List of Archived Posts

2020 Newsgroup Postings (01/01 - 12/31)

The modern education system was designed to teach future factory workers to be "punctual, docile, and sober"
QE4 Started
Office jobs eroding
Meet the Economist Behind the One Percent's Stealth Takeover of America
Bots Are Destroying Political Discourse As We Know It
Book: Kochland : the secret history of Koch Industries and corporate power in America
Onward, Christian fascists
IBM timesharing terminal--offline preparation?
IBM timesharing terminal--offline preparation?
IBM timesharing terminal--offline preparation?
"This Plane Was Designed By Clowns, Who Are Supervised By Monkeys"
"This Plane Was Designed By Clowns, Who Are Supervised By Monkeys"
Boyd: The Fighter Pilot Who Loathed Lean?
Office jobs eroding
Book on monopoly (IBM)
The Other 1 Percent": Morgan Stanley Spots A Market Ratio That Is "Unprecedented Even During The Tech Bubble"
Boyd: The Fighter Pilot Who Loathed Lean?
The Other 1 Percent": Morgan Stanley Spots A Market Ratio That Is "Unprecedented Even During The Tech Bubble"
How many ways can one sentence be wrong dept
What is a mainframe?
32 Misinformation Schemes & Other Tactics Used by Wall Street, Corporate America & the Media
Saudi ruler aimed to 'silence' Washington Post
The Saudi Connection: Inside the 9/11 Case That Divided the F.B.I
when sorting was important, If a compiler could compile itself
Promtheus' Fire: Climate Change in the Time of Willful Ignorance
Huawei 5G networks
What's Fortran?!?!
What's Fortran?!?!
50 years online at home
Online Computer Conferencing
Main memory as an I/O device
Main memory as an I/O device
IBM TSS
IBM TSS
CR or LF?
Who introduced named files?
IBM S/360 - 370
Early mainframe security
Early mainframe security
If Memory Had Been Cheaper
If Memory Had Been Cheaper
If Memory Had Been Cheaper
If Memory Had Been Cheaper
Watch AI-controlled virtual fighters take on an Air Force pilot on August 18th
Watch AI-controlled virtual fighters take on an Air Force pilot on August 18th
Watch AI-controlled virtual fighters take on an Air Force pilot on August 18th
Watch AI-controlled virtual fighters take on an Air Force pilot on August 18th

The modern education system was designed to teach future factory workers to be "punctual, docile, and sober"

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From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler lynn@garlic.com
Subject: The modern education system was designed to teach future factory workers to be "punctual, docile, and sober"
Date: 02 Jan 2020
Blog: Facebook
The modern education system was designed to teach future factory workers to be "punctual, docile, and sober"
https://qz.com/1314814/universal-education-was-first-promoted-by-industrialists-who-wanted-docile-factory-workers/
Industrial Age education, from late 1800s, early 1900s (time & motion studies, etc), teaching memorization, not thinking, strict conformity, stamping out factory workers for the capitalists and robber barons
https://www.azquotes.com/quote/1212588
Ours may become the first civilization destroyed, not by the power of our enemies, but by the ignorance of our teachers and the dangerous nonsense they are teaching our children. In an age of artificial intelligence, they are creating artificial stupidity
... snip ...

How to Break Free of Our 19th-Century Factory-Model Education System. A technology and education entrepreneur gazes into the future of the classroom
https://www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2012/05/how-to-break-free-of-our-19th-century-factory-model-education-system/256881/
Why Our Industrial-Age Schools Are Failing Our Information-Age Kids
https://www.qualitydigest.com/inside/quality-insider-column/why-our-industrial-age-schools-are-failing-our-information-age-kids

The One Type of Game That Kills Creativity and Innovation. There are two types of games. One kills creativity and the other is for kids...
https://www.inc.com/stephen-shapiro/why-your-business-needs-more-kid-games-fewer-adult-games.html
Everyone is born creative, but it is educated out of us at school
https://www.theguardian.com/media-network/2016/may/18/born-creative-educated-out-of-us-school-business
US education system in general focused on stamping out creativity and enforcing conformity. Teachers Don't Like Creative Students
http://marginalrevolution.com/marginalrevolution/2011/12/teachers-dont-like-creative-students.html

