-factor authentication, information)
authentication mechanism
Hardware or software-based mechanisms that forces users, devices, or processes to prove their identity before accessing data on an information system. [CNSSI-4009] Hardware-or software-based mechanisms that force users to prove their identity before accessing data on a device. [SP 800-72; SP 800-124] (see also access, identity, software, users, authentication)
authentication mode
A block cipher mode of operation that can provide assurance of the authenticity and, therefore, the integrity of data. [SP 800-38B] (see also assurance, authentication)
authentication period
The maximum acceptable period between any initial authentication process and subsequent reauthentication processes during a single terminal session or during the period data is being accessed. [CNSSI-4009] (see also access, authentication)
authentication protocol
A defined sequence of messages between a claimant and a verifier that demonstrates that the claimant has possession and control of a valid token to establish his/her identity, and optionally, demonstrates to the claimant that he or she is communicating with the intended verifier. [SP 800-63] A defined sequence of messages between a claimant and a verifier that protocol demonstrates that the claimant has control of a valid token to establish his/her identity, and optionally, demonstrates to the claimant that he or she is communicating with the intended verifier. [800-63] A well-specified message exchange process between a claimant and a verifier that enables the verifier to confirm the claimant's identity. [CNSSI-4009] (see also control, cryptographic, entity, identity, key, message, process, authentication, protocols)
authentication service
(I) A security service that verifies an identity claimed by or for an entity. (C) In a network, there are two general forms of authentication service: data origin authentication service and peer entity authentication service. [RFC2828] (see also entity, identity, network, authentication)
authentication system
Cryptosystem or process used for authentication. [CNSSI] (see also cryptographic system, cryptography, process, authentication, system)
authentication tag
A pair of bit strings associated to data to provide assurance of its authenticity. [SP 800-38B] (see also assurance, authentication)
authentication token
A portable authenticating device that uses techniques such as challenge/response and time-based code sequences. [misc] Authentication information conveyed during an authentication exchange. [FIPS 196] (see also code, response, authentication, tokens)
authentication tools
(see also authentication, security software)
authenticator
Means used to confirm the identity of a station, originator, or individual. [CNSSI] Secrets that create the binding between credentials and it's presenter. [800-103] The means used to confirm the identity of a user, process, or device (e.g., user password or token). [SP 800-53; CNSSI-4009] The means used to confirm the identity or to verify the eligibility of a station, originator, or individual. [AJP][NCSC/TG004] (see also backup, entity, identity)
authenticity
(I) The property of being genuine and able to be verified and be trusted. [RFC2828] The principle that ensures that a message is received in exactly the same form in which it was sent. [AFSEC] The property of being genuine and being able to be verified and trusted; confidence in the validity of a transmission, a message, or message originator. [800-53][800-60] The property of being genuine and being able to be verified and trusted; confidence in the validity of a transmission, a message, or message originator. See Authentication. [SP 800-53; SP 800-53A; CNSSI-4009; SP 800-39] The property that data originated from its purported source. [800-63] The property that ensures that the identity of a subject or resource is the one claimed. Authenticity applies to entities such as users, processes, systems and information. [SC27] Undisputed identity or origin. [DSS] (see also authentication, confidence, entity, identity, information, message, process, property, resource, subject, system, trust, users, integrity)
authority
(D) 'An entity, responsible for the issuance of certificates.' (C) ISDs SHOULD NOT use this term as a synonym for AA, CA, RA, ORA, or similar terms, because it may cause confusion. Instead, use the full term at the first instance of usage and then, if it is necessary to shorten text, use the style of abbreviation defined in this Glossary. (C) ISDs SHOULD NOT use this definition for any PKI entity, because the definition is ambiguous with regard to whether the entity actually issues certificates (e.g. attribute authority or certification authority) or just has accountability for processes that precede or follow signing (e.g. registration authority). [RFC2828] Person(s) or established bodies with rights and responsibilities to exert control in an administrative sphere. [CNSSI-4009] (see also COMSEC custodian, International Traffic in Arms Regulations, Internet Protocol Security Option, NRS token, NRT token, National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program, SSO PIN, acceptable level of risk, access, accountability, accreditation, accreditation multiplicity parameter, accreditation range, alternate COMSEC custodian, assurance scheme, attribute certificate, audit charter, authorizing official, binding, certificate, certificate domain, certificate rekey, certificate revocation list, certification, certification hierarchy, certification practice statement, command and control, conformant validation certificate, control, credentials, cryptosystem review, data storage, designer, digital certificate, distribution point, enclave, entity, evaluation and validation scheme, evaluation scheme, identity proofing, information owner, information system security officer, inspectable space, national telecommunications and information system security directives, network security officer, non-repudiation of submission, non-repudiation of transport, notarization, operational waiver, personnel security, policy, policy mapping, primary account number, private accreditation exponent, private accreditation information, process, public-key certificate, public-key cryptography standards, public-key information, public-key infrastructure, realm, registration, review board, risk management, root, root CA, root registry, rules of engagement, security policy, sensitive information, special access program, system security officer, time-stamp requester, trust, trusted third party, trusted time stamp, users, validated products list, validation service) (includes Internet Assigned Numbers Authority, Internet Policy Registration Authority, JTC1 Registration Authority, X.509 authority revocation list, account authority digital signature, accreditation authority, accrediting authority, assurance authority, attribute authority, authority certificate, authority revocation list, brand certification authority, cardholder certification authority, certificate authority workstation, certification authority, certification authority digital signature, certification authority workstation, certificaton authority, certified TEMPEST technical authority, command authority, controlling authority, delegated accrediting authority, delivery authority, designated accrediting authority, designated approval authority, designated approving authority, designating authority, evaluation authority, geopolitical certificate authority, issuing authority, judicial authority, local authority, merchant certification authority, organizational registration authority, payment gateway certification authority, policy approving authority, policy certification authority, policy creation authority, policy management authority, principal accrediting authority, registration authority, security authority, sub-registration authority, subordinate certification authority, time-stamping authority, trusted time stamping authority)
authority certificate
(D) 'A certificate issued to an authority (e.g. either to a certification authority or to an attribute authority).' (C) ISDs SHOULD NOT use this term or definition because they are ambiguous with regard to which specific types of PKI entities they address. [RFC2828] (see also certification, authority, certificate)
authority revocation list
(I) A data structure that enumerates digital certificates that were issued to CAs but have been invalidated by their issuer prior to when they were scheduled to expire. (O) 'A revocation list containing a list of public-key certificates issued to authorities, which are no longer considered valid by the certificate issuer.' [RFC2828] (see also certificate, key, public-key, validate, authority, revocation)
authorization (to operate)
The official management decision given by a senior organizational official to authorize operation of an information system and to explicitly accept the risk to organizational operations (including mission, functions, image, or reputation), organizational assets, individuals, other organizations, and the Nation based on the implementation of an agreed-upon set of security controls. [SP 800-53; SP 800-53A; CNSSI-4009; SP 800-37] (see also control, management, risk, security, authorization)
authorization
Access privileges granted to a user, program, or process or the act of granting those privileges. [CNSSI-4009] Access privileges granted to a user, program, or process. [CIAO][CNSSI] Access rights granted to a user, program, or process. [AJP][FCv1] Authorization is the process of giving someone, once identified (i.e. authenticated), permission to do or have something. [GSA] Determining whether a subject is trusted to act for a given purpose, for example allowed to read a particular file. [SRV] Permission to perform some action. [800-103] The granting of access rights to a user, program, or process. [NCSC/TG004] The granting of appropriate access privileges to authenticated users. [GAO] The granting or denying of access rights to a user, program, or process. [800-33] The process of determining what types of activities are permitted. Usually, authorization is in the context of authentication. Once you have authenticated a user, the user may be authorized different types of access or activity. [AFSEC][IATF] The process of determining what types of activities or access are permitted for a given physical or logical resource. Once the identity of the user has been authenticated, they may be authorized to have access to a specific location, system, or service. In the context of logical access control, the process whereby a user's privileges to access and manipulate data objects are assigned. [GSA] The process of giving access to parts of a system, typically based on the business needs and the role of the individual within the business. [FFIEC] The process of granting or denying access to a network resource. Most computer security systems are based on a two-step process. The first stage is authentication, which ensures that a user is who he or she claims to be. The second stage is authorization, which allows the user access to various resources based on the user's identity. [VA] The process of granting or denying permission for different types of access or activity. [misc] The process that takes place after authentication is complete to determine which resources/services are available to a WiMAX device. [800-127] The right or a permission that is granted to a system entity to access a system resource. [800-82] (see also Bell-LaPadula security model, Identification Protocol, RA domains, Simple Public-Key Infrastructure/Simple Distributed Security Infrastructure, Terminal Access Controller Access Control System, access, access approval, access level, access type, accreditation, acquirer, approval/accreditation, attack, authentication, case-by-case basis, category, certificate update, clearance, closed security environment, computer, connection approval, control, covert channel, cracker, credentials, dedicated security mode, discretionary access control, eavesdropping, entity, export license, file, firewall, hackers, identity, identity based access control, insider, intelligence sources and methods, interconnection security agreements, interface control document, interim accreditation, interim approval to operate, interim approval to test, internal system exposure, intruder, intrusion, intrusion detection, kerberos, key-encryption-key, key-escrow system, language, malicious intruder, management controls, mandatory access control, mode of operation, modes of operation, multilevel secure, multilevel security mode, open security environment, partitioned security mode, passwords, payment gateway, periods processing, personality label, personnel security, policy-based access control, privilege management infrastructure, privileged accounts, process, program, registration, reinstatement, remote authentication dial-in user service, resource, risk executive, risk index, risk management, risk-adaptable access control, role, role-based access control, security, security assertion markup language, security clearance, security intrusion, security management infrastructure, security perimeter, sensitive compartmented information facility accreditation, simple network management protocol, skimming, system, system-high security mode, trojan horse, trust, unfavorable personnel security determination, update (a certificate), user partnership program, vulnerability, users) (includes ACL-based authorization, access control, attribute-based authorization, authorization (to operate), authorization boundary, authorization key, authorization to process, authorize processing, authorized, delegation, interim access authorization, joint authorization, limited access authorization, list-oriented, multilevel security, need-to-know determination, permissions, pre-authorization, privilege, regrade, secure single sign-on, system security authorization agreement, ticket-oriented)
authorization boundary
All components of an information system to be authorized for operation by an authorizing official and excludes separately authorized systems, to which the information system is connected. [CNSSI-4009; SP 800-53; SP 800-53A; SP 800-37] (see also authorization)
authorization key
A key exchanged between the base station and subscriber station/mobile station to authenticate one another prior to the traffic encryption key (TEK) exchange. [800-127] (see also authorization, key)
authorization to process
A signed declaration by a GRC line manager that the IT system is ready to process. [NASA] (see also system, authorization, process)
authorize processing
Occurs when management authorizes a system based on an assessment of management, operational, and technical controls. By authorizing processing in a system the management official accepts the risk associated with it. [800-37] (see also assessment, control, operation, risk, system, authorization, process)
authorized
(I) (1.) An 'authorization' is a right or a permission that is granted to a system entity to access a system resource. (2.) An 'authorization process' is a procedure for granting such rights. (3.) To 'authorize' means to grant such a right or permission. (O) SET usage: 'The process by which a properly appointed person or persons grants permission to perform some action on behalf of an organization. This process assesses transaction risk, confirms that a given transaction does not raise the account holder's debt above the account's credit limit, and reserves the specified amount of credit. (When a merchant obtains authorization, payment for the authorized amount is guaranteed--provided, of course, that the merchant followed the rules associated with the authorization process.)' [RFC2828] Entitled to a specific mode of access. [AJP][FCv1] (see also ACH debit fraud, Attack Sensing and Warning, Automated Information System security, Bell-LaPadula security model, COMSEC equipment, COMSEC facility, DD 254 - Final, Defense Central Security Index, Escrowed Encryption Standard, FIPS PUB 140-1, IP splicing/hijacking, IS related risk, IT security database, IT security incident, IT-related risk, PIV issuer, RED team, SOCKS, Simple Public-Key Infrastructure/Simple Distributed Security Infrastructure, TOP SECRET, U.S.-controlled facility, U.S.-controlled space, acceptance criteria, access, access category, access control, access control lists, access control mechanisms, access control service, access mediation, acknowledged special access program, acquisition systems protection, active wiretapping, adequate security, administrative access, agent of the government, anonymous, anti-spoof, applicant, application controls, application server attack, approved test methods list, astragal strip, attack, audit trail, authenticate, authentication, automated information system media control system, automated security incident measurement, availability, between-the-lines-entry, bound metadata, browse access protection, call back, call back security, capability, carve-out, certification, certification authority, change control and lifecycle management, classification, classification levels, classification markings and implementation working group, classified, classified information, clearance, cleared commercial carrier, client server, communications security, compromise, compromised key list, computer abuse, computer intrusion, computer network defense, computer security intrusion, confidential, confidentiality, configuration control, control zone, controlled access area, controlled space, controlled unclassified information, courier, covert channel, covert channel analysis, critical system, cryptographic key, cryptographic officer, cryptography, cryptoperiod, damage assessment, damage to the national security, data compromise, data confidentiality, data confidentiality service, data integrity, data integrity service, data security, deception, declassification, delegation of disclosure authority letter, deliberate compromise of classified information, deliberate exposure, demon dialer, denial-of-service, designated, designated laboratories list, disaster plan, disclosure of information, discretionary access control, downgrade, eavesdropping, egress point, electronic security, emanations security, emission security, emissions security, encryption, entity, entry control, exposures, extranet, extraordinary security measures, failure access, false acceptance rate, falsification, fetch protection, file protection, file security, firewall, fishbowl, forced entry, foreign disclosure, foreign liaison officer, foreign military sales, foreign ownership, control, or influence, fraud, frequency hopping, guard, hackers, hacking, handcarrier, honeypot, human error, identity, illegal drug use, impact, impersonation, implant, inadvertent disclosure, inadvertent disclosure incident, incident of security concern, inference, information assurance, information assurance product, information security, information systems security, insertion, insider, integrity, integrity policy, intelligence activities, intelligence activity, intelligence community classification and control markings implementation, interception, internal security controls, intranet, intrusion, intrusion detection, intrusion detection systems, intrusion detection tools, issuer, joint personnel adjudication system, key distribution service, key owner, key recovery, leakage, least privilege, level of concern, list-oriented, logic bombs, logical access, logical access control, logoff, logon, major application, malicious applets, malicious code, malicious logic, malicious program, malware, masquerade, masquerading, media protection, misappropriation, mission critical, mode of operation, modes of operation, motivation, national security information, national security system, need for access, need-to-know, need-to-know determination, network security, no-lone zone, non-disclosure agreement, non-discussion area, open storage, operational data security, original classification, original classification authority, overt channel, passive, passive attack, passive threat, passwords, penetration, permissions, personal firewall, phage, physical and environmental protection, physical security, piggyback, piggyback entry, pre-activation state, principal disclosure authority, privacy, privileged access, privileged process, probe, procedural security, process, program channels or program security channels, program protection plan, protected network, protection ring, protective security service, proxy, random selection, regrade, remote access, resource, risk, rogue device, safeguarding statement, scavenging, secrecy policy, secret, secure state, security, security clearance, security compromise, security in-depth, security incident, security violation, segregation of duties, sensitive information, session hijack attack, signature, skimming, social engineering, special access program/special access required, split knowledge, sponsor, spoof, spoofing, store, subcommittee on Automated Information System security, subcommittee on telecommunications security, subject, substitution, superuser, surreptitious entry, suspicious contact, system, system integrity, system integrity service, system security officer, system-high security mode, tamper, tamper resisting, tampering, tcpwrapper, theft of data, theft of functionality, theft of service, threat, ticket-oriented, time bomb, traditional INFOSEC program, transmission, trapdoor, trespass, trojan horse, trusted agent, trusted computing base, trusted identification forwarding, two-person control, two-person integrity, unclassified, unclassified controlled nuclear information, unclassified sensitive, unforgeable, upgrade, user representative, usurpation, vault, violation of permissions, vulnerability, war driving, authorization) (includes authorized adjudicative agency, authorized classification and control markings register, authorized data security association list, authorized investigative agency, authorized person, authorized user, authorized vendor, authorized vendor program, unauthorized access, unauthorized disclosure, unauthorized person)
authorized adjudicative agency
Agency authorized by law or regulation, or direction of the Director of National Intelligence, to determine eligibility for access to classified information in accordance with Executive Order 12698. [DSS] (see also access, classified, intelligence, authorized)
authorized classification and control markings register
Also known as the 'CAPCO Register,' this is the official list of authorized security control markings and abbreviated forms of such markings for use by elements of the Intelligence Community for classified and unclassified information. [DSS] (see also classified, intelligence, security, authorized)
authorized data security association list
A list that the BS provides to the SS/MS that indicates which data encryption SAs the SS/MS is authorized to use. [800-127] (see also authorized, security)
authorized investigative agency
Agency authorized by law, executive order, regulation, or the Director of the Office of Management and Budget under Executive Order 13381 to conduct counterintelligence investigations or investigations of persons who are proposed for access to sensitive or classified information to determine whether those persons satisfy criteria for obtaining and retaining access to such information. [DSS] (see also access, classified, intelligence, authorized)
authorized person
A person who has a need-to-know for classified information in the performance of official duties and who has been granted a personnel clearance at the required level. [AFSEC] Person who has a favorable determination of eligibility for access to classified information, has signed an approved nondisclosure agreement, and has a need-to-know for the specific classified information in the performance of official duties. [DSS] (see also authorized user, access, classified, information, authorized)
authorized user
A user who may, in accordance with the TSP, perform an operation. [CC2][CC21][SC27] Appropriately cleared individual with a requirement to access a Department of Defense information system in order to perform or assist in a lawful and authorized governmental function. [DSS] (see also authorized person, access, operation, authorized, users)
authorized vendor
Manufacturer of INFOSEC equipment authorized to produce quantities in excess of contractual requirements for direct sale to eligible buyers. Eligible buyers are typically U.S. Government organizations or U.S. Government contractors. [CNSSI] (see also cryptography, requirements, authorized)
authorized vendor program (AVP)
Program in which a vendor, producing an INFOSEC product under contract to NSA, is authorized to produce that product in numbers exceeding the contracted requirements for direct marketing and sale to eligible buyers. Eligible buyers are typically U.S. Government organizations or U.S. Government contractors. Products approved for marketing and sale through the AVP are placed on the Endorsed Cryptographic Products List (ECPL). [CNSSI] Program in which a vendor, producing an information systems security (INFOSEC) product under contract to NSA, is authorized to produce that product in numbers exceeding the contracted requirements for direct marketing and sale to eligible buyers. Eligible buyers are typically U.S. Government organizations or U.S. Government contractors. Products approved for marketing and sale through the AVP are placed on the Endorsed Cryptographic Products List (ECPL). [CNSSI-4009] (see also cryptographic, requirements, security, authorized, program)
authorizing official
A senior (federal) official or executive with the authority to formally assume responsibility for operating an information system at an acceptable level of risk to organizational operations (including mission, functions, image, or reputation), organizational assets, individuals, other organizations, or the nation. [SP 800-53; SP 800-53A; SP 800-37] Official with the authority to formally assume responsibility for operating an information system at an acceptable level of risk to agency operations (including mission, functions, image, or reputation), agency assets, or individuals. [800-60] Official with the authority to formally assume responsibility for operating an information system at an acceptable level of risk to agency operations (including mission, functions, image, or reputation), agency assets, or individuals. Synonymous with Accreditation Authority. [FIPS 200] Senior federal official or executive with the authority to formally assume responsibility for operating an information system at an acceptable level of risk to organizational operations (including mission, functions, image, or reputation), organizational assets, individuals, other organizations, or the nation. [CNSSI-4009] (see also authority, function, information, operation, risk, system)
auto-manual system (AMS)
(see also system)
automated clearing house (ACH)
Computer-based clearing and settlement facility for interchange of electronic debits and credits among financial institutions. [FFIEC] (see also computer)
automated data processing (ADP)
(see automated information system)
automated data processing security
(see Automated Information System security) (see also security)
automated data processing system
An assembly of computer hardware, firmware, and software configured for the purpose of classifying, sorting, calculating, computing, summa, transmitting and receiving, storing, and retrieving data, with a minimum of human intervention. [AJP][TCSEC] (see also computer, software, automated information system, process, system)
automated information system (AIS)
(1) Any equipment or interconnected systems or subsystems of equipment that are used in the automatic acquisition, storage, manipulation, management, movement, control, display, switching, interchange, transmission, or reception of data and include computer firmware, software, and hardware. (2) An assembly of computer hardware, software, and/or Automated Information System (AIS) firmware configured to collect, create, communicate, compute, disseminate, process, store, and/or control data or information. Note: Included are computers, word processing systems, networks or other electronic information handling systems, and associated equipment. [AJP] (I) An organized assembly of resources and procedures-- i.e. computing and communications equipment and services, with their supporting facilities and personnel--that collect, record, process, store, transport, retrieve, or display information to accomplish a specified set of functions. [RFC2828] An assembly of computer hardware, software and/or firmware configured to collect, create, communicate, compute, disseminate, process, store, and/or control data or information. [NCSC/TG004] Any equipment or interconnected systems or subsystems of equipment that is used in the automatic acquisition, storage, manipulation, management, movement, control, display, switching, interchange, transmission or reception of data and includes computer firmware, software, and hardware. Note: Included are computers, word processing systems, networks, or other electronic information handling systems, and associated equipment. [FCv1] Generic term applied to electronic computing systems. Automated Information System comprising computer hardware (that is, automated data processing equipment and associated devices that may include communication equipment), firmware, operating systems, and other applicable software. Automated Information Systems collect, store, process, create, disseminate, communicate, or control data or information. [DSS] The entire infrastructure, organization, personnel, and components for the collection, processing, storage, transmission, display, dissemination, and disposition of information. [IATF] (see also American National Standards Institute, American Standard Code for Information Interchange, Backus-Naur form, PCMCIA, application, application system, computer, control, data synchronization, digital document, direct access storage device, extended industry standard architecture, fiber distributed data interface, frame relay, function, industry standard architecture, input/output, language, laptop computer, large scale integration, legacy data, logged in, nibble, object code, object-oriented programming, operation, personal computer, personal computer memory card international association, personal digital assistant, read-only memory, remote procedure call, resource, reusability, rotational delay, safety-critical software, screen scraping, software, standard generalized markup language, structured query language, system resources, workflow, workload, accountability, accreditation, assurance, audit trail, certification, declassification of AIS storage media, designated approving authority, information, modes of operation, process, security, system) (includes Automated Information System security, CPU time, International organization for standardization, access mode, automated data processing system, bastion host, batch mode, batch processing, big-endian, bit, byte, central processing unit, centralized data processing, client server, computer abuse, data, data administration, data aggregation, data architecture, data contamination, data control language, data definition language, data dictionary, data flow diagram, data input, data management, data manipulation language, data processing, data reengineering, data storage, data structure, data validation, database administration, debugging, direct memory access, distributed dataprocessing, distributed processing, fail soft, front-end processor, host, host based, host to front-end protocol, host-based firewall, information architecture, information center, information engineering, information environment, information flow, information operations, information ratio, information technology, information technology system, interface control unit, lifecycle management, logical system definition, master file, memory scavenging, million instruction per second, multihost based auditing, network, random access memory, remote job entry, remote terminal emulation, screened host firewall, workstation)
automated information system media control system
System of procedures, approved by the Program Security Officer, that provides controls over use, possession, and movement of magnetic media in a Special Access Program Facility. The procedures must ensure that magnetic media (classified and unclassified) are adequately protected to avert any unauthorized use, duplication, or removal of the media. The media must be secured in limited access containers or labeled with the Identity of the individual responsible for maintaining the material. [DSS] (see also access, authorized, classified, identity, security)
Automated Information System security
Measures and controls that protect an AIS against denial of service and unauthorized (accidental or intentional) disclosure, modification, or destruction of AISs and data. AIS security includes consideration of all hardware and/or software functions, characteristics, and/or features; operational procedures, accountability procedures, and access controls at the central computer facility, remote computer, and terminal facilities; management constraints; physical structures and devices; and personnel and communication controls needed to provide an acceptable level of risk for the AIS and for the data and information contained in the AIS. It includes the totality of security safeguards needed to provide an acceptable protection level for an AIS and for data handled by an IT product. [AJP][NCSC/TG004] (see also computer security, access, authorized, computer, control, denial-of-service, function, operation, security software, software, automated information system, information, process, risk management, subcommittee on Automated Information System security, system) (includes IT Security Evaluation Criteria, IT Security Evaluation Methodology, IT security, IT security certification, access control, communications security, emissions security, physical security, security safeguards)
automated key distribution
The distribution of cryptographic keys, usually in encrypted form, using electronic means, such as a computer network (e.g. down-line key loading, the automated key distribution protocols of ANSI X9.17). [FIPS140] The distribution of cryptographic keys, usually in encrypted form, using electronic means, such as a computer network. [SRV] (see also computer, computer network, cryptographic, network, protocols, key management)
automated key management center (AKMC)
(see also key management)
automated key management system (AKMS)
(see also key management, system)
automated key transport
The transport of cryptographic keys, usually in encrypted form, using electronic means such as a computer network (e.g., key transport/agreement protocols). [FIPS 140-2] (see also key)
automated logon sequences
A computer program or script that performs user connection to IT without user intervention after initiation [NASA] (see also computer, connection, program, users, logon)
automated office support systems (AOSS)
(see also system)
automated password generator
An algorithm which creates random passwords that have no association with a particular user. [FIPS 181]
automated security incident measurement (ASIM)
Monitors network traffic and collects information on targeted unit networks by detecting unauthorized network activity. [NSAINT] (see also authorized, information, network, target, incident, security incident, security software)
automated security monitoring
All security features needed to provide an acceptable level of protection for hardware, software, and classified, sensitive, unclassified or critical data, material, or processes in the system. [NSAINT] The use of automated procedures to ensure that security controls are not circumvented. [AJP][NCSC/TG004][SRV] Use of automated procedures to ensure security controls are not circumvented or the use of these tools to track actions taken by subjects suspected of misusing the IS. [CNSSI] Use of automated procedures to ensure security controls are not circumvented or the use of these tools to track actions taken by subjects suspected of misusing the information system. [CNSSI-4009] (see also classified, control, critical, process, software, subject, system, risk management, security software)
automatic declassification
Declassification of information based solely on the occurrence of a specific date or event as determined by the original classification authority, or the expiration of a maximum timeframe for duration of classification established under this order. [DSS]
automatic digital network (AUTODIN)
(see also network)
automatic key distribution center (AKDC)
(see also key)
automatic key distribution/rekeying control unit (AKD/RCU)
(see also control, key, rekey)
automatic log-on
A feature offered by some aggregation services allowing customers to log on by clicking on a hyperlink and thereby causing the usernames and passwords stored at the aggregator to be used to log onto other websites. [FFIEC] (see also users)
automatic remote rekeying (AK)
Procedure to rekey a distant cryptographic equipment electronically without specific actions by the receiving terminal operator. [CNSSI] Procedure to rekey a distant cryptographic equipment electronically without specific actions by the receiving terminal operator. See Manual Remote Rekeying. [CNSSI-4009] (see also key, rekey)
autonomous message switch (AMS)
(see also message)
autonomous system
One or more routers under a single administration operating the same routing policy. [SP 800-54] (see also policy, router, system)
auxiliary power unit (APU)
auxiliary vector (AV)
availability
(1) The ability to access a specific resource within a specific timeframe as defined within the IT product specification. (2) The ability to use or access objects and resources as required. The property relates to the concern that information objects and other system resources are accessible when needed and without undue delay. (3) The prevention of the unauthorized withholding of information resources. [AJP] (I) The property of a system or a system resource being accessible and usable upon demand by an authorized system entity, according to performance specifications for the system; i.e. a system is available if it provides services according to the system design whenever users request them. (O) 'The property of being accessible and usable upon demand by an authorized entity.' [RFC2828] 1) Timely, reliable access to data and information services for authorized users. 2) The ability to have access to MEI Resource Elements when required by the mission and core supporting process(es), both now and in the future. It also concerns the safeguarding of those resources and associated capabilities. [CIAO] 37; FIPS 200; FIPS 199; 44 U.S.C., Sec. 3542 The property of being accessible and useable upon demand by an authorized entity. [CNSSI-4009] Ability to access a specific resource within a specific timeframe as defined within the IT product specification. [FCv1] Assurance that information, services, and IT system resources are accessible to authorized users and/or system-related processes on a timely and reliable basis and are protected from denial of service. [800-37] Assuring information and communications services will be ready for use when expected. [NSAINT][OVT] Computer hardware and software system working efficiently and the system is able to recover quickly and completely if a disaster occurs. The principle that ensures that computer systems and data are working and available to users. Denial of Service is an attack on availability. [AFSEC] Ensuring timely and reliable access to and use of information. [800-60][SP 800-53; SP 800-53A; SP 800-27; SP 800-60; SP 800-] The ability to use or access objects and resources as required. The property relates to the concern that information objects and other system resources are accessible when needed and without undue delay. [JTC1/SC27] The prevention of the unauthorized withholding of information resources. [ITSEC][NIAP] The probability that a given resource will be usable during a given time period. [SRV] The property of being accessible and usable upon demand by an authorized entity. [IATF][SC27] The property that a given resource will be usable during a given time period. [SRV] The security objective that generates the requirement for protection against [800-30] The security objective that generates the requirement for protection against intentional or accidental attempts to (1) perform unauthorized deletion of data or (2) otherwise cause a denial of service or data. [800-33] The state wherein information and systems are in the place needed by the user, at the proper time, and in the form that the user requests [NASA] Timely, reliable access to data and information services for authorized users as defined in Department of Defense Directive 8500.01E. [DSS] Timely, reliable access to data and information services for authorized users. [CNSSI] (see also Common Criteria for Information Technology Security, IT security, IT security controls, IT security incident, National Computer Security Center, access, access control, adequate security, application server attack, assurance, attack, authorized, baseline security, communications, computer, computer abuse, computer emergency response team, computer related controls, computer security, critical, defense-in-depth, defense-wide information assurance program, denial-of-service, entity, entry-level certification, failure, fault tolerant, hardening, high impact, high-impact system, impact, impact level, impact value, incident, information, information assurance, information security, information system and network security, intrusion, level of concern, levels of concern, line managers, low impact, low-impact system, maintainability, malicious code, malware, mid-level certification, minimum essential infrastructure, mirroring, mission assurance category, moderate impact, moderate-impact system, post-accreditation phase, potential impact, process, property, redundant control server, reliability, remediation, requirements for procedures and standards, resource, resource starvation, retro-virus, risk, security category, security controls, security event, security policy, security requirements, security safeguards, security service, simple network management protocol, software, system, tactical edge, token management, top-level certification, trustworthy system, turnaround time, uniform resource name, users, vaulting, vulnerability, risk management, security, security goals) (includes application data backup/recovery, availability of data, availability service, business continuity plan, business impact analysis, contingency planning, continuity of operations, environmentally controlled area, fire barrier, fire suppression system, high availability, object, privacy, authentication, integrity, non-repudiation, recovery, system retention/backup, token backup)
availability of data
The state when data are in the place needed by the user, at the time the user needs them, and in the form needed by the user. [OVT] (see also users, availability)
availability service
(I) A security service that protects a system to ensure its availability. (C) This service addresses the security concerns raised by denial-of-service attacks. It depends on proper management and control of system resources, and thus depends on access control service and other security services. [RFC2828] (see also access, access control, attack, control, denial-of-service, resource, system, availability)
awareness (information security)
Activities which seek to focus an individual's attention on an (information security) issue or set of issues. [SP 800-50] (see also security)
back up vs. backup
(I) Verb 'back up': To store data for the purpose of creating a backup copy. (I) Noun/adjective 'backup': (1.) A reserve copy of data that is stored separately from the original, for use if the original becomes lost or damaged. (2.) Alternate means to permit performance of system functions despite a disaster to system resources. [RFC2828] (see also damage, function, resource, system, backup, contingency plan)
backdoor
(I) A hardware or software mechanism that (a) provides access to a system and its resources by other than the usual procedure, (b) was deliberately left in place by the system's designers or maintainers, and (c) usually is not publicly known. (C) For example, a way to access a computer other than through a normal login. Such access paths do not necessarily have malicious intent; e.g. operating systems sometimes are shipped by the manufacturer with privileged accounts intended for use by field service technicians or the vendor's maintenance programmers. [RFC2828] A hole in the security of a computer system deliberately left in place by designers or maintainers. Synonymous with trap door; A hidden software or hardware mechanism used to circumvent security controls. A breach created intentionally for the purpose of collecting, altering or destroying data. [AFSEC] A hole in the security of a computer system deliberately left in place by designers or maintainers. Synonymous with trap door; a hidden software or hardware mechanism used to circumvent security controls. [NSAINT] A malicious program that listens for commands on a certain Transmission Control Protoco (TCP) or User Datagram Protocol (UDP) port. [800-83] An undocumented way of gaining access to a computer system. A backdoor is a potential security risk. [800-82][SP 800-82] Hidden software or hardware mechanism used to circumvent security controls. Synonymous with trap door. [CNSSI] Synonymous with trapdoor. [SRV] Typically unauthorized hidden software or hardware mechanism used to circumvent security controls. [CNSSI-4009] a hidden means of reentering a computer that a hacker or cracker can use if the original entry point has been detected. [FJC] (see also trapdoor, access, access control, computer, control, login, malicious, privileged, program, protocols, resource, risk, security, software, system, users, malicious code)
background investigation
Personnel security investigation consisting of both record reviews and interviews with sources of information covering the most recent 5 years of an individual's life or since the 18th birthday, whichever is shorter, provided that at least 2 years are covered and that no investigation is conducted before an individual's 16th birthday. [DSS] (see also security)
backhaul
Typically a high capacity line from a remote site or network to a central site or network. [800-127]
backtracking resistance
Backtracking resistance is provided relative to time T if there is assurance that an adversary who has knowledge of the internal state of the Deterministic Random Bit Generator (DRBG) at some time subsequent to time T would be unable to distinguish between observations of ideal random bitstrings and (previously unseen) bitstrings that were output by the DRBG prior to time T. The complementary assurance is called Prediction Resistance. [SP 800-90A] (see also assurance)
backup
A copy of files and programs made to facilitate recovery, if necessary. [SP 800-34; CNSSI-4009] Copy of files and applications made to avoid loss of data and facilitate recovery in the event of a system crash. [CIAO] Copy of files and programs made to facilitate recovery, if necessary. [CNSSI] The process of placing at least one copy of a key in a safe facility or facilities so that the key can be quickly retrieved if the original key is lost or modified. [800-130] (see also X.509 certificate revocation list, application, archive, archiving, attribute certificate, authentication, authenticator, certificate renewal, certification, certification authority, certify, contingency plan, contingency planning, cryptographic key management system, digital certificate, digital signature, fallback procedures, file, key, key recovery, logic bombs, mirroring, national telecommunications and information system security directives, operations manager, process, program, public-key infrastructure, redundancy, redundant control server, registration, remediation, retrieval, retro-virus, security event, system, system administrator, time-stamp token, token management, valid certificate, validate vs. verify, validity period, vaulting, recovery) (includes application data backup/recovery, back up vs. backup, backup generations, backup operations, backup plan, backup procedures, binding of functionality, binding of security functionality, card backup, dynamic binding, static binding, system retention/backup, token backup)
backup generations
A methodology for creating and storing backup files whereby the youngest (or most recent file) is referred to as the 'son,' the prior file is called the 'father,' and the file two generations older is the 'grandfather.' This backup methodology is frequently used to refer to master files for financial applications. [FFIEC] (see also application, file, backup, contingency plan)
backup operations
Methods for accomplishing essential business tasks subsequent to disruption of a computer facility and for continuing operations until the facility is sufficiently restored. [SRV] (see also business process, computer, backup, contingency plan, operation)
backup plan
Synonymous with contingency plan. [SRV] (see also backup, contingency plan)
backup procedures
The provisions made for the recovery of data files and program libraries and for restart or replacement of computer equipment after the occurrence of a system failure or a disaster. [SRV] (see also computer, failure, file, program, system, backup, recovery)
Backus-Naur form
(also Backus normal form), a metalanguage used to formally describe the syntax of another language. A metalanguage used to formally describe the syntax of a language. [OVT] (see also automated information system)
baggage
(D) ISDs SHOULD NOT use this term to describe a data element except when stated as 'SET(trademark) baggage' with the following meaning: (O) SET usage: An 'opaque encrypted tuple, that is included in a SET message but appended as external data to the PKCS encapsulated data. This avoids superencryption of the previously encrypted tuple, but guarantees linkage with the PKCS portion of the message.' [RFC2828] (see also encryption, message, Secure Electronic Transaction)
balanced magnetic switch
Type of intrusion detection system sensor that may be installed on any rigid, operable opening (that is, doors, windows) through which access may be gained to Special Access Program Facility. [DSS] (see also access, intrusion)
bandwidth
(1) A characteristic of a communication channel that is the amount of information that can be passed through it in a given amount of time, usually expressed in bits per second. (2) Rate at which information is transmitted through a channel. Note: Bandwidth was originally a term used in analog communication, measured in hertz, and related to the information rate by the 'sampling theorem' (generally attributed to H. Nyquist, although the theorem was in fact known before Nyquist used it in communication theory). Nyquist's sampling theorem says that the information rate in bits (samples) per second is at most twice the bandwidth in hertz of an analog signal created from a square wave. In a covert-channel context, 'bandwidth' is given in bits per second rather than hertz and is commonly used, in a nonstandard use of terminology, as a synonym for information rate. [AJP] (I) Commonly used to mean the capacity of a communication channel to pass data through the channel in a given amount of time. Usually expressed in bits per second. [RFC2828] A characteristic of a communication channel that is the amount of information that can be passed through it in a given amount of time, usually expressed in bits per second. [TCSEC] In communications, the difference between the highest and lowest frequencies in a given range. In computer networks, greater bandwidth indicates faster data-transfer capabilities (i.e. the rate at which information can be transmitted in bits/second.) [SRV] Rate at which information is transmitted through a channel. Note: Bandwidth is originally a term used in analog communication, measured in Hertz, and related to information rate by the 'sampling theorem' (generally attributed to H. Nyquist although the theorem was in fact known before Nyquist used it in communication theory). Nyquist's sampling theorem says that the information rate in bits (samples) per second is at most twice the bandwidth in Hertz of an analog signal created from a square wave. In a covert-channel context 'bandwidth' is given in bits/ second rather than Hertz and is commonly used, in an abuse of terminology, as a synonym for information rate. [FCv1] (see also channel capacity, communications, computer, computer network, covert, network, standard, information)
bank identification number (BIN)
(N) The digits of a credit card number that identify the issuing bank. (O) SET usage: The first six digits of a primary account number. [RFC2828] (see also identify, Secure Electronic Transaction, identification)
banking and finance
A critical infrastructure characterized by entities, such as retail and commercial organizations, investment institutions, exchange boards, trading houses, and reserve systems, and associated operational organizations. Also includes government operations, and support activities, that are involved in all manner of monetary transactions, including its storage for saving purposes, its investment for income purposes, its exchange for payment purposes, and its disbursement in the form of loans and other financial instruments. [CIAO] (see also critical, operation, system, critical infrastructures)
banner
Display on an IS that sets parameters for system or data use. [CNSSI] Display on an information system that sets parameters for system or data use. [CNSSI-4009] (see also system)
banner grabbing
The process of capturing banner information such as application type and version.that is transmitted by a remote port when a connection is initiated. [SP 800-115] The process of capturing banner information, such as application type and version, that is transmitted by a remote port when a connection is initiated. [800-115] (see also application, connection, information, process, version)
bar code
The set of vertical bars of irregular widths representing coded information placed on consumer products and other items (such as identification cards) that may require this type of identification. [GSA] (see also identification, information, code)
barograph
A recording barometer. [SRV]
barometer
An instrument for measuring atmospheric pressure, used in weather forecasting and in determining elevation. It gives notice of fluctuations. It is an indicator of atmospheric pressure. [SRV]
base station
The node that logically connects fixed and mobile subscriber stations to operator networks. The BS governs access to the operator networks and maintains communications with client devices. A BS consists of the infrastructure elements necessary to enable wireless communications, i.e. antennas, transceivers, and other electromagnetic wave transmitting equipment. BSs are typically fixed nodes, but in a tactical environment, they may also be considered mobile. [800-127] (see also access)
baseline
A specification or product that has been formally reviewed and agreed upon, that thereafter serves as the basis for further development, and that can be changed only through formal change control procedures. [IEEE610] A version of software used as a starting point for later versions. [SRV] Hardware, software, databases, and relevant documentation for an information system at a given point in time. [CNSSI-4009] (see also as-is process model, control, interface control document, release, revision, security target, site accreditation, software, software library, software system test and evaluation process, version, security) (includes baseline architecture, baseline controls, baseline management, baselining, security requirements baseline)
baseline architecture
The initial architecture that is or can be used as a starting point for subsequent architectures, or to measure progress. [SRV] (see also baseline)
baseline configuration
A set of specifications for a system, or Configuration Item (CI) within a system, that has been formally reviewed and agreed on at a given point in time, and which can be changed only through change control procedures. The baseline configuration is used as a basis for future builds, releases, and/or changes. [SP 800-128] (see also control)
baseline controls
A minimum set of safeguards established for a system or organization. [SC27] (see also security controls, system, baseline, control)
baseline management
In configuration management, the application of technical and administrative direction to designate the documents and changes to those documents that formally identify and establish baselines at specific times during the lifecycle of a configuration item. [IEEE610] (see also application, identify, baseline, configuration management)
baseline security
The minimum security controls required for safeguarding an IT system based on its identified needs for confidentiality, integrity, and/or availability protection. [SP 800-16] (see also availability, control, security)
baselining
Monitoring resources to determine typical utilization patterns so that significant deviations can be detected. [800-61][SP 800-61] Obtaining data on the current process that provide the metrics against which to compare improvements and to use in benchmarking. [SRV] (see also process, resource, baseline)
basic component
A component that is identifiable at the lowest hierarchical level of a specification produced during design. [AJP][ITSEC] (see also component)
Basic Encoding Rules (BER)
(I) A standard for representing ASN.1 data types as strings of octets. [RFC2828] (see also standard, Abstract Syntax Notation One) (includes Distinguished Encoding Rules)
basic testing
A test methodology that assumes no knowledge of the internal structure and implementation detail of the assessment object. Also known as black box testing. [SP 800-53A]
bastion host
(I) A strongly protected computer that is in a network protected by a firewall (or is part of a firewall) and is the only host (or one of only a few hosts) in the network that can be directly accessed from networks on the other side of the firewall. (C) Filtering routers in a firewall typically restrict traffic from the outside network to reaching just one host, the bastion host, which usually is part of the firewall. Since only this one host can be directly attacked, only this one host needs to be very strongly protected, so security can be maintained more easily and less expensively. However, to allow legitimate internal and external users to access application resources through the firewall, higher layer protocols and services need to be relayed and forwarded by the bastion host. Some services (e.g. DNS and SMTP) have forwarding built in; other services (e.g. TELNET and FTP) require a proxy server on the bastion host. [RFC2828] A host system that is a strong point in the network's security perimeter. Bastion hosts should be configured to be particularly resistant to attack. In a host-based firewall, the bastion host is the platform on which the firewall software is run. Bastion hosts are also referred to as gateway hosts. [SRV] A special-purpose computer on a network specifically designed and configured to withstand attacks. [CNSSI-4009] A system that has been hardened to resist attack, and that is installed on a network in such a way that it is expected to potentially come under attack. Often are components of firewalls. [AFSEC] (see also access, access control, application, attack, computer, gateway, network, protocols, resource, router, software, system, users, automated information system, firewall)
batch mode
Grouping all files related to a specific job and transmitting them as a unit. Also referred to as deferred-time or off-line processing. [SRV] (see also file, process, automated information system)
batch process
A process that leads to the production of finite quantities of material by subjecting quantities of input materials to an ordered set of processing activities over a finite time using one or more pieces of equipment. [800-82] (see also subject, process)
batch processing
Data or transactions are accumulated over a period of time and then processed in a single run. [SRV] (see also automated information system, process)
bebugging
Planting errors in computer programs to ensure that all known errors are detected. It determines whether a set of test cases is adequate. [SRV] (see also error seeding, assurance, computer, program, test)
behavioral outcome
What an individual who has completed the specific training module is expected to be able to accomplish in terms of IT security-related job performance. [SP 800-16] (see also security)
Bell-LaPadula model
(N) A formal, mathematical, state-transition model of security policy for multilevel-secure computer systems. (C) The model separates computer system elements into a set of subjects and a set of objects. To determine whether or not a subject is authorized for a particular access mode on an object, the clearance of the subject is compared to the classification of the object. The model defines the notion of a 'secure state', in which the only permitted access modes of subjects to objects are in accordance with a specified security policy. It is proven that each state transition preserves security by moving from secure state to secure state, thereby proving that the system is secure. (C) In this model, a multilevel-secure system satisfies several rules, including the following: [RFC2828] An information-flow security model couched in terms of subjects and objects and based on the concept that information shall not flow to an object of lesser or noncomparable classification. [SRV] (see Bell-LaPadula security model)
Bell-LaPadula security model
(1) A formal state-transition model of a computer security policy that describes a set of access control rules. In this formal model, the entities in a system are divided into abstract sets of subjects and objects. The notion of a secure state is defined, and it is proven that each state transition preserves security by moving from secure state to secure state, thereby inductively proving that the system is secure. A system state is defined to be 'secure' if the only permitted access modes of subjects to objects are in accordance with a specific security policy. To determine whether a specific access mode is allowed, the clearance of a subject is compared with the classification of the object, and a determination is made as to whether the subject is authorized for the specific access mode. The clearance/classifications scheme is expressed in terms of a lattice. (2) A formal state-transition model of a technical security policy for an AIS that presents: (a) access constraints, (b) allowed state transitions (called 'rules of operation'), and (c) a proof that the allowed state transitions guarantee satisfaction of the constraints. [AJP] A formal state transition model of a computer security policy that describes a set of access control rules. In this formal model, the entities in a system are divided into abstract sets of subjects and objects. The notion of a secure state is defined and it is proven that each state transition preserves security by moving from secure state to secure state; thus, inductively proving that the system is secure. A system state is defined to be 'secure' if the only permitted access modes of subjects to objects are in accordance with a specific security policy. to determine whether or not a specific access mode is allowed, the clearance of a subject is compared to the classification of the object and a determination is made as to whether the subject is authorized for the specific access mode. The clearance/classification scheme is expressed in terms of a lattice. [TCSEC] A formal state transition model of a computer security policy that describes a set of access control rules. In this formal model, the entities in a system are divided into abstract sets of subjects and objects. The notion of a secure state is defined and it is proven that each state transition preserves security by moving from secure state to secure state; thus, inductively proving that the system is secure. A system state is defined to be 'secure' if the only permitted access modes of subjects to objects are in accordance with a specific security policy. to determine whether or not a specific access mode is allowed, the clearance of a subject is compared to the classification of the object and a determination is made as to whether the subject is authorized for the specific access mode. The clearance/classifications scheme is expressed in terms of a lattice. For further information see Bell, D. Elliott and LaPadula, Leonard J., Secure Computer Systems: Unified Exposition and MULTICS Interpretation, MTR 2997, The MITRE Corporation, April 1974. (AD/A 020 445). [TNI] A formal state transition model of a computer security policy that describes a set of access control rules. In this formal model, the entities in a system are divided into abstract sets of subjects and objects. The notion of a secure state is defined, and it is proven that each state transition preserves security by moving from secure state to secure state, thereby inductively proving that the system is secure. A system state is defined to be 'secure' if the only permitted access modes of subjects to objects are in accordance with a specific security policy. to determine whether or not a specific access mode is allowed, the clearance of a subject is compared to the classification of the object, and a determination is made as to whether the subject is authorized for the specific access mode. [NCSC/TG004] Any formal state-transition model of a technical security policy for an AIS that presents (a) Access Constraints (including initial-state constraints and variants or the simple security), (b) allowed state transitions (called 'rules of operation'), and (c) a proof that the allowed state transitions guarantee satisfaction of the constraints. [FCv1] Formal-state transition model of a computer security policy that describes a formal set of access controls based on information sensitivity and subject authorizations. [NSAINT] (see also access, access control, authorization, authorized, classification levels, classified, computer, computer security, confinement property, control, flow, information, operation, policy, process, system, formal security policy model, model, security model) (includes *-property, lattice, lattice model, object, simple security condition, simple security property, subject, tranquility, trusted subject)
benchmark
(1) A test of the performance and capabilities of newly developed software using actual or simulated workloads. (2) A method to improve business processes. A measurement or standard that serves as a point of reference by which process performance is measured. User constructed tests that verify the performance of a proposed computer system by measuring its ability to execute a group of user programs representative of projected workload within certain predetermined user time requirements. [SRV] A standard against which measurements or comparisons can be made. [IEEE610] (see also business process, computer, evaluation, process, program, requirements, software, standard, system, test, users)
benchmarking
A structured approach for identifying the best practices from industry and government, and comparing and adapting them to the organization's operations. Such as approach is aimed at identifying more efficient and effective processes for achieving intended results and at suggesting ambitious goals for productivity, product/service quality, and process improvement. [SRV] (see also identify, operation, process, quality)
benign
Condition of cryptographic data that cannot be compromised by human access. [CNSSI] (see also access, access control, compromise, countermeasures, cryptographic, cryptography)
benign environment
A non-hostile location protected from external hostile elements by physical, personnel, and procedural security countermeasures. [CNSSI-4009] A nonhostile environment that may be protected from external hostile elements by physical, personnel, and procedural security countermeasures. [AFSEC][AJP][NCSC/TG004] Nonhostile environment that may be protected from external hostile elements by physical, personnel, and procedural security countermeasures. [CNSSI] (see also countermeasures, security)
best practices
The processes, practices, and systems identified in public and private organizations that performed exceptionally well and are widely recognized as improving an organization's performance and efficiency in specific areas. Successfully identifying and applying best practices can reduce business expenses and improve organizational efficiency. Best practices can be applied to all functions within an organization. Business practices that have been shown to improve an organization's IT function, as well as other business functions. [SRV] (see also business process, function, identify, process, recommended practices, system, risk management)
beta i
Security certification testing performed in a lab environment or other facility, as appropriate. [DSS] (see also certification, security)
beta ii
Security Certification testing performed at designated operational installations until a stable baseline is achieved (configuration differences or other factors may necessitate multiple Beta II test sites). [DSS] (see also certification, security)
between-the-lines-entry
Access that an unauthorized user gets, typically by tapping the terminal that is inactive at the time, of a legitimate user. [AFSEC] Access, obtained through the use of active wiretapping by an unauthorized user, to a momentarily inactive terminal of a legitimate user assigned to a communications channel. [SRV] Unauthorized access obtained by tapping the temporarily inactive terminal of a legitimate user. [AJP][NCSC/TG004] (see also access, access control, authorized, communications, unauthorized access, users, attack) (includes piggyback)
beyond A1
(O) (1.) Formally, a level of security assurance that is beyond the highest level of criteria specified by the TCSEC. (2.) Informally, a level of trust so high that it cannot be provided or verified by currently available assurance methods, and particularly not by currently available formal methods. [RFC2828] A level of trust defined by the Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria (TCSEC) that is beyond the state-of-the-art technology available at the time the criteria were developed. It includes all the A1-level features plus additional ones not required at the A1 level. [NCSC/TG004] A level of trust defined by the U.S. DoD (Department of Defense) Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria (TCSEC) that is beyond the state-of-the-art technology available at the time the criteria were developed. It includes all the A1-level features plus additional ones not required at the A1 level. [AJP] (see also assurance, computer, criteria, evaluation, security, system, technology, trusted computer system)
bias
The existence of a factor that causes an estimate made on the basis of a sample to differ systematically from the population parameter being estimated. Bias may originate from poor sample design, deficiencies in carrying out the sampling process, or an inherent characteristic of the measuring or estimating technique used. [SRV] (see also process, system)
Biba Integrity model
A formal security model for the integrity of subjects and objects in a system. [NSAINT] (see also Biba model, object, subject, system, formal security policy model, integrity, model)
Biba model
An integrity model in which no subject may depend on a less trusted object, including another subject. [SRV] (see also Biba Integrity model, integrity, object, subject, trust, model)
big-endian
A method of storage of multi-byte numbers with the most significant bytes at the lowest memory addresses. [SC27] A method of storage of multi-byte numbers with the most significant bytes at the lowest memory addresses. [ISO/IEC  10118-1: 2000] [SC27] (see also automated information system)
bilateral trust
when business arrangements are based on formal and informal agreements that involve only two companies and that trust is limited to those companies or a subset of their employees. [misc] (see also business process, public-key infrastructure, trust)
bill payment
An e-banking application whereby customers direct the financial institution to transfer funds to the account of another person or business. Payment is typically made by ACH credit or by the institution (or bill payment servicer) sending a paper check on the customer's behalf. [FFIEC] (see also application, internet)
bill presentment
An e-banking service whereby a business submits an electronic bill or invoice directly to the customer's financial institution. The customer can view the bill/invoice online and, if desired, pay the bill through an electronic payment. [FFIEC] (see also internet)
billets
Determination that in order to meet need-to-know criteria, certain Special Access Programs may elect to limit access to a predetermined number of properly cleared employees. Security personnel do not count against the billet system. [DSS] (see also access, security)
bind
(I) To inseparably associate by applying some mechanism, such as when a CA uses a digital signature to bind together a subject and public key in a public-key certificate. [RFC2828] (see also certificate, digital signature, key, public-key, public-key infrastructure, signature, subject)
binding
A cryptographic operation that links two or more data elements such that the data elements cannot be modified or replaced without being detected. [800-130] An acknowledgement by a trusted third party that associates an entity's identity with its public key. This may take place through (1) a certification authority's generation of a public key certificate, (2) a security officer's verification of an entity's credentials and placement of the entity's public key and identifier in a secure database, or (3) an analogous method. [SP 800-21] An acknowledgment by a trusted third party that associates an entity's identity with its public key. This may take place through: (1) a certification authority's generation of a public key certificate, (2) a security officer's verification of an entity's credentials and placement of the entity's public key and identifier in a secure database, or (3) an analogous method. Denotes the association of a name (such as a variable declaration) with a class. [SRV] An affirmation by a Certificate Authority/Attribute Authority (or its acting Registration Authority) of the relationship between a named entity and its public key or biometric template. [GSA] Process of associating a specific communications terminal with a specific cryptographic key or associating two related elements of information. [CNSSI][CNSSI-4009] Process of associating two related elements of information. [SP 800-32] (see also association, authority, certificate, certification, communications, cryptographic, cryptography, entity, identity, information, key, officer, operation, process, public-key, registration, security, trust, verification)
binding of functionality
An aspect of the assessment of the effectiveness of a Target of Evaluation, namely, the ability of its security enforcing functions and mechanisms to work together in a way that is mutually supportive and provides an integrated and effective whole. [ITSEC] (see also assessment, security, target, backup, function, target of evaluation)
binding of security functionality
The ability of security enforcing functions and mechanisms to work together in a way that is mutually supportive and provides an integrated and effective whole. [AJP][JTC1/SC27] (see also backup, function, security)
biological warfare
Employment of biological agents to produce casualties in personnel or animals, or damage to plants or materiel; or defense against such employment. [DOD] (see also damage, warfare)
biometric authentication
(I) A method of generating authentication information for a person by digitizing measurements of a physical characteristic, such as a fingerprint, a hand shape, a retina pattern, a speech pattern (voiceprint), or handwriting. [RFC2828] (see also 3-factor authentication, information, authentication, biometrics) (includes thumbprint)
biometric information
The stored electronic information pertaining to a biometric. This information can be in terms of raw or compressed pixels or in terms of some characteristic (e.g., patterns). [FIPS 201][GSA] (see also biometrics, information)
biometric measurement
Any unique biological feature of an individual; that is, something he/she has, such as a fingerprint, that can be used for personal authentication of an IT user's claim of identity [NASA] (see also authentication, entity, identity, users, biometrics)
biometric system
An automated system capable of the following: [GSA] An automated system capable of: 1) capturing a biometric sample from an end user; 2) extracting biometric data from that sample; 3) comparing the extracted biometric data with data contained in one or more references; 4) deciding how well they match; and 5) indicating whether or not an identification or verification of identity has been achieved. [FIPS 201] (see also entity, identification, identity, users, verification, biometrics, system)
biometric template
A digital record of an individual's biometric features. Typically, a 'livescan' of an individual's biometric attributes is translated through a specific algorithm into a digital record that can be stored in a database or on an integrated circuit chip. [GAO] (see also algorithm, biometrics)
biometrics
A measurable physical characteristic or personal behavioral trait used to recognize the identity, or verify the claimed identity, of an applicant. Facial images, fingerprints, and iris scan samples are all examples of biometrics. [FIPS 201] A measurable, physical characteristic or personal behavioral trait used to recognize the identity, or verify the claimed identity, of an Applicant. Facial images, fingerprints, and iriscan samples are all examples of biometrics. [GSA] A physical or behavioral characteristic of a human being. [SP 800-32] Automated methods of authenticating or verifying an individual based on a physical or behavioral characteristic. [CNSSI][IATF] Automated recognition of individuals based on their behavioral and biological characteristics. In this document, biometrics may be used to unlock authentication tokens and prevent repudiation of registration. [800-63] Measurable physical characteristics or personal behavioral traits used to identify, or verify the claimed identity, of an individual. Facial images, fingerprints, and handwriting samples are all examples of biometrics. [CNSSI-4009] Measures of an individual's unique physical characteristics or the unique ways that an individual performs an activity. Physical biometrics include fingerprints, hand geometry, facial patterns, and iris and retinal scans. Behavioral biometrics include voice patterns, written signatures, and keyboard typing techniques. [GAO] The method of verifying a person's identify by analyzing a unique physical attribute of the individual (e.g., fingerprint, retinal scanning). [FFIEC] (see also authentication, entity, identify, identity, key, registration, signature, security) (includes biometric authentication, biometric information, biometric measurement, biometric system, biometric template, capture, comparisons, false acceptance rate, match, minutiae)
bit
(I) The smallest unit of information storage; a contraction of the term 'binary digit'; one of two symbols--'0' (zero) and '1' (one)
--that are used to represent binary numbers. [RFC2828] A binary digit having a value of 0 or 1. [FIPS 180-4] A binary digit: 0 or 1. [800-63] A contraction of the term Binary Digit. The smallest unit of information in a binary system of notation. [CNSSI-4009] Short for binary digit - 0 or 1. Keys are strings of bits. [AJP] (see also information, key, automated information system)
bit error rate
Ratio between the number of bits incorrectly received and the total number of bits transmitted in a telecommunications system. [CNSSI][CNSSI-4009] (see also communications, system, telecommunications)
bit forwarding rate
The number of bits per second of allowed traffic a DUT/SUT can be observed to transmit to the correct destination interface(s) in response to a specified offered load. This definition differs substantially from section of RFC 1242 and section 3.6.1 of RFC 2285. Unlike both RFCs 1242 and 2285, this definition introduces the notion of different classes of traffic: allowed, illegal, and rejected. For benchmarking purposes, it is assumed that bit forwarding rate measurements include only allowed traffic. Unlike RFC 1242, there is no reference to lost or retransmitted data. Forwarding rate is assumed to be a goodput measurement, in that only data successfully forwarded to the destination interface is measured. Bit forwarding rate must be measured in relation to the offered load. Bit forwarding rate may be measured with differed load levels, traffic orientation, and traffic distribution. Unlike RFC 2285, this measurement counts bits per second rather than frames per second. Testers interested in frame (or frame-like) measurements should use units of transfer. [RFC2647] (see also allowed traffic, goodput, illegal traffic, interface, rejected traffic, response, test, unit of transfer)
BLACK
(I) Designation for information system equipment or facilities that handle (and for data that contains) only ciphertext (or, depending on the context, only unclassified information), and for such data itself. This term derives from U.S. Government COMSEC terminology. [RFC2828] Designation applied to encrypted information and the information systems, the associated areas, circuits, components, and equipment processing that information. See also RED. [CNSSI-4009] Designation applied to information systems, and to associated areas, circuits, components, and equipment, in which national security information is encrypted or is not processed. [CNSSI] Designation applied to wire lines, components, and equipment. [DSS] (see also RED/BLACK concept, cipher, classified, communications security, cryptography, information, process, security, system)
black-box testing
A method of verifying that software functions perform correctly without examining the internal program logic. [SRV] (see also analysis, function, functional test case design, functional testing, program, software, stress testing, security testing, test)
blacklist
A list of discrete entities, such as hosts or applications, that have been previously determined to be associated with malicious activity. [800-94][SP 800-94] A list of email senders who have previously sent span to a user. [SP 800-114] (see also application, malicious, threat, users)
blacklisting
The process of the system invalidating a user ID based on the user's inappropriate actions. A blacklisted user ID cannot be used to log on to the system, even with the correct authenticator. Blacklisting and lifting of a blacklisting are both security-relevant events. Blacklisting also applies to blocks placed against IP addresses to prevent inappropriate or unauthorized use of Internet resources. [CNSSI-4009] (see also security)
blended attack
A hostile action to spread malicious code via multiple methods. [CNSSI-4009] An instance of malware that uses multiple infection or transmission methods. [800-83] Malicious code that uses multiple methods to spread. [800-61] (see also code, malicious, malware, attack)
blinding
Generating network traffic that is likely to trigger many alerts in a short period of time, to conceal alerts triggered by a 'real' attack performed simultaneously. [800-94][SP 800-94] (see also attack)
block
A bit-string of length L1, i.e. the length of the first input to the round-function. [SC27] A bit-string of length L1, i.e. the length of the first input to the round-function. [ISO/IEC FDIS 9797-2 (09/2000), ISO/IEC CD 10118-3 (11/2001)] A string of bits of length Lf, which shall be an integer multiple of 16. [ISO/IEC 10118-4: 1998] A bit-string of length n. [ISO/IEC 9797-1: 1999] String of bits of defined length. [SC27] A bit-string of length n. [SC27] A string of bits of length Lf, which shall be an integer multiple of 16. [SC27] Sequence of binary bits that comprise the input, output, State, and Round Key. The length of a sequence is the number of bits it contains. Blocks are also interpreted as arrays of bytes. [FIPS 197] String of bits of defined length. [SC27] (see also function)
block chaining
The encipherment of information such that each block of ciphertext is cryptographically dependent upon the preceding ciphertext block. [SC27] The encipherment of information such that each block of ciphertext is cryptographically dependent upon the preceding ciphertext block. [ISO 8372: 1987] The encipherment of information such that each block of ciphertext is cryptographically dependent upon the preceding ciphertext block. [SC27] (see also cipher block chaining, cipher, cryptographic, encipherment, information)
block cipher
(I) An encryption algorithm that breaks plaintext into fixed-size segments and uses the same key to transform each plaintext segment into a fixed-size segment of ciphertext. (C) For example, Blowfish, DEA, IDEA, RC2, and SKIPJACK. However, block cipher can be adapted to have a different external interface, such as that of a stream cipher, by using a mode of operation to 'package' the basic algorithm. [RFC2828] A symmetric key cryptographic algorithm that transforms a block of information at a time using a cryptographic key. For a block cipher algorithm, the length of the input block is the same as the length of the output block. [SP 800-90] Symmetric encryption algorithm with the property that the encryption process operates on a block of plaintext, i.e. a string of bits of a specified length, to yield a ciphertext block. [SC27] (see also algorithm, encryption, interface, key, operation, process, property, cipher)
block cipher algorithm
A family of functions and their inverses that is parameterized by a cryptographic key; the function maps bit strings of a fixed length to bit strings of the same length. [SP 800-67]
block cipher key
A key that controls the operation of a block cipher. [SC27] (see also control, operation, cipher, key)
Blowfish
(N) A symmetric block cipher with variable-length key (32 to 448 bits) designed in 1993 by Bruce Schneier as an unpatented, license-free, royalty-free replacement for DES or IDEA. [RFC2828] (see also cipher, key, symmetric cryptography)
blue box devices
Created by crackers and phone hackers ('phreakers') to break into the telephone system to make calls that bypass billing procedures. [AFSEC] (see also system, threat)
blue team
1. The group responsible for defending an enterprise's use of information systems by maintaining its security posture against a group of mock attackers (i.e. the Red Team). Typically the Blue Team and its supporters must defend against real or simulated attacks 1) over a significant period of time, 2) in a representative operational context (e.g., as part of an operational exercise), and 3) according to rules established and monitored with the help of a neutral group refereeing the simulation or exercise (i.e. the White Team). 2. The term Blue Team is also used for defining a group of individuals that conduct operational network vulnerability evaluations and provide mitigation techniques to customers who have a need for an independent technical review of their network security posture. The Blue Team identifies security threats and risks in the operating environment, and in cooperation with the customer, analyzes the network environment and its current state of security readiness. Based on the Blue Team findings and expertise, they provide recommendations that integrate into an overall community security solution to increase the customer's cyber security readiness posture. Often times a Blue Team is employed by itself or prior to a Red Team employment to ensure that the customer's networks are as secure as possible before having the Red Team test the systems. [CNSSI-4009] A test team that performs security testing with the knowledge and consent of the organization's IT staff. [800-115] (see also attack, cyberspace, evaluation, risk, security, security testing, test, threat, vulnerability)
body of evidence
The set of data that documents the information system's adherence to the security controls applied. The BoE will include a Requirements Verification Traceability Matrix (RVTM) delineating where the selected security controls are met and evidence to that fact can be found. The BoE content required by an Authorizing Official will be adjusted according to the impact levels selected. [CNSSI-4009] (see also control, requirements, security)
bomb
A general synonym for crash, normally of software or operating system failures. [AFSEC][NSAINT] (see also failure, software, system, threat)
boot sector virus
A virus that infects the master boot record (MBR) of a hard drive or the boot sector of removable media, such as floppy diskettes. [800-83] A virus that plants itself in a system's boot sector and infects the master boot record. [800-61] (see also system, virus)
bot-network operators
Bot-network operators use a network, or bot-net, of compromised, remotely controlled systems to coordinate attacks and to distribute phishing schemes, spam, and malware attacks. The services of these networks are sometimes made available on underground markets (e.g., purchasing a denial-of-service attack or servers to relay spam or phishing attacks). [GAO] (see also attack, control, denial-of-service, system, network, threat)
bounce
An electronic mail message that is undeliverable and returns an error to the sender. [AFSEC] (see also email, message)
bound metadata
Metadata associated with a key and protected by the CKMS against unauthorized modification and disclosure. [800-130] (see also authorized, key, metadata)
boundary
Physical or logical perimeter of a system. [CNSSI-4009] Software, hardware, or physical barrier that limits access to a system or part of a system. [CNSSI] That area of an automated information system or network including users directly or indirectly connected and receiving data from the system without a reliable human review by an appropriately cleared authority. [DSS] (see also access, access control, cryptographic module, evaluation assurance level, external security controls, firewall, interface, remote access, security perimeter, software, system, users) (includes COMSEC boundary, accreditation boundary, boundary host, boundary value, boundary value analysis, boundary value coverage, boundary value testing, cryptographic boundary, enclave boundary, specialized boundary host, system boundary)
boundary host
A system that connects two networks and controls the flow of information passing between them [NASA] (see also access control, control, flow, information, system, boundary)
boundary protection
Monitoring and control of communications at the external boundary of an information system to prevent and detect malicious and other unauthorized communication, through the use of boundary protection devices (e.g., proxies, gateways, routers, firewalls, guards, encrypted tunnels). [SP 800-53; CNSSI-4009] (see also control)
boundary protection device
A device with appropriate mechanisms that facilitates the adjudication of different security policies for interconnected systems. [CNSSI-4009] A device with appropriate mechanisms that: (i) facilitates the adjudication of different interconnected system security policies (e.g., controlling the flow of information into or out of an interconnected system); and/or (ii) provides information system boundary protection. [SP 800-53] (see also control, security)
boundary value
A data value that corresponds to a minimum or maximum input, internal, or output value specified for a system or component. An input value or output value that is on the boundary between equivalence classes, or an incremental distance either side of the boundary. [OVT] (see also stress testing, system, boundary) (includes boundary value analysis, boundary value coverage, boundary value testing)
boundary value analysis
(NBS) A selection technique in which test data are chosen to lie along 'boundaries' of the input domain [or output range] classes, data structures, procedure parameters, etc. Choices often include maximum, minimum, and trivial values or parameters. This technique is often called stress testing. A test case design technique for a component in which test cases are designed which include representatives of boundary values. [OVT] (see also domain, security testing, test, analysis, boundary, boundary value)
boundary value coverage
The percentage of boundary values of the component's equivalence classes which have been exercised by a test case suite. [OVT] (see also test, boundary, boundary value)
boundary value testing
A testing technique using input values at, just below, and just above, the defined limits of an input domain; and with input values causing outputs to be at, just below, and just above, the defined limits of an output domain. [OVT] (see also domain, boundary, boundary value, security testing, test)
branch coverage
Metric of the number of branches executed under test; '100% branch coverage' means that every branch in a program has been executed at least once under some test (also link coverage). [OVT] (see also program, test)
brand
(I) A distinctive mark or name that identifies a product or business entity. (O) SET usage: The name of a payment card. Financial institutions and other companies have founded payment card brands, protect and advertise the brands, establish and enforce rules for use and acceptance of their payment cards, and provide networks to interconnect the financial institutions. These brands combine the roles of issuer and acquirer in interactions with cardholders and merchants. [RFC2828] (see also entity, network, role, Secure Electronic Transaction)
brand certification authority (BCA)
(O) SET usage: A CA owned by a payment card brand, such as MasterCard, Visa, or American Express. [RFC2828] (see also Secure Electronic Transaction, authority, certification, public-key infrastructure)
brand CRL identifier (BCI)
(O) SET usage: A digitally signed list, issued by a BCA, of the names of CAs for which CRLs need to be processed when verifying signatures in SET messages. [RFC2828] (see also digital signature, message, process, signature, Secure Electronic Transaction, public-key infrastructure)
breach
The successful defeat of security controls which could result in a penetration of the system. A violation of controls of a particular information system such that information assets or system components are unduly exposed. [AFSEC][NSAINT][OVT] (see also access control, control, information, penetration, security, system, threat)
break
(I) Cryptographic usage: To successfully perform cryptanalysis and thus succeed in decrypting data or performing some other cryptographic function, without initially having knowledge of the key that the function requires. (This term applies to encrypted data or, more generally, to a cryptographic algorithm or cryptographic system.)$ bridge (I) A computer that is a gateway between two networks (usually two LANs) at OSI layer 2. [RFC2828] (see also algorithm, analysis, computer, cryptographic, cryptography, encryption, function, gateway, key, network, system)
break-wire detector
An intrusion detection system sensor used with screens and grids, open wiring, and grooved stripping in various arrays and configurations necessary to detect surreptitious and forcible penetrations of movable openings, floors, walls, ceilings, and skylights. An alarm is activated when the wire is broken. [DSS] (see also intrusion)
brevity list
List containing words and phrases used to shorten messages. [CNSSI] (see also message)
bridge
A device that connects similar or dissimilar LANs together to form an extended LAN. [SRV] A device that connects two networks or network segments; similar to a router but protocol-independent [CIAO] (see also protocols, router)
British Standard 7799 (BS7799)
(N) Part 1 is a standard code of practice and provides guidance on how to secure an information system. Part 2 specifies the management framework, objectives, and control requirements for information security management systems. The certification scheme works like ISO 9000. It is in use in the UK, the Netherlands, Australia, and New Zealand and might be proposed as an ISO standard or adapted to be part of the Common Criteria. [RFC2828] (see also certification, code, control, criteria, information, information security, object, requirements, security, system, standard)
broadband network
A type of local area network on which transmissions travel as radio-frequency signals over separate inbound and outbound channels. Stations on a broadband network are connected by coaxial or fiber-optic cable. The cable itself can be made to carry data, voice, and video simultaneously over multiple transmission channels. This complex transmission is accomplished by the technique called frequency-division multiplexing, in which individual channels are separated by frequency and buffered from one another by guard bands of frequencies that are not used for transmission. A broadband network is capable of high-speed operation, but it is more expensive than a baseband network and can be difficult to install. Such a network is based on the same technology as is used by cable television. Broadband transmission is sometimes called wideband transmission. [SRV] (see also operation, technology, network)
broadcast
Transmission to all devices in a network without any acknowledgment by the receivers. [800-82]
brouters
Brouters are routers that can also bridge; they route one or more protocols and bridge all other network traffic. [SRV] (see also network, protocols, router)
browse access protection
A system software security feature that when invoked by a file owner, prevents read access to a specified file by any user other than the file owner and any users authorized by explicit action of the file owner. This feature can also be invoked as a global system parameter to provide read access protection automatically to all files by any user other than the file owner and to any users authorized by explicit action of the file owner. [NASA] (see also authorized, file, owner, security, software, system, users, access)
browser
(I) An client computer program that can retrieve and display information from servers on the World Wide Web. (C) For example, Netscape's Navigator and Communicator, and Microsoft's Explorer. [RFC2828] A client program used to interact on the WWW. [SRV] (see also computer, information, program, world wide web)
browsing
Act of searching through IS storage to locate or acquire information, without necessarily knowing the existence or format of information being sought. [CNSSI] Act of searching through information system storage or active content to locate or acquire information, without necessarily knowing the existence or format of information being sought. [CNSSI-4009] The act of searching through storage to locate or acquire information without necessarily knowing the existence or the format of the information being sought. [AJP][NCSC/TG004][SRV] (see also information, attack)
brute force
(I) A cryptanalysis technique or other kind of attack method involving an exhaustive procedure that tries all possibilities, one-by-one. (C) For example, for ciphertext where the analyst already knows the decryption algorithm, a brute force technique to finding the original plaintext is to decrypt the message with every possible key. [RFC2828] A primitive programming style (ignorance), one in which the programmer relies on the computer's processing power instead of using his or her own intelligence to simplify the problem, often ignoring problems of scale and applying naive methods suited to small problems directly to large ones. [AFSEC] (see brute force attack) (see also attack)
brute force attack
(I) A cryptanalysis technique or other kind of attack method involving an exhaustive procedure that tries all possibilities, one-by-one. (C) For example, for ciphertext where the analyst already knows the decryption algorithm, a brute force technique to finding the original plaintext is to decrypt the message with every possible key. [OVT] (see also algorithm, analysis, cipher, computer, cryptography, intelligence, key, message, process, program, attack)
brute force password attack
A method of accessing an obstructed device through attempting multiple combinations of numeric and/or alphanumeric passwords. [SP 800-72] (see also access, attack)
buffer overflow
A condition at an interface under which more input can be placed into a buffer or data holding area than the capacity allocated, overwriting other information. Adversaries exploit such a condition to crash a system or to insert specially crafted code that allows them to gain control of the system. [800-82] A condition at an interface under which more input can be placed into a buffer or data holding area than the capacity allocated, overwriting other information. Attackers exploit such a condition to crash a system or to insert specially crafted code that allows them to gain control of the system. [SP 800-28; CNSSI-4009] This happens when more data is put into a buffer or holding area than the buffer can handle. This is due to a mismatch in processing rates between the producing and consuming processes. This can result in system crashes or the creation of a back door leading to system access. [NSAINT] This happens when more data is put into a buffer or holding area, then the buffer can handle. This is due to a mismatch in processing rates between the producing and consuming processes. [AFSEC] This happens when more data is put into a buffer or holding area, then the buffer can handle. This is due to a mismatch in processing rates between the producing and consuming processes. This can result in system crashes or the creation of a back door leading to system access. [OVT] a technique for crashing or gaining control of a computer by sending too much data to the buffer in a computer's memory. [FJC] (see also access, access control, attack, code, computer, control, information, interface, process, system, flow, threat)
buffer overflow attack
A method of overloading a predefined amount of space in a buffer, which can potentially overwrite and corrupt data in memory. [SP 800-72] (see also attack)
bug
A fault in a program which causes the program to perform in an unintended or unanticipated manner. [OVT] An unwanted and unintended property of a program or piece of hardware, especially one that causes it to malfunction. [NSAINT] An unwanted or unintended property of a program or piece of hardware that causes it to malfunction. [AFSEC] (see also anomaly, defect, error, exception, fault, function, program, property, threat)
bulk encryption
Simultaneous encryption of all channels of a multichannel telecommunications link. [CNSSI][CNSSI-4009] (see also communications, telecommunications, encryption)
bulletin board services (systems) (BBS)
(see also system)
burn bag
Informal name given to a container (usually a paper bag or some other waste receptacle) holding sensitive or classified documents that are to be destroyed by fire or pulping after a length of time. The most common use of burn bags is by Government institutions, destroying of materials deemed classified. [DSS] (see also classified)
burn-in
Tendency for an image that is shown on a display over a long period of time to become permanently fixed on the display. This is most often seen in emissive displays such as Cathode Ray Tube and Plasma because chemical change in the phosphors can occur when exposed repeatedly to the same electrical signals. [DSS]
business areas
'Business areas' separate government operations into high-level categories relating to the purpose of government, the mechanisms the government uses to achieve its purposes, the support functions necessary to conduct government operations, and resource management functions that support all areas of the government's business. 'Business areas' are subdivided into 'areas of operation' or 'lines of business.' The recommended information types provided in NIST SP 800-60 is established from the 'business areas' and 'lines of business' from OMB's Business Reference Model (BRM) section of Federal Enterprise Architecture (FEA) Consolidated Reference Model Document Version 2.2 [800-60] (see also function, information, operation, resource, version)
business case
A structured proposal for business improvement that functions as a decision package for organizational decision makers. A business case includes an analysis of business process performance and associated needs or problems, proposed alternative solutions, assumptions, constraints, and risk-adjusted cost/benefit analysis. [SRV] (see also analysis, function, process, risk, business process)
business continuity
The ability of an organization to continue to function before, during, and after a disaster. [NIPP]
business continuity plan (BCP)
A comprehensive written plan to maintain or resume business in the event of a disruption. [FFIEC] The documentation of a predetermined set of instructions or procedures that describe how an organization's business functions will be sustained during and after a significant disruption. [CNSSI-4009] The documentation of a predetermined set of instructions or procedures that describe how an organization's mission/business functions will be sustained during and after a significant disruption. [SP 800-34] (see also risk, availability, business process)
business disruption and system failures
disruption of business or system failures. [2003-53c] (see also operational risk loss, system)
business impact analysis (BIA)
An analysis of an enterprise's requirements, processes, and interdependencies used to characterize information system contingency requirements and priorities in the event of a significant disruption. [CNSSI-4009] An analysis of an information system's requirements, functions, and interdependencies used to characterize system contingency requirements and priorities in the event of a significant disruption. [SP 800-34] The process of identifying the potential impact of uncontrolled, non-specific events on an institution's business processes. [FFIEC] (see also control, identify, process, requirements, analysis, availability, business process, risk analysis)
business process
Collection of related, structured activities or tasks that produce a specific service or product. [misc] (see also as-is process model, backup operations, benchmark, best practices, bilateral trust, change management, contingency plan, continuity of services and operations, core or key process, hardening, integrity, legacy systems, mission critical system, process management approach, recovery site, remediation, simulation modeling, to-be-process model, total quality management, workload, world class organizations, process) (includes activity-based costing, business case, business continuity plan, business impact analysis, business process improvement, business process reengineering, constructive cost model, cost reimbursement contract, cost-risk analysis, cost/benefit, cost/benefit analysis, rolling cost forecasting technique)
business process improvement (BPI)
A methodology used for making continuous, incremental improvements in existing business processes. [SRV] (see also business process, process, quality)
business process reengineering (BPR)
A systematic, disciplined improvement approach that critically examines, rethinks, and redesigns mission-delivery processes in order to achieve dramatic improvements in performance in areas important to customers and stakeholders. A methodology used for seeking radical changes to business processes. [SRV] (see also critical, quality, system, business process, process)
BUSTER
A computer program-part of the Computer Security Toolbox. Buster is an Microsoft-Disk Operating System (MS-DOS)-based program used for performing a binary search of a disk or diskette for any word or set of words found in a search definition file by performing a linear search on a disk or diskette, four sectors at a time. Buster uses the 'limits.txt' file as its documents for search word patterns. [DSS] (see also security)
bypass label processing (BLP)
(see also process)
byte
(I) A fundamental unit of computer storage; the smallest addressable unit in a computer's architecture. Usually holds one character of information and, today, usually means eight bits. (C) Larger than a 'bit', but smaller than a 'word'. Although 'byte' almost always means 'octet' today, bytes had other sizes (e.g. six bits, nine bits) in earlier computer architectures. [RFC2828] (see also computer, information, automated information system)
C2-attack
Prevent effective C2 of adversary forces by denying information to, influencing, degrading or destroying the adversary C2 system. [NSAINT] (see also C2-protect, adversary, information, system, attack)
C2-protect
Maintain effective command and control of own forces by turning to friendly advantage or negating adversary effort to deny information to, influence, degrade, or destroy the friendly C2 system. (Pending approval in JP 1-02) [NSAINT] (see also C2-attack, adversary, command and control, control, information, system, Orange book, security)
CA certificate
(I) 'A certificate for one CA issued by another CA.' (C) That is, a digital certificate whose holder is able to issue digital certificates. A v3 X.509 public-key certificate may have a 'basicConstraints' extension containing a 'cA' value that specifically 'indicates whether or not the public key may be used to verify certificate signatures.' [RFC2828] (see also X.509, digital signature, key, public-key, signature, certificate)
call back
(I) An authentication technique for terminals that remotely access computer via telephone lines. The host system disconnects the caller and then calls back on a telephone number that was previously authorized for that terminal. [RFC2828] A procedure established for positively identifying a terminal dialing into a computer system by disconnecting the calling terminal and reestablishing the connection by the computer system's dialing the telephone number of the calling terminal. Synonymous with dial-back. [SRV] A procedure for identifying a remote terminal. In a call back, the host system disconnects the caller and then dials the authorized telephone number of the remote terminal to reestablish the connection. [AJP][NCSC/TG004] Procedure for identifying and authenticating a remote IS terminal, whereby the host system disconnects the terminal and reestablishes contact. Synonymous with dial back. [CNSSI] Procedure for identifying and authenticating a remote information system terminal, whereby the host system disconnects the terminal and reestablishes contact. [CNSSI-4009] (see also access, access control, authentication, authorized, computer, connection, identify, system, security)
call back security
Procedure for identifying a remote AIS terminal, whereby the host system disconnects the caller and then dials the authorized telephone number of the remote terminal to re-establish the connection. [AFSEC] (see also authorized, connection, identify, system, security)
camouflage
Use of natural or artificial material on personnel, objects, or positions (for example, tactical) to confuse, mislead, or evade the enemy/adversary. [DSS] (see also adversary, case officer, object)
Canadian Trusted Computer Product Evaluation Criteria (CTCPEC)
Canadian secure products criteria. [AJP] (see also Common Criteria for Information Technology Security Evaluation, computer, criteria, trust)
candidate TCB subset
The identification of the hardware, firmware, and software that make up the proposed TCB subset, along with the identification of its subjects and objects; one of the conditions for evaluation by parts. [AJP][TDI] (see also evaluation, identification, software, trusted computing base) (includes object, subject)
canister
Type of protective package used to contain and dispense keying material in punched or printed tape form. [CNSSI][CNSSI-4009] (see also key)
capability
(I) A token, usually an unforgeable data value (sometimes called a 'ticket') that gives the bearer or holder the right to access a system resource. Possession of the token is accepted by a system as proof that the holder has been authorized to access the resource named or indicated by the token. (C) This concept can be implemented as a digital certificate. [RFC2828] A protected identifier that both identifies the object and specifies the access rights to be allowed to the accessor who possesses the capability. In a capability-based system, access to protected objects such as files is granted if the would-be accessor possesses a capability for the object. [AJP][NCSC/TG004] The ability of a suitably organized, trained, and equipped entity to access, penetrate, or alter government or privately owned information or communications systems and/or to disrupt, deny, or destroy all or part of a critical infrastructure. [CIAO] (see also access, access control, authorized, certificate, communications, critical, critical infrastructures, entity, file, information, public-key infrastructure, resource, risk, system, tokens) (includes object)
capacity
Positive integer indicating the number of bits available within the signature for the recoverable part of the message. [SC27] (see also message, signature)
CAPSTONE chip
(N) An integrated circuit (the Mykotronx, Inc. MYK-82) with a Type II cryptographic processor that implements SKIPJACK, KEA, DSA, SHA, and basic mathematical functions to support asymmetric cryptography, and includes the key escrow feature of the CLIPPER chip. [RFC2828] (see also Fortezza, cryptographic, cryptography, escrow, function, key, process, National Security Agency)
Capstone policies
Those policies that are developed by governing or coordinating institutions of Health Information Exchanges (HIEs). They provide overall requirements and guidance for protecting health information within those HIEs. Capstone Policies must address the requirements imposed by: (1) all laws, regulations, and guidelines at the federal, state, and local levels; (2) business needs; and (3) policies at the institutional and HIE levels. [NISTIR-7497] (see also requirements)
capture
The method of taking a biometric sample from an end user. [FIPS 201][GSA] (see also users, biometrics)
card backup
(see token backup) (see also backup)
card initialization
Refers to the process of preparing a card for use by performing the following tasks: searching for initialization files, locating definite values to use in place of variable values, and loading these values. [GSA] (see also file, process, tokens)
card personalization
Refers to the modification of a card such that it contains data specific to the cardholder. Methods of personalization may include encoding the magnetic stripe or bar code, loading data on the ICC, or printing photo or signature data on the card. [GSA] (see also code, signature, tokens)
cardholder
(I) An entity that has been issued a card. (O) SET usage: 'The holder of a valid payment card account and user of software supporting electronic commerce.' A cardholder is issued a payment card by an issuer. SET ensures that in the cardholder's interactions with merchants, the payment card account information remains confidential. [RFC2828] An individual possessing an issued PIV Card. [GSA] An individual possessing an issued Personal Identity Verification (PIV) card. [FIPS 201] (see also entity, identity, information, software, users, Secure Electronic Transaction)
cardholder certificate
(O) SET usage: A digital certificate that is issued to a cardholder upon approval of the cardholder's issuing financial institution and that is transmitted to merchants with purchase requests and encrypted payment instructions, carrying assurance that the account number has been validated by the issuing financial institution and cannot be altered by a third party. [RFC2828] (see also assurance, encryption, tokens, validate, Secure Electronic Transaction, certificate)
cardholder certification authority (CCA)
(O) SET usage: A CA responsible for issuing digital certificates to cardholders and operated on behalf of a payment card brand, an issuer, or another party according to brand rules. A CCA maintains relationships with card issuers to allow for the verification of cardholder accounts. A CCA does not issue a CRL but does distribute CRLs issued by root CAs, brand CAs, geopolitical CAs, and payment gateway CAs. [RFC2828] (see also certificate, gateway, tokens, verification, Secure Electronic Transaction, authority, certification, public-key infrastructure)
carve-out
Classified contract in which a Government activity retains specific oversight responsibilities authorized to administer the Special Access Program. [DSS] (see also access, authorized, classified)
cascading
Downward flow of information through a range of security levels greater than the accreditation range of a system network or component. [CNSSI] Downward flow of information through a range of security levels greater than the accreditation range of a system, network, or component. [CNSSI-4009] (see also accreditation, flow, information, network, security, system)
case officer
Professional employee of an intelligence organization responsible for providing direction for an agent operation. [DSS] (see also camouflage, deception, intelligence)
CASE tools
A class of software tools that provide plans, models, and designs. CASE tools enforce consistency across multiple diagrams and store information, built up by analysts and designers, in a central repository. Software tools that assist with software design, requirements traceability, code generation, testing and other software engineering activities. A software program that provides partial or total automation of a single function within the software lifecycle. [SRV] (see also code, function, information, model, program, requirements, security testing, software, test)
case-by-case basis
Principle that a disclosure authorization is restricted to individual events or occasions and that will prevent confusion with permanent and repetitive disclosure determinations. [DSS] (see also authorization)
CAST
(N) A design procedure for symmetric encryption algorithms, and a resulting family of algorithms, invented by C.A. (Carlisle Adams) and S.T. (Stafford Tavares). [RFC2828] (see also algorithm, encryption, symmetric cryptography)
category
(1) A grouping of objects to which a non-hierarchical restrictive label is applied (e.g. proprietary, compartmented information). Subjects must be privileged to access a category. (2) Restrictive label that has been applied to both classified and unclassified data, thereby increasing the requirement for protection of, and restricting the access to, the data. Note: Examples include sensitive compartmented information and proprietary information. Individuals are granted access to a special category of information only after being granted formal access authorization. [AJP] (I) A grouping of sensitive information items to which a non-hierarchical restrictive security label is applied to increase protection of the data. [RFC2828] A grouping of objects to which an non-hierarchical restrictive label is applied (e.g. proprietary, compartmented information). Subjects must be privileged to access a category. [TNI] A restrictive label that has been applied to classified or unclassified data as a means of increasing the protection of the data and further restricting access to the data. [NCSC/TG004] Restrictive label applied to classified or unclassified information to limit access. [CNSSI][CNSSI-4009] Restrictive label that has been applied to both classified and unclassified data, thereby increasing the requirement for protection of, and restricting the access to, the data. Note: Examples include sensitive compartmented information and proprietary information. Individuals are granted access to special category information only after being granted formal access authorization. [FCv1] (see also access, access control, authorization, classified, information, privileged, security, subject) (includes object)
cause and effect diagram
(see fishbone diagram)
caveat
Designator used with or without a security classification to further limit dissemination of restricted information, for example, For Official Use Only and Not Releasable to Foreign Nationals. [DSS] (see also foreign, security)
CCI assembly
Device embodying a cryptographic logic or other COMSEC design that NSA has approved as a Controlled Cryptographic Item (CCI). It performs the entire COMSEC function, but depends upon the host equipment to operate. [CNSSI] (see also communications security, control, cryptographic, cryptography, function)
CCI component
Part of a Controlled Cryptographic Item (CCI) that does not perform the entire COMSEC function but depends upon the host equipment, or assembly, to complete and operate the COMSEC function. [CNSSI] (see also communications security, control, cryptographic, cryptography, function)
CCI equipment
Telecommunications or information handling equipment that embodies a Controlled Cryptographic Item (CCI) component or CCI assembly and performs the entire COMSEC function without dependence on host equipment to operate. [CNSSI] (see also communications, communications security, control, cryptographic, cryptography, function, information, telecommunications)
CCITT
(N) Acronym for French translation of International Telephone and Telegraph Consultative Committee. Now renamed ITU-T. [RFC2828] (see also ITU-T)
cell
In cellular systems, the smallest geographic area defined for mobile communications systems. [SRV] (see also communications, system)
cellular telephone
A wireless telephone that communicates using radio wave antenna towers, each serving a particular 'cell' of a city or other geographical area. Areas where cellular phones do not work are referred to as 'dead zones.' [FFIEC]
cellular transmission
Data transmission via interchangeable wireless (radio) communications in a network of numerous small geographic cells. Most current technology is analog - represented as electrical levels, not bits. However, the trend is toward digital cellular data transmission. [AJP] (see also communications, network, technology)
center for information technology excellence
Will recognize public and private training facilities meeting federally defined standards in security training, to train and certify current Federal IT security personnel and maintain their skill levels throughout their careers. [CIAO] (see also IT security, security, standard, information, technology)
central adjudication facility
Single facility designated by the head of the Department of Defense Component used to evaluate personnel security investigations and other relevant information. [DSS] (see also security)
central office
SAF/AAZ is the Air Force Special Access Program Central Office that coordinates the management review, oversight, and control of Special Access Programs. [DSS] (see also access)
central office of record (COR)
Office of a federal department or agency that keeps records of accountable COMSEC material held by elements subject to its oversight. [CNSSI] (see also communications security, subject)
central processing unit (CPU)
(see also automated information system, process)
central services node
The Key Management Infrastructure core node that provides central security management and data management services. [CNSSI-4009] (see also management, security)
Central United States Registry for North Atlantic Treaty Organization
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization controls its classified records through a registry system, in which individual documents are numbered and listed in inventories. The Central United States Registry is located in Arlington, Virginia, and oversees more than 125 subregistries in the United States and abroad. [DSS] (see also classified)
centralized authorization
A scheme in which a central, third-party authorization agent is consulted for access control. All access control rules are defined in the database of the central authorization agent. [misc] (see also access, control, access control)
centralized data processing
A concept by which an organization maintains all computing equipment at a single site (host), and the supporting field-office(s) have no effective data processing capabilities. [SRV] (see also automated information system, process)
centralized operations
The state of all IT operational tasks and ancillary functions being located and performed in one local area. The area may or may not be nearby the IT hardware operated (i.e. computer room(s) or laboratory(s)). IT operational tasks include but are not limited to the setup, operation (start, stop, configure, bypass/recover, etc.), and monitoring of console control units and peripherals. Ancillary functions include but are not limited to job and event scheduling and processing, job quality control, magnetic tape cleaning and certification, tape library operation, and coordination of tape retention and accountability tasks. [NASA] (see also certification, computer, control, function, process, quality, operation)