Even bullying has been standard technique in US education as pat of enforcing conformity ... former coworker at cambridge science center and san jose research;
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edson_Hendricks
"It's Cool to Be Clever: The Story of Edson C. Hendricks, the Genius Who Invented the Design for the Internet"
https://www.amazon.com/Its-Cool-Be-Clever-Hendricks/dp/1897435630/
permeates nearly all levels of US education system ... even extending to military academies ... reference to study of German and US the first half of 1900s ... including reference to George Mashall (WW2 chief of staff) was badly injured in a bullying/hazing incident that almost had to drop out
https://www.amazon.com/Command-Culture-Education-1901-1940-Consequences-ebook/dp/B009K7VYLI/
again lots tracing to "industrial age education" ... Industrial Age Education Is a Disservice to Students
https://www.huffpost.com/entry/industrial-age-education-_b_2974297
AETC Focused on Breaking Away From Industrial-Age Thinking
https://www.airforcemag.com/AETC-Focused-on-Breaking-Away-From-Industrial-Age-Thinking/
Lessons in learning
https://news.harvard.edu/gazette/story/2019/09/study-shows-that-students-learn-more-when-taking-part-in-classrooms-that-employ-active-learning-strategies/

Similar capitalism and social democracy ... have pros & cons and can be used for checks & balances ... example, On War
https://www.amazon.com/War-beautifully-reproduced-illustrated-introduction-ebook/dp/B00G3DFLY8/
loc394-95:
As long as the Socialists only threatened capital they were not seriously interfered with, for the Government knew quite well that the undisputed sway of the employer was not for the ultimate good of the State.
... snip ...

the government needed general population standard of living sufficient that soldiers were willing to fight to preserve their way of life. Capitalists tendency was to reduce worker standard of living to the lowest possible ... below what the government needed for soldier motivation ... and therefor needed socialists as counterbalance to the capitalists in raising the general population standard of living. Saw this fight out in the 30s, American Fascists opposing all of FDR's "new deals" The Coming of American Fascism, 1920-1940
https://historynewsnetwork.org/article/172004
The truth, then, is that Long and Coughlin, together with the influential Communist Party and other leftist organizations, helped save the New Deal from becoming genuinely fascist, from devolving into the dictatorial rule of big business. The pressures towards fascism remained, as reactionary sectors of business began to have significant victories against the Second New Deal starting in the late 1930s. But the genuine power that organized labor had achieved by then kept the U.S. from sliding into all-out fascism (in the Marxist sense) in the following decades.
... snip ...

aka "Coming of America Fascism" shows socialists countered the "New Deal" becoming fascist ... which had been the objective of the capitalists ... and possibly contributed to forcing them further into the Nazi/fascist camp. When The Bankers Plotted To Overthrow FDR
https://www.npr.org/2012/02/12/145472726/when-the-bankers-plotted-to-overthrow-fdr
The Plots Against the President: FDR, A Nation in Crisis, and the Rise of the American Right
https://www.amazon.com/Plots-Against-President-Nation-American-ebook/dp/B07N4BLR77/

June1940, Germany had a victory celebration at the NYC Waldorf-Astoria with major industrialists. Lots of them were there to hear how to do business with the Nazis
https://www.amazon.com/Man-Called-Intrepid-Incredible-Narrative-ebook/dp/B00V9QVE5O/
loc1925-29:
One prominent figure at the German victory celebration was Torkild Rieber, of Texaco, whose tankers eluded the British blockade. The company had already been warned, at Roosevelt's instigation, about violations of the Neutrality Law. But Rieber had set up an elaborate scheme for shipping oil and petroleum products through neutral ports in South America.
... snip ...

Later somewhat replay of the 1940 celebration, conference of 5000 industrialists and corporations from across the US at the Waldorf-Astoria, except in part because they had gotten such a bad reputation for the depression and supporting Nazis, so attempting to refurbish their horribly corrupt and venal image, they approved a major propaganda campaign to equate Capitalism with Christianity.
https://www.amazon.com/One-Nation-Under-God-Corporate-ebook/dp/B00PWX7R56/
part of the result by the early 50s was adding "under god" to the pledge of allegiance. slightly cleaned up version
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pledge_of_Allegiance

Corporatism is an American, Bipartisan Scourge. Matt Stoller's Goliath recalls when workers' rights became 'consumer advocacy,' and we all lost the language of anti-monopoly.
https://www.theamericanconservative.com/articles/corporatism-is-an-american-bipartisan-scourge/
Stoller also delves into the secret production compacts between American and Nazi producers delivering a timeless lesson that corporate giants will nearly always pursue profit above morality in their dealings with authoritarian regimes.
... snip ...