centrally-administered network
A network of systems that is the responsibility of a single group of administrators who are not distributed but work centrally to take care of the network. [RFC2504] (see also system, network)
certificate
(I) General English usage: A document that attests to the truth of something or the ownership of something. (C) Security usage: See: capability, digital certificate. (C) PKI usage: See: attribute certificate, public-key certificate. [RFC2828] A declaration by an independent authority operating in accordance with ISO Guide 58, Calibration and testing laboratory accreditation systems - General requirements for operation and recognition, confirming that an evaluation pass statement is valid. [SC27] A digital representation of information that (1) identifies the authority issuing the certificate; (2) names or identifies the person, process, or equipment using the certificate; (3) contains the user's public key; (4) identifies the certificate's operational period; and (5) is digitally signed by the certificate authority issuing it. A certificate is the means by which a user is linked (bound) to a public key. [GAO] A digital representation of information which at least 1) identifies the certification authority issuing it, 2) names or identifies its subscriber, 3) contains the subscriber's public key, 4) identifies its operational period, and 5) is digitally signed by the certification authority issuing it. [SP 800-32] A digitally signed data structure defined in the X.509 standard that binds the identity of a certificate holder (or subject) to a public key. [SRV] A digitally signed representation of information that 1) identifies the authority issuing it, 2) identifies the subscriber, 3) identifies its valid operational period (date issued / expiration date). In the information assurance (IA) community, certificate usually implies public key certificate and can have the following types: cross certificate - a certificate issued from a CA that signs the public key of another CA not within its trust hierarchy that establishes a trust relationship between the two CAs. encryption certificate - a certificate containing a public key that can encrypt or decrypt electronic messages, files, documents, or data transmissions, or establish or exchange a session key for these same purposes. Key management sometimes refers to the process of storing, protecting, and escrowing the private component of the key pair associated with the encryption certificate. identity certificate - a certificate that provides authentication of the identity claimed. Within the National Security Systems (NSS) PKI, identity certificates may be used only for authentication or may be used for both authentication and digital signatures. [CNSSI-4009] A set of data that uniquely identifies a key pair and an owner that is authorized to use the key pair. The certificate contains the owner's public key and possibly other information, and is digitally signed by a Certification Authority (i.e. a trusted party), thereby binding the public key to the owner. [FIPS 186] A set of data that uniquely identifies an entity, contains the entity's public key and possibly other information, and is digitally signed by a trusted party, thereby binding the public key to the entity. Additional information in the certificate could specify how the key is used and its cryptoperiod. [SP 800-21] An electronic identifier from a certificate authority which includes the CA signature made with its private key. The authenticity of the signature is validated by other users who trust the CA's public key. [misc] An entity's data rendered unforgeable with the private or secret key of a certification authority. [SC27] An entity's data rendered unforgeable with the private or secret key of a certification authority. [ISO/IEC WD 13888-1 (11/2001)] A declaration by an independent authority operating in accordance with ISO Guide 58, Calibration and testing laboratory accreditation systems - General requirements for operation and recognition, confirming that an evaluation pass statement is valid. [SC27] Certificates are data that is used to verify digital signatures. A certificate is only as trustworthy as the agency that issued it. A certificate is used to verify a particular signed item, such as an Email message or a web page. The digital signature, the item and the certificate are all processed by a mathematical program. It is possible to say, if the signature is valid, that 'According to the agency that issued the certificate, the signer was (some name)'. [RFC2504] Digitally signed document that binds a public key with an identity. The certificate contains, at a minimum, the identity of the issuing Certification Authority, the user identification information, and the user's public key. [CNSSI] Record holding security information about an AIS user and vouches to the truth and accuracy of the information it contains. [IATF] (see also ABA Guidelines, Abstract Syntax Notation One, Cryptographic Message Syntax, Distinguished Encoding Rules, Federal Public-key Infrastructure, IT security certification, MISSI user, Minimum Interoperability Specification for PKI Components, PKCS #10, PKIX, RA domains, SET private extension, SET qualifier, Simple Public-Key Infrastructure/Simple Distributed Security Infrastructure, X.500 Directory, X.509, X.509 authority revocation list, accreditation, applicant, archive, assurance, attribute authority, authenticate, authentication, authority, authority revocation list, bind, binding, capability, cardholder certification authority, certification, certification authority digital signature, certification authority workstation, certification hierarchy, certification path, certification policy, certification practice statement, certification request, certification service, certify, common name, common security, compromised key list, credentials, critical, cross-certification, cryptoperiod, delta CRL, digital id, digital signature, directly trusted CA key, directory service, directory vs. Directory, distinguished name, distribution point, domain, end entity, enrollment service, entity, evaluation, extension, hierarchy management, identification, identity, information, invalidity date, issue, issuer, key, key lifetime, key management infrastructure, key material identifier, local authority, management, merchant certification authority, mesh PKI, message, operation, organizational registration authority, owner, party, path discovery, path validation, payment gateway certification authority, personal identity verification card, personality label, policy, policy approving authority, policy certification authority, policy creation authority, policy mapping, privilege management infrastructure, process, program, public-key, public-key infrastructure, registration, registration authority, registration service, relying party, repository, requirements, revocation, revocation date, root, root CA, secure hypertext transfer protocol, security, security event, security management infrastructure, security testing, signature, slot, sponsor, standard, strong authentication, subject, subordinate certification authority, system, test, ticket, token management, tokens, trust-file PKI, trusted key, tunneled password protocol, unforgeable, users, v1 CRL, v2 CRL, valid signature, validate, validate vs. verify, validated products list, validation, validity period, world wide web, Secure Electronic Transaction, multilevel information systems security initiative, pretty good privacy, privacy enhanced mail, web of trust) (includes CA certificate, Validation Certificate, X.509 attribute certificate, X.509 certificate, X.509 certificate revocation list, X.509 public-key certificate, attribute certificate, authority certificate, cardholder certificate, certificate authority workstation, certificate chain, certificate chain validation, certificate creation, certificate directory, certificate domain, certificate domain parameters, certificate expiration, certificate holder, certificate management, certificate management services, certificate owner, certificate policy, certificate policy qualifier, certificate reactivation, certificate rekey, certificate renewal, certificate request, certificate revocation, certificate revocation list, certificate revocation tree, certificate serial number, certificate status responder, certificate update, certificate user, certificate validation, conformant validation certificate, cross-certificate, digital certificate, encryption certificate, geopolitical certificate authority, indirect certificate revocation list, merchant certificate, mutual recognition of certificates, online certificate status protocol, organizational certificate, public-key certificate, root certificate, security certificate, self-signed certificate, signature certificate, software publisher certificate, trusted certificate, v1 certificate, v2 certificate, v3 certificate, valid certificate)
certificate authority
(D) ISDs SHOULD NOT use this term because it looks like sloppy use of 'certification authority', that is the term standardized by X.509. [RFC2828] The entity or organization that attests using a digital certificate that a particular electronic message comes from a specific individual or system. [FFIEC] (see certification authority)
certificate authority workstation (CAW)
(see also authority, certificate)
certificate chain
(D) ISDs SHOULD NOT use this term because it duplicates the meaning of a standardized term. [RFC2828] (see also certification, public-key infrastructure, standard, certificate)
certificate chain validation
(D) ISDs SHOULD NOT use this term because it duplicates the meaning of standardized terms and mixes concepts in a potentially misleading way. Instead, use 'certificate validation' or 'path validation', depending on what is meant. [RFC2828] (see also public-key infrastructure, standard, certificate, validation)
certificate creation
(I) The act or process by which a CA sets the values of a digital certificate's data fields and signs it. [RFC2828] (see also process, certificate, public-key infrastructure)
certificate directory
A directory containing a well defined (sub)set of public key certificates. This directory can contain certificates from different Certification Authorities. [SC27] (see also certification, key, public-key, certificate, public-key infrastructure)
certificate domain
Collection of entities using public key certificates created by a single Certification Authority (CA) or a collection of CAs operating under a single security policy. [SC27] (see also authority, certification, key, policy, public-key, security, certificate, domain)
certificate domain parameters
Cryptographic parameters specific to a certificate domain and which are known and agreed by all members of the certificate domain. [SC27] (see also cryptographic, cryptography, public-key infrastructure, certificate, domain)
certificate expiration
(I) The event that occurs when a certificate ceases to be valid because its assigned lifetime has been exceeded. [RFC2828] (see also public-key infrastructure, certificate)
certificate holder
(D) ISDs SHOULD NOT use this term as a synonym for the subject of digital certificate because the term is potentially ambiguous. For example, the term could also refer to a system entity, such as repository, that simply has possession of a copy of the certificate. [RFC2828] (see also entity, subject, system, certificate)
certificate management
(I) The functions that a CA may perform during the lifecycle of a digital certificate, including the following: [RFC2828] Process whereby certificates (as defined above) are generated, stored, protected, transferred, loaded, used, and destroyed. [CNSSI][CNSSI-4009] (see also code, destruction, function, key, process, rekey, update, certificate, management, public-key infrastructure)
certificate management authority
(CMA) A Certification Authority (CA) or a Registration Authority (RA). [SP 800-32] (see also certification, management)
certificate management services
All services needed for the maintenance of the lifecycle of certificates, including registration, certification, distribution, and revocation of certificates. [SC27] (see also certification, lifecycle, public-key infrastructure, registration, revocation, certificate)
certificate owner
(D) ISDs SHOULD NOT use this term as a synonym for the subject of digital certificate because the term is potentially ambiguous. For example, the term could also refer to a system entity, such as corporation, that has acquired a certificate to operate some other entity, such as a Web server. [RFC2828] (see also entity, subject, system, world wide web, certificate, owner)
certificate policy
(I) 'A named set of rules that indicates the applicability of a certificate to a particular community and/or class of application with common security requirements.' (C) A certificate policy can help a certificate user decide whether a certificate should be trusted in a particular application. 'For example, a particular certificate policy might indicate applicability of a type of certificate for the authentication of electronic data interchange transactions for the trading goods within a given price range.' (C) A v3 X.509 public-key certificate may have a 'certificatePolicies' extension that lists certificate policies, recognized by the issuing CA, that apply to the certificate and govern its use. Each policy is denoted by an object identifier and may optionally have certificate policy qualifiers.(C) SET usage: Every SET certificate specifies at least one certificate policy, that of the SET root CA. SET uses certificate policy qualifiers to point to the actual policy statement and to add qualifying policies to the root policy. [RFC2828] A specialized form of administrative policy tuned to electronic transactions performed during certificate management. A Certificate Policy addresses all aspects associated with the generation, production, distribution, accounting, compromise recovery, and administration of digital certificates. Indirectly, a certificate policy can also govern the transactions conducted using a communications system protected by a certificate-based security system. By controlling critical certificate extensions, such policies and associated enforcement technology can support provision of the security services required by particular applications. [CNSSI-4009; SP 800-32] (see also X.509, application, authentication, control, critical, key, management, object, public-key, requirements, security, trust, users, Secure Electronic Transaction, certificate, policy, public-key infrastructure)
certificate policy qualifier
(I) Information that pertains to a certificate policy and is included in a 'certificatePolicies' extension in a v3 X.509 public-key certificate. [RFC2828] (see also X.509, information, key, public-key, certificate, policy, public-key infrastructure)
certificate reactivation
(I) The act or process by which a digital certificate, which a CA has designated for revocation but not yet listed on a CRL, is returned to the valid state. [RFC2828] (see also process, revocation, certificate, public-key infrastructure)
certificate rekey
(I) The act or process by which an existing public-key certificate has its public key value changed by issuing a new certificate with different (usually new) public key. (C) For an X.509 public-key certificate, the essence of rekey is that the subject stays the same and a new public key is bound to that subject. Other changes are made, and the old certificate is revoked, only as required by the PKI and CPS in support of the rekey. If changes go beyond that, the process is a 'certificate update'. (O) MISSI usage: To rekey a MISSI X.509 public-key certificate means that the issuing authority creates a new certificate that is identical to the old one, except the new one has a new, different KEA key; or a new, different DSS key; or new, different KEA and DSS keys. The new certificate also has a different serial number and may have a different validity period. A new key creation date and maximum key lifetime period are assigned to each newly generated key. If a new KEA key is generated, that key is assigned new KMID. The old certificate remains valid until it expires, but may not be further renewed, rekeyed, or updated. [RFC2828] (see also X.509, authority, process, public-key, revoked state, subject, update, certificate, key, multilevel information systems security initiative, public-key infrastructure, rekey)
certificate renewal
(I) The act or process by which the validity of the data binding asserted by an existing public-key certificate is extended in time by issuing a new certificate. (C) For an X.509 public-key certificate, this term means that the validity period is extended (and, of course, a new serial number is assigned) but the binding of the public key to the subject and to other data items stays the same. The other data items are changed, and the old certificate is revoked, only as required by the PKI and CPS to support the renewal. If changes go beyond that, the process is a 'certificate rekey' or 'certificate update'. [RFC2828] (see also X.509, backup, key, process, public-key, rekey, revoked state, subject, update, certificate, public-key infrastructure, renewal)
certificate request
(D) ISDs SHOULD NOT use this term because it looks like imprecise use of a term standardized by PKCS #10 and used in PKIX. Instead, use the standard term, 'certification request'. [RFC2828] (see also certification, standard, certificate, public-key infrastructure)
certificate revocation
(I) The event that occurs when a CA declares that a previously valid digital certificate issued by that CA has become invalid; usually stated with a revocation date. (C) In X.509, a revocation is announced to potential certificate users by issuing a CRL that mentions the certificate. Revocation and listing on a CRL is only necessary before certificate expiration. [RFC2828] (see also X.509, users, certificate, public-key infrastructure)
certificate revocation list (CRL)
(I) A data structure that enumerates digital certificates that have been invalidated by their issuer prior to when they were scheduled to expire. (O) 'A signed list indicating a set of certificates that are no longer considered valid by the certificate issuer. After a certificate appears on a CRL, it is deleted from a subsequent CRL after the certificate's expiry. CRLs may be used to identify revoked public-key certificates or attribute certificates and may represent revocation of certificates issued to authorities or to users. The term CRL is also commonly used as a generic term applying to all the different types of revocation lists, including CRLs, ARLs, ACRLs, etc.' [RFC2828] A list of revoked but un-expired certificates issued by a CA. [SP 800-21] A list of revoked but unexpired certificates issued by a certification authority. [SRV] A list of revoked public key certificates created and digitally signed by a Certification Authority. [800-63][CNSSI-4009][SP 800-63; FIPS 201] A record of all revoked certificates produced by a common Issuer; a certificate is revoked when any data in it changes before it expires, e.g. when a user moves and changes addresses. [IATF] List of invalid certificates (as defined above) that have been revoked by the issuer. [CNSSI] list of nonvalid user certificates that must be checked as part of every authentication or encryption process. [misc] (see also accreditation, authentication, authority, encryption, evaluation, identify, key, process, public-key, revoked state, users, validate, certificate, certification authority, revocation)
certificate revocation tree
(I) A mechanism for distributing notice of certificate revocations; uses a tree of hash results that is signed by the tree's issuer. Offers an alternative to issuing a CRL, but is not supported in X.509. [RFC2828] (see also X.509, hash, certificate, revocation)
certificate serial number
(I) An integer value that (a) is associated with, and may be carried in, a digital certificate; (b) is assigned to the certificate by the certificate's issuer; and (c) is unique among all the certificates produced by that issuer. (O) 'An integer value, unique within the issuing CA, that is unambiguously associated with a certificate issued by that CA.' [RFC2828] (see also certificate)
certificate status authority
A trusted entity that provides online verification to a relying party of a subject certificate's trustworthiness, and may also provide additional attribute information for the subject certificate. [SP 800-32; CNSSI-4009] (see also trust)
certificate status responder
(N) FPKI usage: A trusted online server that acts for a CA to provide authenticated certificate status information to certificate users. Offers an alternative to issuing a CRL, but is not supported in X.509. [RFC2828] (see also X.509, authentication, information, trust, users, certificate, public-key infrastructure)
certificate update
(I) The act or process by which non-key data items bound to an existing public-key certificate, especially authorizations granted to the subject, are changed by issuing a new certificate. (C) For an X.509 public-key certificate, the essence of this process is that fundamental changes are made in the data that is bound to the public key, such that it is necessary to revoke the old certificate. (Otherwise, the process is only a 'certificate rekey' or 'certificate renewal'.) [RFC2828] (see also X.509, authorization, key, process, public-key, rekey, renewal, subject, certificate, public-key infrastructure, update)
certificate user
(I) A system entity that depends on the validity of information (such as another entity's public key value) provided by a digital certificate. (O) 'An entity that needs to know, with certainty, the public key of another entity.' (C) The system entity may be a human being or an organization, or device or process under the control of a human or an organization. (D) ISDs SHOULD NOT use this term as a synonym for the 'subject' of a certificate. [RFC2828] (see also control, entity, information, key, process, public-key, subject, system, certificate, users)
certificate validation
(I) An act or process by which a certificate user establishes that the assertions made by a digital certificate can be trusted. (O) 'The process of ensuring that a certificate is valid including possibly the construction and processing of a certification path, and ensuring that all certificates in that path have not expired or been revoked.' (C) To validate a certificate, a certificate user checks that the certificate is properly formed and signed and currently in force: [RFC2828] (see also X.509, certification, critical, digital signature, key, process, public-key, revocation, revoked state, semantics, signature, trust, users, validate, certificate, public-key infrastructure, validation)
certificate-related information
Data, such as a subscriber's postal address that is not included in a certificate. May be used by a Certification Authority (CA) managing certificates. [CNSSI-4009] Information, such as a subscriber's postal address, that is not included in a certificate. May be used by a Certification Authority (CA) managing certificates. [SP 800-32] (see also certification)
certification
(1) Comprehensive evaluation of the technical and nontechnical security features of an AIS and other safeguards, made in support of the approval/accreditation process, to establish the extent to which a particular design and implementation meet a set of specified security requirements. Note: There remain two other definitions in active common usage that differ according to circumstances. (2) The issue of a formal statement confirming the results of an evaluation, and that the evaluation criteria used were correctly applied. Synonym for IT security certification. [AJP] (I) Information system usage: Technical evaluation (usually made in support of an accreditation action) of an information system's security features and other safeguards to establish the extent to which the system's design and implementation meet specified security requirements. (I) Digital certificate usage: The act or process of vouching for the truth and accuracy of the binding between data items in a certificate. (I) Public key usage: The act or process of vouching for the ownership of a public key by issuing a public-key certificate that binds the key to the name of the entity that possesses the matching private key. In addition to binding a key to a name, a public-key certificate may bind those items to other restrictive or explanatory data items. (O) SET usage: 'The process of ascertaining that a set of requirements or criteria has been fulfilled and attesting to that fact to others, usually with some written instrument. A system that has been inspected and evaluated as fully compliant with the SET protocol by duly authorized parties and process would be said to have been certified compliant.' [RFC2828] A comprehensive assessment of the management, operational, and technical security controls in an information system, made in support of security accreditation, to determine the extent to which the controls are implemented correctly, operating as intended, and producing the desired outcome with respect to meeting the security requirements for the system. [800-60][800-82][FIPS 200] Comprehensive evaluation of the technical and nontechnical security features of an AIS and other safeguards, made in support of the accreditation process, to establish the extent to which a particular design and implementation meets a set of specified security requirements. [FCv1] Comprehensive evaluation of the technical and nontechnical security safeguards of an IS to support the accreditation process that establishes the extent to which a particular design and implementation meets a set of specified security requirements. [CNSSI] Comprehensive evaluation of the technical and nontechnical security safeguards of an information system to support the accreditation process that establishes the extent to which a particular design and implementation meets a set of specified security requirements. See Security Control Assessment. [CNSSI-4009] Procedure by which a third party gives written assurance that a deliverable (product, system or service) conforms to specified requirements. [SC27] Statement to an accrediting authority of the extent to which an automated information system or network meets its security criteria. This statement is made as part of and in support of the accreditation process. [DSS] The administrative act of approving a computer system for use in a particular application. [SRV] The comprehensive evaluation of the technical and non-technical security controls of an IT system to support the accreditation process that establishes the extent to which a particular design and implementation meets a set of specified security requirements. [800-37] The comprehensive evaluation of the technical and nontechnical security features of an AIS and other safeguards, made in support of the accreditation process, that establishes the extent to which a particular design and implementation meet a specified set of security requirements. [NCSC/TG004][OVT] The issue of a formal statement confirming the results of an evaluation, and that the evaluation criteria used were correctly applied. [ITSEC] The process of verifying the correctness of a statement or claim and issuing a certificate as to its correctness. [FIPS 201][GSA] The technical evaluation of a system's security features, made as part of and in support of the approval/accreditation process, that establishes the extent to which a particular system's design and implementation meet a set of specified security requirements. [TCSEC][TNI] (see also British Standard 7799, For Official Use Only Certified TEMPEST Technical Authority, IT security, Internet Policy Registration Authority, MISSI user, PIV registrar, RA domains, SET qualifier, SSO PIN, X.509 public-key certificate, applicant, application, approved security container, assessment, assurance, audit/review, authority, authority certificate, authorized, backup, beta i, beta ii, binding, centralized operations, certificate, certificate chain, certificate directory, certificate domain, certificate management authority, certificate management services, certificate request, certificate validation, certificate-related information, certified TEMPEST technical authority, certifier, clearance, component extensibility, computer, computer security, control, criteria, cross-certificate, digital certificate, entity, extension, external security controls, geopolitical certificate authority, hierarchical PKI, hierarchy management, hierarchy of trust, information, information assurance, key, key management, line supervision, management, mission assurance category, operation, owner, path discovery, path validation, penetration test, policy approving authority, policy creation authority, policy management authority, pre-authorization, privacy enhanced mail, process, protocols, public-key, public-key certificate, public-key information, public-key infrastructure, root, root certificate, security event, security program manager, security testing, system, test, top CA, trust, trust anchor, trust chain, trust hierarchy, trust-file PKI, trusted agent, trusted certificate, trusted key, users, validate vs. verify, Secure Electronic Transaction, multilevel information systems security initiative) (includes IT security certification, accreditation, automated information system, brand certification authority, cardholder certification authority, certification agent or certifier, certification analyst, certification authority, certification authority digital signature, certification authority facility, certification authority workstation, certification body, certification hierarchy, certification package, certification path, certification phase, certification policy, certification practice statement, certification request, certification service, clearance certification, decertification, digital certification, entry-level certification, evaluation, facilities certification, merchant certification authority, mid-level certification, payment gateway certification authority, policy certification authority, pre-certification phase, principal certification authority, requirements, root certification authority, security certification level, site certification, subordinate certification authority, superior certification authority, top-level certification, type certification)
certification agent or certifier
The individual (and supporting team) responsible for making an independent technical and non-technical evaluation of a system based on the security requirements and security controls documented in the security plan. The certifier assesses the vulnerabilities in the system, determines if the security controls are correctly implemented and effective, and identifies the level of residual risk. [800-37] (see also control, evaluation, requirements, risk, security, system, vulnerability, certification)
certification analyst
The independent technical liaison for all stakeholders involved in the C&A process responsible for objectively and independently evaluating a system as part of the risk management process. Based on the security requirements documented in the security plan, performs a technical and non-technical review of potential vulnerabilities in the system and determines if the security controls (management, operational, and technical) are correctly implemented and effective. [CNSSI-4009] (see also control, management, requirements, risk, security, certification)
certification and accreditation (C&A)
Certification is the comprehensive evaluation of the technical and nontechnical security features of an IS and other safeguards, made in support of the accreditation process, to establish the extent to which a particular design and implementation meets a set of specified requirements. Accreditation is the formal declaration by a DAA that an IS approved to operate in a particular security mode using a prescribed set of safeguards at an acceptable level of risk. [IATF] (see also process, accreditation, evaluation, requirements, risk)
certification authority (CA)
(I) An entity that issues digital certificates (especially X.509 certificates) and vouches for the binding between the data items in a certificate. (O) 'An authority trusted by one or more users to create and assign certificates. Optionally, the certification authority may create the user's keys.' (C) Certificate users depend on the validity of information provided by a certificate. Thus, a CA should be someone that certificate users trust, and usually holds an official position created and granted power by a government, a corporation, or some other organization. A CA is responsible for managing the lifecycle of certificates and, depending on the type of certificate and the CPS that applies, may be responsible for the lifecycle of key pairs associated with the certificates. [RFC2828] (C&A) Official responsible for performing the comprehensive evaluation of the security features of an information system and determining the degree to which it meets its security requirements. (PKI) Trusted entity authorized to create, sign, and issue public key certificates. By digitally signing each certificate issued, the user's identity is certified, and the association of the certified identity with a public key is validated. [CNSSI] 1. For Certification and Accreditation (C&A) (C&A Assessment): Official responsible for performing the comprehensive evaluation of the security features of an information system and determining the degree to which it meets its security requirements 2. For Public Key Infrastructure (PKI): A trusted third party that issues digital certificates and verifies the identity of the holder of the digital certificate. [CNSSI-4009] A centre trusted to create and assign public key certificates. Optionally, the certification authority may create and assign keys to the entities. [SC27] A trusted agent that issues digital certificates to principals. Certification authorities may themselves have a certificate that is issued to them by other certification authorities. The highest certification authority is called the root CA. [IATF][misc] A trusted entity that issues and revokes public key certificates. [800-63][FIPS 201] A trusted entity that issues certificates to end entities and other CAs. CAs issue CRLs periodically, and post certificates and CRLs to a repository. [SRV] The entity in a public key infrastructure (PKI) that is responsible for issuing certificates and exacting compliance to a PKI policy. [SP 800-21; FIPS 186] (see also PIV issuer, X.509, association, authorized, backup, entity, evaluation, identity, identity credential issuer, information, key, message, public-key, requirements, security, standard, system, test, users, validate, authority, certification, public-key infrastructure, trust) (includes certificate revocation list, credentials, cross-certification, non-repudiation, root CA)
certification authority digital signature (CADS)
relying party uses certificate manufactured by a certification authority to obtain the public key for digital signature authentication [misc] (see also authentication, certificate, key, public-key, authority, certification, public-key infrastructure, signature)
certification authority facility
The collection of equipment, personnel, procedures and structures that are used by a Certification Authority to perform certificate issuance and revocation. [SP 800-32] (see also certification)
certification authority workstation (CAW)
(I) A computer system that enables a CA to issue digital certificates and supports other certificate management functions as required. [RFC2828] Commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) workstation with a trusted operating system and special purpose application software that is used to issue certificates. [CNSSI] (see also application, certificate, computer, function, software, system, trust, authority, certification, public-key infrastructure)
certification body
An independent and impartial national organization that performs certification. [AJP][ITSEC] (see also certification)
certification hierarchy
(I) A tree-structured (loop-free) topology of relationships among CAs and the entities to whom the CAs issue public-key certificates. (C) In this structure, one CA is the top CA, the highest level of the hierarchy. The top CA may issue public-key certificates to one or more additional CAs that form the second highest level. Each of these CAs may issue certificates to more CAs at the third highest level, and so on. The CAs at the second-lowest of the hierarchy issue certificates only to non-CA entities, called 'end entities' that form the lowest level. Thus, all certification paths begin at the top CA and descend through zero or more levels of other CAs. All certificate users base path validations on the top CA's public key. (O) MISSI usage: A MISSI certification hierarchy has three or four levels of CAs: [RFC2828] (see also authority, certificate, gateway, internet, key, policy, public-key, registration, users, validation, Secure Electronic Transaction, certification, multilevel information systems security initiative, public-key infrastructure)
certification package
Product of the certification effort documenting the detailed results of the certification activities. [CNSSI][CNSSI-4009] Product of the certification effort documenting the detailed results of the certification activities. The certification package includes the security plan, developmental and/or operational ST&E re ports, risk assessment report, and certifier's statement. [800-37] (see also assessment, operation, risk, security, certification)
certification path
(I) An ordered sequence of public-key certificates (or a sequence of public-key certificates followed by one attribute certificate) that enables a certificate user to verify the signature on the last certificate in the path, and thus enables the user to obtain certified public key (or certified attributes) of the entity that is the subject of that last certificate. (O) 'An ordered sequence of certificates of objects in the [X.500 Directory Information Tree] which, together with the public key of the initial object in the path, can be processed to obtain that of the final object in the path.' [X509, R2527] (C) The path is the 'list of certificates needed to allow a particular user to obtain the public key of another.' The list is 'linked' in the sense that the digital signature of each certificate (except the first) is verified by the public key contained in the preceding certificate; i.e. the private key used to sign a certificate and the public key contained in the preceding certificate form a key pair owned by the entity that signed. (C) In the X.509 quotation in the previous 'C' paragraph, the word 'particular' points out that a certification path that can be validated by one certificate user might not be able to be validated by another. That is because either the first certificate should be a trusted certificate (it might be a root certificate) or the signature on the first certificate should be verified by a trusted key (it might be a root key), but such trust is defined relative to each user, not absolutely for all users. [RFC2828] An ordered sequence of certificates, leading from a certificate whose public key is known by a client, to a certificate whose public key is to be validated by the client. [SRV] (see also X.509, certificate, digital signature, entity, information, key, object, process, public-key, signature, subject, trust, users, validate, certification, public-key infrastructure)
certification phase
The certification phase is the second phase of the certification and accreditation process. Its purpose is to demonstrate through independent assessments using selected verification techniques and verification procedures that the security controls for the IT system have been implemented correctly and are effective in their application. [800-37] (see also accreditation, application, assessment, control, process, security, system, verification, certification)
certification policy
(D) ISDs SHOULD NOT use this term. Instead, use either 'certificate policy' or 'certification practice statement', depending on what is meant. [RFC2828] (see also certificate, public-key infrastructure, certification, policy)
certification practice statement (CPS)
(I) 'A statement of the practices which a certification authority employs in issuing certificates.' [ABA96, R2527] (C) A CPS is a published security policy that can help a certificate user to decide whether a certificate issued by a particular CA can be trusted enough to use in a particular application. A CPS may be (a) a declaration by a CA of the details of the computer system and practices it employs in its certificate management operations, (b) part of a contract between the CA and an entity to whom a certificate is issued, (c) a statute or regulation applicable to the CA, or (d) a combination of these types involving multiple documents. (C) A CPS is usually more detailed and procedurally oriented than certificate policy. A CPS applies to a particular CA or CA community, while a certificate policy applies across CAs or communities. A CA with a single CPS may support multiple certificate policies, which may be used for different application purposes or by different user communities. Multiple CAs, each with different CPS, may support the same certificate policy. [RFC2828] (CPS) A statement of the practices that a Certification Authority employs in issuing, suspending, revoking, and renewing certificates and providing access to them, in accordance with specific requirements (i.e. requirements specified in this Certificate Policy, or requirements specified in a contract for services). [SP 800-32; CNSSI-4009] (see also access, application, authority, certificate, computer, entity, operation, policy, requirements, security, system, trust, users, certification, public-key infrastructure)
certification request
(I) A algorithm-independent transaction format, defined by PCKS #10 and used in PKIX, that contains a DN, a public key, and optionally a set of attributes, collectively signed by the entity requesting certification, and sent to a CA, which transforms the request to an X.509 public-key certificate or another type of certificate. [RFC2828] (see also X.509, algorithm, certificate, entity, key, public-key, certification, public-key infrastructure)
certification service
The service of creating and assigning certificates performed by a CA and described in ISO/IEC 9594-8: 1995. [SC27] (see also certificate, certification, public-key infrastructure)
certification test and evaluation (CT&E)
(CT&E) Software and hardware security tests conducted during development of an information system. [CNSSI-4009] Software and hardware security tests conducted during development of an IS. [CNSSI] (see also development, security, software, evaluation, test)
certificaton authority (CA)
(see also authority, public-key infrastructure)
certified information systems security professional (CISSP)
(see also computer security, information, system)
certified TEMPEST technical authority (CTTA)
An experienced, technically qualified U.S. Government employee who has met established certification requirements in accordance with CNSS (NSTISSC)-approved criteria and has been appointed by a U.S. Government Department or Agency to fulfill CTTA responsibilities. [CNSSI] U.S. Government employee who has met established certification requirements in accordance with the Committee on the National Security Systems approved criteria and was appointed by a U.S. Government department or agency to fulfill Certified Transient Electromagnetic Pulse Emanation Standard, or TEMPEST, Technical Authority responsibilities. [DSS] (see also certification, criteria, requirements, TEMPEST, authority)
certifier
Individual responsible for making a technical judgment of the system's compliance with stated requirements, identifying and assessing the risks associated with operating the system, coordinating the certification activities, and consolidating the final certification and accreditation packages. [CNSSI][CNSSI-4009] (see also accreditation, certification, identify, requirements, risk, system)
certify
(I) Issue a digital certificate and thus vouch for the truth, accuracy, and binding between data items in the certificate, such as the identity of the certificate's subject and the ownership of a public key. (C) To 'certify a public key' means to issue a public-key certificate that vouches for the binding between the certificate's subject and the key. (I) The act by which a CA employs measures to verify the truth, accuracy, and binding between data items in a digital certificate. (C) A description of the measures used for verification should be included in the CA's CPS. [RFC2828] (see also backup, certificate, entity, identity, key, owner, public-key, public-key infrastructure, subject, verification)
CGI scripts
Allows for the creation of dynamic and interactive web pages. They also tend to be the most vulnerable part of a web server (besides the underlying host security). [NSAINT] (see also security, common gateway interface, software, threat, world wide web)
chain letter
An electronic e-mail that either explicitly or implicitly encourages the user to forward the note to multiple recipients with no discernible end to the chain or no specific benefit to the government for doing so [NASA] (see also users, threat)
chain of custody
A process that tracks the movement of evidence through its collection, safeguarding, and analysis lifecycle by documenting each person who handled the evidence, the date/time it was collected or transferred, and the purpose for the transfer. [SP 800-72; CNSSI-4009]
chain of evidence
A process and record that shows who obtained the evidence; where and when the evidence was obtained; who secured the evidence; and who had control or possession of the evidence. The 'sequencing' of the chain of evidence follows this order: collection and identification; analysis; storage; preservation; presentation in court; return to owner. [CNSSI-4009] (see also control)
challenge
A data item chosen at random and sent by the verifier to the claimant, that is used by the claimant, in conjunction with secret information held by the claimant, to generate a response that is sent to the verifier. [SC27] (see also information, random, response, challenge/response)
challenge and reply authentication
Prearranged procedure in which a subject requests authentication of another and the latter establishes validity with a correct reply. [CNSSI] (see also subject, authentication)
Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP)
(I) A peer entity authentication method for PPP, using a randomly-generated challenge and requiring a matching response that depends on a cryptographic hash of the challenge and a secret key. [RFC2828] (see also cryptographic, cryptography, entity, hash, key, random, response, authentication, challenge/response, protocols, security protocol)
Challenge-Response Authentication Mechanism (CRAM)
(I) IMAP4 usage: A mechanism, intended for use with IMAP4 AUTHENTICATE, by which an IMAP4 client uses a keyed hash to authenticate itself to an IMAP4 server. (C) The server includes a unique timestamp in its ready response to the client. The client replies with the client's name and the hash result of applying MD5 to a string formed from concatenating the timestamp with a shared secret that is known only to the client and the server. [RFC2828] (see also hash, key, shared secret, authentication, challenge/response, response)
challenge-response protocol
An authentication protocol where the verifier sends the claimant a challenge (usually a random value or a nonce) that the claimant combines with a secret (often by hashing the challenge and a shared secret together, or by applying a private key operation to the challenge) to generate a response that is sent to the verifier. The verifier can independently verify the response generated by the claimant (such as by re-computing the hash of the challenge and the shared secret and comparing to the response, or performing a public key operation on the response) and establish that the claimant possesses and controls the secret. [SP 800-63] An authentication protocol where the verifier sends the claimant a challenge (usually a random value or a nonce) that the claimant combines with a secret (such as by hashing the challenge and a shared secret together, or by applying a private key operation to the challenge) to generate a response that is sent to the verifier. The verifier can independently verify the response generated by the claimant (such as by re-computing the hash of the challenge and the shared secret and comparing to the response, or performing a public key operation on the response) and establish that the claimant possesses and controls the secret. [800-63] (see also attack, authentication, control, cryptographic, hash, key, operation, public-key, random, protocols, response)
challenge/response
(I) An authentication process that verifies an identity by requiring correct authentication information to be provided in response to a challenge. in a system, the authentication information is usually a value that is required to be computed in response to an unpredictable challenge value. [RFC2828] A type of authentication in which a user responds correctly (usually by performing some calculation based on the time and/or the user's secret key) to a challenge (usually a numeric, unpredictable one). [AFSEC] An authentication procedure that requires calculating a correct response to an unpredictable challenge. [SRV] An authentication technique whereby a server sends an unpredictable challenge to the user, who computes a response using some form of authentication token. [IATF][misc] (see also 3-factor authentication, Extensible Authentication Protocol, IMAP4 AUTHENTICATE, POP3 AUTH, authentication, entity, identity, information, key, process, system, tokens, users, response) (includes Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol, Challenge-Response Authentication Mechanism, challenge)
change control and lifecycle management
Procedures and controls that prevent unauthorized programs or modifications to an existing program from being implemented. [CIAO] (see also authorized, program, control, software development)
change management
Activities involved in (1) defining and instilling new values, attitudes, norms, and behaviors within an organization that support new ways of doing work and overcome resistance to change; (2) building consensus among customers and stakeholders on specific changes designed to better meet their needs; and (3) planning, testing, and implementing all aspects of the transition from one organizational structure or business process to another. [SRV] (see also business process, process, security testing, test)
channel
(I) An information transfer path within a system. [RFC2828] An information transfer path within a system. May also refer to the mechanism by which the path is effected. [AJP][TCSEC] (see also information, system) (includes communication channel, covert channel, covert storage channel, covert timing channel, exploitable channel, internal communication channel, overt channel, security-compliant channel, trusted channel)
channel capacity
Maximum possible error-free rate, measured in bits per second, at which information can be sent along a communications path. [AJP][FCv1] (see also bandwidth, communications, information)
channel scanning
Changing the channel being monitored by a wireless intrusion detection and prevention system. [800-94] (see also intrusion, intrusion detection, system)
check character
Added character which may be used to verify the accuracy of a string by a mathematical relationship to that string. [SC27] (see also error detection code) (includes check character system)
check character system
Set of rules for generating check characters and checking strings incorporating check characters. [SC27] (see also check character, system)
check digits
A digit in an account number that is calculated from the other digits in the account number and is used to check the account number's correctness/validity. [FFIEC]
check word
Cipher text generated by cryptographic logic to detect failures in cryptography. [CNSSI][CNSSI-4009] (see also cipher, cryptographic, cryptography) check_password
check_password
A hacking program used for cracking VMS passwords. [NSAINT] (see also passwords, program, attack)
checksum
(I) A value that (a) is computed by a function that is dependent on the contents of a data object and (b) is stored or transmitted together with the object, for the purpose of detecting changes in the data. (C) To gain confidence that a data object has not been changed, an entity that later uses the data can compute a checksum and compare it with the checksum that was stored or transmitted with the object. (C) Computer systems and networks employ checksums (and other mechanisms) to detect accidental changes in data. However, active wiretapping that changes data could also change an accompanying checksum to match the changed data. Thus, some checksum functions by themselves are not good countermeasures for active attacks. To protect against active attacks, the checksum function needs to be well-chosen, and the checksum result needs to be cryptographically protected. [RFC2828] A computed value that's dependent upon the contents of a packet; the value is sent with the packet when transmitted, and the receiving system computes a new 'checksum' and compares the two values to determine whether or not the data was received correctly. [misc] A value that accompanies data transferred from one place to another and helps to ensure that the data was transferred correctly [NASA] Digits or bits summed according to arbitrary rules and used to verify the integrity of data. [SRV] Value computed on data to detect error or manipulation during transmission. [CNSSI] Value computed on data to detect error or manipulation. [CNSSI][CNSSI-4009][IATF] Value computed, via some parity or hashing algorithm, on information requiring protection against error or manipulation. [IATF] (see also algorithm, attack, computer, confidence, countermeasures, cryptographic, cryptography, entity, function, hash, information, network, object, system, integrity)
chemical warfare
All aspects of military operations involving the employment of lethal and incapacitating munitions/agents and the warning and protective measures associated with such offensive operations. Since riot control agents and herbicides are not considered to be chemical warfare agents, those two items will be referred to separately or under the broader term 'chemical', which will be used to include all types of chemical munitions/agents collectively. [DOD] (see also control, warfare)
Chernobyl packet
A network packet that induces a broadcast storm and network meltdown. Typically an IP Ethernet datagram that passes through a gateway with both source and destination Ether and IP address set as the respective broadcast addresses for the subnetworks being gated between. [AFSEC] Also called Kamikaze Packet. A network packet that induces a broadcast storm and network meltdown. Typically an IP Ethernet datagram that passes through a gateway with both source and destination Ethernet and IP address set as the respective broadcast addresses for the subnetworks being gated between. [NSAINT] (see also gateway, network, threat)
chief information agency officer
official responsible for: (i) Providing advice and other assistance to the head of the executive agency and other senior management personnel of the agency to ensure that information technology is acquired and information resources are managed in a manner that is consistent with laws, Executive Orders, directives, policies, regulations, and priorities established by the head of the agency; (ii) Developing, maintaining, and facilitating the implementation of a sound and integrated information technology architecture for the agency; and (iii) Promoting the effective and efficient design and operation of all major information resources management processes for the agency, including improvements to work processes of the agency. [800-60] (see also operation, process, resource, technology, information, officer)
chief information officer (CIO)
Agency official responsible for: 1) Providing advice and other assistance to the head of the executive agency and other senior management personnel of the agency to ensure that information technology is acquired and information resources are managed in a manner that is consistent with laws, Executive Orders, directives, policies, regulations, and priorities established by the head of the agency; 2) Developing, maintaining, and facilitating the implementation of a sound and integrated information technology architecture for the agency; and 3) Promoting the effective and efficient design and operation of all major information resources management processes for the agency, including improvements to work processes of the agency. [FIPS 200; Public Law 104-106, Sec. 5125(b) Agency official responsible for: 1) providing advice and other assistance to the head of the executive agency and other senior management personnel of the agency to ensure that information systems are acquired and information resources are managed in a manner that is consistent with laws, Executive Orders, directives, policies, regulations, and priorities established by the head of the agency; 2) developing, maintaining, and facilitating the implementation of a sound and integrated information system architecture for the agency; and 3) promoting the effective and efficient design and operation of all major information resources management processes for the agency, including improvements to work processes of the agency. Note: Organizations subordinate to federal agencies may use the term Chief Information Officer to denote individuals filling positions with similar security responsibilities to agency-level Chief Information Officers. SOURCE: CNSSI-4009; SP 800-53] Agency official that provides advice and other assistance to the head of the agency and other senior management personnel to ensure that information technology is acquired and information resources are managed in a manner that implements the policies and procedures of the Congress and the priorities established by the head of the agency. Section 5125(a) of the Information Technology Management Reform Act of 1996 (ITMRA) establishes the position of Chief Information Officer (CIO) by amending Section 33506 of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, 44 U.S.C. Chapter 35. [CIAO] (see also management, resource, technology, information, officer)
chosen-ciphertext attack
(I) A cryptanalysis technique in which the analyst tries to determine the key from knowledge of plaintext that corresponds to ciphertext selected (i.e. dictated) by the analyst. [RFC2828] (see also analysis, key, attack, cipher)
chosen-plaintext attack
(I) A cryptanalysis technique in which the analyst tries to determine the key from knowledge of ciphertext that corresponds to plaintext selected (i.e. dictated) by the analyst. [RFC2828] (see also analysis, cipher, cryptography, key, attack)
cipher
(I) A cryptographic algorithm for encryption and decryption. [RFC2828] Alternative term for encryption algorithm. [SC27] Any cryptographic system in which arbitrary symbols or groups of symbols, represent units of plain text, or in which units of plain text are rearranged, or both. [CNSSI][CNSSI-4009] (see also BLACK, Blowfish, Data Authentication Algorithm, El Gamal algorithm, RED/BLACK separation, Rivest-Shamir-Adleman algorithm, Skipjack, algorithm, asymmetric cryptographic technique, asymmetric encryption algorithm, block chaining, brute force attack, check word, chosen-plaintext attack, ciphony, cleartext, code, controlled access area, cryptanalysis, cryptographic, cryptographic algorithm, cryptographic key, cryptographic synchronization, cryptographic system, cryptography, cut-and-paste attack, data encryption algorithm, data encryption key, decrypt, decryption, encode, encryption algorithm, feedback buffer, initialization value, initialization vector, initializing value, intelligent threat, key, key generator, key stream, known-plaintext attack, message authentication code vs. Message Authentication Code, mode of operation, one-time pad, one-way encryption, out-of-band, private key, public-key, public-key certificate, public-key cryptography, secret-key cryptography, security strength, semantic security, superencryption, system, traffic analysis, traffic encryption key, triple DES, encryption) (includes Rivest Cipher 2, Rivest Cipher 4, asymmetric cipher, asymmetric encipherment system, block cipher, block cipher key, chosen-ciphertext attack, cipher block chaining, cipher feedback, cipher suite, cipher text auto-key, ciphertext, ciphertext-only attack, decipher, decipherment, encipher, encipherment, encipherment algorithm, encrypt, encrypted key, n-bit block cipher, private decipherment key, private decipherment transformation, public encipherment key, public encipherment transformation, stream cipher, symmetric encipherment algorithm)
cipher block chaining (CBC)
(I) An block cipher mode that enhances electronic codebook mode by chaining together blocks of ciphertext it produces. (C) This mode operates by combining (exclusive OR-ing) the algorithm's ciphertext output block with the next plaintext block to form the next input block for the algorithm. [RFC2828] (see also block chaining, algorithm, code, cipher)
cipher feedback (CFB)
(I) An block cipher mode that enhances electronic code book mode by chaining together the blocks of ciphertext it produces and operating on plaintext segments of variable length less than or equal to the block length. (C) This mode operates by using the previously generated ciphertext segment as the algorithm's input (i.e. by 'feeding back' the ciphertext) to generate an output block, and then combining (exclusive OR-ing) that output block with the next plaintext segment (block length or less) to form the next ciphertext segment. [RFC2828] (see also algorithm, code, cipher, cryptography)
cipher suite
Negotiated algorithm identifiers. Cipher suites are identified in human-readable form using a pneumonic code. [SP 800-52] (see also algorithm, code, cipher)
cipher text auto-key (CTAK)
Cryptographic logic that uses previous cipher text to generate a key stream. [CNSSI][CNSSI-4009] (see also cryptographic, cipher, key)
ciphertext
(I) Data that has been transformed by encryption so that its semantic information content (i.e. its meaning) is no longer intelligible or directly available. (O) 'Data produced through the use of encipherment. The semantic content of the resulting data is not available.' [RFC2828] Ciphertext/Cipher Text - Data in its encrypted form. [SP 800-21; CNSSI-4009] Data in its enciphered form. [SP 800-56B] Data output from the Cipher or input to the Inverse Cipher. [FIPS 197] Data which has been transformed to hide its information content. [SC27] Enciphered information. [CNSSI][SC27] The encrypted form of a plaintext message of data. [SRV] The result of transforming plaintext with an encryption algorithm. Also known as cryptotext. It is encrypted (enciphered) data. [SRV] (see also algorithm, encipherment, encryption, information, message, cipher)
ciphertext key
(see encrypted key) (see also key)
ciphertext-only attack
(I) A cryptanalysis technique in which the analyst tries to determine the key solely from knowledge of intercepted ciphertext (although the analyst may also know other clues, such as the cryptographic algorithm, the language in which the plaintext was written, the subject matter of the plaintext, and some probable plaintext words.) [RFC2828] (see also algorithm, analysis, cryptographic, key, subject, attack, cipher)
ciphony
Process of enciphering audio information, resulting in encrypted speech. [CNSSI][CNSSI-4009] (see also cipher, information, process)
circuit control officer (CCO)
(see also control)
circuit level gateway
One form of a firewall. Validates TCP and UDP sessions before opening a connection. Creates a handshake, and once that takes place passes everything through until the session is ended. [NSAINT] (see also circuit proxy, connection, firewall, validate, gateway)
circuit proxy
A proxy service that statically defines which traffic will be forwarded. The key difference between application and circuit proxies is that the latter are static and thus will always set up a connection if the DUT/SUT's rule set allows it. For example, if a firewall's rule set permits ftp connections, a circuit proxy will always forward traffic on TCP port 20 (ftp-data) even if no control connection was first established on TCP port 21 (ftp-control). [RFC2647] (see also circuit level gateway, application, connection, control, key, firewall, proxy)
circuit switching
A method of opening communications lines, as through the telephone system, creating a physical link between the initiating and receiving parties. In circuit switching, the connection is made at a switching center, which physically connects the two parties and maintains an open line between them for as long as needed. Circuit switching is typically used in modem communications on the dial-up telephone network, and it is also used on a smaller scale in privately maintained communications networks. [SRV] (see also communications, connection, network, system)
civil liberties
Those individual rights and freedoms protected by the Constitution, the Bill of Rights, and federal law and regulations. [CIAO]
CKMS
A set of components that is designed to protect, manage, and distribute cryptographic keys and bound metadata. [800-130] (see also cryptographic, key, metadata)
CKMS component
Any mechanism (including hardware, software, or firmware), policy and procedures that are used to implement a CKMS. [800-130] (see also policy, software)
CKMS profile
A document that provides an implementation independent specification of CKMS security requirements for use by a community of interest (e.g., U.S. Government; banking, aerospace etc.). [800-130] (see also requirements, security, file, profile)
claimant
A party whose identity is to be verified using an authentication protocol. [800-63][SP 800-63; FIPS 201] An entity (user, device or process) whose assertion is to be verified using an authentication protocol. [CNSSI-4009] An entity that is or represents a principal for the purposes of authentication. A claimant includes the functions necessary for engaging in authentication exchanges on behalf of a principal. [SC27] An entity which is or represents a principal for the purposes of authentication, together with the functions involved in an authentication exchange on behalf of that entity. A claimant acting on behalf of a principal must include the functions necessary for engaging in an authentication exchange. (e.g., a smartcard [claimant] can act on behalf of a human user [principal]) [FIPS 196] (see also authentication, entity, function, identity, man-in-the-middle attack, protocols)
clandestine operation
Operation sponsored or conducted by Government departments or agencies in such a way that ensure secrecy or concealment. An operation sponsored or conducted in such a way as to insure the secrecy or concealment of the person or organization doing the sponsoring/conducting. [DSS] (see also covert operation, overt operation)
Clark Wilson integrity model
An approach to providing data integrity for common commercial activities, including software engineering concepts of abstract data types, separation of privilege, allocation of least privilege, and nondiscretionary access control. [SRV] (see also access, access control, control, software, integrity, model)
class 2, 3, 4, or 5
(O) U.S. Department of Defense usage: Levels of PKI assurance based on risk and value of information to be protected: [RFC2828] (see also assurance, classified, critical, cryptographic, entity, identification, information, key, risk, system, tokens, public-key infrastructure)
class
A generic description of an object type, consisting of instance variables and method definitions. A set of objects that share a common structure and a common behavior. Class definitions are templates from which individual objects can be created. [SRV] A grouping of families that share a common focus. [CC2][CC21][SC27] (see also object)
class hierarchy
Classes can be organized naturally into structures (tree or network) called class hierarchies. In a hierarchy, a class may have zero or more superclasses above it. A class may have zero or more classes below, referred to as its subclasses. [SRV] (see also network)
class object
Class object is a class definition. Class definitions are objects that are instances of a generic class, or metaclass. [SRV] (see also object)
classification
A classification is the separation or ordering of objects (or specimens) into classes [WEBOL 1998]. Classifications that are created non-empirically are called a priori classifications [...; Simpson 1961; WEBOL 1998]. Classifications that are created empirically by looking at the data are called a posteriori classifications [...; Simpson 1961; WEBOL 1998]. [OVT] Act or process by which information is determined to be classified information, classified National Security information (or 'Classified Information'). It is also information that has been determined pursuant to Executive Order 12958, as amended, or any predecessor order to require protection against unauthorized disclosure and is marked to indicate its classified status when in documentary form. [DSS] (see also authorized, classified, object, security)
classification guidance
Instruction or source that prescribes classification of specific information. [DSS]
classification guide
Documentary form of classification guidance issued by an original classification authority that identifies the elements of information regarding a specific subject that must be classified and establishes the level and duration of classification for each such element. [DSS] (see also classified, subject)
classification levels
(I) (1.) A grouping of classified information to which a hierarchical, restrictive security label is applied to increase protection of the data. (2.) The level of protection that is required to be applied to that information. [RFC2828] Information may be classified at one of the following three levels: TOP SECRET, which is applied to information, the unauthorized disclosure of which reasonably could be expected to cause exceptionally grave damage to the national security that the original classification authority is able to identify or describe; SECRET, which is applied to information, the unauthorized disclosure of which reasonably could be expected to cause serious damage to the national security that the original classification authority is able to identify or describe: and CONFIDENTIAL, which is applied to information, the unauthorized disclosure of which reasonably could be expected to cause damage to the national security that the original classification authority is able to identify or describe. [DSS] (see also Bell-LaPadula security model, Internet Protocol Security Option, authorized, classified information, clearance level, compartment, confinement property, controlled security mode, damage, dedicated security mode, dominated by, dominates, downgrade, information, lattice model, mode of operation, modes of operation, multilevel security, multilevel security mode, non-discretionary security, object, regrade, risk index, sanitize, security label, security level, security situation, sensitivity label, system-high security mode, users, classified) (includes TOP SECRET, confidential, default classification, secret, sensitive, sensitive but unclassified, trust level)
classification markings and implementation working group
Forum of Intelligence Community and non-Intelligence Community members responsible for coordinating changes to the Authorized Classification and Control Markings Register and associated implementation manual. [DSS] (see also authorized, intelligence)
classified
(I) Refers to information (stored or conveyed, in any form) that is formally required by a security policy to be given data confidentiality service and to be marked with a security label (which in some cases might be implicit) to indicate its protected status. (C) The term is mainly used in government, especially in the military, although the concept underlying the term also applies outside government. In the U.S. Department of Defense, for example, it means information that has been determined pursuant to Executive Order 12958 ('Classified National Security Information', April 1995) or any predecessor order to require protection against unauthorized disclosure and is marked to indicate its classified status when in documentary form. [RFC2828] (see also BLACK, Bell-LaPadula security model, COMSEC demilitarization, CRYPTO, Central United States Registry for North Atlantic Treaty Organization, DD 254 - Final, DD 254 - Original, Defense Central Security Index, Defense Information Systems Network, Escrowed Encryption Standard, FIPS PUB 140-1, Federal Public-key Infrastructure, Federal Standard 1027, Internet Protocol Security Option, Key Exchange Algorithm, National Institute of Standards and Technology, National Security Agency, RED, RED/BLACK concept, Secure Telephone Unit III, Skipjack, Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria, Type 1 key, Type 2 key, Type I cryptography, Type II cryptography, access, access approval, access control, access eligibility determination, access national agency check and inquiries, accesses, accreditation, acknowledged special access program, acoustic security, activity security manager, adjudication, advanced encryption standard, adverse information, agency, aggregation, applicant, associated markings, authorized, authorized adjudicative agency, authorized classification and control markings register, authorized investigative agency, authorized person, automated information system media control system, automated security monitoring, burn bag, carve-out, category, class 2, 3, 4, or 5, classification, classification guide, classifier, clearance, clearance certification, cleared escort, clearing, closed area, code word, cognizant security agency, compartment, compartmentalization, compromise, confidentiality, confinement property, contamination, controlled cryptographic item, controlled security mode, courier, custodian, damage assessment, data aggregation, data encryption standard, declassification, declassification authority, dedicated mode, dedicated security mode, derivative classification, designated disclosure authority, dominated by, dominates, downgrade, downgrading, equity, escort, exception, facilities accreditation, facilities certification, facility security clearance, false positive, for official use only, foreign disclosure, foreign disclosure point of contact, foreign ownership, control, or influence, foreign relations of the united states, foreign travel briefing, foreign visit, formal access approval, formerly restricted data, government-to-government transfer, guard, handcarrier, handle via special access control channels only, high assurance guard, inadvertent disclosure incident, incident of security concern, industrial security, information, information category, information security oversight office, inspectable space, interim approval to operate, internal vulnerability, invalidation, key-escrow system, lattice model, law enforcement sensitive, mandatory access control, mandatory declassification review, mission critical, mode of operation, modes of operation, multilevel security, multilevel security mode, multiuser mode of operation, national security information, national security system, national security-related information, naval nuclear propulsion information, need for access, need-to-know, nicknames, non-disclosure agreement, non-discretionary security, non-discussion area, one-time access, open storage, operations security, operations security survey, originating agency determination required, pass/fail, periods processing, personnel security, personnel security - issue information, personnel security clearance, personnel security determination, personnel security interview, personnel security investigation, personnel security program, policy, program channels or program security channels, program protection plan, program sensitive information, protected distribution systems, protected information, public law 100-235, purge, radio frequency jamming, reference material, regrade, reinstatement, release, restricted area, restricted data, revocation, revocation of facility security clearance, risk index, safeguarding and safeguarding measures, safeguarding statement, sanitize, sanitizing, secret, secret key, secure data device, secure operating system, security assurance, security classification guides, security clearance, security compromise, security domain, security incident, security infraction, security label, security level, security policy automation network, security situation, security violation, senior agency official, sensitive compartmented information, sensitive information, sensitivity label, single scope background investigation - periodic reinvestigation, source document, special access program facility, spillage, sponsoring agency, stand-alone automated information system, standard practice procedures, stratified random sample, subcontract, suspicious contact, system-high security mode, systematic declassification review, tear line, technical data, temporary help/job shopper, transmission, transportation plan, trusted computer system, trusted foundry, type 1 products, type 2 product, type 3 key, type 3 product, unacknowledged special access program, unauthorized disclosure, unauthorized person, unfavorable personnel security determination, upgrade, working papers, security) (includes classification levels, classified contract, classified information, classified information procedures act, classified information spillage, classified military information, classified national security information, classified visit, controlled unclassified information, default classification, deliberate compromise of classified information, endorsed for unclassified cryptographic information, endorsed for unclassified cryptographic item, north atlantic treaty organization classified information, sensitive but unclassified, sensitive but unclassified information, unclassified, unclassified controlled nuclear information, unclassified internet protocol router network, unclassified sensitive)
classified contract
Any contract requiring or that will require access to classified information, by a contractor or his or her employees. (A contract may be a classified contract although the contract document is not classified.) The requirements for a classified contract also are applicable to all phases of pre-contract activity, including solicitations (bids, quotations, and proposals), precontract negotiations, post-contract activity, or other Government Contracting Agency programs or projects, which require access to classified information by a contractor. [DSS] (see also access, requirements, classified)
classified data
(see classified information)
classified information
Information determined to be top secret, secret, or confidential in the interests of national security by an appropriate Federal official acting under the provisions of Executive Order 12958 [NASA] Information that has been determined pursuant to E.O. 13292 or any predecessor order to require protection against unauthorized disclosure and is marked to indicate its classified status when in documentary form. [800-60] Information that has been determined pursuant to Executive Order (E.O.) 13292 or any predecessor order to require protection against unauthorized disclosure and is marked to indicate its classified status when in documentary form. [SP 800-60; E.O. 13292] Information that has been determined pursuant to Executive Order 12958 or any predecessor Order, or by the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, to require protection against unauthorized disclosure and is marked to indicate its classified status. [CNSSI] Information that has been determined: (i) pursuant to Executive Order 12958 as amended by Executive Order 13292, or any predecessor Order, to be classified national security information; or (ii) pursuant to the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, to be Restricted Data (RD). [SP 800-53] See Classified National Security Information. [CNSSI-4009] (see also authorized, classification levels, classified information procedures act, classified information spillage, access control, classified, information) (includes classified military information, classified national security information)
classified information procedures act
Law providing a mechanism for the courts to determine the classified information that a defense counsel may access. [DSS] (see also access, classified information, classified)
classified information spillage
Security incident that occurs whenever classified data is spilled either onto an unclassified IS or to an IS with a lower level of classification. [CNSSI] Security incident that occurs whenever classified data is spilled either onto an unclassified information system or to an information system with a lower level of classification. [CNSSI-4009] (see also classified information, incident, security incident, classified, information, threat)
classified military information
Information originated by or for the Department of Defense or its Agencies or is under their jurisdiction or control and that requires protection in the interests of national security. It is designated TOP SECRET, SECRET, or CONFIDENTIAL. Classified Military Information may be conveyed by way of oral, visual, or material form. [DSS] (see also classified, classified information)
classified national security information
Also known as 'classified information,' it is official information or material requiring protection in the interest of national security and that is classified for such purpose by appropriate classifying authority in accordance with the provisions of Executive Order 12958. [DSS] (see also classified, classified information)
classified visit
Visit during which a visitor will require, or is expected to require, access to classified information. [DSS] (see also access, classified)
classifier
Any person who makes a classification determination and applies a classification category to information or material. The determination may be an original classification action or it may be a derivative classification action. Contractors make derivative classification determinations based on classified source material, a security classification guide, or a Contract Security Classification Specification. [DSS] (see also classified, security)
clean system
(I) A computer system in which the operating system and application system software and files have just been freshly installed from trusted software distribution media. (C) A clean system is not necessarily in a secure state. [RFC2828] A computer which has been freshly installed with its operating system and software obtained from trusted software distribution media. As more software and configuration are added to a computer, it becomes increasingly difficult to determine if the computer is 'clean' or has been compromised by viruses, trojan horse or misconfiguration which reduces the security of the computer system. [RFC2504] (see also application, compromise, computer, file, risk, security, software, trust, virus, system)
clear
To use software or hardware products to overwrite storage space on the media with nonsensitive data. This process may include overwriting not only the logical storage location of a file(s) (e.g., file allocation table) but also may include all addressable locations. See comments on Clear/Purge Convergence. [SP 800-88] (see also software)
clearance
Formal certification of authorization to have access to classified information other than that protected in a special access program (including SCI). Clearances are of three types: confidential, secret, and top secret. A top secret clearance permits access to top secret, secret, and confidential material; a secret clearance, to secret and confidential material; and a confidential clearance, to confidential material. [CNSSI-4009] Formal security determination by an authorized adjudicative office that an individual is authorized access, on a need-to-know basis, to a specific level of collateral classified information (TOP SECRET, SECRET, CONFIDENTIAL). [CNSSI] The official determination of a person's trustworthiness, based on a records review and past behavior. [800-37] The process of transmitting, reconciling, and in some cases, confirming payment orders or financial instrument transfer instructions prior to settlement. [FFIEC] (see also access, authorization, authorized, certification, classified, security, trust)
clearance certification
Official notification that an individual holds a specific level of security clearance and/or access approval, authorizing the recipient of the certification access to classified information or materials at that level. [DSS] (see also access, classified, security, certification)
clearance level
(I) The security level of information to which a security clearance authorizes a person to have access. [RFC2828] (see also access, access control, classification levels, information, security, security clearance)
cleared commercial carrier
Carrier authorized by law, regulatory body, or regulation, to transport SECRET and CONFIDENTIAL material and has been granted a SECRET facility clearance in accordance with the National Industrial Security Program. [DSS] (see also authorized, security)
cleared employees
Contractor employees granted Personnel Security Clearances as well as employees being processed for Personnel Security Clearances. [DSS] (see also security)
cleared escort
Appropriately cleared U.S. citizen, at least 18 years of age, who performs access control/escort duties on limited and minor construction, repair, or maintenance projects in Sensitive Compartmented Information Facilities or other classified areas not requiring a Construction Surveillance Technician. [DSS] (see also United States citizen, access, classified)
clearing
Removal of data from an IS, its storage devices, and other peripheral devices with storage capacity, in such a way that the data may not be reconstructed using common system capabilities (i.e. keyboard strokes); however, the data may be reconstructed using laboratory methods. Cleared media may be reused at the same classification level or at a higher level. Overwriting is one method of clearing. [CNSSI] Removal of data from an information system, its storage devices, and other peripheral devices with storage capacity, in such a way that the data may not be reconstructed using common system capabilities (i.e. through the keyboard); however, the data may be reconstructed using laboratory methods. [CNSSI-4009] Removal of information from the media to facilitate continued use and to prevent the Automated Information System from recovering previously stored data. However, the data may be recovered using laboratory techniques. Overwriting and degaussing are acceptable methods of clearing media. [DSS] (see also classified, key, system)
cleartext
(I) Data in which the semantic information content (i.e. the meaning) is intelligible or is directly available. (O) 'Intelligible data, the semantic content of that is available.' (D) ISDs SHOULD NOT use this term as a synonym for 'plaintext', the input to an encryption operation, because the plaintext input to encryption may itself be ciphertext that was output from another operation. [RFC2828] Alternative term for plaintext. [SC27] Information that is not encrypted. [800-82][SP 800-82] Intelligible data, the semantic content of that is available. [AJP][FCv1] (see also encryption, cipher, cryptography, information, operation, process)
client (application)
A system entity, usually a computer process acting on behalf of a human user, that makes use of a service provided by a server. [SP 800-32]
client
(I) A system entity that requests and uses a service provided by another system entity, called a 'server'. (C) Usually, the requesting entity is a computer process, and it makes the request on behalf of a human user. In some cases, the server may itself be a client of some other server. [RFC2828] Depending on the point of view, a client might be a computer system which an end-user uses to access services hosted on another computer system called a server. 'Client' may also refer to a program or a part of a system that is used by an end-user to access services provided by another program (for example, a web browser is a client that accesses pages provided by a Web Server). [RFC2504] Individual or process acting on behalf of an individual who makes requests of a guard or dedicated server. The client's requests to the guard or dedicated server can involve data transfer to, from, or through the guard or dedicated server. [CNSSI][CNSSI-4009] (see also access, access control, computer, entity, process, program, system, users)
client server
The client/server model states that a client (user), whether a person or a computer program, may access authorized services from a server (host) connected anywhere on the distributed computer system. The services provided include database access, data transport, data processing, printing, graphics, electronic mail, word processing, or any other service available on the system. These services may be provided by a remote mainframe using long haul communications or within the user's workstation in real-time or delayed (batch) transaction mode. Such an open access model is required to permit true horizontal and vertical integration. [SRV] (see also access, access control, authorized, communications, computer, model, process, program, system, users, automated information system)
clients, products, and business practices
an unintentional or negligent failure to meet a professional obligation to specific clients (including fiduciary and suitability requirements), or from the nature or design of a product. [2003-53c] (see also requirements, operational risk loss)
Clinger-Cohen Act of 1996
Also known as Information Technology Management Reform Act. A statute that substantially revised the way that IT resources are managed and procured, including a requirement that each agency design and implement a process for maximizing the value and assessing and managing the risks of IT investments. [SP 800-64] (see also management, risk)
Clipper chip
(N) The Mykotronx, Inc. MYK-82, an integrated microcircuit with a cryptographic processor that implements the SKIPJACK encryption algorithm and supports key escrow. (C) The key escrow scheme for a chip involves a SKIPJACK key common to all chips that protects the unique serial number of the chip, and a second SKIPJACK key unique to the chip that protects all data encrypted by the chip. The second key is escrowed as split key components held by NIST and the U.S. Treasury Department. [RFC2828] A tamper-resistant VLSI chip designed by NSA for encrypting voice communications. It conforms to the Escrow Encryption Standard (EES) and implements the Skipjack encryption algorithm. [NSAINT] (see also algorithm, communications, cryptographic, cryptography, encryption, escrow, key, process, standard, tamper, National Institute of Standards and Technology, National Security Agency) (includes Law Enforcement Access Field)
closed area
Area meeting the requirements of Department of Defense Standard 5220.22-M for safeguarding classified material that because of its size, nature, or operational necessity cannot be adequately protected by the normal safeguards or stored during nonworking hours in approved containers. [DSS] (see also classified, requirements)
closed security environment
(O) U.S. Department of Defense usage: A system environment that meets both of the following conditions: (a) Application developers (including maintainers) have sufficient clearances and authorizations to provide an acceptable presumption that they have not introduced malicious logic. (b) Configuration control provides sufficient assurance that system applications and the equipment they run on are protected against the introduction of malicious logic prior to and during the operation of applications. [RFC2828] An environment in which both of the following conditions hold true: (1) Application developers (including maintainers) have sufficient clearances and authorizations to provide an acceptable presumption that they have not introduced malicious logic and (2) configuration control provides sufficient assurance that applications and the equipment are protected against the introduction of malicious logic prior to and during the operation of system applications. [AJP][NCSC/TG004] Environment providing sufficient assurance that applications and equipment are protected against the introduction of malicious logic during an IS lifecycle. Closed security is based upon a system's developers, operators, and maintenance personnel having sufficient clearances, authorization, and configuration control. [CNSSI] Environment providing sufficient assurance that applications and equipment are protected against the introduction of malicious logic during an information system lifecycle. Closed security is based upon a system's developers, operators, and maintenance personnel having sufficient clearances, authorization, and configuration control. [CNSSI-4009] (see also application, assurance, authorization, control, malicious, operation, system, security, software development)
closed storage
Storage of Special Access Program material in properly secured General Services Administration-approved security containers within an accredited Special Access Program Facility. [DSS] Storage of classified information within an accredited facility, in General Services Administration-approved secure containers, while the facility is unoccupied by authorized personnel. [CNSSI-4009] (see also access, security)
closed user group
A closed user group permits users belonging to a group to communicate with each other, but precludes communications with other users who are not members of the group. [AJP][TNI] (see also communications, users)
cloud computing
A model for enabling on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable IT capabilities/ resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications, and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction. It allows users to access technology-based services from the network cloud without knowledge of, expertise with, or control over the technology infrastructure that supports them. This cloud model is composed of five essential characteristics (on-demand self- service, ubiquitous network access, location independent resource pooling, rapid elasticity, and measured service); three service delivery models (Cloud Software as a Service [SaaS], Cloud Platform as a Service [PaaS], and Cloud Infrastructure as a Service [IaaS]); and four models for enterprise access (Private cloud, Community cloud, Public cloud, and Hybrid cloud). Note: Both the user's data and essential security services may reside in and be managed within the network cloud. [CNSSI-4009] (see also access, control, management, security, software, users)
cluster controller
A device that manages the input and output of several devices [NASA] (see also control)
cluster sample
A simple random sample in which each sampling unit is a collection of elements. [SRV] (see also random)
co-utilization
Two or more organizations sharing the same Special Access Program Facility. [DSS] (see also access)
coalition
Arrangement between one or more nations for common action; multi-national action outside the bounds of established alliances, usually for single occasions or longer cooperation in a narrow sector of common interest; or a forced composed of military elements of nations that have formed a temporary alliance for some specific purpose. [DSS]
coaxial cable
A cable that consists of two conductors, a center wire inside a cylindrical shield that is grounded. The shield is typically made of braided wire and is insulated from the center wire. The shield minimizes electrical and radio-frequency interference; signals in a coaxial cable do not affect nearby components, and potential interference from these components does not affect the signal carried on the [SRV]
code
(I) noun: A system of symbols used to represent information, which might originally have some other representation. (D) ISDs SHOULD NOT use this term as synonym for the following: (a) 'cipher', 'hash', or other words that mean 'a cryptographic algorithm'; (b) 'ciphertext'; or (c) 'encrypt', 'hash', or other words that refer to applying a cryptographic algorithm. (D) ISDs SHOULD NOT this word as an abbreviation for the following terms: country code, cyclic redundancy code, Data Authentication Code, error detection code, Message Authentication Code, object code, or source code. To avoid misunderstanding, use the fully qualified term, at least at the point of first usage. [RFC2828] (COMSEC) System of communication in which arbitrary groups of letters, numbers, or symbols represent units of plain text of varying length. [CNSSI] In computer programming, a set of symbols used to represent characters and format commands and instructions in a program. Source code refers to the set of commands and instructions making up a program. [CIAO] System of communication in which arbitrary groups of letters, numbers, or symbols represent units of plain text of varying length. [CNSSI-4009] (see also British Standard 7799, CASE tools, Distinguished Encoding Rules, El Gamal algorithm, Generic Security Service Application Program Interface, Integrated CASE tools, POSIX, Type II cryptography, algorithm, antivirus tools, application generator, application program interface, authentication, authentication token, blended attack, buffer overflow, card personalization, certificate management, cipher, cipher block chaining, cipher feedback, cipher suite, coding, communications security, compiled viruses, compiler, completeness, computer, crack, cryptographic, cryptographic application programming interface, cryptographic key, cryptography, cyclic redundancy check, data driven attack, dc servo drive, decrypt, domain name, dynamic analysis, encrypt, encryption, exploit, fault injection, fork bomb, gateway, hash, hash token, identification authentication, imprint, information, instrumentation, interface, interpreted virus, keyed hash algorithm, keying material, killer packets, logic bombs, maintenance hook, malicious program, malware, message, national security system, network sniffing, null, object, out-of-band, output transformation, passive security testing, patch, payload, penetration test, penetration testing, personal identification number, polymorphism, portability, positive control material, primary account number, program, protocols, reduction-function, reverse engineering, revoked state, scalability, secure hash standard, security perimeter, sensitive information, shim, simple network management protocol, spyware, state delta verification system, syllabary, symmetric key, synchronous flood, system, technical vulnerability information, test case generator, test cycle, time bomb, trapdoor, trojan horse, trust, unit, untrusted process, variant, verification, virus, worm) (includes American Standard Code for Information Interchange, accounting legend code, authentication code, bar code, code amber, code book, code coverage, code division multiple access, code green, code group, code red, code vocabulary, coded switch system, country code, data authentication code, data authentication code vs. Data Authentication Code, decode, electronic codebook, encode, error detection code, executable code, hash code, hashed message authentication code, malicious code, manipulation detection code, message authentication code, message authentication code algorithm, message authentication code vs. Message Authentication Code, message integrity code, microcode, mobile code, object code, one-part code, operations code, source code, source code generator, two-part code)
code amber
Significantly debilitate the ability of the Agency to fulfill its mission, critical national security or national economic security functions or provide continuity of government services. [CIAO] (see also critical, function, security, code, critical infrastructures, threat)
code book
Document containing plain text and code equivalents in a systematic arrangement, or a technique of machine encryption using a word substitution technique. [CNSSI][CNSSI-4009] (see also encryption, system, code)
code coverage
An analysis method that determines which parts of the software have been executed (covered) by the test case suite and which parts have not been executed and therefore may require additional attention. [OVT] (see also analysis, software, test, code)
code division multiple access (CDMA)
A digital cellular phone spread spectrum technology that assigns a code to all speech bits, sends a scrambled transmission of the encoded speech over the air and reassembles the speech to its original format. [IATF] (see also cryptography, technology, access, code, security)
code green
No appreciable impact on Agency missions. [CIAO] (see also code, critical infrastructures)
code group
Group of letters, numbers, or both in a code system used to represent a plain text word, phrase, or sentence. [CNSSI][CNSSI-4009] (see also system, code)
code red
Prevent the Agency from fulfilling its mission, critical national security or national economic security functions or from providing continuity of core government services. From the perspective of an attacker, this would constitute a 'Kill.' [CIAO] (see also attack, critical, function, security, code, critical infrastructures, threat)
code vocabulary
Set of plain text words, numerals, phrases, or sentences for which code equivalents are assigned in a code system. [CNSSI][CNSSI-4009] (see also system, code)
code word
A code word is a single word assigned a classified meaning by appropriate authority to ensure proper security concerning intentions and to safeguard information pertaining to actual, real-world military plans or operations classified as CONFIDENTIAL or higher. [DSS] (see also classified, security)
coded switch system (CSS)
(see also code, system)
coding
Creating the software used by the computer from program flowcharts or pseudocode. [SRV] (see also code, computer, flow, program, software)
coefficient of variation
The ratio produced by dividing the standard deviation by the mean value. It provides an indication of the consistency of the data. [SRV] (see also standard)
coercive force
Negative or reverse magnetic force applied for the purpose of reducing magnetic flux density. [DSS]
coercivity
Property of magnetic material, measured in Oersteds, used a measure of the amount of coercive force required to reduce the magnetic induction to zero from its remnant state. Generally used as a measure of the difficulty with which magnetic Information System storage devices can be degaussed. [DSS]
cognizant security agency
Security cognizance remains with each Federal department or agency unless lawfully delegated. The term Cognizant Security Agency denotes the Department of Defense, Department of Energy, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and Central Intelligence Agency. The Secretary of Defense, the Secretary of Energy, the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency and the Chairman, Nuclear Regulatory Commission may delegate any aspect of security administration regarding classified activities and contracts under their purview within the Cognizant Security Agency or to another Cognizant Security Agency. Responsibility for security administration may be further delegated by a Cognizant Security Agency to one or more Cognizant Security Offices. It is the obligation of each Cognizant Security Agency to inform industry of the applicable Cognizant Security Offices. [DSS] (see also classified, intelligence, security)
cognizant security office
Organizational entity delegated by the Head of a Cognizant Security Agency to administer industrial security on behalf of the Cognizant Security Agency. [DSS] (see also security)
cohabitant
A person living in a spouse-like relationship with the individual who requires Sensitive Compartmented Information. [DSS]
cold site
A backup facility that has the necessary electrical and physical components of a computer facility, but does not have the computer equipment in place. The site is ready to receive the necessary replacement computer equipment in the event that the user has to move from their main computing location to an alternate site. [SP 800-34] An alternate site with necessary electrical and communications connections and computer equipment, but no running system, maintained by an organization to facilitate prompt resumption of service after a disaster. [CIAO] Backup site that can be up and operational in a relatively short time span, such as a day or two. Provision of services, such as telephone lines and power, is taken care of, and the basic office furniture might be in place, but there is unlikely to be any computer equipment, even though the building might well have a network infrastructure and a room ready to act as a server room. In most cases, cold sites provide the physical location and basic services. [CNSSI-4009] (see also communications, computer, connection, hot site, system, disaster recovery)
cold start
Procedure for initially keying cryptographic equipment. [CNSSI][CNSSI-4009] (see also cryptography, key, users)
collaborative computing
Applications and technology (e.g. , whiteboarding, group conferencing) that allow two or more individuals to share information real time in an inter- or intra-enterprise environment. [CNSSI] (see also application, information, technology)
collateral information
Collateral information is National Security Information created in parallel with Special Access Information under the provisions of Executive Order 12356 (et. al.) but that is not subject to the added formal security protection required for Special Access Information. [DSS] (see also access, security, security clearance, subject)
collision
Two or more distinct inputs produce the same output. Also see Hash Function. [SP 800-57 Part 1]
collision-resistant hash function
A hash function satisfying the following property: NOTE - Computational feasibility depends on the specific security requirements and environment. [SC27] (see also property, requirements, function, hash)
color change
(I) In a system that is being operated in periods processing mode, the act of purging all information from one processing period and then changing over to the next processing period. [RFC2828] (see also information, process, system)
command and control (C2)
The exercise of authority and direction by a properly designated commander over assigned and attached forces in the accomplishment of the mission. Command and control functions are performed through an arrangement of personnel, equipment, communications, facilities, and procedures employed by a commander in planning, directing, coordinating, and controlling forces and operations in the accomplishment of the mission. [800-60] (see also C2-protect, Defense Information Infrastructure, authority, communications, function, operation, control) (includes command and control warfare, command, control, and communications, command, control, communications and computers, command, control, communications and intelligence, global command and control system, nuclear command and control document)
command and control warfare (C2W)
Integrated use of operations security, military deception, psychological operations, electronic warfare, and physical destruction. Command and control warfare is mutually supported by intelligence to deny information to influence, degrade, or destroy adversary command and control capabilities. This process is accomplished while protecting friendly command and control capabilities against such actions. Command and control warfare applies across the operational continuum and all levels of conflict. [DSS] The integrated use of operations security, military deception, psychological operations, electronic warfare, and physical destruction, mutually supported by intelligence, to deny information to, influence, degrade, or destroy adversary command and control capabilities, while protecting friendly command and control capabilities against such actions. Command and control warfare is an application of information operations in military operations and is a subset of information warfare. C2W is both offensive and defensive. [NSAINT] (see also adversary, application, information, intelligence, operation, security, command and control, control, warfare)
command authority
Individual responsible for the appointment of user representatives for a department, agency, or organization and their key ordering privileges. [CNSSI][CNSSI-4009][DSS] (see also key, users, authority)
command, control, and communications (C3)
(see also command and control, communications, control)
command, control, communications and computers (C4)
(see also command and control, communications, computer, control)
command, control, communications and intelligence (C3I)
(see also command and control, communications, control, intelligence)
Commercial COMSEC Endorsement Program (CCEP)
(see also communications security, program)
Commercial COMSEC Evaluation Program
Relationship between NSA and industry in which NSA provides the COMSEC expertise (i.e. standards, algorithms, evaluations, and guidance) and industry provides design, development, and production capabilities to produce a type 1 or type 2 product. Products developed under the CCEP may include modules, subsystems, equipment, systems, and ancillary devices. [CNSSI] (see also algorithm, module, standard, system, communications security, evaluation, program)
commercial off-the-shelf software
Software that a vendor has developed, tested, placed on the market, and advertised as a salable product [NASA] (see also COTS software, test, software)
commercial software
Software available through lease or purchase in the commercial market from an organization representing itself to have ownership of marketing rights in the software. [SRV] (see also owner, software)
commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS)
A product that has been designed and built to serve a large market by implementing popular components and providing popular services. [800-130] Commercial-off-the-shelf or simply off-the-shelf is a term for software or hardware, generally technology or computer products, that are ready made and available for sale, lease, or license to the general public. The products are often used as alternatives to in-house developments or one-off Government-funded developments. The use of commercial-off-the-shelf is being mandated across many government and business programs, as it may offer significant savings in procurement and maintenance. However, since commercial-off-the-shelf software specifications are written by external sources, government agencies are sometimes wary of these products because they fear that future changes to the product will not be under their control. [DSS] (includes COTS software)
Committee of sponsoring organizations (of the Treadway Commission) (COSO)
commodity service
An information system service (e.g., telecommunications service) provided by a commercial service provider typically to a large and diverse set of consumers. The organization acquiring and/or receiving the commodity service possesses limited visibility into the management structure and operations of the provider, and while the organization may be able to negotiate service-level agreements, the organization is typically not in a position to require that the provider implement specific security controls. [SP 800-53] (see also control, management, security)
common access card
Standard identification/smart card issued by the Department of Defense that has an embedded integrated chip storing public key infrastructure (PKI) certificates. [CNSSI-4009] (see also access)
common carrier
In a telecommunications context, a telecommunications company that holds itself out to the public for hire to provide communications transmission services. Note: In the United States, such companies are usually subject to regulation by federal and state regulatory commissions. [SP 800-53]
common control
A security control that is inherited by one or more organizational information systems. See Security Control Inheritance. [SP 800-53; SP 800-53A; SP 800-37; CNSSI-4009] (see also security, control)
common control provider
An organizational official responsible for the development, implementation, assessment, and monitoring of common controls (i.e. security controls inherited by information systems). [SP 800-37; SP 800-53A] (see also development, security, control)
common criteria
Governing document that provides a comprehensive, rigorous method for specifying security function and assurance requirements for products and systems. [CNSSI-4009] Provides a comprehensive, rigorous method for specifying security function and assurance requirements for products and systems. (International Standard ISO/IEC 5408, Common Criteria for Information Technology Security Evaluation [ITSEC]) [CNSSI] The Common Criteria for Information Technology Security Evaluation [CC98] is a catalog of security functional and assurance requirements and has a central role in the National Information Assurance Program. [IATF] (see also Common Criteria for Information Technology Security, assurance, computer security, evaluation, function, information, information assurance, program, requirements, role, security, standard, system, technology, criteria)
Common Criteria for Information Technology Security (CC)
(N) 'The Common Criteria' is a standard for evaluating information technology products and systems, such as operating systems, computer networks, distributed systems, and applications. It states requirements for security functions and for assurance measures. (C) Canada, France, Germany, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and the United States (NIST and NSA) began developing this standard in 1993, based on the European ITSEC, the Canadian Trusted Computer Product Evaluation Criteria (CTCPEC), and the U.S. 'Federal Criteria for Information Technology Security' (FC) and its precursor, the TCSEC. Work was done in cooperation with ISO/IEC Joint Technical Committee 1 (Information Technology), Subcommittee 27 (Security Techniques), Working Group 3 (Security Criteria). Version 2.1 of the Criteria is equivalent to ISO's International Standard 15408. The U.S. Government intends that this standard eventually will supersede both the TCSEC and FIPS PUB 140-1. (C) The standard addresses data confidentiality, data integrity, and availability and may apply to other aspects of security. It focuses on threats to information arising from human activities, malicious or otherwise, but may apply to non-human threats. It applies to security measures implemented in hardware, firmware, or software. It does not apply to (a) administrative security not related directly to technical security, (b) technical physical aspects of security such as electromagnetic emanation control, (c) evaluation methodology or administrative and legal framework under which the criteria may be applied, (d) procedures for use of evaluation results, or (e) assessment of inherent qualities of cryptographic algorithms. [RFC2828] Evolving international security evaluation criteria being developed by the US, Canada, the UK, Germany, and France. [AJP] (see also common criteria, National Security Agency, algorithm, application, assessment, assurance, availability, computer, computer network, confidentiality, control, cryptographic, cryptography, emanation, emanations security, evaluation, function, integrity, malicious, network, operation, requirements, software, standard, system, threat, trust, version, National Institute of Standards and Technology, computer security, criteria, information, security, technology) (includes Common Criteria for Information Technology Security Evaluation, national information assurance partnership)
Common Criteria for Information Technology Security Evaluation (CCITSE)
The Common Criteria for Information Technology Security Evaluation is a joint effort between North America and certain European countries to develop a single set of international criteria for use as the basis for evaluation of IT security properties. The requirements can also be used, in conjunction with a risk assessment, for the selection of appropriate IT security measures. [misc] (see also IT security, assessment, requirements, risk, Common Criteria for Information Technology Security, computer security, criteria, evaluation, information, technology) (includes Canadian Trusted Computer Product Evaluation Criteria, European Information Technology Security Evaluation Criteria, Federal Criteria for Information Technology Security, Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria, assurance component, common criteria version 1.0, common criteria version 2.0, component dependencies, component extensibility, component hierarchy, component operations, evaluation assurance level, functional component, protection profile, security target, trusted gateway)
Common Criteria Testing Laboratory (CCTL)
Within the context of the NIAP Common Criteria Evaluation and Validation Scheme, an IT security evaluation facility, accredited by the U.S. National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program (NVLAP) and approved by the NIAP Oversight Body to conduct CC-based evaluations. [NIAP] (see also IT security, accreditation, computer security, evaluation, program, validation, criteria, national information assurance partnership, security testing, test) (includes Monitoring of Evaluations, Scope of Accreditation, Validation Certificate, approved technologies list, approved test methods list, deliverables list, designated laboratories list, designating authority, designation policy, evaluation technical report, evaluation work plan, observation reports)
Common Criteria Testing Program (CCTP)
NIAP program described in the NIAP Common Criteria Evaluation and Validation Scheme [NIAP] (see also evaluation, validation, criteria, national information assurance partnership, program, security testing, test)
common criteria version 1.0 (CC1)
Common Criteria Editorial Board, Common Criteria for Information Technology Security Evaluation, Version 1.0, 96/01/31. [CC1] (see also computer security, information, technology, Common Criteria for Information Technology Security Evaluation, criteria, version)
common criteria version 2.0 (CC2)
Common Criteria for Information Technology Security Evaluation, Version 2.0, May, 1998. [CC2] (see also computer security, information, technology, Common Criteria for Information Technology Security Evaluation, criteria, version)
common data security
A set of layered security services that address communications and data security architecture (CDSA) problems in the emerging PC business space. The CDSA consists of three basic layers: A set of system security services, The Common Security Services Manager (CSSM), and Add-in Security Modules (CSPs, TPs, CLs, DLs). [Intel] (see also communications, module, system, common data security architecture)
common data security architecture (CDSA)
Intel's multi-API security framework for encryption and authentication. [Intel] (see also authentication, encryption, security) (includes common data security, common security, common security services manager, cryptographic service, cryptographic service providers)
Common Evaluation Methodology (CEM)
(see also evaluation, national information assurance partnership)
common fill device (CFD)
One of a family of devices developed to read-in, transfer, or store key. [CNSSI][CNSSI-4009] (see also key)
common gateway interface (CGI)
CGI is the method that Web servers use to allow interaction between servers and programs. [NSAINT] The CGI programs are insecure programs that allow the web server to execute an external program when particular uniform resource locators (URLs) are accessed. [SRV] (see also access, access control, program, resource, gateway, interface, world wide web) (includes CGI scripts)
common interswitch rekeying key (CIRK)
(see also key, rekey)
Common IP Security Option (CIPSO)
(see also security)
common misuse scoring system
(CMSS) A set of measures of the severity of software feature misuse vulnerabilities. A software feature is a functional capability provided by software. A software feature misuse vulnerability is a vulnerability in which the feature also provides an avenue to compromise the security of a system. [NISTIR 7864] (see also security, software, vulnerability)
common name
(I) A alphanumeric string that (a) may be a part of the X.500 DN of a Directory object ('commonName' attribute), (b) is a (possibly ambiguous) name by which the object is commonly known in some limited scope (such as an organization), and (c) conforms to the naming conventions of the country or culture with which it is associated. X.509 public-key certificate.) (C) For example, 'Dr. E. F. Moore', 'The United Nations', or '12-th Floor Laser Printer'. [RFC2828] (see also X.509, certificate, key, object, public-key, public-key infrastructure)
common platform enumeration
(CPE) A SCAP specification that provides a standard naming convention for operating systems, hardware, and applications for the purpose of providing consistent, easily parsed names that can be shared by multiple parties and solutions to refer to the same specific platform type. [SP 800-128]
common security
The central layer of the Common Data Security Architecture (CDSA) Services Manager defines six key service components: Cryptographic Services Manager, Trust Policy Services Manager, Certificate Library Services Manager, Data Storage Library Services Manager, Integrity Services Manager, and Security Context Manager. The CSSM binds together all the security services required by PC applications. In particular, it facilitates linking digital certificates to cryptographic actions and trust protocols. [Intel] (see also application, certificate, cryptographic, integrity, key, policy, protocols, public-key infrastructure, trust, common data security architecture)
common security services manager (CSSM)
(see also common data security architecture)
common vulnerabilities and exposures
A simplified dictionary/nomenclature being developed through collaborative effort of the cyber community in order to provide common names for publicly known vulnerabilities (design flaws) and exposures (risky services). [CIAO] (see also cyberspace, risk, exposures, vulnerability)
communication and data security architecture (CDSA)
(see common data security architecture) (see also security)
communication channel
The physical media and devices that provide the means for transmitting information from one component of a network to (one or more) other components. [AJP][TNI] (see also information, network, channel, communications) (includes internal communication channel)
communication equipment room (CER)
(see also communications)
communication link
The physical means of connecting one location to another for the purpose of transmitting and/or receiving data. [AJP][TNI] (see also communications)
communications