Goliath
https://www.amazon.com/Goliath-Monopolies-Secretly-Took-World-ebook/dp/B07GNSSTGJ/

inequality posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#inequality
racism posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#racism

recent bullying &/or conformit posts:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018.html#48 1963 Timesharing: A Solution to Computer Bottlenecks
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018.html#60 Senate Democrats Join Hands With Republicans to Sell You Out to Banks
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018b.html#45 More Guns Do Not Stop More Crimes, Evidence Shows
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018b.html#46 Think you know web browsers? Take this quiz and prove it
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018b.html#83 Elizabeth Warren Slams Democrats for Helping Gut Financial Regulations
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018b.html#117 F-35: Still No Finish Line in Sight
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018c.html#2 FY18 budget deal yields life-sustaining new wings for the A-10 Warthog
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018c.html#14 Air Force Risks Losing Third of F-35s If Upkeep Costs Aren't Cut
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018c.html#19 How China's New Stealth Fighter Could Soon Surpass the US F-22 Raptor
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018c.html#73 Army researchers find the best cyber teams are antisocial cyber teams
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018c.html#108 F-35
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018d.html#21 Bankers Hate the Volcker Rule. Now, It Could Be Watered Down
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018d.html#44 Mission Command Is Swarm Intelligence
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018d.html#106 Everyone is born creative, but it is educated out of us at school
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018d.html#111 The story of the internet is all about layers; How the internet lost its decentralized innocence
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019c.html#31 Supersonic speeds could cause big problems for the F-35's stealth coating
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019c.html#67 Range
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019c.html#90 DNS & other trivia
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019d.html#35 The People Who Invented the Internet: #Reviewing The Imagineers of War
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#3 The One Type of Game That Kills Creativity and Innovation
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#49 Economic Mess and Regulations
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#86 5 milestones that created the internet, 50 years after the first network message
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#141 IBM and Internet
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#142 Trump is deconstructing the government, one agency at a time

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

QE4 Started

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler lynn@garlic.com
Subject: QE4 Started
Date: 02 Jan 2020
Blog: Facebook
A Major Bank Admits QE4 Has Started, And That Stocks Are Rising Because Of The Fed's Soaring Balance Sheet
https://www.zerohedge.com/markets/major-bank-admits-qe4-has-started-and-stocks-are-rising-because-feds-soaring-balance-sheet
In short: the Kool Aid is flowing, the party is in full force and everyone has to dance, because the Fed will continue to perform QE4 at least until Q2 2020. Which reminds us of what we wrote last week, namely that another big bank, Morgan Stanley, has already seen through the current meltup phase, and predicts the "Melt-Up Lasting Until April, After Which Markets Will "Confront World With No Fed Support"."
... snip ...

Morgan Stanley Sees Melt-Up Lasting Until April, After Which Markets Will "Confront World With No Fed Support"
https://www.zerohedge.com/markets/morgan-stanley-sees-melt-lasting-until-april-after-which-markets-will-confront-world-no-fed
One Bank Finally Admits The Fed's "NOT QE" Is Indeed QE... And Could Lead To Financial Collapse
https://www.zerohedge.com/markets/one-bank-finally-admits-feds-not-qe-indeed-qe-and-could-lead-financial-collapse

You better believe the Fed is doing quantitative easing -- and here are the beneficiaries
https://www.marketwatch.com/story/you-better-believe-the-fed-is-doing-quantitative-easing-and-here-are-the-beneficiaries-2019-11-20
But if the Fed's balance sheet is growing and so are excess reserves in the banking system, it becomes the very definition of QE.
... snip ...