A family of security controls in the technical class dealing with ensuring that communications are appropriately protected by encryption or PDSs, that controlled interfaces are installed and appropriately configured as required to protect the IT system, and that dial-in and remote access is appropriately controlled, protected, and monitored. [800-37] (see also American National Standards Institute, CCI equipment, COMSEC aid, COMSEC equipment, COMSEC material, COMSEC module, COMSEC monitoring, COMSEC survey, CRYPTO, Clipper chip, Defense Information Infrastructure, Escrowed Encryption Standard, IT resources, ITU-T, Integrated services digital network, National Security Decision Directive 145, OSI architecture, Rivest-Shamir-Adleman algorithm, TEMPEST, access, access control, active wiretapping, alarm surveillance, application, application program interface, approval/accreditation, audit trail, authenticate, availability, bandwidth, between-the-lines-entry, binding, bit error rate, bulk encryption, capability, cell, cellular transmission, channel capacity, circuit switching, client server, closed user group, cold site, command and control, common data security, component, computer fraud, content filtering, control, controlled cryptographic item, covert channel, covert timing channel, cracker, cross-talk, cryptography, cryptology, cybersecurity, cyberspace, deception, delegated development program, dial-up, dial-up line, digital telephony, distributed processing, electronic commerce, electronic data interchange, electronic key management system, electronic security, email, encryption, end-to-end encryption, exercise key, extraction resistance, fault, field device, field site, frequency hopping, front-end processor, full-duplex, gateway, general support system, global information grid, global information infrastructure, help desk, host, inference, information processing standard, information superhighway, information systems security engineering, information technology, information technology system, interface, interference, internet, internet control message protocol, internet protocol, internetwork, intranet, key exchange, key management/exchange, key recovery, line conditioning, line conduction, link, link encryption, local loop, local-area network, major application, message indicator, mission critical, multicast, multilevel security, national information infrastructure, national security system, nations, network architecture, network configuration, network device, network layer security, network management, network management architecture, network management protocol, network weaving, online certificate status protocol, open system interconnection model, operations code, outage, over-the-air key transfer, over-the-air rekeying, overt channel, packet filtering, passive wiretapping, peer-to-peer communication, per-call key, personal firewall, platform, port, privacy system, protocol suite, protocols, public-key infrastructure, reliability, remote access, remote terminal emulation, remote terminal unit, replay attacks, secure hypertext transfer protocol, secure socket layer, security, security controls, security perimeter, session hijack attack, signaling, simple network management protocol, software, spread spectrum, subcommittee on Automated Information System security, subnetwork, superencryption, system, system assets, systems security steering group, systems software, technology area, telecommuting, teleprocessing, traffic analysis, traffic padding, traffic-flow security, transmission security, transport mode vs. tunnel mode, trusted gateway, tunnel, user data protocol, virtual private network, war dialer, wide-area network, wiretapping, worm, network) (includes National Communications System, National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee, National Security Telecommunications and Information Systems Security Advisory/Information Memorandum, National Security Telecommunications and Information Systems Security Committee, National Security Telecommunications and Information Systems Security Directive, National Security Telecommunications and Information Systems Security Instruction, National Security Telecommunications and Information Systems Security Policy, National Telecommunications and Information Administration, National Telecommunications and Information Systems Security Advisory Memoranda/Instructions, National Telecommunications and Information Systems Security Directive, National Telecommunications and Information Systems Security Instruction, National Telecommunications and Information Systems Security Policy, asynchronous communication, command, control, and communications, command, control, communications and computers, command, control, communications and intelligence, communication channel, communication equipment room, communication link, communications cover, communications deception, communications electronics operating instruction, communications profile, communications protocol, communications security element, data communications, defense communications system, diplomatic telecommunications service, federal telecommunications system, global telecommunications service, government emergency telecommunications service, imitative communications, information and communications, internal communication channel, manipulative communications deception, minimum essential emergency communications network, national telecommunications and information system security directives, personal communications network, private communication technology, protected communications, protected communications zone, secure communications, subcommittee on telecommunications security, telecommunications, telecommunications security, tri-service tactical communications system)
communications cover
Concealing or altering of characteristic communications patterns to hide information that could be of value to an adversary. [CNSSI][CNSSI-4009] (see also adversary, information, communications)
communications deception
Deliberate transmission, retransmission, or alteration of communications to mislead an adversary's interpretation of the communications. [CNSSI][CNSSI-4009] (see also adversary, assurance, communications, security)
communications electronics operating instruction (CEOI)
(see also communications)
communications intelligence
Technical and intelligence information derived from the intercept of foreign communications by other than the intended recipients of those communications. [DSS] (see also foreign, intelligence)
communications profile
Analytic model of communications associated with an organization or activity. The model is prepared from a systematic examination of communications content and patterns, the functions they reflect, and the communications security measures applied. [CNSSI][CNSSI-4009][DSS] (see also communications security, function, security, system, communications, file, profile)
communications protocol
A set of rules or standards designed to enable computers to connect with one another and to exchange information with as little error as possible. [SRV] (see also computer, information, standard, communications, protocols)
communications security (COMSEC)
(I) Measures that implement and assure security services in a communication system, particularly those that provide data confidentiality and data integrity and that authenticate communicating entities. (C) Usually understood to include cryptographic algorithms and key management methods and processes, devices that implement them, and the lifecycle management of keying material and devices. [RFC2828] (COMSEC) A component of Information Assurance that deals with measures and controls taken to deny unauthorized persons information derived from telecommunications and to ensure the authenticity of such telecommunications. COMSEC includes crypto security, transmission security, emissions security, and physical security of COMSEC material. [CNSSI-4009] Measures and controls taken to deny unauthorized individuals information derived from telecommunications and to ensure the authenticity of such telecommunications. Communications security includes cryptosecurity, transmission security, emission security, and physical security of COMSEC material. [CNSSI] Measures and controls taken to deny unauthorized persons information derived from telecommunications and to ensure the authenticity of such telecommunications. [IATF] Measures taken to deny unauthorized persons information derived from telecommunications of an entity concerning national or organizational security, and to ensure the authenticity of such telecommunications. Communications security includes crypto-security, transmission security, emission security, and physical security of communications security material and information. [AJP] Measures taken to deny unauthorized persons information derived from telecommunications of the U.S. Government concerning national security, and to ensure the authenticity of such telecommunications. Communications security includes crypto-security, transmission security, emission security, and physical security of communications security material and information. [NCSC/TG004] Protection resulting from all measures designed to deny unauthorized persons valuable information, which experts in electronics or telecommunications might be able to find. Some measures lead unauthorized persons to an incorrect interpretation of the information. [DSS] (see also BLACK, CCI assembly, CCI component, CCI equipment, CRYPTO, FIPS PUB 140-1, Federal Public-key Infrastructure, RED, RED/BLACK separation, Secure Data Exchange, TSEC nomenclature, access control lists, accountability, accounting legend code, accounting number, alert, algorithm, approval/accreditation, assurance, audit trail, authentication, authorized, central office of record, code, communications profile, computer emergency response team, confidentiality, control, cryptographic, cryptography, data transfer device, design controlled spare parts, direct shipment, drop accountability, electronic attack, electronic key management system, electronically generated key, element, encryption algorithm, entity, fill device, fixed COMSEC facility, frequency hopping, incident, information, information security, integrity, key, key distribution center, key management, limited maintenance, local management device/key processor, long title, mandatory modification, network sponsor, optional modification, procedural security, process, protective packaging, repair action, security architecture, security incident, security net control station, short title, supersession, system, systems security steering group, telecommunications, test key, time-compliance date, transmission security, trusted path, two-person integrity, updating, user representative, Automated Information System security, security) (includes COMSEC Material Control System, COMSEC Parent Switch, COMSEC Resources Program, COMSEC Subordinate Switch, COMSEC Utility Program, COMSEC account, COMSEC account audit, COMSEC aid, COMSEC boundary, COMSEC chip set, COMSEC control program, COMSEC custodian, COMSEC end-item, COMSEC equipment, COMSEC facility, COMSEC incident, COMSEC insecurity, COMSEC manager, COMSEC material, COMSEC modification, COMSEC module, COMSEC monitoring, COMSEC profile, COMSEC survey, COMSEC system data, COMSEC training, Commercial COMSEC Endorsement Program, Commercial COMSEC Evaluation Program, National COMSEC Advisory Memorandum, National COMSEC Information Memorandum, National COMSEC Instruction, advanced self-protection jammer, alternate COMSEC custodian, anti-jam, anti-jamming, communications security element, crypto-security, emissions security, internet protocol security, meaconing, intrusion, jamming, and interference, network security, network security architecture, network security architecture and design, network security officer, subcommittee on telecommunications security, telecommunications security)
communications security element (CSE)
(see also communications, communications security)
communications security monitoring
Act of listening to, copying, or recording transmissions of one's own official telecommunications to analyze the degree of security. [CNSSI][CNSSI-4009][DSS] (see also security)
community of interest
A collaborative group of users who exchange information in pursuit of their shared goals, interests, missions, or business processes, and who therefore must have a shared vocabulary for the information they exchange. The group exchanges information within and between systems to include security domains. [CNSSI-4009] Restricted network of users, each having an Information System with an accredited security parameter identical to the others and having the need to communicate securely with other members of the network. [DSS] (see also security, users)
community risk
Probability that a particular vulnerability will be exploited within an interacting population and adversely impact some members of that population. [CNSSI][CNSSI-4009][DSS] (see also vulnerability, risk)
community string
(I) A community name in the form of an octet string that serves as cleartext password in SNMP version 1. [RFC2828] (see also passwords, version)
company
Generic and comprehensive term that may include sole proprietorships, individuals, partnerships, corporations, societies, associations, and organizations usually established and operating to carry out a commercial, industrial or other legitimate business, enterprise, or undertaking. [DSS]
comparisons
The process of comparing a biometric with a previously stored reference. [FIPS 201] The process of comparing a biometric with a previously stored reference. See also 'Identification' and 'Identity Verification'. [GSA] (see also entity, identification, identity, process, verification, biometrics)
compartment
(1) A designation applied to a type of sensitive information, indicating the special handling procedures to be used for the information and the general class of people who may have access to the information. It can refer to the designation of information belonging to one or more categories. (2) A class of information in the U.S. Government that has need-to-know access controls beyond those normally provided for access to Confidential, Secret, or Top Secret information. [AJP] (I) A grouping of sensitive information items that require special access controls beyond those normally provided for the basic classification level of the information. (C) The term is usually understood to include the special handling procedures to be used for the information. [RFC2828] A class of information that has need-to-know access controls beyond those normally provided for access to Confidential, Secret or Top Secret information. [NCSC/TG004] A designation applied to a type of sensitive information, indicating the special handling procedures to be used for the information and the general class of people who may have access to the information. It can refer to the designation of information belonging to one or more categories. [TNI] (see also access, access control, classification levels, classified, control, information)
compartment key (CK)
(see also key)
compartmentalization
A nonhierarchical grouping of sensitive information used to control access to data more finely than with hierarchical security classification alone. [CNSSI][CNSSI-4009] (see also access, access control, classified, control, information, security)
compartmentation
Formal system for restricting access to selected activities or information. The establishment and management of an organization so that information about personnel, internal organization, or activities of one component is made available to any other component only to the extent required for performance of assigned duties. [DSS] (see also access)
compartmented intelligence
National intelligence placed in a Director of National Intelligence-approved control system to ensure handling by specifically identified access approved individuals. [DSS] (see also access, intelligence)
compartmented mode
Mode of operation wherein each user with direct or indirect access to a system, its peripherals, remote terminals, or remote hosts has all of the following: (1) valid security clearance for the most restricted information processed in the system; (2) formal access approval and signed nondisclosure agreements for that information which a user is to have access; and (3) valid need-to-know for information which a user is to have access. [CNSSI-4009] Mode of operation wherein each user with direct or indirect access to a system, its peripherals, remote terminals, or remote hosts has all of the following: (a) valid security clearance for the most restricted information processed in the system; (b) formal access approval and signed nondisclosure agreements for that information which a user is to have access; and (c) valid need-to-know for information which a user is to have access. [CNSSI] (see also access, access control, information, operation, process, security, system, users)
compelling need
Requirement for immediate access to special program information to prevent failure of the mission or operation or other cogent reasons. [DSS] (see also access)
compensating security controls
A management, operational, and/or technical control (i.e. safeguard or countermeasure) employed by an organization in lieu of a recommended security control in the low, moderate, or high baselines that provides equivalent or comparable protection for an information system. NIST SP 800-53: A management, operational, and technical control (i.e. safeguard or countermeasure) employed by an organization in lieu of the recommended control in the baselines described in NIST Special Publication 800-53 or in CNSS Instruction 1253, that provide equivalent or comparable protection for an information system. [CNSSI-4009] The management, operational, and technical controls (i.e. safeguards or countermeasures) employed by an organization in lieu of the recommended controls in the baselines described in NIST Special Publication 800-53 and CNSS Instruction 1253, that provide equivalent or comparable protection for an information system. [SP 800-53A; SP 800-53] The management, operational, and technical controls (i.e. safeguards or countermeasures) employed by an organization in lieu of the recommended controls in the low, moderate, or high baselines described in NIST Special Publication 800-53, that provide equivalent or comparable protection for an information system. [800-53][SP 800-37] (see also countermeasures, information, management, operation, system, control, security)
competition
Activity of two or more entities taken in consideration of each other to achieve differing objectives. The commercial analogue of military combat. [CIAO] (see also object)
compiled viruses
A virus that has had its source code converted by a compiler program into a format that can be directly executed by an operating system. [800-83] (see also code, program, system, virus)
compiler
A computer program that translates large sections of source code into object code the computer can understand. [SRV] (see also code, computer, object, program, source code, software development)
completeness
The degree to which all of the software's required functions and design constraints are present and fully developed in the software requirements, software design, and code. [SRV] (see also code, function, requirements, software)
compliance-based
A structured, top-down approach to IT security wherein each system must meet the same standards set program-wide. [NASA] (see also IT security, program, security, standard, system)
component
(1) A device or set of devices consisting of hardware, along with its firmware and/or software, that performs a specific function on a computer communications network. A component is a part of the larger system and may itself consist of other components. Examples include modems, telecommunications controllers, message switches, technical control devices, host computers, gateways, communications subnets, and so on. (2) An identifiable and self-contained portion of a Target of Evaluation that is subjected to security evaluation. (3) An organization that is part of a larger organization, e.g. a U.S. Defense Component. (4) A requirement that is part of a larger set of requirements that may be called a package. e.g. protection profiles are assembled from components. Groups of components can be assembled into predefined packages. [AJP] A device or set of devices, consisting of hardware, along with its firmware, and/or software that performs a specific function on a computer communications network. A component is a part of the larger system, and may itself consist of other components. Examples include modems, telecommunications controllers, message switches, technical control devices, host computers, gateways, communications subnets, etc. [TNI] An IT assembly, or part thereof, that is essential to the operation of some larger IT assembly and is an immediate subdivision of the IT assembly to which it belongs, (e.g., a trusted guard, biometrics device, or firewall would be a component of a computer system.). [800-37] An element of a large system, such as an identity card, PIV Issuer, PIV Registrar, card reader, or identity verification support, within the PIV system. [GSA] An identifiable and self-contained portion of a TOE that is subjected to security evaluation. [JTC1/SC27] An identifiable and self-contained portion of a Target of Evaluation. [ITSEC] An object of testing. An integrated assembly of one or more units and/or associated data objects or one or more components and/or associated data objects. By this (recursive) definition, a component can be anything from a unit to a system. [OVT] The smallest selectable set of elements that may be included in a PP, an ST, or a package. [CC2][CC21][SC27] (see also communications, computer, control, entity, file, function, gateway, identity, message, network, object, operation, profile, security, security testing, software, subject, system, target, telecommunications, test, trust, verification, component dependencies, component extensibility, component hierarchy, component operations, component reference monitor, construction of TOE requirements, target of evaluation) (includes assurance component, basic component, development assurance component, evaluation assurance component, functional component, functional unit, network component)
component dependencies
Dependencies may exist between components. Dependencies arise when a component is not self-sufficient and relies upon the presence of another component. Dependencies may exist between functional components, between assurance components and between functional and assurance components. [CC1] (see also assurance, function, Common Criteria for Information Technology Security Evaluation) (includes component)
component extensibility
The addition to an ST of functional or assurance requirement not defined in the common criteria (CC). Note that the use of such extensions requires the prior approval of a certification body, and may be a barrier to the mutual recognition of evaluation results. [CC1] (see also assurance, certification, criteria, function, Common Criteria for Information Technology Security Evaluation) (includes component, security target)
component hierarchy
The hierarchy of functional and assurance requirements, provided by the Common Criteria is: Class => Family => Component => Element. [CC1] (see also assurance, criteria, function, requirements, Common Criteria for Information Technology Security Evaluation) (includes component)
component operations
Common criteria (CC) components may be used exactly as defined in the common criteria, or they may be tailored through the use of permitted operations to meet a specific security policy or counter a specific threat. Each component identifies and defines any permitted operations, the circumstances under which it may be applied and the results of the application. Permitted operations are: assignment; selection and refinement. [CC1] (see also application, criteria, policy, Common Criteria for Information Technology Security Evaluation, operation) (includes component, security policy, threat)
component reference monitor
An access-control concept that refers to an abstract machine that mediates all access to objects within a component by subjects within the component. [AJP][TNI] (see also access, control, access control) (includes component, object, subject)
comprehensive testing
A test methodology that assumes explicit and substantial knowledge of the internal structure and implementation detail of the assessment object. Also known as white box testing. [SP 800-53A]
compromise
A violation (or suspected violation) of a security policy, in which an unauthorized disclosure of, or loss of control over, sensitive information may have occurred. [GSA] A violation of the security policy of a system such that unauthorized disclosure of sensitive information may have occurred. [NCSC/TG004] A violation of the security policy of a system such that unauthorized disclosure of sensitive information may have occurred. The unauthorized disclosure, modification, substitution, or use of sensitive data (including plaintext cryptographic keys and other critical security parameters). [SRV] A violation of the security system such that an unauthorized disclosure of sensitive information may have occurred. [AJP][TNI] An intrusion into a computer system where unauthorized disclosure, modification or destruction of sensitive information may have occurred [NSAINT] An intrusion into a computer system where unauthorized disclosure, modification or destruction of sensitive information may have occurred. A violation of the security policy of a system such that unauthorized disclosure of sensitive information may have occurred. [OVT] Disclosure of information to unauthorized persons, or a violation of the security policy of a system in which unauthorized intentional or unintentional disclosure, modification, destruction, or loss of an object may have occurred. [CNSSI-4009][GSA][IATF][SP 800-32] The unauthorized disclosure, modification, substitution or use of sensitive data (e.g., keys, key metadata, and other security-related information) and loss of, or unauthorized intrusion into, an entity containing sensitive data and the conversion of a trusted entity to an adversary. [800-130] The unauthorized disclosure, modification, substitution or use of sensitive data (including plaintext cryptographic keys and other critical security parameters). [FIPS140] The unauthorized disclosure, modification, substitution, or use of sensitive data (including plaintext cryptographic keys and other CSPs). [FIPS 140-2] Type of incident where information is disclosed to unauthorized individuals or a violation of the security policy of a system in which unauthorized intentional or unintentional disclosure, modification, destruction, or loss of an object may have occurred. [CNSSI] Unauthorized disclosure of classified information. [DSS] (see also DNS spoofing, TEMPEST, TEMPEST shielded, TEMPEST test, acknowledged special access program, acquisition systems protection, adversary, application server attack, attack, authorized, benign, classified, clean system, computer, control, control zone, core secrets, cost-risk analysis, counterintelligence assessment, critical, critical program information, critical security parameters, cryptographic, cryptography, emanations security, emissions security, entity, environmental failure protection, environmental failure testing, file integrity checking, flaw hypothesis methodology, forward secrecy, information, insider, intrusion, invalidity date, key, key lifecycle state, leapfrog attack, line supervision, malware, metadata, multilevel device, object, ohnosecond, payment gateway certification authority, policy, privacy, protective technologies, public-key forward secrecy, revocation, revocation date, risk analysis, robustness, rootkit, security, security audit, security environment threat list, security event, security incident, security infraction, security management infrastructure, security violation, suppression measure, suspicious contact, system, tri-homed, trust, trusted recovery, unacknowledged special access program, version, vulnerability, vulnerability assessment, warehouse attack, incident) (includes areas of potential compromise, compromised key list, compromised state, compromising emanation performance requirement, compromising emanations, data compromise, deliberate compromise of classified information, destroyed compromised state, security compromise)
compromised key list (CKL)
(O) MISSI usage: A list that identifies keys for which unauthorized disclosure or alteration may have occurred. (C) A CKL is issued by an CA, like a CRL is issued. But a CKL lists only KMIDs, not subjects that hold the keys, and not certificates in which the keys are bound. [RFC2828] A list with the Key Material Identifier (KMID) of every user with compromised key material; key material is compromised when a card and its personal identification number (PIN) are uncontrolled or the user has become a threat to the security of the computer system. [IATF] (see also authorized, certificate, computer, control, identification, subject, system, users, compromise, key, multilevel information systems security initiative, public-key infrastructure, threat)
compromised state
A key lifecycle state in which a key is designated as compromised and not used to apply cryptographic protection to data. Under certain circumstances, the key may be used to process already protected data. [800-130] (see also cryptographic, key, lifecycle, process, compromise, key lifecycle state)
compromising emanation performance requirement (CEPR)
(see also compromise, emanations security, risk)
compromising emanations
Unintentional data-related or intelligence-bearing signals that, if intercepted and analyzed, disclose the information transmission received, handled, or otherwise processed by any information processing equipment. [AJP][NCSC/TG004] Unintentional signals that, if intercepted and analyzed, would disclose the information transmitted, received, handled, or otherwise processed by information systems equipment. [CNSSI] Unintentional signals that, if intercepted and analyzed, would disclose the information transmitted, received, handled, or otherwise processed by information systems equipment. See TEMPEST. [CNSSI-4009] Unintentional signals that, if intercepted and analyzed, would disclose the information transmitted, received, handled, or otherwise processed by information systems. This is also known as Transient Electromagnetic Pulse Emanation Standard, or TEMPEST. [DSS] (see also information, intelligence, process, system, TEMPEST, compromise, emanations security, threat)
computer
A machine that can be programmed in code to execute a set of instructions (program). In an IS, the term 'computer' usually refers to the components inside the case: the motherboard, memory chips, and internal storage disk(s). [CIAO] (see also Abrams, Jojodia, Podell essays, Abstract Syntax Notation One, American National Standards Institute, Automated Information System security, Bell-LaPadula security model, COMSEC control program, Common Criteria for Information Technology Security, Cryptographic Application Program Interface, Defense Information Infrastructure, Estelle, FIPS PUB 140-1, Federal Information Processing Standards, Forum of Incident Response and Security Teams, IP address, IT resources, IT security incident, Integrated services digital network, Internet worm, Open Systems Interconnection Reference model, Orange book, PC card, PCMCIA, PHF, POSIX, Red book, SOCKS, TEMPEST, Terminal Access Controller Access Control System, Trusted Systems Interoperability Group, Yellow book, abort, access control center, access control lists, access port, accessibility, accountability, accreditation, accreditation range, active wiretapping, add-on security, administrative account, algorithm, antivirus software, application, application server attack, application system, approval/accreditation, assurance, attack, attackers, audit software, audit trail, auditing tool, authentication, authentication code, authorization, automated clearing house, automated data processing system, automated information system, automated key distribution, automated logon sequences, availability, backdoor, backup operations, backup procedures, bandwidth, bastion host, bebugging, benchmark, beyond A1, break, browser, brute force attack, buffer overflow, byte, call back, centralized operations, certification, certification authority workstation, certification practice statement, checksum, clean system, client, client server, code, coding, cold site, communications protocol, compiler, component, compromise, compromised key list, confidentiality, configuration control, configuration item, configuration management, console logon, console logs, continuity of services and operations, cracker, cracking, crash, criteria, cyberspace, cyberspace operations, data, data encryption standard, data integrity, data management, data processing, database management system, debug, default account, demilitarized zone, denial-of-service, descriptive top-level specification, dial back, dial-up, dial-up line, dial-up security, digital certificate, digital signature, discrete event simulation, distributed data, distributed database, distributed denial-of-service, distributed processing, domain name service server, dongle, download, dump, dumpster diving, e-mail server, electronic commerce, electronic data interchange, email, emergency response, emergency shutdown controls, end system, end-to-end encryption, end-user, endorsed tools list, error seeding, evaluated products list, executable code, exploitable channel, extensible markup language, extranet, fault, field, file, file infector virus, file security, file transfer, file transfer protocol, firewall, firmware, flaw hypothesis methodology, flooding, formal language, formal proof, formal security policy model, formal specification, formal top-level specification, format, framework, front-end processor, front-end security filter, full disk encryption, functional testing, gateway, gateway server, general controls, general-purpose system, gopher, graphical-user interface, guard, hackers, handshaking procedures, hardening, hardware, help desk, host, host-based firewall, hypertext, identification authentication, imaging system, impersonation, incident, individual accountability, information flow, information security, information system, information technology, information technology system, insider, integrity, interactive mode, interface, internet, internet protocol, internet vs. Internet, interoperability, interoperability standards/protocols, intranet, intrusion, intrusion detection, intrusion detection and prevention, intrusion detection systems, intrusion detection tools, intrusion prevention, key center, key logger, kiosk, language of temporal ordering specification, leakage, legacy systems, link, list-oriented, local-area network, logic bombs, loop, malicious applets, malicious intruder, malicious logic, malware, memory, message authentication code vs. Message Authentication Code, message integrity code, meta-language, microcode, middleware, mirroring, mockingbird, modem, multiuser mode of operation, national information infrastructure, network, network component, network device, network front-end, network services, node, object, on-demand scanning, on-line system, operating system, optical scanner, output, overt channel, packet sniffer, packet switching, passive threat, password cracking, peer-to-peer communication, penetration test, penetration testing, peripheral equipment, persistent cookie, personal digital assistant, personal firewall, personal identity verification, phishing, phracker, piggyback entry, port, portability, pretty good privacy, privilege, privileged access, privileged instructions, privileged process, procedural security, process controller, program, proprietary information, protocol suite, protocols, prototyping, proxy server, public law 100-235, push technology, read-only memory, real-time processing, real-time system, reciprocal agreement, recovery site, reliability, remote access, remote access software, remote terminal emulation, remote terminal unit, requirements, requirements traceability matrix, resource starvation, response time, restart, reusability, reverse engineering, risk, rootkit, router, run, safeguarding statement, scan, screen scraping, script, script bunny, secure configuration management, security architecture, security audit, security evaluation, security event, security incident, security kernel, security label, security policy model, security service, security test and evaluation, security-relevant event, segregation of duties, sensitive information, server, session key, shrink-wrapped software, simple mail transfer protocol, simulation modeling, single sign-on, smartcards, sniffer, social engineering, soft TEMPEST, software, software development methodologies, software product, source code, source data entry, source program, spoofing, spyware detection and removal utility, stand-alone, shared system, stand-alone, single-user system, state variable, stovepipe systems, supervisory control, supervisory control and data acquisition, support software, suspicious event, system, system development lifecycle, system files, system integrity, system lifecycle, system parameter, system security officer, system software, systems software, technical policy, technical vulnerability, telecommuting, teleprocessing, telnet, testability, thrashing, threat, ticket-oriented, tiger team, time bomb, timing attacks, tokens, traceroute, tracking cookie, transaction, transmission control protocol, trapdoor, trojan horse, trust level, trusted computing base, trusted network interpretation, trusted path, trusted platform module chip, trustworthy system, tunnel, type time, unit, upload, user data protocol, user id, user interface, users, utility programs, value-added network, vaulting, vendor, virtual private network, virus, virus-detection tool, vulnerability, war dialer, war driving, web server, website hosting, white-box testing, wireless gateway server, workstation, worm) (includes Canadian Trusted Computer Product Evaluation Criteria, Computer Incident Advisory Capability, Computer Security Objects Register, DoD Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria, National Computer Security Center, National Computer Security Center glossary, Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria, command, control, communications and computers, computer abuse, computer architecture, computer cryptography, computer emergency response team, computer emergency response teams' coordination center, computer forensics, computer fraud, computer incident assessment capability, computer intrusion, computer network, computer network attack, computer network defense, computer network exploitation, computer network operations, computer operations, audit, and security technology, computer oracle and password system, computer related controls, computer related crime, computer security, computer security emergency response team, computer security incident, computer security incident response capability, computer security incident response team, computer security intrusion, computer security object, computer security subsystem, computer security technical vulnerability reporting program, computer-aided software engineering, computer-assisted audit technique, embedded computer, energy-efficient computer equipment, joint task force-computer network defense, laptop computer, national computer security assessment program, organization computer security representative, personal computer, personal computer memory card international association, trusted computer system)
computer abuse
Intentional or reckless misuse, alteration, disruption, or destruction of information processing resources. [CNSSI][CNSSI-4009] The misuse, alteration, disruption, or destruction of data processing resources. The key aspect is that it is intentional and improper. [AJP][NCSC/TG004] The willful or negligent unauthorized activity that affects the availability, confidentiality, or integrity of computer resources. Computer abuse includes fraud, embezzlement, theft, malicious damage, unauthorized use, denial of service, and misappropriation. [AFSEC][NSAINT] (see also authorized, availability, confidentiality, damage, denial-of-service, fraud, information, integrity, key, malicious, process, resource, theft, automated information system, computer, threat)
computer architecture
The set of layers and protocols (including formats and standards that different hardware and software must comply with to achieve stated objectives) which define a computer system. Computer architecture features can be available to application programs and system programmers in several modes, including a protected mode. e.g. the system-level features of computer architecture may include: (1) memory management, (2) protection, (3) multitasking, (4) input/output, (5) exceptions and multiprocessing, (6) initialization, (7) coprocessing and multiprocessing, (8) debugging, and (9) cache management. [AJP] (see also application, process, program, protocols, software, standard, system, computer, security architecture) (includes object)
computer cryptography
The use of a cryptographic algorithm in a computer, microprocessor, or microcomputer to perform encryption or decryption to protect information or to authenticate users, sources, or information. [AJP][NCSC/TG004] Use of a cryptographic algorithm program by a computer to authenticate or encrypt/decrypt information. [CNSSI][CNSSI-4009] (see also algorithm, authentication, encryption, information, process, program, users, computer, cryptography)
computer emergency response team (CERT)
(I) An organization that studies computer and network INFOSEC in order to provide incident response services to victims of attacks, publish alerts concerning vulnerabilities and threats, and offer other information to help improve computer and network security. (C) For example, the CERT Coordination Center at Carnegie-Mellon University (sometimes called 'the' CERT) and the Computer Incident Advisory Capability. [RFC2828] A federally funded research and development center at Carnegie Mellon University. They focus on Internet security vulnerabilities, provide incident response services to sites that have been the victims of attack, publish security alerts, research security and survivability in wide-area-networked computing, and develop site security information. They can be found at www.cert.org. [IATF] An organization chartered by an information system owner to coordinate and/or accomplish necessary actions in response to computer emergency incidents that threaten the availability or integrity of its information systems. (DoDD 5160.54) [CIAO] Formed by ARPA in 1988 to take proactive steps to alert people to computer security issues. [misc] (see also Computer Incident Advisory Capability, advisory, attack, availability, communications security, computer security, computer security incident response team, incident, information, integrity, internet, network, owner, system, threat, vulnerability, computer, response, security) (includes Forum of Incident Response and Security Teams, computer emergency response teams' coordination center)
computer emergency response teams' coordination center
An element of the Networked Systems Survivability Program of the Software Engineering Institute at Carnegie Mellon University. It keeps track of attacks on the Internet and issues advisories. [CIAO] (see also attack, internet, program, software, system, computer, computer emergency response team, response)
computer forensics
The practice of gathering, retaining, and analyzing computer-related data for investigative purposes in a manner that maintains the integrity of the data. [800-61][CNSSI-4009] (see also integrity, computer)
computer fraud
Computer-related crimes involving deliberate misrepresentation or alteration of data in order to obtain something of value. [AFSEC][NSAINT] Computer-related crimes involving deliberate misrepresentation, alteration, or disclosure of data to obtain something of value (usually for monetary gain). A computer system must have been involved in the perpetration or cover-up of the act or series of acts. A computer system might have been involved through improper manipulation of input data, output or results, applications programs, data files, computer operations, communications, or computer hardware, systems software, or firmware. [AJP][NCSC/TG004] Misrepresentation, alteration, or disclosure of data in order to obtain something of value (usually for monetary gain). A computer system must have been involved in the perpetration or coverup of the act or series of acts. A computer system might have been involved through improper manipulation of input data; output or results; applications programs; data files; computer operations; communications; or computer hardware, systems software, or firmware. [SRV] (see also application, communications, file, operation, program, software, system, computer, fraud)
Computer Incident Advisory Capability (CIAC)
(N) A computer emergency response team in the U.S. Department of Energy. [RFC2828] (see also computer emergency response team, response, advisory, computer, incident)
computer incident assessment capability (CIAC)
(see also assessment, computer, incident)
computer incident response team
(CIRT) Group of individuals usually consisting of Security Analysts organized to develop, recommend, and coordinate immediate mitigation actions for containment, eradication, and recovery resulting from computer security incidents. Also called a Computer Security Incident Response Team (CSIRT) or a CIRC (Computer Incident Response Center, Computer Incident Response Capability, or Cyber Incident Response Team). [CNSSI-4009] (see also cyberspace, security)
computer intrusion
An incident of unauthorized access to data or an Automated Information System (AIS). [IATF] (see also access, access control, authorized, information, system, unauthorized access, attack, computer, incident, intrusion)
computer network
(I) A collection of host computers together with the subnetwork or internetwork through which they can exchange data. (C) This definition is intended to cover systems of all sizes and types, ranging from the complex Internet to a simple system composed of a personal computer dialing in as a remote terminal of another computer. [RFC2828] A set of computers that are connected and able to exchange data. [CIAO] Constituent element of an enclave responsible for connecting computing environments by providing shorthaul data transport capabilities such as local or campus area networks, or long-haul data transport capabilities such as operational, metropolitan, or wide area and backbone networks. [DSS] (see also Common Criteria for Information Technology Security, Estelle, authentication, automated key distribution, bandwidth, computer oracle and password system, cyberspace operations, distributed dataprocessing, extranet, firewall, gateway, hackers, host, internet, internet vs. Internet, intranet, language of temporal ordering specification, mirroring, packet switching, protocol suite, remote access, security policy automation network, sniffer, system, transmission control protocol, tunnel, value-added network, vaulting, virtual private network, war driving, wide-area network, wireless gateway server, computer, network) (includes computer network attack, computer network defense, computer network exploitation, computer network operations, joint task force-computer network defense)
computer network attack (CNA)
Actions taken through the use of computer networks to disrupt, deny, degrade, or destroy information resident in computers and computer networks, or the computers and networks themselves. [CNSSI-4009][DOD] Operations to disrupt, deny, degrade, or destroy information resident in computers and computer networks, or the computers and networks themselves. (DODD S-3600.1 of 9 Dec 96) [NSAINT] (see also information, operation, attack, computer, computer network, network)
computer network defense (CND)
Actions taken to defend against unauthorized activity within computer networks. CND includes monitoring, detection, analysis (such as trend and pattern analysis), and response and restoration activities. [CNSSI-4009] Actions taken to protect, monitor, analyze, detect, and respond to unauthorized activity within the Department of Defense information systems and computer networks. [DOD] (see also authorized, information, system, computer, computer network, network)
computer network exploitation
(CNE) Enabling operations and intelligence collection capabilities conducted through the use of computer networks to gather data from target or adversary information systems or networks. [CNSSI-4009] Enabling operations and intelligence collection capabilities conducted through the use of computer networks to gather data from target or adversary automated information systems or networks. [DOD] (see also information, intelligence, system, target, computer, computer network, network)
computer network operations
(CNO) Comprised of computer network attack, computer network defense, and related computer network exploitation enabling operations. [CNSSI-4009] Comprised of computer network attack, computer network defense, and related computer network exploitation enabling operations. [DOD] (see also attack, computer, computer network, network)
computer operations, audit, and security technology (COAST)
is a multiple project, multiple investigator laboratory in computer security research in the Computer Sciences Department at Purdue University. It functions with close ties to researchers and engineers in major companies and government agencies. Its research is focused on real-world needs and limitations, with a special focus on security for legacy computing systems. [NSAINT] (see also computer security, function, system, audit, computer, operation, technology)
computer oracle and password system (COPS)
A computer network monitoring system for Unix machines. Software tool for checking security on shell scripts and C programs. Checks for security weaknesses and provides warnings. [NSAINT] (see also computer network, network, passwords, program, software, computer, security software, system)
computer related controls
A comprehensive name to include both general controls and application controls. These controls help ensure the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of data. [SRV] (see also application, availability, confidentiality, integrity, security controls, computer, control)
computer related crime
Any illegal act for which knowledge of computer technology is involved for its investigation, perpetration, or prosecution. [AFSEC] (see also illegal, technology, computer, threat)
computer security (COMPUSEC)
(I) Measures that implement and assure security services in a system, particularly those that assure access control service. (C) Usually understood to include functions, features, and technical characteristics of computer hardware and software, especially operating systems. [RFC2828] Measures and controls that ensure confidentiality, integrity and availability of information system assets including hardware, software, firmware and information being processed, stored, or communicated. [IATF] Measures and controls that ensure confidentiality, integrity, and availability of IS assets, including hardware, firmware, software, and information being processed, stored, and communicated. [CIAO][CNSSI] Measures and controls that ensure confidentiality, integrity, and availability of information system assets including hardware, firmware, software, and information being processed, stored, and communicated. [CNSSI-4009] Measures and controls that ensure confidentiality, integrity, and availability of information systems assets including hardware, firmware, software, and information being processed, stored, and communicated. [DSS] Technological and managerial procedures applied to computer systems to ensure the availability, integrity and confidentiality of information managed by the computer system. [NSAINT] (see also Automated Information System security, IT security, information systems security, Bell-LaPadula security model, Common Criteria Testing Laboratory, Federal Criteria Vol. I, Federal Information Processing Standards, Forum of Incident Response and Security Teams, National Security Decision Directive 145, National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program, Orange book, Scope of Accreditation, Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria, Yellow book, access, access control, accreditation range, approved technologies list, approved test methods list, assurance, audit trail, availability, certification, common criteria, common criteria version 1.0, common criteria version 2.0, computer emergency response team, computer operations, audit, and security technology, confidentiality, conformant validation certificate, control, correctness, covert channel, criteria, dedicated mode, degausser, degausser products list, deliverables list, designated, designated laboratories list, dominates, endorsed tools list, evaluated products list, evaluation, evaluation work plan, function, information, integrity, observation reports, partitioned security mode, party, preferred products list, procedural security, process, protection profile, public law 100-235, residual risk, risk treatment, security architecture, security purpose, security requirements, security target, security-compliant channel, sensitive information, software, subcommittee on telecommunications security, suspicious event, system, system high mode, systems security steering group, tamper, technology area, trusted network interpretation, computer, security) (includes Common Criteria for Information Technology Security, Common Criteria for Information Technology Security Evaluation, Computer Security Objects Register, DoD Information Technology Security Certification and Accreditation Process, European Information Technology Security Evaluation Criteria, Federal Criteria for Information Technology Security, IS security architecture, IT Security Evaluation Criteria, IT Security Evaluation Methodology, IT security certification, IT security policy, IT security product, Information Systems Security products and services catalogue, Information Technology Security Evaluation Criteria, National Computer Security Center, National Computer Security Center glossary, National Security Telecommunications and Information Systems Security Advisory/Information Memorandum, National Security Telecommunications and Information Systems Security Committee, National Security Telecommunications and Information Systems Security Directive, National Security Telecommunications and Information Systems Security Instruction, National Security Telecommunications and Information Systems Security Policy, National Telecommunications and Information Systems Security Advisory Memoranda/Instructions, National Telecommunications and Information Systems Security Directive, National Telecommunications and Information Systems Security Instruction, National Telecommunications and Information Systems Security Policy, Subcommittee on Information Systems Security, certified information systems security professional, computer security emergency response team, computer security incident, computer security incident response capability, computer security incident response team, computer security intrusion, computer security object, computer security subsystem, computer security technical vulnerability reporting program, computing security methods, emissions security, information system security officer, information systems security association, information systems security engineering, information systems security equipment modification, information systems security manager, information systems security officer, multilevel information systems security initiative, national computer security assessment program, national telecommunications and information system security directives, program automated information system security incident support team, subcommittee on Automated Information System security)
computer security emergency response team (CERT)
(see also computer, computer security, response)
computer security incident
Any intrusion or attempted intrusion into a computer system. Incidents can include probes of multiple computer systems. [AFSEC] Any intrusion or attempted intrusion into an automated information system (AIS). Incidents can include probes of multiple computer systems. [NSAINT] See incident. [CNSSI] (see also information, intrusion, system, computer, computer security, incident, security incident)
computer security incident response capability (CSIRC)
(see also computer, computer security, incident, response, security incident)
computer security incident response team (CIRT) (CSIRT)
(I) An organization 'that coordinates and supports the response to security incidents that involve sites within a defined constituency.' (C) To be considered a CSIRT, an organization must do as follows: [RFC2828] A capability set up for the purpose of assisting in responding to computer security-related incidents; also called a Computer Incident Response Team (CIRT) or a CIRC (Computer Incident Response Center, Computer Incident Response Capability). [800-61] (see also computer emergency response team, information, computer, computer security, incident, response, security incident)
computer security intrusion
Any event of unauthorized access or penetration to a computer system. [AFSEC] Any event of unauthorized access or penetration to an automated information system (AIS). [NSAINT] (see also access, access control, authorized, information, penetration, system, unauthorized access, computer, computer security, intrusion)
computer security object
(I) The definition or representation of a resource, tool, or mechanism used to maintain a condition of security in computerized environments. Includes many elements referred to in standards that are either selected or defined by separate user communities. [RFC2828] A resource, tool, or mechanism used to maintain a condition of security in a computerized environment. These objects are defined in terms of attributes they possess, operations they perform or are performed on them, and their relationship with other objects. [FIPS 188; CNSSI-4009] (see also security software, computer, computer security, object)
Computer Security Objects Register (CSOR)
(N) A service operated by NIST is establishing a catalog for computer security objects to provide stable object definitions identified by unique names. The use of this register will enable the unambiguous specification of security parameters and algorithms to be used in secure data exchanges. (C) The CSOR follows registration guidelines established by the international standards community and ANSI. Those guidelines establish minimum responsibilities for registration authorities and assign the top branches of an international registration hierarchy. Under that international registration hierarchy the CSOR is responsible for the allocation of unique identifiers under the branch {joint-iso-ccitt(2) country(16) us(840) gov(101) csor(3)}. [RFC2828] (see also algorithm, registration, standard, National Institute of Standards and Technology, computer, computer security, object)
computer security subsystem
A device designed to provide limited computer security features in a larger system environment. [AJP][NCSC/TG004] Hardware/software designed to provide computer security features in a larger system environment. [CNSSI][CNSSI-4009] (see also software, computer, computer security, system)
computer security technical vulnerability reporting program (CSTVRP)
A program that focuses on technical vulnerabilities in commercially available hardware, firmware, and software products acquired by DoD. CSTVRP provides for the reporting, cataloging, and discreet dissemination of technical vulnerability and corrective measure information to DoD components on a need-to-know basis. [NCSC/TG004] A program that focuses on technical vulnerabilities in commercially available hardware, firmware, and software products acquired by the Federal Government. CSTVRP provides for the reporting, cataloging, and discreet dissemination of technical vulnerability and corrective measure information to Defense Components on a need-to-know basis. [AJP] (see also information, login, software, computer, computer security, program, vulnerability)
computer security toolbox
Set of tools (for example, Buster, Fush) or Secure Copy) designed specifically to assist Information Assurance Officer, and System Administrators in performing their duties. The functions within the Toolbox can erase appended data within files; eliminate appended data in free or unallocated space; search for specific words or sets of words for verifying classification; and locating unapproved share programs. It also includes a program that allows you to clear laser toner cartridges and drums. [DSS] (see also assurance, security)
computer-aided software engineering (CASE)
The creation of software using well-defined design techniques and development methodology, supported by computer-based automation tools. [SRV] (see also computer, software)
computer-assisted audit technique (CAAT)
A collection of computer programs, such as generalized audit software, test-data generators, sampling programs, utility software aids, or customized audit programs. [SRV] (see also program, software, test, audit, computer)
computerized telephone system
Also referred to as a hybrid key system, business communication system, or office communications system. [DSS]
computing environment
Workstation or server (host) and its operating system, peripherals, and applications. [CNSSI][DSS] (see also application, system)
computing security methods
Computing security methods are security safeguards implemented within the IS, using the networking, hardware, software, and firmware of the IS. This includes the following: (1) the hardware, firmware, and software that implements security functionality and (2) the design, implementation, and verification techniques used to ensure that system assurance requirements are satisfied. [SRV] Computing security methods are security safeguards implemented within the IT, using the networking, hardware, software, and firmware of the IT. This includes (1) the hardware, firmware, and software that implements security functionality and (2) the design, implementation, and verification techniques used to ensure that system assurance requirements are satisfied. [800-33] (see also assurance, function, network, requirements, software, system, verification, computer security)
COMSEC
Communications Security. [CNSSI-4009] (see also security)
COMSEC account
Administrative entity, identified by an account number, used to maintain accountability, custody, and control of COMSEC material. [CNSSI][CNSSI-4009] (see also control, entity, communications security)
COMSEC account audit
Examination of the holdings, records, and procedures of a COMSEC account ensuring all accountable COMSEC material is properly handled and safeguarded. [CNSSI][CNSSI-4009] (see also audit, communications security)
COMSEC aid
COMSEC material that assists in securing telecommunications and is required in the production, operation, or maintenance of COMSEC systems and their components. COMSEC keying material, callsign/frequency systems, and supporting documentation, such as operating and maintenance manuals, are examples of COMSEC aids. [CNSSI][CNSSI-4009] (see also communications, key, operation, system, telecommunications, communications security)
COMSEC assembly
Group of parts, elements, subassemblies, or circuits that are removable items of COMSEC equipment. [CNSSI][CNSSI-4009]
COMSEC boundary