The Fed's $4 trillion experiment is growing
https://www.cnn.com/2019/10/11/investing/fed-qe-powell-balance-sheet/index.html
Given the slowing American economy, the actions are reminiscent of the bond buying programs known as quantitative easing. The Fed resorted to QE, and eventually QE2 and QE3, to keep borrowing costs ultra-cheap once it ran out of room to cut interest rates in 2008.
... snip ...

The Fed seems to have halted a potential crisis in the overnight lending market -- for now
https://www.cnbc.com/2019/12/30/the-fed-seems-to-have-halted-a-potential-crisis-in-the-repo-market.html
The Fed has been walking a tightrope through the process, particularly since the announcement that it would resume the expansion of its balance sheet just two years after it started reducing the holdings on what had then been a $4.5 trillion level. The balance sheet is composed mostly of Treasurys and mortgage-backed securities the Fed had acquired during and after the financial crisis.
... snip ...

Year-End Repo "Crisis" Ends With A Whimper Amid Massive Liquidity Glut
https://www.zerohedge.com/markets/year-end-repo-crisis-ends-whimper-amid-massive-liquidity-glut It was supposed to usher in a market crisis that would prompt the Fed to launch QE4 according to repo guru Zoltan Pozsar. In the end, the preemptive liquidity tsunami unleashed by the Fed in mid-December which backstopped just shy of $500 billion in liquidity, proved enough to keep any latent repo market crisis at bay.
... snip ...

Helicopter Money Is Here: How The Fed Monetized Billions In Debt Sold Just Days Earlier
https://www.zerohedge.com/markets/helicopter-money-here-how-fed-monetized-billions-debt-sold-just-days-earlier
The Price Of Year-End Market Stability: $414 Billion
https://www.zerohedge.com/markets/price-year-end-market-stability-414-billion

economic mess posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#economic.mess
FED chairman posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#fed.chairman

quantitative easing posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009g.html#77 A new global system is coming into existence
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012l.html#64 Singer Cartons of Punch Cards
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013c.html#26 How to Cut Megabanks Down to Size
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013c.html#41 Danger as stock-market "Greedometer" flashes red
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014d.html#73 The Federal Reserve: Masters Of The Universe Or Trapped Incompetents?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015b.html#49 OT: swiss franc
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015d.html#70 Western Union envisioned internet functionality
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015g.html#20 After 6 Years Of QE, And A $4.5 Trillion Balance Sheet, St. Louis Fed
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015g.html#25 After 6 Years Of QE, And A $4.5 Trillion Balance Sheet, St. Louis Fed
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#56 Wall Street Vs. Main Street
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017i.html#83 How the world's greatest financial experiment enriched the rich
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018c.html#11 Bernanke Beliefs Busted: New Research Foretells QE Domination

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Office jobs eroding

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From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Office jobs eroding
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Sat, 04 Jan 2020 16:20:19 -1000
googlegroups jmfbahciv <jmfbah102162@gmail.com> writes:
Factory workers made a lot more than I did. Manufacturing employees were the middle class. We were talking about the disappearance of the middle class about 2 or 3 years ago.

starting nearly decade ago, references to destruction of the middle class

Destruction of Middle Class
http://www.nytimes.com/imagepages/2011/09/04/opinion/04reich-graphic.html?ref=sunday
http://www.nytimes.com/2011/09/04/opinion/sunday/jobs-will-follow-a-strengthening-of-the-middle-class.html
The Real Reason Wages Have Stagnated: Our Economy Is Optimized For Financialization
http://www.zerohedge.com/news/2017-09-08/real-reason-wages-have-stagnated-our-economy-optimized-financialization
How GE, GM, Coca-Cola And Kodak Put Shareholders Ahead Of Employees
https://www.forbes.com/sites/stevedenning/2017/06/29/how-ge-gm-coca-cola-kodak-put-shareholders-ahead-of-employees/
... from here, productivity/pay gap (updated July2019)
http://www.epi.org/productivity-pay-gap/

in the 80s, corporations with large number of workers were being reorganized into parent company, subsidiary company with most of the workers, and a different subsidiary where most of the profit was booked (part of union negotiating tactic). auto shifted to making its money from loans, airlines shifted profit into computerized ticketing (with operations near break even). In the early 90s, there was period where airline operations were operating at a loss (spike in fuel costs), but parent company was showing significant profit ... profit from selling tickets more than offset the loss from airline operations. Airline even declared bankruptcy on operations and offloaded all its pensions on PBGC (and benefits take 2/3rd cut)
https://www.pbgc.gov/

After turn of century, they discovered that they could move the corporation where all the profit is booked, to offshore tax haven.
https://www.icij.org/investigations/luxembourg-leaks/
poster child is US maker of heavy equipment that sold and delivered in the US. They then created a distributorship in offshore tax haven ... the equipment is transferred to the distributorship books at cost then sells to US customers and all the profit is booked offshore, but the equipment (and money) never actually leaves the US.

recnt reference after turn of century, large corporations bringing large number of illegal works ... that helps drive down wages
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#47 king sized ash tray "the good life" 1967 job ad

inequality posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#inequality

some past posts mentioning PBGC
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008.html#65 As Expected, Ford Falls From 2nd Place in U.S. Sales
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010b.html#24 Happy DEC-10 Day
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010d.html#46 search engine history, was Happy DEC-10 Day
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014m.html#8 weird apple trivia
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016b.html#83 Qbasic - lies about Medicare
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016b.html#98 Qbasic - lies about Medicare
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016e.html#98 E.R. Burroughs
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017f.html#4 [CM] What was your first home computer?

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Meet the Economist Behind the One Percent's Stealth Takeover of America

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From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler lynn@garlic.com
Subject: Meet the Economist Behind the One Percent's Stealth Takeover of America
Date: 07 Jan 2020
Blog: Facebook
Meet the Economist Behind the One Percent's Stealth Takeover of America. Nobel laureate James Buchanan is the intellectual linchpin of the Koch-funded attack on democratic institutions, argues Duke historian Nancy MacLean
https://www.ineteconomics.org/perspectives/blog/meet-the-economist-behind-the-one-percents-stealth-takeover-of-america
With Koch's money and enthusiasm, Buchanan's academic school evolved into something much bigger. By the 1990s, Koch realized that Buchanan's ideas -- transmitted through stealth and deliberate deception, as MacLean amply documents -- could help take government down through incremental assaults that the media would hardly notice. The tycoon knew that the project was extremely radical, even a "revolution" in governance, but he talked like a conservative to make his plans sound more palatable.

... snip ...

Democracy in Chains: The Deep History of the Radical Right's Stealth Plan for America
https://www.amazon.com/Democracy-Chains-History-Radical-Stealth-ebook/dp/B01EH1EL7A/
pgxxvii/loc293-97:
it was training operatives to staff the far-flung and purportedly separate, yet intricately connected, institutions funded by the Koch brothers and their now large network of fellow wealthy donors. These included the Cato Institute, the Heritage Foundation, Citizens for a Sound Economy, Americans for Prosperity, FreedomWorks, the Club for Growth, the State Policy Network, the Competitive Enterprise Institute, the Tax Foundation, the Reason Foundation, the Leadership Institute, and more, to say nothing of the Charles Koch Foundation and Koch Industries itself.

pgxxviii/loc317-22:
I was able to do so because Koch's team had since moved on to a vast new command-and-control facility at George Mason called the Mercatus Center, leaving Buchanan House largely untended. Future-oriented, Koch's men (and they are, overwhelmingly, men) gave no thought to the fate of the historical trail they left unguarded. And thus, a movement that prided itself, even congratulated itself, on its ability to carry out a revolution below the radar of prying eyes (especially those of reporters) had failed to lock one crucial door: the front door to a house that let an academic archive rat like me, operating on a vague hunch, into the mind of the man who started it all.

pgxxxiv/loc420-23:
Koch never lied to himself about what he was doing. While some others in the movement called themselves conservatives, he knew exactly how radical his cause was. Informed early on by one of his grantees that the playbook on revolutionary organization had been written by Vladimir Lenin, Koch dutifully cultivated a trusted "cadre" of high-level operatives, just as Lenin had done, to build a movement that refused compromise as it devised savvy maneuvers to alter the political math in its favor.

pg221/loc3679-82:
The budget director, it turned out, had failed to make clear to the president and his political advisers--much less to the American people--that the colossal Kemp-Roth tax cut, as it came to be known, would necessitate tearing up the social contract on a scale never attempted in a democracy. To this day, it is unclear how such a consequential misunderstanding occurred.