Definable perimeter encompassing all hardware, firmware, and software components performing critical COMSEC functions, such as key generation, handling, and storage. [CNSSI][CNSSI-4009] (see also critical, function, key, software, boundary, communications security)
COMSEC chip set
Collection of NSA-approved microchips. [CNSSI][CNSSI-4009] (see also communications security)
COMSEC control program
Computer instructions or routines controlling or affecting the externally performed functions of key generation, key distribution, message encryption/decryption, or authentication. [CNSSI][CNSSI-4009] (see also authentication, computer, encryption, function, key, message, communications security, control, program)
COMSEC custodian
Individual designated by proper authority to be responsible for the receipt, transfer, accounting, safeguarding, and destruction of COMSEC material assigned to a COMSEC account. [CNSSI][CNSSI-4009] (see also authority, communications security)
COMSEC demilitarization
Process of preparing COMSEC equipment for disposal by extracting all CCI, classified, or CRYPTO marked components for their secure destruction, as well as defacing and disposing of the remaining equipment hulk. [CNSSI] Process of preparing COMSEC equipment for disposal by extracting all CCI, classified, or cryptographic (CRYPTO) marked components for their secure destruction, as well as defacing and disposing of the remaining equipment hulk. [CNSSI-4009] (see also classified, process)
COMSEC element
Removable item of COMSEC equipment, assembly, or subassembly; normally consisting of a single piece or group of replaceable parts. [CNSSI][CNSSI-4009]
COMSEC end-item
Equipment or combination of components ready for use in a COMSEC application. [CNSSI][CNSSI-4009] (see also application, communications security)
COMSEC equipment
Equipment designed to provide security to telecommunications by converting information to a form unintelligible to an unauthorized interceptor and, subsequently, by reconverting such information to its original form for authorized recipients; also, equipment designed specifically to aid in, or as an essential element of, the conversion process. COMSEC equipment includes cryptographic equipment, crypto-ancillary equipment, cryptographic production equipment, and authentication equipment. [CNSSI][CNSSI-4009] (see also authentication, authorized, communications, cryptography, information, process, telecommunications, version, communications security)
COMSEC facility
Authorized and approved space used for generating, storing, repairing, or using COMSEC material. [CNSSI][CNSSI-4009] (see also authorized, communications security)
COMSEC incident
Occurrence that potentially jeopardizes the security of COMSEC material or the secure electrical transmission of national security information or information governed by 10 U.S.C. Section 2315. [CNSSI-4009] See incident. [CNSSI] (see also communications security, incident)
COMSEC insecurity
COMSEC incident that has been investigated, evaluated, and determined to jeopardize the security of COMSEC material or the secure transmission of information. [CNSSI][CNSSI-4009] (see also incident, information, communications security)
COMSEC manager
Individual who manages the COMSEC resources of an organization. [CNSSI][CNSSI-4009] (see also resource, communications security)
COMSEC material
Item designed to secure or authenticate telecommunications. COMSEC material includes, but is not limited to key, equipment, devices, documents, firmware, or software that embodies or describes cryptographic logic and other items that perform COMSEC functions. [CNSSI][CNSSI-4009] (see also communications, control systems, cryptographic, cryptography, function, key, software, telecommunications, communications security)
COMSEC Material Control System (CMCS)
Logistics and accounting system through which COMSEC material marked 'CRYPTO' is distributed, controlled, and safeguarded. Included are the COMSEC central offices of record, cryptologistic depots, and COMSEC accounts. COMSEC material other than key may be handled through the CMCS. [CNSSI] (see also key, communications security, control, control systems, system)
COMSEC modification
See Information Systems Security Equipment Modification. [CNSSI-4009] See information systems security equipment modification. [CNSSI] (see also information, system, communications security, information systems security equipment modification)
COMSEC module
Removable component that performs COMSEC functions in a telecommunications equipment or system. [CNSSI][CNSSI-4009] (see also communications, function, system, telecommunications, communications security, module)
COMSEC monitoring
Act of listening to, copying, or recording transmissions of one's own official telecommunications to analyze the degree of security. [CNSSI][CNSSI-4009][DSS] (see also communications, telecommunications, communications security)
COMSEC Parent Switch (CPS)
(see also communications security)
COMSEC profile
Statement of COMSEC measures and materials used to protect a given operation, system, or organization. [CNSSI][CNSSI-4009] (see also operation, system, communications security, file, profile)
COMSEC Resources Program (CRP)
(see also communications security, program, resource)
COMSEC Subordinate Switch (CSS)
(see also communications security)
COMSEC survey
Organized collection of COMSEC and communications information relative to a given operation, system, or organization. [CNSSI][CNSSI-4009] (see also communications, information, operation, system, communications security)
COMSEC system data
Information required by a COMSEC equipment or system to enable it to properly handle and control key. [CNSSI][CNSSI-4009] (see also control, information, key, communications security, system)
COMSEC training
Teaching of skills relating to COMSEC accounting, use of COMSEC aids, or installation, use, maintenance, and repair of COMSEC equipment. [CNSSI][CNSSI-4009] (see also communications security)
COMSEC Utility Program (CUP)
(see also communications security, program)
concealment
Act of remaining hidden. [DSS]
concealment system
A method of achieving confidentiality in which sensitive information is hidden by embedding it in irrelevant data. [AJP][NCSC/TG004] (see also confidentiality, information, security, system)
concept of operations (CONOP)
Describes how the system would be used to accomplish objectives. [IATF] Document detailing the method, act, process, or effect of using an IS. [CNSSI] Document detailing the method, act, process, or effect of using an IT system. [CIAO] See Security Concept of Operations. [CNSSI-4009] Verbal or graphic statement, broadly outlining a commander's assumptions about or purpose of an operation or series of operations. The concept of operations frequently is embodied in campaign plans and operation plans; in the latter case, particularly when the plans cover a series of connected operations to be carried out simultaneously or in succession. The concept is designed to give an overall picture of the operation. It is included primarily for additional clarity of purpose. It is also referred to as commander's concept. [DSS] (see also internet, object, process, system, operation, security)
concurrency control
A controlling mechanism that prevents multiple users from executing inconsistent actions on the database. [SRV] (see also users, control)
concurrent connections
The aggregate number of simultaneous connections between hosts across the DUT/SUT, or between hosts and the DUT/SUT. The number of concurrent connections a firewall can support is just as important a metric for some users as maximum bit forwarding rate. While 'connection' describes only a state and not necessarily the transfer of data, concurrency assumes that all existing connections are in fact capable of transferring data. If a data cannot be sent over a connection, that connection should not be counted toward the number of concurrent connections. Further, this definition assumes that the ability (or lack thereof) to transfer data on a given connection is solely the responsibility of the DUT/SUT. For example, a TCP connection that a DUT/SUT has left in a FIN_WAIT_2 state clearly should not be counted. But another connection that has temporarily stopped transferring data because some external device has restricted the flow of data is not necessarily defunct. The tester should take measures to isolate changes in connection state to those effected by the DUT/SUT. [RFC2647] (see also flow, test, users, connection)
confidence
A belief that a deliverable will perform in the way expected or claimed (i.e. properly, trustworthy, enforce security policy, reliably, effectively). [SC27] (see also IT Security Evaluation Criteria, IT Security Evaluation Methodology, Monitoring of Evaluations, assurance level, assurance profile, audit, authentication, authenticity, checksum, confidentiality, data confidentiality, data integrity, defense, defense-in-depth, infrastructure assurance, interval estimate, national information assurance partnership, policy, profile assurance, quality assurance, reference monitor, reliability, robustness, sampling error, software quality assurance, source integrity, state delta verification system, trusted channel, trusted computing system, trusted path, assurance, trust) (includes confidence coefficient, confidence interval, confidence level, confidence limits, public confidence)
confidence coefficient
A measure (usually expressed as a percentage) of the degree of assurance that the estimate obtained from a sample differs from the population parameter being estimated by less than the measure of precision (sampling error). [SRV] (see also confidence)
confidence interval
An estimate of a population parameter that consists of a range of values bounded by statistics called upper and lower confidence limits. [SRV] (see also confidence)
confidence level
A number, stated as a percentage, that expresses the degree of certainty associated with an interval estimate of a population parameter. It is the probability that an estimate based on a random sample falls within a specified range. [SRV] (see also random, confidence)
confidence limits
Two statistics that form the upper and lower bounds of a confidence interval. [SRV] (see also confidence)
confidential
Designation applied to information or material the unauthorized disclosure of which could reasonably be expected to cause damage to the national security. [DSS] (see also authorized, damage, security, classification levels)
confidential source
Individual or organization that has provided, or that may reasonably be expected to provide, information to the United States on matters pertaining to the national security with the expectation that the information or relationship, or both, are to be held in confidence. [DSS] (see also security)
confidentiality
(1) The assurance that information is not disclosed to inappropriate entities or processes. (2) The property that information is not made available or disclosed to unauthorized entities. (3) The prevention of the unauthorized disclosure of information. (4) The concept of holding sensitive data in confidence, limited to an appropriate set of individuals or organizations. [AJP] 1) Assurance that information is not disclosed to unauthorized persons, processes, or devices. 2) The protection of sensitive information from unauthorized disclosure and sensitive facilities from physical, technical or electronic penetration or exploitation. [CIAO] A concept that applies to data that must be held in confidence and that describes the status and degree of protection that must be provided for such data about individuals as well as organizations. [SRV] A security service that prevents unauthorized disclosure of information residing on a computer, transiting a local network, or flowing over a public Internet. [IATF] Assurance that information in an IT system is not disclosed to unauthorized persons, processes or devices. [800-37] Assurance that information is not disclosed to inappropriate entities or processes. [FCv1] Assurance that information is not disclosed to unauthorized entities or processes. [DSS][GSA] Assurance that information is not disclosed to unauthorized individuals, processes, or devices. [CNSSI] Assuring information will be kept secret, with access limited to appropriate persons. [NSAINT] Assuring information will be kept secret, with access limited to appropriate persons. The concept of holding sensitive data in confidence, limited to an appropriate set of individuals or organizations. [OVT] Ensuring that data is disclosed only to authorized subjects. [SRV] For the purposes of this guide, prevention of the disclosure of information by ensuring that only authorized devices can view the contents of WiMAX communications. [800-127] Holding sensitive data in confidence such that distribution is limited to those individuals or organizations with an established need-to-know [NASA] Preserving authorized restrictions on information access and disclosure, including means for protecting personal privacy and proprietary information. [800-60][800-82][SP 800-53; SP 800-53A; SP 800-18; SP 800-27; SP 800-] The assurance that information is not disclosed to unauthorized entities or computer processes. [GAO] The concept of holding sensitive data in confidence, limited to an appropriate set of individuals or organizations. [NCSC/TG004] The prevention of the unauthorized disclosure of information. [ITSEC][NIAP] The principle that keeps information from being disclosed to anyone not authorized to access it. Synonymous with secrecy. [AFSEC] The property that information is not disclosed to system entities (users, processes, devices) unless they have been authorized to access the information. [CNSSI-4009] The property that information is not made available or disclosed to unauthorized entities. [JTC1/SC27] The property that information is not made available or disclosed to unauthorized individuals, entities, or processes. [SC27][TNI] The property that sensitive information is not disclosed to unauthorized individuals, entities or processes. [FIPS140] The security objective that generates the requirement for protection from intentional or accidental attempts to perform unauthorized data reads. Confidentiality covers data in storage, during processing, and in transit. [800-30][800-33] (see also Common Criteria for Information Technology Security, Generic Security Service Application Program Interface, Generic Upper Layer Security, IT security, IT security controls, IT security incident, NULL encryption algorithm, Secure Electronic Transaction, access, access control, assurance, asymmetric cryptography, authentication header, authorized, classified, communications security, computer, computer abuse, computer related controls, computer security, concealment system, confidence, data privacy, data security, defense-in-depth, defense-wide information assurance program, digital envelope, encapsulating security payload, encryption algorithm, entry-level certification, flow, hybrid encryption, information, information assurance, information security, internet, internet protocol security, intrusion, key recovery, levels of concern, line managers, mid-level certification, network, object, passive, penetration, post-accreditation phase, privacy enhanced mail, privacy programs, privacy protection, process, property, public-key infrastructure, requirements for procedures and standards, secure shell, secure socket layer, security controls, security event, security objectives, security policy, simple network management protocol, subject, symmetric cryptography, system, top-level certification, transmission security, users, vulnerability, wrap, privacy, security goals) (includes cryptographic algorithm for confidentiality, data confidentiality, data confidentiality service, traffic flow confidentiality)
configuration
In configuration management, the functional and physical characteristics of hardware or software as set forth in technical documentation or achieved in a product. [IEEE610] Selection of one of the sets of possible combinations of features of a system or Target of Evaluation. [AJP][FCv1] The relative or functional arrangement of components in a system. [SRV] The selection of one of the sets of possible combinations of features of a Target of Evaluation. [ITSEC] (see also function, software, system, target, configuration management, target of evaluation)
configuration control
(1) A system of controls imposed on changing controlled objects produced during the development, production, and maintenance processes for a Target of Evaluation. (2) Management of changes made to a system's hardware, firmware, software, and documentation throughout the development and operational life of the computer system. (3) The process of controlling modifications to the system's hardware, firmware, software, and documentation that provides sufficient assurance that the system is protected against the introduction of improper modification before, during, and after system implementation. [AJP] (I) The process of regulating changes to hardware, firmware, software, and documentation throughout the development and operational life of a system. (C) Configuration control helps protect against unauthorized or malicious alteration of a system and thus provides assurance of system integrity. [RFC2828] A system of controls imposed on changing controlled objects produced during the development, production, and maintenance processes for a Target of Evaluation. [ITSEC] An element of configuration management, consisting of the evaluation, coordination, approval or disapproval, and implementation of changes to configuration items after formal establishment of their configuration identification. [IEEE610] Management of changes made to a system's hardware, firmware, software, and documentation throughout the development and operational life of the computer system. [TNI] Process for controlling modifications to hardware, firmware, software, and documentation to ensure the information system is protected against improper modification before, during, and after system implementation. [800-82] Process of controlling modifications to hardware, firmware, software, and documentation to ensure the IS is protected against improper modification before, during, and after system implementation. [CIAO][CNSSI] Process of controlling modifications to hardware, firmware, software, and documentation to ensure the information system is protected against improper modification before, during, and after system implementation. [DSS] Process of controlling modifications to hardware, firmware, software, and documentation to protect the information system against improper modification prior to, during, and after system implementation. [CNSSI-4009; SP 800-37; SP 800-53] The management process of controlling the specific elements comprising IT and controlling changes to those elements; the process that ensures that only authorized and approved changes of or to those elements are made. Configuration control includes but is not limited to hardware, firmware, and software elements. [NASA] The process of controlling modifications to the system's hardware, firmware, software, and documentation that provides sufficient assurance that the system is protected against the introduction of improper modification before, during, and after system implementation. Compare to configuration management. [NCSC/TG004][SRV] (see also authorized, computer, establishment, identification, information, integrity, malicious, operation, process, software, system, target, configuration management, control, target of evaluation) (includes object)
configuration control board
(CCB) A group of qualified people with responsibility for the process of regulating and approving changes to hardware, firmware, software, and documentation throughout the development and operational lifecycle of an information system. [CNSSI-4009] (see also development, software, control)
configuration identification
An element of configuration management, consisting of selecting the configuration items for a system and recording their functional and physical characteristics in technical documentation. [IEEE610] (see also function, system, configuration management, identification)
configuration item
An aggregation of hardware or computer programs or any of its discrete portions which satisfies an end use function. [SRV] An aggregation of hardware, software, or both, that is designated for configuration management and treated as a single entity in the configuration management process. [IEEE610] (see also computer, entity, function, process, program, software, configuration management)
configuration management (CM)
A discipline applying technical and administrative direction and surveillance to identify and document the functional and physical characteristics of a configuration item, control changes to those characteristics, record and report change processing and implementation status, and verify compliance with specified requirements. [IEEE610] A family of security controls in the management class dealing with the control of changes made to hardware, software, firm ware, documentation, test, test fixtures, and test documentation throughout the lifecycle of an IT system. [800-37] A procedure for applying technical and administrative direction and surveillance to: (1) identify and document the functional and physical characteristics of an item or system, (2) control any changes to such characteristics, and (3) record and report the change, process, and implementation status. The process of controlling the software and documentation so they remain consistent as they are developed or changed. The configuration management process must be carefully tailored to the capacity, size, scope, phase of the lifecycle, maturity, and complexity of the computer system involved. [SRV] Management of security features and assurances through control of changes made to hardware, firmware, software, documentation, test, test fixtures, and test documentation throughout the lifecycle of an IT system. [CIAO][IATF] Management of security features and assurances through control of changes made to hardware, software, firmware, documentation, test fixtures, and test documentation of an information system, throughout the development and operational life of the system. [DSS] Management of security features and assurances through control of changes made to hardware, software, firmware, documentation, test, test fixtures, and test documentation throughout the lifecycle of an IS. [CNSSI] The management of security features and assurances through control of changes made to a system's hardware, software, firmware, documentation, test, test fixtures, and test documentation throughout the development and operational life of the computer system. [AJP][NCSC/TG004] The management of security features and assurances through control of changes made to a system's hardware, software, firmware, documentation, test, test fixtures, and test documentation throughout the development and operational life of the computer system. Compare to configuration control. [SRV] (see also computer, control, function, identify, operation, process, requirements, software, system, test, assurance, risk management, software development) (includes baseline management, configuration, configuration control, configuration identification, configuration item, secure configuration management)
confinement
The prevention of the leaking of sensitive data from a program. [AJP][NCSC/TG004] (see also program, risk) (includes confinement channel, confinement property)
confinement channel
See Covert Channel. [CNSSI-4009] See covert channel. [CNSSI] (see also covert, covert channel, covert timing channel, confinement)
confinement property
A subject has write access to an object only if classification of the object dominates the clearance of the subject. [RFC2828] (see also *-property, Bell-LaPadula security model, access, access control, classification levels, classified, object, subject, confinement)
conformance
Satisfying the requirements of a specification or standard, often verified by a testing. [800-130] (see also requirements, standard, test)
conformance testing
A process established by NIST within its responsibilities of developing, promulgating, and supporting FIPS for testing specific characteristics of components, products, and services, as well as people and organizations for compliance with a FIPS. [GSA] (see also process, security testing, test)
conformant validation certificate
A validation certificate issued by or under the authority of a Party in accordance with the terms of an agreement on the mutual recognition of certificates in the field of IT security. [NIAP] (see also IT security, authority, computer security, security, certificate, validation)
congruence
Property of a set of integers which differ from each other by a multiple of the modulus. Congruence is indicated by the symbol º. For example, 39 º 6 (mod 11) indicates that 39 and 6 are congruent with respect to the modulus 11, i.e. 39 - 6 = 33, that is a multiple of 11. [SC27] (see also property)
connection
A liaison, in the sense of a network interrelationship, between two hosts for a period of time. The liaison is established (by an initiating host) for the purpose of information transfer (with the associated host). The period of time is the time required to carry out the intent of the liaison (e.g. transfer of a file, a chatter session, or delivery of mail). In many cases, a connection (in the sense of this glossary) will coincide with a host-host connection (in a special technical sense) that is established via TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) or an equivalent protocol. However, a connection (liaison) can also exist when only a protocol such as IP (Internet Protocol) is in use. (IP has no concept of a connection that persists for a period of time.) Hence, the notion of connection can be independent of the particular protocols in use during a liaison of two hosts. [AJP] A liaison, in the sense of a network interrelationship, between two hosts for a period of time. The liaison is established (by an initiating host) for the purpose of information transfer (with the associated host); the period of time is the time required to carry out the intent of the liaison (e.g. transfer of a file, a chatter session, delivery of mail). In many cases, a connection (in the sense of this glossary) will coincide with a host-host connection (in a special technical sense) established via TCP or equivalent protocol. However a connection (liaison) can also exist when only a protocol such as IP is in use (IP has no concept of a connection that persists for a period of time). Hence, the notion of connection as used here is independent of the particular protocols in use during a liaison of two hosts. [TNI] A state in which two hosts, or a host and the DUT/SUT, agree to exchange data using a known protocol. A connection is an abstraction describing an agreement between two nodes: One agrees to send data and the other agrees to receive it. [RFC2647] (see also Identification Protocol, Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol, Internet worm, OSI architecture, SOCKS, SYN flood, Security Protocol 3, Security Protocol 4, Simple Authentication and Security Layer, Terminal Access Controller Access Control System, USENET, application level gateway, application proxy, application-level firewall, asynchronous transfer mode, authentication header, automated logon sequences, banner grabbing, call back, call back security, circuit level gateway, circuit proxy, circuit switching, cold site, connectivity, control, cookies, data origin authentication service, data source, derogatory information, dial back, encapsulating security payload, external system exposure, file, firewall machine, foreign liaison officer, global information infrastructure, handcarrier, information, interface, internet, internet protocol security, internetwork private line interface, local-area network, long-haul telecommunications, malicious code screening, memorandum of understanding, national information infrastructure, network, network address translation, network configuration, network tap, on ramp, personal firewall, piggyback, piggyback attack, piggyback entry, point-to-point tunneling protocol, port, port scanner, port scanning, protective security service, protocols, proxy, proxy server, remote access, remote maintenance, router, rules of behavior, scan, secure shell, secure socket layer, security association, security certificate, security controls, security domain, security parameters index, session key, signaling, stateful packet filtering, stealth probe, stovepipe systems, system security authorization agreement, tinkerbell program, transmission control protocol, trusted identification forwarding, tunneling, unit of transfer, users, war dialing, wireless technology, wiretapping, worm, firewall) (includes Open Systems Interconnection Reference model, concurrent connections, connection approval, connection establishment, connection establishment time, connection maintenance, connection overhead, connection teardown, connection teardown time, connectionless data integrity service, interconnection security agreements, network connection, open system interconnection, open system interconnection model, open systems interconnection, platform it interconnection, system interconnection)
connection approval
Formal authorization to interconnect information systems. [DSS] (see also authorization, connection)
connection establishment
The data exchanged between hosts, or between a host and the DUT/SUT, to initiate a connection. Connection-oriented protocols like TCP have a proscribed handshaking procedure when launching a connection. When benchmarking firewall performance, it is import to identify this handshaking procedure so that it is not included in measurements of bit forwarding rate or UOTs per second. Testers may also be interested in measurements of connection establishment time through or with a given DUT/SUT. [RFC2647] (see also identify, protocols, security association, test, connection, establishment)
connection establishment time
The length of time needed for two hosts, or a host and the DUT/SUT, to agree to set up a connection using a known protocol. Each connection-oriented protocol has its own defined mechanisms for setting up a connection. For purposes of benchmarking firewall performance, this shall be the interval between receipt of the first bit of the first octet of the packet carrying a connection establishment request on a DUT/SUT interface until transmission of the last bit of the last octet of the last packet of the connection setup traffic headed in the opposite direction. This definition applies only to connection-oriented protocols such as TCP. For connectionless protocols such as UDP, the notion of connection establishment time is not meaningful. [RFC2647] (see also interface, protocols, connection, establishment)
connection maintenance
The data exchanged between hosts, or between a host and the DUT/SUT, to ensure a connection is kept alive. Some implementations of TCP and other connection-oriented protocols use 'keep-alive' data to maintain a connection during periods where no user data is exchanged. When benchmarking firewall performance, it is useful to identify connection maintenance traffic as distinct from UOTs per second. Given that maintenance traffic may be characterized by short bursts at periodical intervals, it may not be possible to describe a steady-state forwarding rate for maintenance traffic. One possible approach is to identify the quantity of maintenance traffic, in bytes or bits, over a given interval, and divide through to derive a measurement of maintenance traffic forwarding rate. [RFC2647] (see also identify, protocols, users, connection)
connection overhead
The degradation in bit forwarding rate, if any, observed as a result of the addition of one connection between two hosts through the DUT/SUT, or the addition of one connection from a host to the DUT/SUT. The memory cost of connection establishment and maintenance is highly implementation-specific. This metric is intended to describe that cost in a method visible outside the firewall. It may also be desirable to invert this metric to show the performance improvement as a result of tearing down one connection. [RFC2647] (see also establishment, connection)
connection teardown
The data exchanged between hosts, or between a host and the DUT/SUT, to close a connection. Connection-oriented protocols like TCP follow a stated procedure when ending a connection. When benchmarking firewall performance, it is important to identify the teardown procedure so that it is not included in measurements of bit forwarding rate or UOTs per second. Testers may also be interested in measurements of connection teardown time through or with a given DUT/SUT. [RFC2647] (see also identify, protocols, test, connection)
connection teardown time
The length of time needed for two hosts, or a host and the DUT/SUT, to agree to tear down a connection using a known protocol. Each connection-oriented protocol has its own defined mechanisms for dropping a connection. For purposes of benchmarking firewall performance, this shall be the interval between receipt of the first bit of the first octet of the packet carrying a connection teardown request on a DUT/SUT interface until transmission of the last bit of the last octet of the last packet of the connection teardown traffic headed in the opposite direction. This definition applies only to connection-oriented protocols such as TCP. For connectionless protocols such as UDP, the notion of connection teardown time is not meaningful. [RFC2647] (see also interface, protocols, connection)
connectionless data integrity service
(I) A security service that provides data integrity service for an individual IP datagram, by detecting modification of the datagram, without regard to the ordering of the datagram in a stream of datagrams. (C) A connection-oriented data integrity service would be able to detect lost or reordered datagrams within a stream of datagrams. [RFC2828] (see also security, connection, integrity)
connectivity
The property of the TOE which allows interaction with IT entities external to the TOE. This includes exchange of data by wire or by wireless means, over any distance in any environment or configuration. [CC2][CC21][SC27] Word that indicates the connection of two systems regardless of the method used physical connection. [DSS] (see also connection, property, target of evaluation)
consequence
The effect of an event, incident, or occurrence. For the purposes of the NIPP, consequences are divided into four main categories: public health and safety, economic, psychological, and governance impacts. [NIPP]
consequence management
Includes measures to protect public health and safety, restore essential government services, and provide emergency relief to governments, businesses, and individuals affected by the consequences of terrorism. The laws of the United States assign primary authority to the States to respond to the consequences of terrorism; the Federal Government provides assistance as required. [CIAO] (see also risk management)
consignee
Person, firm, or Government activity named as receiver of a shipment; one to whom a shipment is consigned. [DSS]
consignor
Person, firm, or Government activity by which articles are shipped. The consignor is usually the shipper. [DSS] (see also shipper)
consistency
The degree of uniformity, standardization, and freedom from contradiction among the documents or parts of system or component. [IEEE610] (see also standard, system, database management system)
console
A program that provides user and administrator interfaces to an intrusion detection and prevention system. [800-94] (see also interface, intrusion, intrusion detection, program, system, users)
console logon
Accessing IT from the computer operator's system control console. Console logons are generally granted privileged user status. [NASA] (see also access, computer, control, privileged, system, users, logon)
console logs
Important system events that are recorded and printed at the system control console Handwritten journals of important events kept by the computer operator [NASA] (see also computer, control, system, audit trail)
constant surveillance service (CSS)
Transportation protective service provided by a commercial carrier qualified by Surface Deployment and Distribution Command to transport CONFIDENTIAL shipments. The service requires constant surveillance of the shipment at all times by a qualified carrier representative; however, a Facility Security Clearance is not required for the carrier. The carrier providing the service must maintain a signature and tally record for the shipment. [DSS] (see also security)
construction
The process of creating a Target of Evaluation. [AJP][ITSEC] (see also process, target, target of evaluation)
construction of TOE requirements
An intermediate combination of components is a package. The package permits the expression of a set of requirements which meet an identifiable subset of security objectives. A package is intended to be reusable and to define requirements which are known to be useful and effective in meeting the identified objectives. A package may be used in the construction of larger packages, PPs, and STs. [CC1] (see also object, security, requirements, target of evaluation) (includes component, security target)
construction surveillance technician
Citizen of the United States, who is at least 18 years of age, cleared at the TOP SECRET level, experience in construction and trained in accordance with the Construction Surveillance Technician Field Guidebook to ensure the security integrity of a site. [DSS] (see also security)
constructive cost model (COCOMO)
(see also business process)
consumers
Individuals or groups responsible for specifying requirements for IT product security (e.g. policy makers and regulatory officials, system architects, integrators, acquisition managers, product purchasers, and end-users). [AJP][FCv1] (see also policy, requirements, security, system, users)
contact interface
A chip card that allows interface through a contact. A contact is an electrical connecting surface on an ICC and/or interfacing device that permits a flow of energy current, thereby transmission of data. [GSA] (see also flow, interface)
contactless interface
An ICC that enables energy to flow between the card and the interfacing device without the use of contact. Instead, induction of high-frequency transmission techniques is used through a radio frequency (RF) interface. [GSA] (see also flow, interface)
contactless smart card
A smart card that can exchange information with a card reader without coming in physical contact with the reader. Contactless smart cards use 13.56 megahertz radio frequency transmissions to exchange information with card readers. [GAO] (see also information, smartcards)
container
The file used by a virtual disk encryption technology to encompass and protect other files. [SP 800-111] (see also encryption, file, technology)
contamination
The intermixing of data at different sensitivity and need-to-know levels. The lower level data is said to be contaminated by the higher level data; thus, the contaminating (higher level) data may not receive the required level of protection. [AJP][NCSC/TG004] Type of incident involving the introduction of data of one security classification or security category into data of a lower security classification or different security category. [CNSSI][CNSSI-4009] (see also classified, fetch protection, file protection, incident, risk)
content filtering
The process of monitoring communications such as email and Web pages, analyzing them for suspicious content, and preventing the delivery of suspicious content to users. [SP 800-114] (see also communications, process, users)
context-dependent access control
Access control in which access is determined by the specific circumstances under which the data is being accessed. [AJP][TDI] (see also access, control)
continental united states
U.S. territory, including adjacent territorial waters, located within the North American continent between Canada and Mexico. [DSS]
contingency key
Key held for use under specific operational conditions or in support of specific contingency plans. [CNSSI] Key held for use under specific operational conditions or in support of specific contingency plans. See Reserve Keying Material. [CNSSI-4009] (see also operation, key)
contingency plan
(I) A plan for emergency response, backup operations, and post-disaster recovery in a system as part of a security program to ensure availability of critical system resources and facilitate continuity of operations in a crisis. [RFC2828] A plan for emergency response, backup operations, and post-disaster recovery maintained by an activity as a part of its security program that will ensure the availability of critical resources and facilitate the continuity of operations in an emergency situation. [AFSEC][AJP][NCSC/TG004] A plan for emergency response, backup operations, and post-disaster recovery; created, maintained, and tested as part of the IT security planning process that will ensure availability of critical resources and facilitate continued processing in an emergency situation [NASA] A plan for responding to the loss or failure of a system. The plan describes the necessary steps to take in order to ensure the continuity of core business processes. It includes emergency response, backup operations, and post-disaster recovery. Synonymous with disaster plan and emergency plan. [SRV] Management policy and procedures used to guide an enterprise response to a perceived loss of mission capability. The Contingency Plan is the first plan used by the enterprise risk managers to determine what happened, why, and what to do. It may point to the Continuity of Operations Plan (COOP) or Disaster Recovery Plan for major disruptions. [CNSSI-4009] Plan maintained for emergency response, backup operations, and post-disaster recovery for an IS, to ensure availability of critical resources and facilitate the continuity of operations in an emergency. [CIAO] Plan maintained for emergency response, backup operations, and post-disaster recovery for an information system, to ensure availability of critical resources and facilitate the continuity of operations in an emergency situation. [DSS] (see also IT security, backup, business process, critical, failure, management, operation, process, program, recovery, resource, response, risk, security, system, test, contingency planning) (includes back up vs. backup, backup generations, backup operations, backup plan, disaster plan, disaster recovery, disaster recovery plan, emergency plan, recovery procedures, redundancy)
contingency planning
A family of security controls in the operations class dealing with emergency response, backup operations, and post-disaster recovery for an IT system, to ensure the availability of critical resources and to facilitate the continuity of operations in an emergency situation. [800-37] (see also backup, control, critical, operation, recovery, resource, response, system, availability) (includes contingency plan)
continuity of operations
The steps taken by the line manager to assure that reasonable data processing support can be provided should events occur that prevent normal operations [NASA] (see also process, availability, operation)
continuity of operations plan
(COOP) A predetermined set of instructions or procedures that describe how an organization's mission-essential functions will be sustained within 12 hours and for up to 30 days as a result of a disaster event before returning to normal operations. [SP 800-34] Management policy and procedures used to guide an enterprise response to a major loss of enterprise capability or damage to its facilities. The COOP is the third plan needed by the enterprise risk managers and is used when the enterprise must recover (often at an alternate site) for a specified period of time. Defines the activities of individual departments and agencies and their sub-components to ensure that their essential functions are performed. This includes plans and procedures that delineate essential functions; specifies succession to office and the emergency delegation of authority; provide for the safekeeping of vital records and databases; identify alternate operating facilities; provide for interoperable communications, and validate the capability through tests, training, and exercises. See also Disaster Recovery Plan and Contingency Plan. [CNSSI-4009] Plan for continuing an organization's (usually a headquarters element) essential functions at an alternate site and performing those functions for the duration of an event with little or no loss of continuity before returning to normal operations. [CNSSI] (see also damage, function, management, risk, operation)
continuity of services and operations
Controls to ensure that, when unexpected events occur, departmental / agency MEI services and operations, including computer operations, continue without interruption or are promptly resumed and critical and sensitive data are protected through adequate contingency and business recovery plans and exercises. [CIAO] (see also business process, computer, control, critical, minimum essential infrastructure, recovery, operation, risk management)
continuous monitoring
Maintaining ongoing awareness to support organizational risk decisions. [SP 800-137] The process implemented to maintain a current security status for one or more information systems or for the entire suite of information systems on which the operational mission of the enterprise depends. The process includes: 1) The development of a strategy to regularly evaluate selected IA controls/metrics, 2) Recording and evaluating IA relevant events and the effectiveness of the enterprise in dealing with those events, 3) Recording changes to IA controls, or changes that affect IA risks, and 4) Publishing the current security status to enable information-sharing decisions involving the enterprise. [CNSSI-4009] (see also control, development, risk, security)
continuous operation
This condition exists when a Special Access Program Facility is staffed 24 hours a day. [DSS] (see also access)
continuous process
A process that operates on the basis of continuous flow, as opposed to batch, intermittent, or sequenced operations. [800-82] (see also flow, operation, process)
continuous process improvement
An ongoing effort to incrementally improve how products and services are provided and internal operations are conduced. [SRV] (see also operation, process, quality)
continuous sensitive compartmented information facility operation
Staffing a Sensitive Compartmented Information Facility that is staffed and operated 24 hours a day. [DSS]
continuous signature service (CSS)
(see also signature)
contract
An agreement between two or more legally competent parties, in the proper form, on a legal subject matter or purpose, for a legal consideration. [SRV] (see also subject)
contracting officer
Government official, who in accordance with departmental or agency procedures, designated as a contracting officer with the authority to enter into and administer contracts, and make determination and finding with respect thereto, or any part of such authority. The term also includes the designated representative of the contracting officer acting within the limits of his or her authority. [DSS]
contracting officer representative (COR)
contractor
Industrial, educational, commercial, or other entity granted a Facility Security Clearance by a Cognizant Security Agency. [DSS] (see also security)
contractor special security officer (CSSO)
Individual appointed in writing by a Cognizant Security Authority who is responsible for all aspects of Sensitive Compartmented Information security at a U.S. Government contractor facility. [DSS] (see also information security, security)
contractor/command program manager
Contractor-designated individual who has overall responsibility for all aspects of a program. [DSS]
contractor/command program security officer
Individual appointed by the contractor who performs the security duties and functions for Special Access Programs. [DSS] (see also access, security)
control
Authority of the agency that originates information, or its successor in function, to regulate access to the information. [DSS] In the context of information technology security, the term 'control' is normally considered to be synonymous with 'safeguard'. [SC27] (see also Automated Information System security, Bell-LaPadula security model, British Standard 7799, C2-protect, CCI assembly, CCI component, CCI equipment, COMSEC account, COMSEC system data, Clark Wilson integrity model, Common Criteria for Information Technology Security, Defense Information Infrastructure, IA product, IT security database, IT security policy, Identification Protocol, International Traffic in Arms Regulations, KMI operating account, MAC algorithm key, PIV issuer, POSIX, RED signal, SSO PIN, TCB subset, TEMPEST, Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria, U.S. person, Wassenaar Arrangement, abend, acceptable level of risk, acceptable risk, acceptance procedure, access, access control lists, access mediation, access with limited privileges, accountability, accounting legend code, accounting number, accreditation, accreditation disapproval, accreditation range, acquisition, acquisition strategy, active wiretapping, adequate security, agency, alarm surveillance, allocation, anonymous login, application, application generator, application proxy, approval/accreditation, assessment objective, assurance, attack, audit, audit/review, authentication, authentication protocol, authority, authorization, authorization (to operate), authorize processing, automated information system, automated security monitoring, availability service, backdoor, baseline, baseline configuration, baseline security, block cipher key, body of evidence, bot-network operators, boundary host, boundary protection, boundary protection device, breach, buffer overflow, business impact analysis, centralized authorization, centralized operations, certificate policy, certificate user, certification, certification agent or certifier, certification analyst, certification phase, chain of evidence, challenge-response protocol, chemical warfare, circuit proxy, closed security environment, cloud computing, commodity service, communications, communications security, compartment, compartmentalization, component, component reference monitor, compromise, compromised key list, computer security, configuration management, connection, console logon, console logs, contingency planning, continuity of services and operations, continuous monitoring, cookies, cost/benefit estimate, countermeasures, covert channel, credentials, critical elements, cross domain solution, cryptographic key, cryptographic system review, cryptographic token, cryptosystem review, cyberattack, cyberspace, cycle time, data historian, data management, database management system, decrypt, dedicated mode, dedicated security mode, default file protection, defense-in-depth, developer security, device distribution profile, digital watermarking, distributed database, distributed dataprocessing, disturbance, documentation, domain, domain name system, due care, electronic warfare, electronic warfare support, embedded cryptographic system, embedded system, enclave, encryption, encryption algorithm, entity-wide security, examine, exploitation, extensible, external network, fieldbus, filtering router, firewall, flaw hypothesis methodology, formal security policy model, formulary, full accreditation, general support system, granularity, handler, hardware and system software maintenance, hash token, high assurance guard, hijack attack, host to front-end protocol, human-machine interface, identification and authentication, incident response capability, independent assessment, independent validation authority, information, information assurance product, information category, information management, information owner, information security, information security program plan, information security testing, information sharing environment, information steward, information system, information systems security equipment modification, information technology, inspectable space, intellectual property, intelligent electronic device, interconnection security agreements, interface testing, interference, interim accreditation action plan, internal network, internet, internet protocol, internet protocol security, interview, isolation, kerberos, key, key management, key management infrastructure, key stream, key-escrow system, labeled security protections, lattice model, levels of concern, light tower, line conditioning, line conduction, local-area network, logical access, logical completeness measure, login, malicious logic, manipulated variable, media library, media protection, misappropriation, modes of operation, multi-releasable, national security information, national security system, naval coastal warfare, network, network administrator, network analyzer, network component, network connection, network management, network reference monitor, network security, non-repudiation, noncomputing security methods, object, official information, open security environment, operating system, operations security, optional modification, packet, packet filter, packet filtering, packet switching, pagejacking, password protected, penetration study, perimeter-based security, permissions, personnel security, photo eye, physical and environmental protection, physical security, physically isolated network, point-to-point tunneling protocol, policy, pre-certification phase, pressure regulator, privacy, privileged command, privileged instructions, privileged user, probe, procedural security, proof of possession protocol, protected distribution systems, protected network, protection philosophy, protection-critical portions of the TCB, protocol data unit, protocols, proximity, proxy server, public-key certificate, public-key infrastructure, random number generator, reference monitor, reference monitor concept, remote access, repair action, replay attacks, residual risk, restricted area, risk assessment, risk management, risk mitigation, risk reduction analysis, rule-based security policy, ruleset, safeguarding statement, safety, salt, sandboxed environment, sandboxing, scoping guidance, secure configuration management, secure operating system, secure subsystem, security, security attribute, security audit, security awareness, training, and education, security breach, security certification level, security kernel, security label, security management, security management infrastructure, security perimeter, security plan, security program plan, security safeguards, security service, security test & evaluation, security violation, security-relevant event, segregation of duties, sensitive compartmented information, sensitive information, sensitivity label, servo valve, session hijack attack, set point, short title, signaling, simple network management protocol, software library, software-based fault isolation, special access program, split knowledge, spoofing, stateful packet filtering, superuser, surrogate access, system, system administrator, system and data integrity, system development and acquisition, system interconnection, system of records, system security plan, system software, systems software, tailoring, tamper, technical security policy, technological attack, technology, terminal hijacking, test, thermostat, threat shifting, ticket, token authenticator, token management, tokens, topical areas, trace packet, transmission security, trapdoor, under sea warfare, unprotected network, user PIN, user data protocol, users, usurpation, verification, verification techniques, verifier, virtual private network, vulnerability, vulnerability assessment, wireless device) (includes COMSEC Material Control System, COMSEC control program, IT security controls, Office of Foreign Assets Control, TSF scope of control, Terminal Access Controller Access Control System, U.S.-controlled facility, U.S.-controlled space, access control, access control center, access control mechanisms, access control officer, access control service, application controls, areas of control, attribute-based access control, automatic key distribution/rekeying control unit, baseline controls, change control and lifecycle management, circuit control officer, cluster controller, command and control, command and control warfare, command, control, and communications, command, control, communications and computers, command, control, communications and intelligence, common control, common control provider, compensating security controls, computer related controls, concurrency control, configuration control, configuration control board, context-dependent access control, control algorithm, control center, control class, control family, control identification list, control information, control loop, control network, control objectives, control objectives for information and related technology, control server, control systems, control zone, controlled access area, controlled access protection, controlled area, controlled cryptographic item, controlled interface, controlled security mode, controlled sharing, controlled space, controlled variable, controller, controlling authority, criteria of control, cryptonet control station, data control language, data flow control, design controlled spare parts, discretionary access control, distributed control system, domain controller, dual control, emergency shutdown controls, entry control, environmentally controlled area, external security controls, failure control, firewall control proxy, foreign owned, controlled or influenced, general controls, global command and control system, hybrid security control, identity based access control, industrial control system, information flow control, information systems audit and control association, information systems audit and control foundation, interface control document, interface control unit, internal control questionnaire, internal security controls, internet control message protocol, key control, logical access control, machine controller, management control processes, management controls, management security controls, mandatory access control, master control switch, media access control address, modification/configuration control board, motion control network, net control station, network access control, non-discretionary access control, nuclear command and control document, operational controls, partition rule base access control, physical access control, physical controls, point of control and observation, policy-based access control, positive control material, procedural controls, process controller, programmable logic controller, quality assurance/control, quality control, questions on controls, redundant control server, risk-adaptable access control, role-based access control, routing control, security control assessment, security control assessor, security control baseline, security control effectiveness, security control enhancements, security control inheritance, security controls, security net control station, single loop controller, statistical process control, supervisory control, supervisory control and data acquisition, system-specific security control, tailored security control baseline, technical controls, technical security controls, transfers outside TSF control, transmission control protocol, transmission control protocol/internet protocol, two-person control, zone of control)
control algorithm
A mathematical representation of the control action to be performed. [800-82] (see also algorithm, control)
control center
An equipment structure or group of structures from which a process is measured, controlled, and/or monitored. [800-82] (see also process, control)
control class
A grouping of security controls, organized by control families, that all fall under the same broad category. For example, there are three general classes of security controls, (i.e. management, operational, and technical) in NIST Special Publications 800-18, 800-37, and 800-53. [800-37] (see also operation, security, control)
control family
A grouping of security controls that fall under the same more specific category, which are often interrelated and interdependent, and which should be considered as a group. [800-37] (see also security, control)
control identification list
A list of all of the security controls that should be added to the security plan and implemented based on the criticality/sensitivity needs identified by the agency. [800-37] (see also critical, security, control, identification)
control information
Information that is entered into a cryptographic module for the purposes of directing the operation of the module. [FIPS 140-2] information that is entered into a cryptographic module for the purposes of directing the operation of the module. [FIPS140] (see also cryptographic, module, operation, control, cryptographic module, information)
control loop
A combination of field devices and control functions arranged so that a control variable is compared to a set point and returns to the process in the form of a manipulated variable. [800-82] (see also function, process, control)
control network
Those networks of an enterprise typically connected to equipment that controls physical processes and that is time or safety critical. The control network can be subdivided into zones, and there can be multiple separate control networks within one enterprise and site. [800-82] (see also critical, process, control, network)
control objectives
A statement of the desired result or purpose to be achieved by implementing control procedures in a particular IT activity. [CIAO] Required result of protecting information within an IT product and its immediate environment. [AJP][FCv1] (see also information, control, object, risk management)
control objectives for information and related technology (COBIT)
(see also control, information, object, technology)
control server
A server that hosts the supervisory control system, typically a commercially available application for DCS or SCADA system. [800-82] (see also application, control systems, system, control)
control systems