pg222/loc3693-97:
"By 1982," Stockman reported, "I knew the Reagan Revolution was impossible." It simply could not happen in "the world of democratic fact." Indeed, once the public became aware of just how drastic a plan the president's economic team intended--including immediate changes to Social Security (as Stockman put it, "a frontal assault on the very inner fortress of the American welfare state," a program "on which one seventh of the nation's populace depended for its well-being")--the jig was up.

pg223/loc3709-10:
The Republican right's political leadership, however, looked on Stockman as a turncoat. Its members followed the president and his advisers on a second path, one that forsook the fact-based universe.

pg224/loc3733-36:
Now, no doubt inspired by Chile's conversion to private pensions, Charles Koch's Cato Institute turned to Buchanan to teach its staff how to crab walk. Having relocated from San Francisco to Washington, D.C., in late 1981 to achieve greater influence, Cato made the privatization of Social Security its top priority. Buchanan labeled the existing system a "Ponzi scheme," a framing that, as one critic pointed out, implied that the program was "fundamentally fraudulent"--indeed, "totally and fundamentally wrong." more: David Koch Got What He Paid For. The late Koch brother bought influence using PACs and other proxies.
... snip ...

Charles Koch Speech: "Anti-Capitalism and Big Business" and How the Powell Memo Did Not Go Far Enough
https://kochdocs.org/2019/06/07/charles-koch-anti-capitalism-big-business/
Kochland review: how the Kochs bought America - and trashed it
https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2019/dec/07/kochland-review-koch-brothers-pollution-congress-republicans
Wendy Gramm
https://www.sourcewatch.org/index.php/Wendy_Gramm
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wendy_Lee_Gramm

Head of CFTC and exempted (ENRON) energy derivatives from regulation, six days later resigns and joins ENRON board and its audit committee and then chair at (Koch) Mercatus Center of GMU.

Later (new) head of CFTC proposes regulation of derivatives (and is replaced) while (Wendy's husband) Phil Gramm passes legislation preventing derivative regulations ... for which he is #2 on times list of those responsible for the economic mess (1st decade of the century)
http://content.time.com/time/specials/packages/article/0,28804,1877351_1877350_1877330,00.html
although he is now better known for GLBA (and repeal of Glass-Steagall, enabling too big to fail, too big to prosecute, and too big to jail

ENRON posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#enron
too big to fail ("too big to prosecute" "too big to jail")
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#too-big-to-fail
glass-steagall (&/or Pecora) posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#Pecora&/orGlass-Steagall

Kochland: The Secret History of Koch Industries and Corporate Power in America
https://www.amazon.com/Kochland-History-Industries-Corporate-America-ebook/dp/B07P5HCQ7G/
pg113/loc1898-1903:
The Libertarian Party sought to abolish a vast set of government agencies and programs, including Medicare, Medicaid, Social Security (which would be made voluntary), the Department of Transportation (and "all government agencies concerned with transportation," including the Federal Aviation Administration, which oversees airplane safety), the Environmental Protection Agency, the Department of Energy, the Food and Drug Administration, and the Consumer Product Safety Commission. And this is just a partial list. The party also sought to privatize all roads and highways, to privatize all schools, to privatize all mail delivery. It sought to abolish personal and corporate income taxes and, eventually, the "repeal of all taxation."
... snip ...