A system in which deliberate guidance or manipulation is used to achieve a prescribed value for a variable. Control systems include SCADA, DCS, PLCs and other types of industrial measurement and control systems. [800-82] Computer-based systems used within many infrastructure and industries to monitor and control sensitive processes and physical functions. These systems typically collect measurement and operational data from the field, process and display the information, and relay control commands to local or remote equipment or human-machine interfaces (operators). Examples of types of control systems include SCADA systems, Process Control Systems, and Distributed Control Systems. [NIPP] (see also COMSEC material, acceptance procedure, accounting legend code, control server, controlled variable, cookies, login, machine controller, national security information, physical access control, programmable logic controller, salt, sensitive compartmented information, control, system) (includes COMSEC Material Control System, Terminal Access Controller Access Control System, distributed control system, global command and control system, supervisory control and data acquisition)
control zone
The space, expressed in feet of radius, surrounding equipment processing sensitive information, that is under sufficient physical and technical control to preclude an unauthorized entry or compromise. [AJP][NCSC/TG004] (see also authorized, compromise, information, process, control, security)
controlled access area
An area where access is physically limited to authorized personnel. Access may be controlled by guards, cipher locks, electronic badge readers, and so forth. [NASA] Complete building or facility area under direct physical control that can include one or more limited exclusion areas; controlled BLACK equipment areas, or in any combination. [DSS] Physical area (e.g., building, room, etc.) to which only authorized personnel are granted unrestricted access. All other personnel are either escorted by authorized personnel or are under continuous surveillance. [CNSSI][CNSSI-4009] (see also authorized, cipher, entry control, access, control)
controlled access program coordination office
The Director of National Intelligence's focal point for issues dealing with the Controlled Access Program Oversight Committee and the Senior Review Group. [DSS] (see also intelligence, access)
controlled access program oversight committee
Forum supporting the Director of National Intelligence in the management of controlled access programs. This includes creation and continuation of controlled access programs including Sensitive Compartmented Information compartments and other Director of National Intelligence special access programs. It includes monitoring of these programs through performance audits and evaluations as necessary. [DSS] (see also audit, evaluation, intelligence, access)
controlled access programs
Director of National Intelligence-approved programs that protect national intelligence. They include: Sensitive Compartmented Information Compartments that protect national intelligence concerning or derived from intelligence sources, methods, or analytical processes Special Access Programs Pertaining to intelligence activities (including special activities, but excluding military, operational, strategic and tactical programs) and intelligence sources and methods Restricted Collateral Information Other than Sensitive Compartmented Information and Special Access Programs that imposes controls governing access to national intelligence or control procedures beyond those normally provided for access to CONFIDENTIAL, SECRET, or TOP SECRET information, and for which funding is specifically identified [DSS] (see also intelligence, security clearance, access)
controlled access protection
Minimum set of security functionality that enforces access control on individual users and makes them accountable for their actions through login procedures, auditing of security-relevant events, and resource isolation. [CNSSI][CNSSI-4009] The ability of IT to control by electronic means the circumstances under which users have access to its resources [NASA] (see also assurance, audit, evaluation, function, resource, security, trust, users, access, control)
controlled area
Any area or space for which the organization has confidence that the physical and procedural protections provided are sufficient to meet the requirements established for protecting the information and/or information system. [SP 800-53] (see also requirements, control)
controlled area/compound
Area to which entry is subject to restrictions or control for security reasons. [DSS] (see also security, subject)
controlled building
Building to which entry is subject to restrictions or control for security reasons. [DSS] (see also security, subject)
controlled cryptographic item (CCI)
(CCI) Secure telecommunications or information system, or associated cryptographic component, that is unclassified and handled through the COMSEC Material Control System (CMCS), an equivalent material control system, or a combination of the two that provides accountability and visibility. Such items are marked .Controlled Cryptographic Item,. or, where space is limited, 'CCI'. [CNSSI-4009] Secure telecommunications device, or information handling equipment ancillary device, or associated cryptographic component, that is unclassified but controlled. Equipment and components so designed bear the designator 'Controlled Cryptographic Item. [DSS] Secure telecommunications or information handling equipment, or associated cryptographic component, that is unclassified but governed by a special set of control requirements. Such items are marked 'CONTROLLED CRYPTOGRAPHIC ITEM' or, where space is limited, 'CCI.' [CNSSI] (see also classified, communications, information, requirements, telecommunications, control, cryptographic)
controlled information
Information and indicators deliberately conveyed or denied to foreign targets to evoke invalid official estimates that result in foreign official actions advantageous to U.S. interests and objectives. [DSS] (see also foreign, object, target)
controlled interface
A boundary with a set of mechanisms that enforces the security policies and controls the flow of information between interconnected information systems. [CNSSI-4009; SP 800-37] Mechanism that facilitates adjudication of interconnected system security policies (for example, controlling the flow of information into or out of an interconnected system). [DSS] Mechanism that facilitates the adjudication of different interconnected system security policies (e.g., controlling the flow of information into or out of an interconnected system). [CNSSI] (see also flow, information, security, system, control, interface)
controlled security mode
(D) ISDs SHOULD NOT use this term. It was defined in an earlier version of the U.S. Department of Defense policy that regulates system accreditation, but was subsumed by 'partitioned security mode' in the current version. (C) The term refers to a mode of operation of an information system, wherein at least some users with access to the system have neither a security clearance nor a need-to-know for all classified material contained in the system. However, separation and control of users and classified material on the basis, respectively, of clearance and classification level are not essentially under operating system control like they are in 'multilevel security mode'. (C) Controlled mode was intended to encourage ingenuity in meeting the security requirements of Defense policy in ways less restrictive than 'dedicated security mode' and 'system high security mode', but at a level of risk lower than that generally associated with the true 'multilevel security mode'. This was to be accomplished by implementation of explicit augmenting measures to reduce or remove a substantial measure of system software vulnerability together with specific limitation of the security clearance levels of users permitted concurrent access to the system. [RFC2828] (see also access, access control, accreditation, classification levels, classified, information, operation, policy, requirements, risk, software, system, users, version, vulnerability, control, multilevel security)
controlled sharing
The condition that exists when access control is applied to all users and components of a system. [AJP][NCSC/TG004] (see also access, system, access control, control)
controlled space
Three-dimensional space surrounding IS equipment, within which unauthorized individuals are denied unrestricted access and are either escorted by authorized individuals or are under continuous physical or electronic surveillance. [CNSSI] Three-dimensional space surrounding information system equipment, within which unauthorized individuals are denied unrestricted access and are either escorted by authorized individuals or are under continuous physical or electronic surveillance. [CNSSI-4009] (see also access, access control, authorized, control)
controlled unclassified information
Categorical designation that refers to unclassified information that does not meeting the standards for National Security Classification under Reference (e), but is pertinent to the national interests of the United States or to the important interests of entities outside the Federal Government and under law or policy requires protection from unauthorized disclosure, special handling safeguards, or prescribed limits on exchange or dissemination. The designation Controlled Unclassified Information replaces the term 'Sensitive But Unclassified.' [DSS] (see also authorized, classified)
controlled variable
The variable that the control system attempts to keep at the set point value. The set point may be constant or variable. [800-82] (see also control systems, system, control)
controller
A device or program that operates automatically to regulate a controlled variable. [800-82] (see also program, control)
controlling authority
Official responsible for directing the operation of a cryptonet and for managing the operational use and control of keying material assigned to the cryptonet. [CNSSI][CNSSI-4009] (see also cryptography, key, operation, authority, control)
conversion
Changing data and/or existing software into another format. [SRV] (see also software, version)
cookies
(I) access control usage: A synonym for 'capability' or 'ticket' in an access control system. (I) IPsec usage: Data exchanged by ISAKMP to prevent certain denial-of-service attacks during the establishment of a security association. (I) HTTP usage: Data exchanged between an HTTP server and a browser (a client of the server) to store state information on the client side and retrieve it later for server use. (C) An HTTP server, when sending data to a client, may send along cookie, which the client retains after the HTTP connection closes. A server can use this mechanism to maintain persistent client-side state information for HTTP-based applications, retrieving the state information in later connections. A cookie may include a description of the range of URLs for which the state is valid. Future requests made by the client in that range will also send the current value of the cookie to the server. Cookies can be used to generate profiles of web usage habits, and thus may infringe on personal privacy. [RFC2828] A message given by a Web server to a Web browser, stored by the Web browser, and returned to the Web server when requested. [FFIEC] A piece of state information supplied by a Web server to a browser, in a response for a requested resource, for the browser to store temporarily and return to the server on any subsequent visits or requests. [SP 800-28] A small data file that holds information regarding the use of a particular Web site. [800-83] Cookies register information about a visit to a web site for future use by the server. A server may receive information of cookies of other sites as well which create concern in terms of breach of privacy. [RFC2504] Data exchanged between an HTTP server and a browser (a client of the server) to store state information on the client side and retrieve it later for server use. [CNSSI-4009] (see also access, application, association, attack, connection, control, control systems, denial-of-service, establishment, file, information, internet, internet protocol security, internet security protocol, message, privacy, profile, system, world wide web, access control)
cooperative key generation (CKG)
Electronically exchanging functions of locally generated, random components, from which both terminals of a secure circuit construct traffic encryption key or key encryption key for use on that circuit. [CNSSI] Electronically exchanging functions of locally generated, random components, from which both terminals of a secure circuit construct traffic encryption key or key encryption key for use on that circuit. See Per-Call Key. [CNSSI-4009] (see also encryption, function, random, key)
cooperative program personnel
Foreign government personnel, assigned to a program office hosted by a Department of Defense Component in accordance with the terms of a Cooperative Program International Agreement who report to and take direction from a Department of Defense-appointed program manager (or program manager equivalent) for the purpose of carrying out the cooperative project or program. Foreign government representatives described in such agreements as liaison officers or observers are not considered Cooperative Program Personnel but are treated as Foreign Liaison Officers. [DSS] (see also foreign)
cooperative remote rekeying
Synonymous with manual remote rekeying. [CNSSI][CNSSI-4009] (see also key, rekey)
coordinated universal time
(N) UTC is derived from International Atomic Time (TAI) by adding number of leap seconds. The International Bureau of Weights and Measures computes TAI once each month by averaging data from many laboratories. [RFC2828] (see also GeneralizedTime, UTCTime)
core or key process
- Business processes that are vital to the organization's success and survival. [SRV] (see also business process, key, process)
core secrets
Any item, process, strategy, or element of information, the compromise of which would result in unrecoverable failure. [DSS] (see also compromise)
corporate family
Corporation, its subsidiaries, divisions, and branch offices. [DSS]
corporate security policy
The set of laws, rules, and practices that regulate how assets including sensitive information are managed, protected, and distributed within a user organization. [AJP][ITSEC] (see also information, users, policy, security policy)
corporation
Legal entity governed by a set of by-laws and owned by its stockholders. [DSS]
correctness
(1) A property of a representation of a Target of Evaluation such that it accurately reflects the stated security target for that system or product. Correctness consists of determining if the description and implementation are consistent. There are levels of correctness that depend on the evidence requirements and the intensity of verification and analysis. (2) In security evaluation, the preservation of relevant properties between successive levels of representations. Examples of representations could be top-level functional specification, detailed design specification, and actual implementation. This is an aspect of assurance. (3) Correctness in the draft Federal Criteria equates to assurance in the European Information Technology Security Evaluation Criteria. Development and evaluation assurance constitute correctness criteria. Effectiveness is addressed in vetting of protection profiles. (4) The extent to which a program satisfies its specifications. [AJP] A property of a representation of a Target of Evaluation such that it accurately reflects the stated security target for that system or product. [ITSEC] In security evaluation, the preservation of relevant properties between successive levels of representations. Examples of representations could be: top-level functional specification, detailed design specification, actual implementation. An aspect of assurance. [JTC1/SC27] The degree to which software or its components is free from faults and/or meets specified requirements and/or user needs. [SRV] The extent to which a program satisfies its specifications. [TNI] (see also analysis, computer security, criteria, evidence, fault, file, function, information, profile, program, property, requirements, security target, software, system, target, technology, users, verification, European Information Technology Security Evaluation Criteria, Federal Criteria for Information Technology Security, integrity) (includes correctness integrity, correctness proof)
correctness integrity
(I) Accuracy and consistency of the information that data values represent, rather than of the data itself. Closely related to issues of accountability and error handling. [RFC2828] (see also information, correctness, integrity)
correctness proof
(I) A mathematical proof of consistency between a specification for system security and the implementation of that specification. [RFC2828] A mathematical proof of consistency between a specification and its implementation. [CNSSI][CNSSI-4009] (see also system, correctness, security)
corroborate
To strengthen, confirm, or make certain the substance of a statement through use of an independent, but not necessarily authoritative source. For example, the date and place of birth recorded in an official personnel file that could be used to corroborate the date and place of birth claimed on a Standard Form 86. [DSS] (see also validate)
corruption
A threat action that undesirably alters system operation by adversely modifying system functions or data. [RFC2828] (see also function, operation, system, threat consequence)
cost reimbursement contract
A contract that provides for payment of allowable incurred costs to the extent prescribed in the contract. [SRV] (see also business process)
cost-risk analysis
The assessment of the costs of providing data protection for a system versus the cost of losing or compromising the data. [AJP][NCSC/TG004][OVT] (see also assessment, compromise, cost/benefit analysis, system, analysis, business process, risk analysis)
cost/benefit
A criterion for comparing programs and alternatives when benefits can be valued in dollars. Also referred to as the benefit-cost ratio, that is a function of equivalent benefits and equivalent costs. [SRV] (see also cost/benefit analysis, cost/benefit estimate, function, program, analysis, business process)
cost/benefit analysis
A technique to compare the various costs associated with an investment with the benefits that it proposes to return. Both tangible and intangible factors should be addressed and accounted for. [SRV] Part of the management decision-making process in which the costs and benefits of each countermeasure alternative are compared and the most appropriate alternative is selected. Costs include the price paid for tangible materials and the ongoing operational costs associated with implementing the countermeasures. Benefits are expressed in terms of the amount of risk reduction based on the overall effectiveness of the countermeasure with respect to the assessed vulnerabilities. [GAO] (see also cost-risk analysis, cost/benefit, countermeasures, operation, process, risk, risk management, vulnerability, analysis, business process)
cost/benefit estimate
The process of comparing estimated cost to estimated benefit to determine economic feasibility. If the estimated benefit of the control is greater than its estimated cost, the control is considered to be cost effective and economically feasible. [NASA] (see also control, cost/benefit, process, analysis)
COTS software
Commercial off-the-shelf - Software acquired by government contract through a commercial vendor. This software is a standard product, not developed by a vendor for a particular government project. [NSAINT][OVT] (see also commercial off-the-shelf software, mass-market software, standard, commercial-off-the-shelf, software)
counter
A bit array of length n bits that is used in the Counter Mode; its value when considered as the binary representation of an integer increases by one (modulo 2n) after each block of plaintext is processed. [SC27] (see also process)
counterintelligence
Information gathered and activities conducted to protect against espionage, other intelligence activities, sabotage, or assassinations conducted by or on behalf of foreign governments or elements thereof, foreign organizations, or foreign persons, or international terrorist activities. [800-60] Phase of intelligence covering activity designed to neutralize the effectiveness of adversary intelligence collection activities. Those activities concerned with identifying and counteracting the security threat posed by hostile intelligence services, organizations, or by individuals engaged in espionage, sabotage, subversion, or terrorism. [DSS] (see also adversary, countermeasures, foreign, information, security, threat, intelligence)
counterintelligence assessment
A Department of Defense Component's comprehensive analysis or study of a relevant Counterintelligence topic, event, situation, issue, or development. Counterintelligence assessments require exhaustive amounts of research, and the production timeline can range from days to months. When conducted in support of a Research, Development, and Acquisition program with Critical Program Information, the assessment describes the threat a foreign entity (such as person, representative, corporation, government, military, or commercial) represents to the Critical Program Information/system assessed. The assessment is multidisciplinary, as it includes an analysis of the diverse foreign collection modalities available, the relative effectiveness of each, and capability of the foreign entity to collect information about research efforts, the technology, and/or system under development. The assessment may include the impact to the Department of Defense if the technology is compromised and be complimentary to, integrated with, or independent of the Technology Targeting Risk Assessment provided by the Defense Intelligence Community. [DSS] (see also analysis, compromise, critical, foreign, risk, target, threat, assessment, intelligence)
countermeasures
(I) An action, device, procedure, or technique that reduces a threat, a vulnerability, or an attack by eliminating or preventing it, by minimizing the harm it can cause, or by discovering and reporting it so that corrective action can be taken. (C) In an Internet protocol, a countermeasure may take the form of protocol feature, an element function, or a usage constraint. [RFC2828] A specific technique, product or procedure that is implemented to subvert or remedy the effects of an attack or attack scenario. [IATF] Action, device, procedure, technique, or other measure that reduces the vulnerability of an IS. [CNSSI] Action, device, procedure, technique, or other measure that reduces the vulnerability of an automated information system. countermeasures that are aimed at specific threats and vulnerabilities involve more sophisticated techniques as well as activities traditionally perceived as security. [AFSEC][NSAINT] Actions, devices, procedures, or techniques that meet or oppose (i.e. counters) a threat, a vulnerability, or an attack by eliminating or preventing it, by minimizing the harm it can cause, or by discovering and reporting it so that corrective action can be taken. [CNSSI-4009] Actions, devices, procedures, techniques, or other measures that reduce the vulnerability of an information system. Synonymous with security controls and safeguards. [SP 800-53; SP 800-37; FIPS 200] Any action taken or physical equipment used principally to reduce or eliminate one or more vulnerabilities. The cost of a countermeasure is usually expressed in monetary terms but may include nonmonetary costs such as reduced operational effectiveness, unfavorable working conditions, adverse publicity and political consequences. [GAO] Any action, device, procedure, technique, or other measure that reduces the vulnerability of a system, such as an AIS. [AJP][FCv1] Any action, device, procedure, technique, or other measure that reduces the vulnerability of a threat to a system. [NCSC/TG004][SRV] Employing devices and/or techniques that has as its objective the impairment of the operational effectiveness of an adversary's activity. Countermeasures may include anything that effectively negates an adversary's ability to exploit vulnerabilities. [DSS] (see also acceptable level of risk, adversary, alarm, analysis, anomaly detection, antivirus software, antivirus tools, asset, attack, benign, benign environment, checksum, compensating security controls, control, cost/benefit analysis, counterintelligence, firewall, function, information, information systems security engineering, internet, intrusion detection, intrusion prevention, key, layered solution, level of protection, management controls, object, operation, operational controls, operations security, operations security process, physical security, protective distribution system, protocols, residual risk, risk analysis, risk assessment, robustness, security audit, security controls, security safeguards, security software, security testing, system, system security authorization agreement, technical controls, technology, threat analysis, threat assessment, virus definitions, vulnerability, vulnerability assessment, work factor, risk management, threat) (includes electronic counter-countermeasures, electronic countermeasures, non-technical countermeasure, security countermeasures, technical countermeasures, technical surveillance countermeasures, technical surveillance countermeasures inspection, technical surveillance countermeasures surveys and evaluations)
country code
(I) An identifier that is defined for a nation by ISO. (C) For each nation, ISO Standard 3166 defines a unique two-character alphabetic code, a unique three-character alphabetic code, and a three-digit code. Among many uses of these codes, the two-character codes are used as top-level domain names. [RFC2828] (see also domain, standard, code)
courier
Cleared employee whose principal duty is to transmit classified material to its destination. The classified material remains in the personal possession of the courier except for authorized overnight storage. [DSS] (see also authorized, classified)
cover
Protective action taken to mask or conceal an operation or activity from an adversary. [DSS] (see also adversary)
cover-coding
A technique to reduce the risks of eavesdropping by obscuring the information that is transmitted. [SP 800-98] (see also information, risk)
coverage
An attribute associated with an assessment method that addresses the scope or breadth of the assessment objects included in the assessment (e.g., types of objects to be assessed and the number of objects to be assessed by type). The values for the coverage attribute, hierarchically from less coverage to more coverage, are basic, focused, and comprehensive. [SP 800-53A] Any metric of completeness with respect to a test selection criterion. Without qualification, usually means branch or statement coverage. [OVT] (see also test)
covert
unintended, concealed, secret and/or unauthorized [misc] (see also RED team, bandwidth, confinement channel, espionage, exploitable channel, flooding, leakage, malware, overt channel, rootkit, sniffer) (includes covert channel, covert channel analysis, covert operation, covert storage channel, covert testing, covert timing channel)
covert channel
(1) A communication channel that allows a process to transfer information in a manner that violates the systems security policy. A covert channel typically communicates by exploiting a mechanism not intended to be used for communication. (2) The use of a mechanism not intended for communication to transfer information in a way that violates security. (3) Unintended and/or unauthorized communications path that can be used to transfer information in a manner that violates an AIS security policy. [AJP] (I) A intra-system channel that permits two cooperating entities, without exceeding their access authorizations, to transfer information in a way that violates the systems security policy. (O) 'A communications channel that allows two cooperating processes to transfer information in a manner that violates the systems security policy.' (C) The cooperating entities can be either two insiders or an insider and an outsider. Of course, an outsider has no access authorization at all. A covert channel is a system feature that the system architects neither designed nor intended for information transfer: [RFC2828] A communication channel that allows a process to transfer information in a manner that violates the systems security policy. [TCSEC] A communications channel that allows a process to transfer information in a manner that violates the systems security policy. A covert channel typically communicates by exploiting a mechanism not intended to be used for communication. [TNI] A communications channel that allows two cooperating processes to transfer information in a manner that violates a security policy, but without violating the access control. [SRV] A communications channel that allows two cooperating processes to transfer information in a manner that violates the systems security policy. [AFSEC][NCSC/TG004] An unauthorized communication path that manipulates a communications medium in an unexpected, unconventional, or unforeseen way in order to transmit information without detection by anyone other than the entities operating the covert channel. [CNSSI-4009] Any communication channel that can be exploited by a process to transfer information in a manner that violates the systems security policy. [IATF] The use of a mechanism not intended for communication to transfer information in a way which violates security. [ITSEC] Unintended and/or unauthorized communications path that can be used to transfer information in a manner that violates an AIS security policy. [CNSSI][FCv1] (see also overt channel, security-compliant channel, access, access control, authorization, authorized, communications, computer security, confinement channel, control, entity, exploit, information, insider, policy, process, resource, response, security, system, channel, covert, exploitable channel) (includes covert storage channel, covert timing channel)
covert channel analysis
Determination of the extent to which the security policy model and subsequent lower-level program descriptions may allow unauthorized access to information. [CNSSI][CNSSI-4009] (see also access, access control, authorized, information, policy, program, security, unauthorized access, analysis, covert)
covert operation
Operation that is so planned and executed as to conceal the identity of, or permit plausible denial by, the sponsor. A covert operation differs from a clandestine operation in that emphasis is placed on concealment of the identity of the sponsor rather than on concealment of the operation. Synonymous with law enforcement's undercover operation. [DSS] (see also clandestine operation, identity, covert)
covert storage channel
A covert channel that involves the direct or indirect writing of a storage location by one process and the direct or indirect reading of the storage location by another process. Covert storage channels typically involve a finite resource (e.g. sectors on a disk) that is shared by two subjects at different security levels. [AJP][FCv1][NCSC/TG004][TCSEC][TNI] Covert channel involving the direct or indirect writing to a storage location by one process and the direct or indirect reading of the storage location by another process. Covert storage channels typically involve a finite resource (e.g., sectors on a disk) that is shared by two subjects at different security levels. [CNSSI][CNSSI-4009] (see also process, resource, security, channel, covert, covert channel) (includes subject)
covert testing
Testing performed using covert methods and without the knowledge of the organization's IT staff, but with the full knowledge and permission of upper management. [SP 800-115] (see also management, covert, test)
covert timing channel
(1) A covert channel by which a process signals information to another process by modulating its own use of system resources (e.g. CPU time) in such a way that this manipulation affects the real response time observed by the second process. (2) A communications channel that allows two cooperating processes to transfer information in a manner that violates the systems security policy. [AJP] A covert channel in which one process signals information to another process by modulating its own use of system resources (e.g. CPU time) in such a way that this manipulation affects the real response time observed by the second process. [FCv1][NCSC/TG004][TCSEC][TNI] Covert channel in which one process signals information to another process by modulating its own use of system resources (e.g., central processing unit time) in such a way that this manipulation affects the real response time observed by the second process. [CNSSI][CNSSI-4009] (see also communications, confinement channel, information, policy, process, resource, response, security, system, channel, covert, covert channel)
CPU time
The amount of time that a job or transaction uses a central processing unit (CPU) to complete processing. [SRV] (see also process, automated information system)
crack
A popular hacking tool used to crack passwords. System administrators also use Crack to assess weak passwords by novice users in order to better secure his/her system. [AFSEC] A popular hacking tool used to decode encrypted passwords. System administrators also use Crack to assess weak passwords by novice users in order to enhance the security of the AIS. [NSAINT] (see also code, cryptography, passwords, security, system, users, threat) (includes crack root, cracker, cracking)
crack root
To defeat the security system of a UNIX machine and gain root system privileges thereby. [AFSEC] (see also security, system, crack)
cracker
(I) Someone who tries to break the security of, and gain access to, someone else's system without being invited to do so. [RFC2828] A cracker is an individual who attempts to access computer systems without authorization. These individuals are often malicious, as opposed to hackers, and have many means at their disposal for breaking into a system. [RFC1983] One who breaks security on a system. A person who engages in computer and telecommunications intrusion. [AFSEC] One who breaks security on an AIS. [NSAINT] This term is used to describe attackers, intruders or other bad guys that do not play by the rules and try to circumvent security mechanisms and/or attack individuals and organisations. [RFC2504] a hacker-for-hire who breaks into computer systems to steal information. denial of service the result of hammering a web site's equipment with too many requests for information, effectively clogging the system and slowing performance or even crashing the site. [FJC] (see also access, access control, attack, authorization, communications, computer, information, intrusion, malicious, security, system, telecommunications, crack, hackers)
cracking
The act of breaking into a computer system. [AFSEC][NSAINT] (see also computer, system, crack)
crash
A sudden, usually drastic failure of a computer system. [AFSEC][NSAINT] The sudden and complete failure of a computer system or component. [OVT] (see also computer, failure, system, threat)
credential service provider
(CSP) A trusted entity that issues or registers Subscriber tokens and issues electronic credentials to Subscribers. The CSP may encompass Registration Authorities (RAs) and verifiers that it operates. A CSP may be an independent third party, or may issue credentials for its own use. [SP 800-63] (see also trust)
credentials
(I) Data that is transferred or presented to establish either a claimed identity or the authorizations of a system entity. (O) 'Data that is transferred to establish the claimed identity of an entity.' [RFC2828] A credential is the information one entity presents to another to authenticate the other's identity. [IATF] A credential is what one principal presents to another to authenticate itself. For mutual authentication, both parties exchange credentials. Credentials are issued by an authentication agent or a certification authority. Depending on the model for authentication, credentials may only be valid for a session, or they may have longer validity periods. Digital certificates are credentials that typically last for a year or two. Tickets are credentials that are only good for a session, which typically does not last more than several hours. [misc] An object or data structure that authoritatively binds an identity (and optionally, additional attributes) to a token possessed and controlled by a Subscriber. [SP 800-63] An object such as a smart card that identifies an individual as an official representative of a government agency. [GAO] An object that authoritatively binds an identity (and optionally, additional attributes) to a token possessed and controlled by a person. [800-63] Certificate or document attesting to the truth of certain stated facts. [800-103] Evidence attesting to one's right to credit or authority. [FIPS 201] Evidence attesting to one's right to credit or authority; in this standard, it is the PIV Card and data elements associated with an individual that authoritatively binds an identity (and, optionally, additional attributes) to that individual. [GSA] Evidence or testimonials that support a claim of identity or assertion of an attribute and usually are intended to be used more than once. [CNSSI-4009] Information, passed from one entity to another, used to establish the sending entity's access rights. [CNSSI] (see also access, access control, authentication, authority, authorization, certificate, control, entity, evidence, identity, information, model, object, security testing, standard, system, test, certification authority) (includes digital certificate, identity credential, identity credential issuer, ticket)
credentials service provider
A trusted entity that issues or registers subscriber tokens and issues electronic credentials to subscribers. The CSP may encompass Registration Authorities and verifiers that it operates. A CSP may be an independent third party, or may issue credentials for its own use. [800-63] (see also entity, registration, trust)
credit check
Information provided by credit bureaus or other reporting services to the credit history of the subject of a personnel security investigation. [DSS] (see also security, subject)
criminal
(see also Defense Travel Briefing, attack, dark-side hacker, derogatory information, hybrid threat, hybrid warfare, local agency check, phishing, report of investigation, security environment threat list, threat, vishing, illegal) (includes criminal activity, criminal groups)
criminal activity
Conduct that is or may be a violation of a Federal or State criminal law, the Uniform Code of Military Justice, common law, and criminal laws of foreign countries that might embarrass or otherwise be of concern to the Department of Defense. Selective judgment should be exercised in determining what matters are to be reported based on such factors as the nature of the criminal act, the clearance level of the individual concerned, and an individual's relative position in the company. [DSS] (see also foreign, criminal)
criminal groups
Criminal groups seek to attack systems for monetary gain. Specifically, organized criminal groups use spam, phishing, and spyware/malware to commit identity theft and online fraud. International corporate spies and organized criminal organizations also pose a threat to the United States through their ability to conduct industrial espionage and large-scale monetary theft and to hire or develop hacker talent. [GAO] (see also attack, entity, fraud, identity, system, theft, criminal, threat)
crisis management
Includes measures to identify, acquire, and plan the use of resources needed to anticipate, prevent, and/or resolve a threat or act of terrorism. The laws of the United States assign primary authority to the Federal Government to prevent and respond to acts of terrorism; State and local governments provide assistance as required. Crisis management is predominantly a law enforcement response. Based on the situation, a Federal crisis management response may be supported by technical operations, and by Federal consequence management, which may operate concurrently. [CIAO] (see also risk management)
criteria
Examples of other criteria are the European Information Technology Security Evaluation Criteria (Europe), Canadian Trusted Computer Product Evaluation Criteria, Federal Criteria for Information Technology Security: Draft (US), and the forthcoming Common Criteria for Information Technology Security (international). [AJP] (see also British Standard 7799, FIPS approved security method, Federal Standard 1027, IT Security Evaluation Methodology, IT security certification, NIAP Oversight Body, National Computer Security Center, National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program, Orange book, Red book, Scope of Accreditation, Yellow book, acceptance testing, accreditation, accreditation range, assurance, assurance level, audit, authentication, beyond A1, certification, certified TEMPEST technical authority, component extensibility, component hierarchy, component operations, computer, computer security, correctness, descriptive top-level specification, designated, designated laboratories list, designating authority, designation policy, ethernet sniffing, evaluated products list, evaluated system, evaluation, evaluation assurance level, evaluation pass statement, evaluator actions, firewall, information, interpretation, national information assurance partnership, national security system, network component, non-repudiation policy, protection profile, rainbow series, requirements for content and presentation, requirements for evidence, requirements for procedures and standards, risk evaluation, scheme, security, security policy model, security target, sensitive information, target of evaluation, technology, technology area, test case generator, test method, test strategy, testability, trust, trusted functionality, trusted gateway, trusted network interpretation, validated products list, validation report) (includes Canadian Trusted Computer Product Evaluation Criteria, Common Criteria Testing Laboratory, Common Criteria Testing Program, Common Criteria for Information Technology Security, Common Criteria for Information Technology Security Evaluation, DoD Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria, European Information Technology Security Evaluation Criteria, Federal Criteria Vol. I, Federal Criteria for Information Technology Security, IT Security Evaluation Criteria, Information Technology Security Evaluation Criteria, NIAP Common Criteria Evaluation and Validation Scheme, Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria, acceptance criteria, common criteria, common criteria version 1.0, common criteria version 2.0, criteria of control, evaluation criteria)
criteria of control (CoCo)
(see also control, criteria)
critical
(I) 'Critical' system resource: A condition of a service or other system resource such that denial of access to (i.e. lack of availability of) that resource would jeopardize a system user's ability to perform a primary function or would result in other serious consequences. (N) 'Critical' extension: Each extension of an X.509 certificate (or CRL) is marked as being either critical or non-critical. If an extension is critical and a certificate user (or CRL user) does not recognize the extension type or does not implement its semantics, then the user is required to treat the certificate (or CRL) as invalid. If an extension is non-critical, user that does not recognize or implement that extension type is permitted to ignore the extension and process the rest of the certificate (or CRL). [RFC2828] (see also COMSEC boundary, Defense Security Service, Suite A, X.509, acceptable level of risk, access, access control, accesses, accreditation disapproval, advanced persistent threats, adversary, adversary collection methodology, alert, anti-tamper, attack, audit, authentication, automated security monitoring, availability, banking and finance, business process reengineering, capability, certificate, certificate policy, certificate validation, class 2, 3, 4, or 5, code amber, code red, compromise, contingency plan, contingency planning, continuity of services and operations, control identification list, control network, counterintelligence assessment, data owner, denial-of-service, destruction, disaster recovery plan, electrical power systems, emergency services, essential secrecy, firewall, function, gas and oil production, storage and transportation, hackers, hot site, incapacitation, information and communications, information security, infrastructure assurance, infrastructure protection, intent, interim accreditation action plan, legacy systems, letter of compelling need, levels of concern, line managers, mandatory access control, national computer security assessment program, national information infrastructure, national security system, natural disaster, network security, non-repudiation service, operations security, operations security indicator, operations security process, partnership, physical protection, physical security, process, protected information, public confidence, public-key infrastructure, reconstitution, remediation, resource, risk analysis, risk assessment, scenario, sector coordinator, sector liaison, security environment threat list, security label, security policy, security strength, semantics, sensitive activities, sensitive position, significant change, single loop controller, single scope background investigation - periodic reinvestigation, special access program, spoofing, system, system retention/backup, terrorists, threat, transportation, users, vulnerability, vulnerability analysis, vulnerability assessment, vulnerability audit, water supply system, world class organizations, risk) (includes Protected Critical Infrastructure Information (PCII), critical and sensitive information list, critical asset, critical design review, critical elements, critical financial markets, critical information, critical infrastructure information, critical infrastructures, critical mechanism, critical nuclear weapon design information, critical path method, critical program information, critical security parameters, critical system, critical system files, criticality, criticality assessment, criticality level, criticality/sensitivity, mission critical, mission critical system, protection-critical portions of the TCB, safety-critical software, security-critical mechanisms, technology critical)
critical and sensitive information list
Those areas, activities, functions, or other matters a facility/organization considers most important to keep from adversaries. [DSS] (see also critical, sensitive information)
critical asset
An asset that supports national security, national economic security, and/or crucial public health and safety activities. [CIAO] (see also security, vulnerability, critical)
critical design review
Formal review conducted on each configuration item when design is complete. A review determines that the design satisfies requirements, establishes detailed compatibility, assesses risk, and reviews preliminary product specifications. [DSS] (see also requirements, critical)
critical elements
Important security-related focus areas for the system with each critical element addressed by one or more security controls. [800-37] (see also control, security, system, critical)
critical financial markets
Financial markets whose operations are critical to the U.S. economy, including markets for fed funds, foreign exchange, commercial paper, and government, corporate, and mortgage-backed securities. [FFIEC] (see also foreign, operation, critical)
critical information
Specific facts about friendly (for example, the United States) intentions, capabilities, or activities vitally needed by adversaries for them to plan and act effectively so as to guarantee failure or unacceptable consequences for accomplishment of friendly objectives. [DSS] (see also object, critical)
critical infrastructure information
Information that is not customarily in the public domain and is related to the security of critical infrastructure or protected systems. CII consists of records and information concerning any of the following: . Actual, potential, or threatened interference with, attack on, compromise of, or incapacitation of critical infrastructure or protected systems by either physical or computerbased attack or other similar conduct (including the misuse of or unauthorized access to all types of communications and data transmission systems) that violates Federal, State, or local law; harms the interstate commerce of the United States; or threatens public health or safety. . The ability of any critical infrastructure or protected system to resist such interference, compromise, or incapacitation, including any planned or past assessment, projection, or estimate of the vulnerability of critical infrastructure or a protected system, including security testing, risk evaluation thereto, risk management planning, or risk audit. . Any planned or past operational problem or solution regarding critical infrastructure or protected systems, including repair, recovery, insurance, or continuity, to the extent that it is related to such interference, compromise, or incapacitation. [NIPP] (see also critical)
critical infrastructures
'Physical or cyber-based system essential to the minimum operations of the economy and government.' (PDD-63 definition) [CIAO] Certain national infrastructures so vital that their incapacity or destruction would have a debilitating impact on the defense or economic security of the United States. These critical infrastructures include telecommunications, electrical power systems, gas and oil storage and transportation, banking and finance, transportation, water supply systems, emergency services (including medical, police, fire, and rescue), and continuity of Government. [DSS] System and assets, whether physical or virtual, so vital to the U.S. that the incapacity or destruction of such systems and assets would have a debilitating impact on security, national economic security, national public health or safety, or any combination of those matters. [Critical Infrastructures Protection Act of 2001, 42 U.S.C. 5195c(e)] [CNSSI][CNSSI-4009] Systems and assets, whether physical or virtual, so vital that the incapacity or destruction of such may have a debilitating impact on the security, economy, public health or safety, environment, or any combination of these matters, across any Federal, State, regional, territorial, or local jurisdiction. [NIPP] Those systems and assets, both physical and cyber, so vital to the Nation that their incapacity or destruction would have a debilitating impact on national security, national economic security, and/or national public health and safety. [CIAO] (see also capability, cyberspace, destruction, government services, incapacitation, infrastructure assurance, natural disaster, operation, partnership, risk assessment, sector coordinator, sector liaison, system, critical, risk management) (includes banking and finance, code amber, code green, code red, electrical power systems, emergency services, gas and oil production, storage and transportation, information and communications, infrastructure protection, transportation, utility, water supply system)
critical mechanism
A mechanism within a Target of Evaluation whose failure would create a security weakness. [AJP][ITSEC] (see also failure, security, target, critical, target of evaluation)
critical nuclear weapon design information
TOP SECRET RESTRICTED DATA or SECRET RESTRICTED DATA revealing the theory of operation or design of the components of a thermo-nuclear or implosion-type fission bomb, warhead, demolition munitions or test device. Specifically excluded is information concerning arming, fusing, and firing systems; limited life components; and total contained quantities of fissionable and high explosive materials by type. Among these excluded items are the components that Department of Defense personnel set, maintain, operate, test, or replace. [DSS] (see also critical)
critical path method (CPM)
(see also critical)
critical program information
Information about the program, technologies, and/or systems that if compromised would degrade combat effectiveness or shorten the expected combat-effective life of the system. Access to this information could allow someone to kill, counter, or clone the acquisition system before or near scheduled deployment or force a major design change to maintain the same level of effectiveness. [DSS] (see also access, compromise, critical)
critical security parameters (CSP)
Security-related information (e.g. cryptographic keys, authentication data such as passwords and PINs) appearing in plaintext or otherwise unprotected form and whose disclosure or modification can compromise the security of a cryptographic module or the security of the information protected by the module. [SRV] Security-related information (e.g., secret and private cryptographic keys, and authentication data such as passwords and Personal Identification Numbers [PINs]) whose disclosure or modification can compromise the security of a cryptographic module. [FIPS 140-2; CNSSI-4009] security-related information (e.g. cryptographic keys, authentication data such as passwords and PINs) appearing in plaintext or otherwise unprotected form and whose disclosure or modification can compromise the security of a cryptographic module or the security of the information protected by the module. [FIPS140] (see also authentication, compromise, cryptographic, cryptography, information, key, module, passwords, critical, security policy)
critical system
An IT system that requires special attention to security because of the risk and magnitude of harm that would result from the loss, misuse, or unauthorized access to or modification of information in the system. Loss of a critical system would have a major, and in some cases catastrophic, impact on the Agency's mission. [NASA] (see also access, access control, authorized, information, security, critical, system) (includes critical system files)
critical system files
Files that are integral to the operating system, system security mechanisms, or key system services whose corruption would damage the integrity of the operating system and could damage the integrity of application software and data. [NASA] (see also application, damage, integrity, key, security, software, critical, critical system, file, system)
criticality
A measure of the degree to which an organization depends on the information or information system for the success of a mission or of a business function. [SP 800-60] Refers to the incorrect behavior of a system. The more serious the expected direct and indirect effects of incorrect behavior, the higher the criticality level. [800-60] (see also function, information, system, threat, critical)
criticality assessment
Identifies and evaluates an entity's assets or operations on the basis of a variety of factors, including the importance of an asset or function and the significance of a system in terms of national security, economic activity, and public safety. A criticality assessment provides the basis for determining which assets require greater or special protection relative to finite resources. [GAO] (see also entity, function, operation, resource, risk assessment, security, system, assessment, critical)
criticality level
Refers to the (consequences of) incorrect behavior of a system. The more serious the expected direct and indirect effects of incorrect behavior, the higher the criticality level. [CNSSI-4009] (see also critical)
criticality/sensitivity
A measure of the importance and nature of the information processed, stored, and transmitted by the IT system to the organization's mission and day-to-day operations. [800-37] (see also information, operation, process, system, critical)
cross domain solution
A form of controlled interface that provides the ability to manually and/or automatically access and/or transfer information between different security domains. [CNSSI-4009; SP 800-37] Information assurance solution that provides the ability to access or transfer information between two or more security domains. [CNSSI] (see also access, assurance, control, information, security, domain)
cross site scripting
A vulnerability that allows attackers to inject malicious code into an otherwise benign website. These scripts acquire the permissions of scripts generated by the target website and can therefore compromise the confidentiality and integrity of data transfers between the website and client. Websites are vulnerable if they display user supplied data from requests or forms without sanitizing the data so that it is not executable. [SP 800-63] (see also attack, target, vulnerability)
cross-certificate
A certificate used to establish a trust relationship between two Certification Authorities. [SP 800-32; CNSSI-4009] (see also certification, cross-certification, trust, certificate)
cross-certification
(I) The act or process by which two CAs each certify a public key of the other, issuing a public-key certificate to that other CA. (C) Cross-certification enables users to validate each other's certificate when the users are certified under different certification hierarchies. [RFC2828] when two CA's issue certificates to each other after establishing a trust relationship. [misc] (see also certificate, cross-certificate, key, process, public-key, users, validate, certification authority)
cross-domain capabilities
The set of functions that enable the transfer of information between security domains in accordance with the policies of the security domains involved. [CNSSI-4009] (see also security)
cross-talk
An unwanted transfer of energy from one communications channel to another channel. [SRV] (see also communications)
cryptanalysis
(I) The mathematical science that deals with analysis of a cryptographic system in order to gain knowledge needed to break or circumvent the protection that the system is designed to provide. (O) 'The analysis of a cryptographic system and/or its inputs and outputs to derive confidential variables and/or sensitive data including cleartext.' (C) The 'O' definition states the traditional goal of cryptanalysis--convert the ciphertext to plaintext (which usually is cleartext) without knowing the key--but that definition applies only to encryption systems. Today, the term is used with reference to all kinds of cryptographic algorithms and key management, and the 'I' definition reflects that. In all cases, however, a cryptanalyst tries to uncover or reproduce someone else's sensitive data, such as cleartext, a key, or an algorithm. The basic cryptanalytic attacks on encryption systems are ciphertext-only, known-plaintext, chosen-plaintext, and chosen-ciphertext; and these generalize to the other kinds of cryptography. [RFC2828] 1) Operations performed in defeating cryptographic protection without an initial knowledge of the key employed in providing the protection. 2) The study of mathematical techniques for attempting to defeat cryptographic techniques and information system security. This includes the process of looking for errors or weaknesses in the implementation of an algorithm or of the algorithm itself. [SP 800-57 Part 1; CNSSI-4009] Definition 1) The analysis of a cryptographic system and/or its inputs and outputs to derive confidential variables and/or sensitive data including cleartext. Definition 2) Operations performed in converting encrypted messages to plain text without initial knowledge of the cryptographic algorithm and/or key employed in the encryption. [NSAINT] Operations performed in converting encrypted messages to plain text without initial knowledge of the cryptographic algorithm and/or key employed in the encryption. [CNSSI][DSS] The steps and operations performed in converting encrypted messages into plaintext without initial knowledge of the key employed in the encryption algorithm. [SRV] Transforming encrypted data into plaintext without having prior knowledge of encryption parameters or processes. [RFC2828] (see also algorithm, attack, cipher, cryptographic, cryptography, encryption, key, key management, message, operation, process, security, system, analysis, threat consequence)
CRYPTO
(D) Except as part of certain long-established terms listed in this Glossary, ISDs SHOULD NOT use this abbreviated term because it may be misunderstood. Instead, use 'cryptography' or 'cryptographic'. [RFC2828] Marking or designator identifying COMSEC keying material used to secure or authenticate telecommunications carrying classified or sensitive U.S. Government or U.S. Government-derived information. [CNSSI] (see also classified, communications, communications security, cryptographic, cryptography, identify, information, key, telecommunications)
crypto officer
An operator or process (subject), acting on behalf of the operator, performing cryptographic initialization or management functions. [FIPS 140-2] (see also management)
crypto-alarm
Circuit or device that detects failures or aberrations in the logic or operation of cryptographic equipment. Crypto-alarm may inhibit transmission or may provide a visible and/or audible alarm. [CNSSI][CNSSI-4009] (see also operation, cryptography)
crypto-ancillary equipment
Equipment designed specifically to facilitate efficient or reliable operation of cryptographic equipment, without performing cryptographic functions itself. [CNSSI] (see also cryptographic, function, operation, cryptography)
crypto-ignition key (CIK)
Device or electronic key used to unlock the secure mode of cryptographic equipment. [CNSSI][DSS][IATF] (see also key)
crypto-ignition plug (CIP)
(see also cryptography)
crypto-security
Component of COMSEC resulting from the provision of technically sound cryptosystems and their proper use. [CNSSI] Component of communications security resulting from providing and properly using technically sound cryptosystems. [DSS] The security or protection resulting from the proper use of technically sound cryptosystems. [AJP][NCSC/TG004][SRV] (see also cryptographic system, system, communications security)
cryptographic