past posts mentioning charles koch, koch brothers, koch industry, etc
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011o.html#72 Public misperception about scientific agreement on global warming undermines climate policy support
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015e.html#4 Western Union envisioned internet functionality
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016.html#31 I Feel Old
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016b.html#107 Qbasic - lies about Medicare
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#17 Trump to sign cyber security order
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017f.html#6 [CM] What was your first home computer?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017i.html#47 Retirement Heist: How Firms Plunder Workers' Nest Eggs
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018.html#84 The Warning
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018b.html#45 More Guns Do Not Stop More Crimes, Evidence Shows
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018b.html#82 The Real Reason the Investor Class Hates Pensions
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018c.html#83 Economists and the Powerful: Convenient Theories, Distorted Facts, Ample Rewards
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018c.html#91 Economists and the Powerful: Convenient Theories, Distorted Facts, Ample Rewards
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018d.html#11 Hell is ... ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018d.html#77 Nassim Nicholas Taleb
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#64 Mystery of the Underpaid American Worker
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018f.html#11 A Tea Party Movement to Overhaul the Constitution Is Quietly Gaining
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#37 Democracy in Chains
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#41 Family of Secrets
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#43 Billionaire warlords: Why the future is medieval
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019b.html#45 What is ALEC? 'The most effective organization' for conservatives, says Newt Gingrich
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019b.html#68 IBM revenue has fallen for 20 quarters -- but it used to run its business very differently
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019b.html#84 If Current Laws Prosecuting Bankers Aren't Used, What Can Warren Change?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019b.html#91 SS Trustees Report Summary
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019c.html#47 Day of Reckoning for KPMG-Failures in Ethics
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019d.html#23 A Deadly Heat Wave After the Hottest June On Record: How the Climate Crisis Is Creating 'a New Normal'
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019d.html#46 SS Trust Fund
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019d.html#48 Here's what Nobel Prize-winning research says will make you more influential
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019d.html#77 Magic and Mayhem: The Delusions of American Foreign Policy From Korea to Afghanistan
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019d.html#97 David Koch Was the Ultimate Climate Change Denier
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019d.html#103 David Koch Was the Ultimate Climate Change Denier
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019d.html#110 Trump tells Republicans he may begin cutting social security and Medicare if he wins in 2020
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#31 Milton Friedman's "Shareholder" Theory Was Wrong
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#50 Economic Mess and Regulations
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#61 What Gandhi Believed Is the Purpose of a Corporation
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#64 Capitalism as we know it is dead
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#158 Goliath

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Bots Are Destroying Political Discourse As We Know It

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From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler lynn@garlic.com
Subject: Bots Are Destroying Political Discourse As We Know It
Date: 07 Jan 2020
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2020.html#3 Meet the Economist Behind the One Percent's Stealth Takeover of America

Bots Are Destroying Political Discourse As We Know It. They're mouthpieces for foreign actors, domestic political groups, even the candidates themselves. And soon you won't be able to tell they're bot
https://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2020/01/future-politics-bots-drowning-out-humans/604489/

Disinformation For Hire: How A New Breed Of PR Firms Is Selling Lies Online. One firm promised to "use every tool and take every advantage available in order to change reality according to our client's wishes."
https://www.buzzfeednews.com/article/craigsilverman/disinformation-for-hire-black-pr-firms

goes back to tobacco, then in 80s US military budget and climate change, Merchants of Doubt: How a Handful of Scientists Obscured the Truth on Issues from Tobacco Smoke to Global Warming
https://www.amazon.com/Merchants-Doubt-Handful-Scientists-Obscured-ebook/dp/B003RRXXO8/
https://www.merchantsofdoubt.org/
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Merchants_of_Doubt

merchants of doubt posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#merchants.of.doubt

Koch Brothers
https://www.ineteconomics.org/perspectives/blog/meet-the-economist-behind-the-one-percents-stealth-takeover-of-america
With Koch's money and enthusiasm, Buchanan's academic school evolved into something much bigger. By the 1990s, Koch realized that Buchanan's ideas -- transmitted through stealth and deliberate deception, as MacLean amply documents -- could help take government down through incremental assaults that the media would hardly notice. The tycoon knew that the project was extremely radical, even a "revolution" in governance, but he talked like a conservative to make his plans sound more palatable.
... snip ...

Democracy in Chains: The Deep History of the Radical Right's Stealth Plan for America
https://www.amazon.com/Democracy-Chains-History-Radical-Stealth-ebook/dp/B01EH1EL7A/
pgxxvii/loc293-97:
it was training operatives to staff the far-flung and purportedly separate, yet intricately connected, institutions funded by the Koch brothers and their now large network of fellow wealthy donors. These included the Cato Institute, the Heritage Foundation, Citizens for a Sound Economy, Americans for Prosperity, FreedomWorks, the Club for Growth, the State Policy Network, the Competitive Enterprise Institute, the Tax Foundation, the Reason Foundation, the Leadership Institute, and more, to say nothing of the Charles Koch Foundation and Koch Industries itself.

pgxxviii/loc317-22:
I was able to do so because Koch's team had since moved on to a vast new command-and-control facility at George Mason called the Mercatus Center, leaving Buchanan House largely untended. Future-oriented, Koch's men (and they are, overwhelmingly, men) gave no thought to the fate of the historical trail they left unguarded.
... snip ...