Pertaining to, or concerned with, cryptography. [CNSSI][CNSSI-4009] (see also CAPSTONE chip, CCI assembly, CCI component, CCI equipment, CKMS, COMSEC material, CRYPTO, Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol, Clipper chip, Common Criteria for Information Technology Security, Distributed Authentication Security Service, FIPS PUB 140-1, FIPS approved security method, Fortezza, International Traffic in Arms Regulations, MD2, MD4, MD5, PC card, PKCS #11, RED/BLACK separation, RSA algorithm, Rivest-Shamir-Adleman algorithm, S/Key, The Exponential Encryption System, Type 1 key, Type 2 key, Type 4 key, Type 4 product, Type I cryptography, Type II cryptography, Type III cryptography, active state, advanced encryption standard, algorithm, algorithm transition, archive, asymmetric encipherment system, asymmetric signature system, attribute certificate, authentication code, authentication protocol, authorized vendor program, automated key distribution, benign, binding, block chaining, break, certificate domain parameters, challenge-response protocol, check word, checksum, cipher, cipher text auto-key, ciphertext-only attack, class 2, 3, 4, or 5, code, common security, communications security, compromise, compromised state, control information, critical security parameters, cryptanalysis, crypto-ancillary equipment, cryptographic equipment, cryptonet, cryptoperiod, cryptosynchronization, cyclic redundancy check, data authentication code, data encryption key, data encryption standard, data items' representation, data key, deactivated state, decipher, decrypt, digital key, digital signature, digital signature algorithm, domain of interpretation, effective key length, electronic key entry, embedded cryptography, encipher, encipherment, encrypt, encrypted key, encryption, encryption algorithm, encryption certificate, end-to-end encryption, end-to-end security, environmental failure protection, environmental failure testing, escrow, garbled, generation, hardware, hash, hash function, hash value, hashed message authentication code, initialization value, initialization vector, initialize, input data, integrity check, interface, internetwork private line interface, key, key distribution, key entry, key generation, key generator, key length, key lifecycle state, key loader, key management, key management infrastructure, key management/exchange, key output, key owner, key recovery, key space, key updating, key-auto-key, key-encrypting key, key-escrow, keyed hash, keying material, known-plaintext attack, manual cryptosystem, manual key distribution, manual key entry, message authentication code, message authentication code algorithm, message digest, message digest algorithm 5, metadata, mode of operation, non-repudiation, one-time passwords, one-way encryption, one-way function, operations manager, operator, output data, parameters, personal identity verification, personal identity verification card, personal security environment, personalization service, physical protection, plaintext key, port, pretty good privacy, private key, protected channel, public-key, public-key forward secrecy, public-key infrastructure, public-key system, random, recover, rekey, retrieval, revoked state, salt, scheme, secret key, secret-key cryptography, secure hash algorithm, secure hash standard, secure hypertext transfer protocol, security event, security strength, session key, shared secret, signature certificate, signature system, simple network management protocol, split key, split knowledge, status information, strong authentication, symmetric encryption algorithm, symmetric key, tamper, time-stamp token, tokens, transport, trapdoor, trusted path, trusted platform module chip, tunneled password protocol, type 1 products, type 2 product, type 3 key, type 3 product, unforgeable, updating, validate, validate vs. verify, verification key, work factor, zeroize, cryptography) (includes Cryptographic Application Program Interface, Cryptographic Message Syntax, asymmetric cryptographic algorithm, asymmetric cryptographic technique, controlled cryptographic item, cryptographic algorithm, cryptographic algorithm for confidentiality, cryptographic application programming interface, cryptographic boundary, cryptographic card, cryptographic check function, cryptographic check value, cryptographic component, cryptographic device services, cryptographic equipment room, cryptographic functions, cryptographic hash function, cryptographic ignition key, cryptographic initialization, cryptographic key, cryptographic key component, cryptographic key management system, cryptographic logic, cryptographic module, cryptographic module security policy, cryptographic officer, cryptographic randomization, cryptographic service, cryptographic service providers, cryptographic strength, cryptographic synchronization, cryptographic system, cryptographic token, embedded cryptographic system, endorsed cryptographic products list, endorsed for unclassified cryptographic information, endorsed for unclassified cryptographic item, rapid automatic cryptographic equipment, symmetric cryptographic technique)
cryptographic alarm
Circuit or device that detects failures or aberrations in the logic or operation of cryptographic equipment. Crypto-alarm may inhibit transmission or may provide a visible and/or audible alarm. [CNSSI][CNSSI-4009]
cryptographic algorithm
(I) An algorithm that employs the science of cryptography, including encryption algorithms, cryptographic hash algorithms, digital signature algorithms, and key agreement algorithms. [RFC2828] A cryptographic algorithm that uses a single key (i.e. a secret key) for both encryption and decryption. [CNSSI-4009] A well-defined computational procedure that takes variable inputs, including a cryptographic key, and produces an output. [SP 800-21; CNSSI-4009] A well-defined procedure or sequence of rules or steps used to produce a key stream or ciphertext from plaintext and vice versa. [AJP][NCSC/TG004] Well-defined procedure or sequence of rules or steps, or a series of mathematical equations used to describe cryptographic processes such as encryption/decryption, key generation, authentication, signatures, etc. [CNSSI] (see also authentication, cipher, digital signature, encryption, hash, key, process, signature, algorithm, cryptographic)
cryptographic algorithm for confidentiality
A cryptographic algorithm for confidentiality is defined as an algorithm which transforms data in order to hide or reveal its information content and which uses at least one secret parameter. This definition includes both symmetric algorithms (e.g. DES and FEAL) and asymmetric algorithms (e.g. RSA and Rabin). In the case of a symmetric algorithm the data is hidden and revealed using a secret parameter. In the case of an asymmetric algorithm the data is hidden using a public parameter and revealed using a secret parameter. [SC27] (see also information, algorithm, confidentiality, cryptographic)
Cryptographic Application Program Interface
An interface standard that provides a means for isolating a computer platform from the details of the implementation of cryptographic functions. [IATF] (see also computer, function, standard, application, cryptographic, encryption, interface, program, security)
cryptographic application programming interface (CAPI)
(I) The source code formats and procedures through which an application program accesses cryptographic services, which are defined abstractly compared to their actual implementation. [RFC2828] The Cryptographic Application Programming Interface for Microsoft. [MSC] (see also access, access control, code, application, cryptographic, interface, program, software)
cryptographic binding
Associating two or more related elements of information using cryptographic techniques. [CNSSI-4009]
cryptographic boundary
An explicitly defined continuous perimeter that establishes the physical bounds of a cryptographic module and contains all the hardware, software, and/or firmware components of a cryptographic module. [FIPS 140-2] An explicitly defined perimeter that establishes the boundary of all components of a cryptographic module. [800-130] an explicitly defined contiguous perimeter that establishes the physical bounds of a cryptographic module. [FIPS140] (see also module, software, boundary, cryptographic, cryptographic module) (includes physical protection)
cryptographic card
(I) A cryptographic token in the form of a smart card or a PC card. [RFC2828] (see also cryptographic, tokens)
cryptographic check function
A cryptographic transformation which takes as input a secret key and an arbitrary string, and which gives a cryptographic check value as output. The computation of a correct check value without knowledge of the secret key shall be infeasible. [SC27] (see also key, cryptographic, function)
cryptographic check value
Information that is derived by performing a cryptographic transformation on the data unit. [SC27] Information that is derived by performing a cryptographic transformation on the data unit. NOTE - The cryptographic check value is the output of the cryptographic check function. [SC27] Information that is derived by performing a cryptographic transformation on the data unit. [ISO/IEC 9798-1: 1997, ISO/IEC 11770-3: 1999] Information that is derived by performing a cryptographic transformation on the data unit. NOTE - The cryptographic check value is the output of the cryptographic check function. [SC27] (see also function, information, cryptographic)
cryptographic component
(I) A generic term for any system component that involves cryptography. [RFC2828] Hardware or firmware embodiment of the cryptographic logic. A cryptographic component may be a modular assembly, a printed wiring assembly, a microcircuit, or a combination of these items. [CNSSI][CNSSI-4009] (see also hash, system, cryptographic)
cryptographic device services (CDS)
(see also cryptographic)
cryptographic equipment
Equipment that embodies a cryptographic logic. [CNSSI][CNSSI-4009] Equipment used to render plain information unintelligible and restore encrypted information to an intelligible form. [DSS] (see also cryptographic, cryptography)
cryptographic equipment room (CER)
(see also access control, cryptographic system, cryptographic)
cryptographic functions
A set of procedures that provide basic cryptographic functionality using various algorithms for key generation, random number generation, encryption, decryption, and message digesting. [IATF] A set of procedures that provide basic cryptographic functionality. The functionality includes using various algorithms for key generation, random number generation, encryption, decryption, and message digesting. [misc] (see also algorithm, message, random, cryptographic, encryption, function, key)
cryptographic hash function
A (mathematical) function that maps values from a large domain into a smaller range. The function satisfies the following properties: (1) it is computationally infeasible to find any input that maps to any prespecified output (one-way) and (2) it is computationally infeasible to find any two distinct inputs that map to the same output (collision free). [SRV] A function that maps a bit string of arbitrary length to a fixed length bit string. Approved hash functions satisfy the following properties: 1) (One-way) It is computationally infeasible to find any input which maps to any pre-specified output, and 2) (Collision resistant) It is computationally infeasible to find any two distinct inputs that map to the same output. [SP 800-21] A process that computes a value (referred to as a hashword) from a particular data unit in a manner that, when a hashword is protected, manipulation of the data is detectable. [NSAINT] (see also domain, hash function, process, cryptographic, function, hash)
cryptographic ignition key (CIK)
(I) A physical (usually electronic) token used to store, transport, and protect cryptographic keys. (Sometimes abbreviated as 'crypto ignition key'.) (C) A typical use is to divide a split key between a CIK and a cryptographic module, so that it is necessary to combine the two to regenerate a key-encrypting key and thus activate the module and other keys it contains. [RFC2828] Device or electronic key used to unlock the secure mode of crypto- equipment. [CNSSI-4009] (see also encryption, module, tokens, cryptographic, key)
cryptographic initialization
Function used to set the state of a cryptographic logic prior to key generation, encryption, or other operating mode. [CNSSI][CNSSI-4009] (see also encryption, function, key, cryptographic)
cryptographic key
(I) Usually shortened to just 'key'. An input parameter that varies the transformation performed by a cryptographic algorithm. (O) 'A sequence of symbols that controls the operations of encipherment and decipherment.' (C) If a key value needs to be kept secret, the sequence of symbols (usually bits) that comprise it should be random, or at least pseudo-random, because that makes the key hard for an adversary to guess. [RFC2828] A binary string used as a secret parameter by a cryptographic algorithm. [SP 800-108] A parameter used in conjunction with a cryptographic algorithm that determines . the transformation of plaintext data into ciphertext data, . the transformation of ciphertext data into plaintext data, . a digital signature computed from data, . the verification of a digital signature computed from data, . an authentication code computed from data, or . an exchange agreement of a shared secret. [FIPS 140-2] A parameter used in conjunction with a cryptographic algorithm that determines the specific operation of that algorithm. [FIPS 201; FIPS 198] A parameter used in conjunction with a cryptographic algorithm that determines: (1) the transformation of plaintext data into ciphertext data, (2) the transformation of ciphertext data into plaintext data, (3) a digital signature computed from data, (4) the verification of a digital signature computed from data, or (5) a data authentication code computed from data. The cryptographic key is an input to an encryption device that results in cryptotext. A parameter used by a cryptographic process that makes the process completely defined and usable only by those having that key. [SRV] A parameter used in conjunction with a cryptographic algorithm that determines: the transformation of plaintext data into ciphertext data, the transformation of ciphertext data into plaintext data, a digital signature computed from data, the verification of a digital signature computed from data, or a data authentication code (DAC) computed from data. [FIPS140] A string of bits, integers, or characters that constitute a parameter to a cryptographic algorithm. Some keys must be kept secret from unauthorized parties while other keys may be made public. [800-130] A value used to control cryptographic operations, such as decryption, encryption, signature generation or signature verification. For the purposes of this document, key requirements shall coincide the minimum requirements stated in table 2 of NIST SP [800-57] part 1. [800-63] A value used to control cryptographic operations, such as decryption, encryption, signature generation, or signature verification. [SP 800-63] The key used in an encryption algorithm to encrypt and decrypt data. [NASA] (see also adversary, algorithm, authentication, authorized, cipher, code, control, encipherment, encryption, operation, process, random, requirements, signature, verification, cryptographic, key)
cryptographic key component
A parameter that is combined via a bit-wise exclusive-OR operation with one or more other identically sized key component(s) to form a plaintext cryptographic key. [FIPS140] (see also operation, cryptographic, key)
cryptographic key management system
A system for the management (e.g., generation, distribution, storage, backup, recovery, use, revocation, and destruction) of cryptographic keys and their bound metadata. [800-130] (see also backup, metadata, revocation, cryptographic, key management, system)
cryptographic logic
The embodiment of one (or more) cryptographic algorithm(s) along with alarms, checks, and other processes essential to effective and secure performance of the cryptographic process(es). [CNSSI][CNSSI-4009] (see also algorithm, process, cryptographic)
cryptographic material
(slang CRYPTO) COMSEC material used to secure or authenticate information. [CNSSI-4009]
Cryptographic Message Syntax
(I) A encapsulation syntax for digital signatures, hashes, and encryption of arbitrary messages. (C) CMS was derived from PKCS #7. CMS values are specified with ASN.1 and use BER encoding. The syntax permits multiple encapsulation with nesting, permits arbitrary attributes to be signed along with message content, and supports a variety of architectures for digital certificate-based key management. [RFC2828] (see also certificate, digital signature, encryption, hash, key, key management, public-key infrastructure, signature, cryptographic, message)
cryptographic module
(I) A set of hardware, software, firmware, or some combination thereof that implements cryptographic logic or processes, including cryptographic algorithms, and is contained within the module's cryptographic boundary, that is an explicitly defined contiguous perimeter that establishes the physical bounds of the module. [RFC2828] A set of hardware, software and/or firmware that implements security functions (e.g. cryptographic algorithms and key establishment) and encompasses the cryptographic boundary. [800-130] The set of hardware, software, and/or firmware that implements Approved security functions (including cryptographic algorithms and key generation) and is contained within the cryptographic boundary. [FIPS 140-2] The set of hardware, software, firmware, or some combination thereof that implements cryptographic logic or processes, including cryptographic algorithms, and is contained within the cryptographic boundary of the module. [FIPS140][SP 800-32; FIPS 196][SRV] (see also algorithm, boundary, establishment, function, key, process, security, software, cryptographic, module) (includes control information, cryptographic boundary, cryptographic module security policy, data path, firmware, hardware, input data, microcode, operator, output data)
cryptographic module security policy
A precise specification of the security rules under which a cryptographic module must operate, including the security rules derived from the requirements of this standard and the additional security rules imposed by the manufacturer. [FIPS140] (see also requirements, standard, cryptographic, cryptographic module, module, policy, security policy)
cryptographic net
Stations holding a common key. [CNSSI][CNSSI-4009]
cryptographic officer
An individual authorized to perform cryptographic initialization and management functions on the cryptographic components of a CKMS. [800-130] (see also authorized, function, cryptographic, officer)
cryptographic period
Time span during which each key setting remains in effect. [CNSSI][CNSSI-4009]
cryptographic product
A cryptographic key (public, private, or shared) or public key certificate, used for encryption, decryption, digital signature, or signature verification; and other items, such as compromised key lists (CKL) and certificate revocation lists (CRL), obtained by trusted means from the same source which validate the authenticity of keys or certificates. Protected software which generates or regenerates keys or certificates may also be considered a cryptographic product. [CNSSI-4009] (see also software, trust)
cryptographic randomization
Function that randomly determines the transmit state of a cryptographic logic. [CNSSI][CNSSI-4009] (see also function, cryptographic, random)
cryptographic security
Component of COMSEC resulting from the provision of technically sound cryptographic systems and their proper use. [CNSSI-4009] (see also security)
cryptographic service
Modules that provide secure key storage and cryptographic functions. The Providers (CSPs) modules may be software only or hardware with software drivers. The cryptographic functions provided may include: Bulk encryption and decryption, Digital signing, Cryptographic hash, Random number generation, and Key exchange. [Intel] (see also encryption, function, hash, key, module, random, software, common data security architecture, cryptographic)
cryptographic service providers (CSP)
(see also common data security architecture, cryptographic)
cryptographic strength
A measure of the expected number of operations required to defeat a cryptographic mechanism. [SP 800-63] (see also operation, cryptographic)
cryptographic synchronization
Process by which a receiving decrypting cryptographic logic attains the same internal state as the transmitting encrypting logic. [CNSSI][CNSSI-4009] The co-ordination of the encipherment and decipherment processes. [SC27] (see also cipher, encipherment, process, cryptographic)
cryptographic system
(I) A set of cryptographic algorithms together with the key management processes that support use of the algorithms in some application context. (C) This 'I' definition covers a wider range of algorithms than the following 'O' definition: (O) 'A collection of transformations from plaintext into ciphertext and vice versa [which would exclude digital signature, cryptographic hash, and key agreement algorithms], the particular transformation(s) to be used being selected by keys. The transformations are normally defined by a mathematical algorithm.' [RFC2828] Associated information assurance items interacting to provide a single means of encryption or decryption. [CNSSI-4009] (see also algorithm, application, assurance, asymmetric cryptographic technique, authentication system, cipher, crypto-security, cryptographic equipment room, digital signature, encryption, encryption strength, hash, key, key management, key stream, message indicator, one-time pad, one-time tape, private key, process, public-key, signature, system indicator, traffic-flow security, cryptographic, system) (includes cryptosystem analysis, cryptosystem evaluation, cryptosystem review, cryptosystem survey, elliptic curve cryptosystem, embedded cryptographic system, manual cryptosystem, off-line cryptosystem, on-line cryptosystem, one-time cryptosystem)
cryptographic system analysis
Process of establishing the exploitability of a cryptographic system, normally by reviewing transmitted traffic protected or secured by the system under study. [CNSSI-4009]
cryptographic system evaluation
Process of determining vulnerabilities of a cryptographic system and recommending countermeasures. [CNSSI-4009] (see also evaluation)
cryptographic system review
Examination of a cryptographic system by the controlling authority ensuring its adequacy of design and content, continued need, and proper distribution. [CNSSI-4009] (see also control)
cryptographic system survey
Management technique in which actual holders of a cryptographic system express opinions on the system's suitability and provide usage information for technical evaluations. [CNSSI-4009] (see also evaluation, management)
cryptographic token
(I) A portable, user-controlled, physical device used to store cryptographic information and possibly perform cryptographic functions. (C) A smart token may implement some set of cryptographic algorithms and may implement related algorithms and key management functions, such as a random number generator. A smart cryptographic token may contain a cryptographic module or may not be explicitly designed that way. [RFC2828] A portable, user-controlled physical device (e.g., smart card or PCMCIA card) used to store cryptographic information and possibly also perform cryptographic functions. [CNSSI-4009] A token where the secret is a cryptographic key. [800-63][SP 800-63] (see also algorithm, control, function, information, key, key management, module, random, users, cryptographic, tokens)
cryptography
(1) The principles, means, and methods for rendering information unintelligible, and for restoring encrypted information to intelligible form. (2) The transformation of ordinary text, or 'plaintext,' into coded form by encryption and the transformation of coded text into plaintext by decryption. Cryptography can be used to support digital signature, key management or exchange, and communications privacy. [AJP] (I) The mathematical science that deals with transforming data to render its meaning unintelligible (i.e. to hide its semantic content), prevent its undetected alteration, or prevent its unauthorized use. If the transformation is reversible, cryptography also deals with restoring encrypted data to intelligible form. (O) 'The discipline which embodies principles, means, and methods for the transformation of data in order to hide its information content, prevent its undetected modification and/or prevent its unauthorized use. . . . Cryptography determines the methods used in encipherment and decipherment.' [RFC2828] Art or science concerning the principles, means, and methods for rendering plain information unintelligible and for restoring encrypted information to intelligible form. [CNSSI][CNSSI-4009][DSS] Historically meant 'secret writing' and used primarily for protecting secret military information; now is the science of transforming information: to a form that protects the information from unauthorized disclosure, modification, or replacement and supports authentication of the identity of the source of the information. [800-130] Is categorized as either secret key or public key. Secret key cryptography is based on the use of a single cryptographic key shared between two parties. The same key is used to encrypt and decrypt data. This key is kept secret by the two parties. Public key cryptography is a form of cryptography which makes use of two keys: a public key and a private key. The two keys are related but have the property that, given the public key, it is computationally infeasible to derive the private key [FIPS 140-1]. In a public key cryptosystem, each party has its own public/private key pair. The public key can be known by anyone; the private key is kept secret. [FIPS 191] Science of encrypting plain data and information into a form intelligible only to authorized persons who are able to decrypt it. [CIAO] The art of science concerning the principles, means, and methods for rendering plain text unintelligible and for converting encrypted messages into intelligible form. [NSAINT] The discipline that embodies principles, means, and methods for providing information security, including confidentiality, data integrity, non-repudiation, and authenticity. [SP 800-21] The discipline that embodies principles, means, and methods for the transformation of data to hide its information content, prevent its undetected modification, prevent its unauthorized use or a combination thereof. Cryptography deals with the transformation of ordinary text (plaintext) into coded form (ciphertext) by encryption and transformation of ciphertext into plaintext by decryption. [SRV] The discipline that embodies the principles, means, and methods for the transformation of data in order to hide their semantic content, prevent their unauthorized use, or prevent their undetected modification. [SP 800-59] The principles, means, and methods for rendering information unintelligible, and for restoring encrypted information to intelligible form. [NCSC/TG004] (see also BLACK, CAPSTONE chip, CCI assembly, CCI component, CCI equipment, COMSEC equipment, COMSEC material, CRYPTO, Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol, Clipper chip, Common Criteria for Information Technology Security, Diffie-Hellman, Digital Signature Standard, Distributed Authentication Security Service, El Gamal algorithm, Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm, FIPS PUB 140-1, FIREFLY, Generic Security Service Application Program Interface, IEEE P1363, International Traffic in Arms Regulations, Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol, MD2, MD4, MD5, MIME Object Security Services, PC card, RED/BLACK separation, The Exponential Encryption System, access control center, algorithm, attribute certificate, authentication, authentication code, authentication system, authorized, authorized vendor, benign, binding, break, brute force attack, certificate domain parameters, check word, checksum, chosen-plaintext attack, cipher, cleartext, code, code division multiple access, cold start, communications, communications security, compromise, controlling authority, crack, critical security parameters, cryptanalysis, cryptology, cut-and-paste attack, cyclic redundancy check, data driven attack, data items' representation, digital signature, domain of interpretation, emissions security, encipherment, encryption, end entity, end-to-end security, entity, environmental failure protection, environmental failure testing, extraction resistance, feedback buffer, fill device, hash, hash function, hashed message authentication code, hybrid encryption, identity, information, initialize, integrity check, intelligent threat, interface, kerberos, key, key agreement, key center, key distribution center, key management, key pair, key translation center, known-plaintext attack, message, message authentication code, message authentication code algorithm, message authentication code vs. Message Authentication Code, message indicator, modulus, national security system, non-repudiation, one-time pad, one-time passwords, one-time tape, one-way function, operations manager, out-of-band, permuter, personal security environment, personalization service, port, pretty good privacy, primary account number, privacy, private key, public-key, public-key forward secrecy, public-key infrastructure, quadrant, random, rekey, scavenging, seal, secure hash standard, secure socket layer, security, security event, semantic security, shared secret, signature, simple network management protocol, status information, steganography, strong authentication, system indicator, ticket, time-stamp token, token storage key, traffic analysis, traffic padding, traffic-flow security, trapdoor, trusted path, two-person control, unforgeable, updating, user partnership program, validate vs. verify, work factor, wrap, zeroize) (includes FIPS-Validated Cryptography, NSA-approved cryptography, National Cryptologic School, Type I cryptography, Type II cryptography, Type III cryptography, asymmetric cryptography, cipher feedback, computer cryptography, crypto-alarm, crypto-ancillary equipment, crypto-ignition plug, cryptographic, cryptographic equipment, cryptonet control station, cryptosynchronization, elliptic curve cryptography, embedded cryptography, encipherment algorithm, encrypt, manual cryptosystem, minimalist cryptography, private-key cryptography, public-key cryptography, public-key cryptography standards, secret-key cryptography, symmetric cryptography, synchronous crypto-operation)
cryptologic
Of or pertaining to cryptology. [800-60]
cryptologic information system
Information System that directly or indirectly supports the cryptologic effort, to include support functions, such as administrative and logistics, regardless of manning, location, classification, or original funding citation. This includes strategic, tactical, and support Information System: terrestrial, airborne, afloat, in-garrison, and space-borne Information Systems; an information system dedicated to information handling; and informationhandling portions of an information system that perform other functions. [DSS]
cryptology
(I) The science which includes both cryptography and cryptanalysis, and sometimes is said to include steganography. [RFC2828] Branch of knowledge that treats the principles of cryptography and cryptoanalytics; and the activities involved in producing signals intelligence and maintaining communications security. [DSS] Field encompassing both cryptography and cryptanalysis. [CNSSI] The mathematical science that deals with cryptanalysis and cryptography. [CNSSI-4009] The science that deals with hidden, disguised, or encrypted communications. It includes communications security and communications intelligence. [800-60][SP 800-60] The science which deals with hidden, disguised, or encrypted communications. [NSAINT] (see also analysis, communications, cryptography, intelligence, security)
cryptonet
(I) A group of system entities that share a secret cryptographic key for a symmetric algorithm. [RFC2828] Stations holding a common key. [CNSSI][CNSSI-4009] (see also algorithm, cryptographic, key, system)
cryptonet control station (CNCS)
(see also control, cryptography)
cryptonet key (CNK)
(see also key)
cryptoperiod
(I) The time span during which a particular key is authorized to be used in a cryptographic system. (C) A cryptoperiod is usually stated in terms of calendar or clock time, but sometimes is stated in terms of the maximum amount of data permitted to be processed by a cryptographic algorithm using the key. Specifying a cryptoperiod involves a tradeoff between the cost of rekeying and the risk of successful cryptanalysis. (C) Although we deprecate its prefix, this term is long-established in COMPUSEC usage. In the context of certificates and public keys, 'key lifetime' and 'validity period' are often used instead. [RFC2828] The time span during which a specific key is authorized for use or in which the keys for a given system may remain in effect. [SRV] Time span during which each key setting remains in effect. [CNSSI][CNSSI-4009] (see also algorithm, analysis, authorized, certificate, cryptographic, key, process, public-key, public-key infrastructure, rekey, risk, system)
cryptosynchronization
Process by which a receiving decrypting cryptographic logic attains the same internal state as the transmitting encrypting logic. [CNSSI][CNSSI-4009] (see also cryptographic, process, cryptography)
cryptosystem
(D) ISDs SHOULD NOT use this term as an abbreviation for cryptographic system. [RFC2828] Associated INFOSEC items interacting to provide a single means of encryption or decryption. [CNSSI] (see cryptographic system)
cryptosystem analysis
Process of establishing the exploitability of a cryptosystem, normally by reviewing transmitted traffic protected or secured by the system under study. [CNSSI] (see also process, analysis, cryptographic system, system)
cryptosystem evaluation
Process of determining vulnerabilities of a cryptosystem. [CNSSI] (see also process, vulnerability, cryptographic system, evaluation, system)
cryptosystem review
Examination of a cryptosystem by the controlling authority ensuring its adequacy of design and content, continued need, and proper distribution. [CNSSI] (see also authority, control, cryptographic system, system)
cryptosystem survey
Management technique in which actual holders of a cryptosystem express opinions on the system's suitability and provide usage information for technical evaluations. [CNSSI] (see also evaluation, information, cryptographic system, system)
cultural assumptions
Beliefs about the internal workings and external environment of an organization which, having worked well in the past, have gradually come to be taken for granted, and which provide the basis for group consensus about common events and circumstances. Cultural assumptions function as the unifying themes of organizational culture. [SRV] (see also function)
custodian
Individual who possesses, or is otherwise charged with, the responsibility for safeguarding classified information. [DSS] (see also classified)
customer
Groups or individuals who have a business relationship with the organization; those who receive and use or are directly affected by the products and services of the organization. Customers include direct recipients of products and services, internal customers who produce services and products for final recipients, and other organizations and entities that interact with an organization to produce services and products. [SRV] (see users)
customer/contractor-supplied software
Software developed or customized by either in-house or contractor- supplied services, including universities [NASA] (see also software)
cut-and-paste attack
(I) An active attack on the data integrity of ciphertext, effected by replacing sections of ciphertext with other ciphertext, such that the result appears to decrypt correctly but actually decrypts to plaintext that is forged to the satisfaction of the attacker. [RFC2828] (see also cipher, cryptography, integrity, attack)
cyber
(see cyberspace)
cyber crime
(see cybercrime)
cyber espionage
(see also cyberspace, espionage)
cyber incident
Actions taken through the use of computer networks that result in an actual or potentially adverse effect on an information system and/or the information residing therein. [CNSSI-4009] (see also cyberspace, incident)
cyber infrastructure
Includes electronic information and communications systems and services and the information contained in these systems and services. Information and communications systems and services are composed of all hardware and software that process, store, and communicate information, or any combination of all of these elements. Processing includes the creation, access, modification, and destruction of information. Storage includes paper, magnetic, electronic, and all other media types. Communications include sharing and distribution of information. For example: computer systems; control systems (e.g., supervisory control and data acquisition SCADA); networks, such as the Internet; and cyber services (e.g., managed security services) are part of cyber infrastructure. [NISTIR 7628] (see also cyberspace)
cyber security
(see cybersecurity)
cyber space
(see cyberspace)
cyber system
Any combination of facilities, equipment, personnel, procedures, and communications integrated to provides cyber services. Examples include business systems, control systems, and access control systems. [NIPP] (see also cyberspace)
cyberattack
Exploitation of the software vulnerabilities of information technology-based control components. [CIAO] (see also control, information, software, technology, vulnerability, attack, cyberspace)
cybercrime
Criminal activity conducted using computers and the Internet, often financially motivated. Cybercrime includes identity theft, fraud, and internet scams, among other activities. Cybercrime is distinguished from other forms of malicious cyber activity, which have political, military, or espionage motivations. [misc] (see also espionage, cyberspace)
cybersecurity
The ability to protect or defend the use of cyberspace from cyber attacks. [CNSSI-4009] The prevention of damage to, unauthorized use of, or exploitation of, and, if needed, the restoration of electronic information and communications systems and the information contained therein to ensure confidentiality, integrity, and availability. Includes protection and restoration, when needed, of information networks and wireline, wireless, satellite, public safety answering points, and 911 communications systems and control systems. [NIPP] (see also application, assurance, attack, communications, information, risk, risk management, system, telecommunications, users, cyberspace, security)
cyberspace
A global domain within the information environment consisting of the interdependent network of information systems infrastructures including the Internet, telecommunications networks, computer systems, and embedded processors and controllers. [CNSSI-4009] A global domain within the information environment consisting of the interdependent network of information technology infrastructures, including the Internet, telecommunications networks, computer systems, and embedded processors and controllers. [DOD] Describes the world of connected computers and the society that surrounds them. Commonly known as the Internet. [CIAO][NSAINT] (see also US-CERT, advanced persistent threats, blue team, common vulnerabilities and exposures, communications, computer, computer incident response team, control, critical infrastructures, entity-wide security, incident response plan, information, nations, process, risk, system, technology, telecommunications, zero-day exploit, internet) (includes cyber espionage, cyber incident, cyber infrastructure, cyber system, cyberattack, cybercrime, cybersecurity, cyberspace operations)
cyberspace operations
The employment of cyber capabilities where the primary purpose is to achieve objectives in or through cyberspace. Such operations include computer network operations and activities to operate and defend the Global Information Grid. [DOD] (see also computer, computer network, information, object, cyberspace)
cycle time
The time that elapses from the beginning to the end of a process. [SRV] The time, usually expressed in seconds, for a controller to complete one control loop where sensor signals are read into memory, control algorithms are executed, and corresponding control signals are transmitted to actuators that create changes the process resulting in new sensor signals. [800-82] (see also algorithm, control, process)
cyclic redundancy check (CRC)
(I) Sometimes called 'cyclic redundancy code'. A type of checksum algorithm that is not a cryptographic hash but is used to implement data integrity service where accidental changes to data are expected. [RFC2828] Error checking mechanism that checks data integrity by computing a polynomial algorithm based checksum. [CNSSI] Use of an algorithm for generating error detection bits in a data link protocol. The receiving station performs the same calculation as the transmitting station. If the results differ, then one or more bits are in error. [SRV] (see also algorithm, code, cryptographic, cryptography, hash, integrity, protocols)
cyclical redundancy check
(CRC) A method to ensure data has not been altered after being sent through a communication channel. [SP 800-72] Error checking mechanism that verifies data integrity by computing a polynomial algorithm based checksum. [CNSSI-4009]
daemon
A process that runs automatically on behalf of the system [NASA] (see also process, system)
damage
Loss of friendly effectiveness as the result of an adversary action. Synonymous with harm. [DSS] (see also TOP SECRET, adversary, application data backup/recovery, back up vs. backup, biological warfare, classification levels, computer abuse, confidential, continuity of operations plan, critical system files, directed-energy warfare, disaster recovery plan, disruption, emergency action plan, emergency response, environmentally controlled area, hackers, high impact, impact, infrastructure assurance, insider, joint task force-computer network defense, least privilege, logic bombs, low impact, malicious code, moderate impact, physical security, recover, safety, secret, sensitive information, system safety, technical vulnerability, terrorists, threat, threat assessment, token backup, toluene) (includes damage assessment, damage to physical assets, damage to the national security)
damage assessment
Analysis of the impact on national security of a disclosure of classified information to an unauthorized person. [DSS] (see also analysis, authorized, classified, security, assessment, damage)
damage to physical assets
the loss or damage to physical assets from natural disaster or other events. [2003-53c] (see also damage, operational risk loss)
damage to the national security
Harm to the national defense or foreign relations of the United States from unauthorized disclosure of information, including the sensitivity, value, and utility of that information. [DSS] (see also authorized, foreign, damage, security)
dangling threat
Set of properties about the external environment for which there is no corresponding vulnerability and therefore no implied risk. [ANSI] (see also vulnerability, threat)
dangling vulnerability
Set of properties about the internal environment for which there is no corresponding threat and therefore no implied risk. [ANSI] (see also risk, vulnerability)
dark-side hacker
A criminal or malicious hacker. [AFSEC][NSAINT] (see also criminal, malicious, threat)
data
(I) Information in a specific physical representation, usually a sequence of symbols that have meaning; especially a representation of information that can be processed or produced by a computer. [RFC2828] A subset of information in an electronic format that allows it to be retrieved or transmitted. [CNSSI-4009] All data (electronic and hard copy) and information required to support the core process. This includes numbers, characters, images or other method of recording, in a form which can be assessed by a human or (especially) input into a computer, stored and processed there, or transmitted on some digital/communication's channel. [CIAO] Basic facts about a transaction that can be processed and communicated. [SRV] Information with a specific physical representation. [AJP][TCSEC] Information, regardless of its physical form or characteristics, that includes written documents, automated information systems storage media, maps charts, paintings, drawings, films photos, engravings, sketches, working notes, and sound, voice, magnetic, or electronic recordings in any form. [DSS] (see also computer, information, process, automated information system)
data administration (DA)
(see also automated information system)
data aggregation
Compilation of individual data systems and data that could result in the totality of the information being classified, or classified at a higher level, or of beneficial use to an adversary. [CNSSI-4009] Compilation of unclassified individual data systems and data elements that could result in the totality of the information being classified or of beneficial use to an adversary. [CNSSI] (see also adversary, classified, information, system, automated information system)
data architecture
The compilation of data, including who creates and uses it-and how-presents a stable basis for the processes and information used by the organization to accomplish its mission. [SRV] (see also information, process, automated information system)
data asset
1. Any entity that is comprised of data. For example, a database is a data asset that is comprised of data records. A data asset may be a system or application output file, database, document, or Web page. A data asset also includes a service that may be provided to access data from an application. For example, a service that returns individual records from a database would be a data asset. Similarly, a Web site that returns data in response to specific queries (e.g., www'weather'com) would be a data asset. 2. An information-based resource. [CNSSI-4009] (see also access)
Data Authentication Algorithm
(N) A keyed hash function equivalent to DES cipher block chaining with IV = 0. (D) ISDs SHOULD NOT use the uncapitalized form of this term as a synonym for other kinds of checksums. [RFC2828] (see also cipher, function, hash, key, algorithm, authentication)
data authentication code (DAC)
A cryptographic checksum, based on DES (see FIPS PUB 113); also known as a Message Authentication Code (MAC) in ANSI standards. [FIPS140] Applying the data authentication algorithm to data generates a data authentication code. The code is a mathematical function of both the data and a cryptographic key. When the integrity of the data is to be verified, the code is generated on the current data and compared with the previously generated code. If the two values are equal, the integrity (i.e. authenticity) of the data is verified. A data authentication code is also known as a message authentication code in ANSI standards. [SRV] (see also message authentication code, algorithm, cryptographic, function, hash function, key, message, standard, National Institute of Standards and Technology, authentication, code, integrity)
data authentication code vs. Data Authentication Code
(N) Capitalized: 'The Data Authentication Code' refers to a U.S. Government standard for a checksum that is computed by the Data Authentication Algorithm. (Also known as the ANSI standard Message Authentication Code.) (D) Not capitalized: ISDs SHOULD NOT use 'data authentication code' as a synonym for another kind of checksum, because this term mixes concepts in a potentially misleading way. Instead, use 'checksum', 'error detection code', 'hash', 'keyed hash', 'Message Authentication Code', or 'protected checksum', depending on what is meant. [RFC2828] (see also algorithm, hash, key, message, message authentication code, standard, authentication, code)
data communications
Information exchanged between end-systems in machine-readable form. [SRV] (see also information, system, communications)
data compromise
(I) A security incident in which information is exposed to potential unauthorized access, such that unauthorized disclosure, alteration, or use of the information may have occurred. [RFC2828] (see also access, access control, authorized, information, security, security incident, unauthorized access, compromise, incident)
data confidentiality
(I) 'The property that information is not made available or disclosed to unauthorized individuals, entities, or processes [i.e. to any unauthorized system entity].' . (D) ISDs SHOULD NOT use this term as a synonym for 'privacy', that is a different concept. [RFC2828] The state that exists when data is held in confidence and is protected from unauthorized disclosure. [AJP][TNI] (see also authorized, confidence, entity, information, process, property, system, confidentiality, data privacy)
data confidentiality service
(I) A security service that protects data against unauthorized disclosure. (D) ISDs SHOULD NOT use this term as a synonym for 'privacy', that is a different concept. [RFC2828] (see also authorized, security, confidentiality)
data contamination
A deliberate or accidental process or act that results in a change in the integrity of the original data. [SRV] (see also integrity, process, automated information system)
data control language (DCL)
(see also automated information system, control)
data custodian
An individual designated by the data owner to be responsible for making judgments and decisions on behalf of the organization with regard to the data information category designation, its use and protection, and its sharing [NASA] (see also information, owner)
data definition language (DDL)
(see also automated information system)
data dictionary (DD)
In a database management program, an on-screen listing of all the database files, indices, views, and other files relevant to a database application. [SRV] (see also application, file, program, automated information system)
data diddling
An attack in which the attacker changes the data while en route from source to destination. [misc] (see also attack)
data driven attack
A form of attack that is encoded in innocuous seeming data that is executed by a user or a process to implement an attack. A data driven attack is a concern for firewalls, since it may get through the firewall in data form and launch an attack against a system behind the firewall. [NSAINT] A form of attack that is encoded in innocuous seeming data that is executed by a users or other software to implement an attack. In the case of firewalls, a data driven attack is a concern since it may get through the firewall in data form and launch an attack against a system behind the firewall. [AFSEC] (see also code, cryptography, process, software, system, users, attack)
data element
A basic unit of information that has a unique meaning and subcategories (data items) of distinct value. Examples of data elements include gender, race, and geographic location. [SP 800-47; CNSSI-4009]
data encryption algorithm (DEA)
(N) A symmetric block cipher, defined as part of the U.S. Government's Data Encryption Standard. DEA uses a 64-bit key, of which 56 bits are independently chosen and 8 are parity bits, and maps a 64-bit block into another 64-bit block. (C) This algorithm is usually referred to as 'DES'. The algorithm has also been adopted in standards outside the Government (e.g.,). [RFC2828] The DEA cryptographic engine that is used by the Triple Data Encryption Algorithm (TDEA). [SP 800-67] (see also cipher, key, standard, algorithm, encryption, symmetric cryptography)
data encryption key (DEK)
(I) A cryptographic key that is used to encipher application data. [RFC2828] A cryptographic key used for encrypting and decrypting data. [SRV] used for the encryption of message text and for the computation of message integrity checks (signatures). [misc] (see also application, cipher, cryptographic, integrity, message, signature, encryption, key) (includes data key)
data encryption security association type indicator
An indicator defining the type of data encryption SA (primary, static, or dynamic). [800-127] (see also security)
data encryption standard (DES)
(1) A cryptographic algorithm for the protection of unclassified data, published in U.S. Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) 46. The DES, which was approved by the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), is intended for public and government use. (2) A NIST Federal Information Processing Standard and commonly used secret key cryptographic algorithm for encrypting and decrypting data and performing other functions. e.g. DES can be used to check message integrity. DES specifies a key length of 56 bits. [AJP] (N) A U.S. Government standard that specifies the Data Encryption Algorithm and states policy for using the algorithm to protect unclassified, sensitive data. [RFC2828] A 56-bit, private key, symmetric cryptographic algorithm for the protection of unclassified computer data issued as Federal Information Processing Standard Publication. [IATF] A cryptographic algorithm for the protection of unclassified data, published in Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) 46. The DES, which was approved by the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology, is intended for public and government use. [NCSC/TG004] A cryptographic algorithm for the protection of unclassified data. The DES, which was approved by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in the U.S., is intended for public and government use. [SRV] Cryptographic algorithm designed for the protection of unclassified data and published by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) Publication 46. (FIPS 46-3 withdrawn 19 May 2005) See Triple DES. [CNSSI-4009] Cryptographic algorithm, designed for the protection of unclassified data and published by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) Publication 46. (FIPS 46-3 withdrawn 19 May 2005) [CNSSI] Definition 1) (DES) An unclassified crypto algorithm adopted by the National Bureau of Standards for public use. Definition 2) A cryptographic algorithm for the protection of unclassified data, published in Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) 46. The DES, which was approved by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), is intended for public and government use. [NSAINT] The encryption algorithm specified in the Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS) 46-1. [NASA] (see also algorithm, classified, computer, cryptographic, function, information, integrity, message, policy, process, technology, Federal Information Processing Standards, National Institute of Standards and Technology, encryption, key, standard, symmetric algorithm) (includes initialization vector)
data flow control
Synonymous with information flow control. [CNSSI][CNSSI-4009] (see also information, control, flow)
data flow diagram (DFD)
(see also automated information system, flow)
data historian
A centralized database supporting data analysis using statistical process control techniques. [800-82] (see also analysis, control, process)
data input
A data item which depends on the entire message and forms a part of the input to the signature function. [SC27] A data item which depends on the entire message and forms a part of the input to the signature function. NOTE - Signature generation function is the signature process that is determined by signature key and the domain parameter. [SC27] A data item which depends on the entire message and forms a part of the input to the signature function. [ISO/IEC 9796-3: 2000] A data item which depends on the entire message and forms a part of the input to the signature function. NOTE - Signature generation function is the signature process that is determined by signature key and the domain parameter. [SC27] (see also domain, function, key, message, process, signature, automated information system)
data integrity
(1) The property that data has not been altered or destroyed in an unauthorized manner. (2) The state that exists when computerized data is the same as that in the source documents and has not been exposed to accidental or malicious alteration or destruction. [AJP] (1) The state that exists when computerized data is the same as that in the source documents and has not been exposed to accidental or malicious alteration or destruction. (2) The property that data has not been exposed to accidental or malicious alteration or destruction. [TNI] (I) The property that data has not been changed, destroyed, or lost in an unauthorized or accidental manner. (O) 'The property that information has not been modified or destroyed in an unauthorized manner.' (C) Deals with constancy of and confidence in data values, not with the information that the values represent or the trustworthiness of the source of the values. [RFC2828] A condition existing when data is unchanged from its source and has not been accidentally or maliciously modified, altered, or destroyed. [CIAO] Condition existing when data is unchanged from its source and has not been accidentally or maliciously modified, altered, or destroyed. [800-37][CNSSI] It is the concept of being able to ensure that data or voice transmissions can be maintained in an unimpaired condition and are not subjected to unauthorized modification whether that modification is intentional or inadvertent. [SRV] State that exists when computerized data is the same as that in the source documents and has not been exposed to accidental or malicious alteration or destruction. The property that data has not been exposed to accidental or malicious alteration or destruction. [DSS] The property that data has not been altered by an unauthorized entity. [800-63] The property that data has not been altered in an unauthorized manner. Data integrity covers data in storage, during processing, and in transit. [800-33] The property that data has not been altered in an unauthorized manner. Data integrity covers data in storage, during processing, and while in transit. [SP 800-27] The property that data has not been altered or destroyed in an unauthorized manner. [JTC1/SC27][SC27] The property that data has not been changed, destroyed, or lost in an unauthorized or accidental manner. [CNSSI-4009] The property that data meet an a priori expectation of quality. [NCSC/TG004] The state that exists when computerized data is the same as that in the source documents and has not been exposed to accidental or malicious alteration or destruction. [TCSEC] (see also authorized, computer, confidence, destruction, entity, information, malicious, process, property, quality, subject, trust, data security, integrity)
data integrity service
(I) A security service that protects against unauthorized changes to data, including both intentional change or destruction and accidental change or loss, by ensuring that changes to data are detectable. (C) A data integrity service can only detect a change and report it to an appropriate system entity; changes cannot be prevented unless the system is perfect (error-free) and no malicious user has access. However, a system that offers data integrity service might also attempt to correct and recover from changes. (C) Relationship between data integrity service and authentication services: Although data integrity service is defined separately from data origin authentication service and peer entity authentication service, it is closely related to them. Authentication services depend, by definition, on companion data integrity services. Data origin authentication service provides verification that the identity of the original source of a received data unit is as claimed; there can be no such verification if the data unit has been altered. Peer entity authentication service provides verification that the identity of peer entity in a current association is as claimed; there can be no such verification if the claimed identity has been altered. [RFC2828] (see also access, access control, association, authentication, authorized, entity, identity, malicious, security, system, users, verification, integrity)
data items' representation
A data item or some representation thereof such as a cryptographic hash value. [SC27] (see also cryptographic, cryptography, hash)
data key
A cryptographic key that is used to cryptographically process data (e.g. encrypt, decrypt, sign, authenticate). [FIPS140][SRV] (see also authentication, cryptographic, process, data encryption key, key, key recovery)
data loss
The exposure of proprietary, sensitive, or classified information through either data theft or data leakage. [SP 800-137]
data management
Providing or controlling access to data stored in a computer and to the use of input or output devices. [SRV] (see also access, access control, computer, control, automated information system)
data manipulation language (DML)
(see also automated information system)
data origin authentication
(I) 'The corroboration that the source of data received is as claimed.' [RFC2828] Corroborating the source of data is as claimed. [CNSSI] The corroboration that the source of data received is as claimed. [SRV] The process of verifying that the source of the data is as claimed and that the data has not been modified. [CNSSI-4009] The verification that the source of data received is as claimed. [800-33] (see also verification, authentication)
data origin authentication service
(I) A security service that verifies the identity of a system entity that is claimed to be the original source of received data. (C) This service is provided to any system entity that receives or holds the data. Unlike peer entity authentication service, this service is independent of any association between the originator and the recipient, and the data in question may have originated at anytime in the past. (C) A digital signature mechanism can be used to provide this service, because someone who does not know the private key cannot forge the correct signature. However, by using the signer's public key, anyone can verify the origin of correctly signed data. (C) This service is usually bundled with connectionless data integrity service. data integrity service. [RFC2828] (see also association, connection, digital signature, entity, identity, integrity, key, public-key, signature, system, authentication)
data owner
The individual responsible for making judgments and decisions on behalf of the organization with regard to the data sensitivity/criticality level designation, its use and protection, and its sharing [NASA] (see also critical, owner)
data path
The physical or logical route over which data passes; a physical data path may be shared by multiple logical data paths. [FIPS140] (see also