Kochland: The Secret History of Koch Industries and Corporate Power in America
https://www.amazon.com/Kochland-History-Industries-Corporate-America-ebook/dp/B07P5HCQ7G/
pg113/loc1898-1903:
The Libertarian Party sought to abolish a vast set of government agencies and programs, including Medicare, Medicaid, Social Security (which would be made voluntary), the Department of Transportation and all government agencies concerned with transportation, including the Federal Aviation Administration, which oversees airplane safety), the Environmental Protection Agency, the Department of Energy, the Food and Drug Administration, and the Consumer Product Safety Commission. And this is just a partial list. The party also sought to privatize all roads and highways, to privatize all schools, to privatize all mail delivery. It sought to abolish personal and corporate income taxes and, eventually, the repeal of all taxation.
... snip ...

However, back to founding fathers and Federalists in presidential campaign, Thomas Jefferson: The Art of Power, loc6457-59:
For Federalists, Jefferson was a dangerous infidel. The Gazette of the United States told voters to choose GODAND A RELIGIOUS PRESIDENT or impiously declare for "JEFFERSON-AND NO GOD."
.... Jefferson targeted as the prime mover behind the separation of church and state. Also Hamilton/Federalists wanting supreme monarch (above the law) loc5584-88:
The battles seemed endless, victory elusive. James Monroe fed Jefferson's worries, saying he was concerned that America was being "torn to pieces as we are, by a malignant monarchy faction." 34 A rumor reached Jefferson that Alexander Hamilton and the Federalists Rufus King and William Smith "had secured an asylum to themselves in England" should the Jefferson faction prevail in the government.
... snip ...

Fresh Cambridge Analytica leak 'shows global manipulation is out of control'. Company's work in 68 countries laid bare with release of more than 100,000 documents
https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2020/jan/04/cambridge-analytica-data-leak-global-election-manipulation
New Cambridge Analytica Leak Reveals A Lot More About Global Manipulation
https://fossbytes.com/new-cambridge-analytica-leak-global-manipulation/
Anew trove of over 100,000 documents related to the defunct Cambridge Analytica has started to leak online via the Twitter handle @HindsightFiles. According to The Guardian, the documents first surfaced on New Year's day; they are revealing information about how the firm operated in over 68 countries and manipulated voters on 'an industrial scale.'
... snip ...

Exclusive: PH was Cambridge Analytica's 'petri dish' - whistle-blower Christopher Wylie. The Canadian whistle-blower says Strategic Communication Laboratories, Cambridge Analytica's parent company, found the Philippines an ideal target and used proxies here.
https://www.rappler.com/technology/social-media/239606-cambridge-analytica-philippines-online-propaganda-christopher-wylie
Massive Cambridge Analytica leak reveals global election manipulation: Malaysia, Kenya and Brazil
https://boingboing.net/2020/01/06/the-great-hack.html
New Cambridge Analytica Leaks Uncover Election Influence In 68 Countries
https://www.pymnts.com/facebook/2020/new-cambridge-analytica-leaks-uncover-election-influence-in-68-countries/
New Cambridge Analytica Leaks to Expose Election Manipulation in 68 Countries
https://www.democracynow.org/2020/1/6/headlines/new_cambridge_analytica_leaks_to_expose_election_manipulation_in_68_countries
Exclusive: New leaks identify JDU MP Tyagi as Cambridge Analytica client
https://www.indiatoday.in/india/story/exclusive-new-leaks-identify-jdu-mp-as-cambridge-analytica-client-1634175-2020-01-05

Cambridge Analytica posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018b.html#98 The Cambridge Analytica scandal is what Facebook-powered election cheating looks like:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019d.html#33 The Great Hack tells us data corrupts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019d.html#34 The Great Hack tells us data corrupts

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Book: Kochland : the secret history of Koch Industries and corporate power in America

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From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Book:  Kochland : the secret history of Koch Industries and corporate power in America
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Wed, 08 Jan 2020 11:06:32 -1000
hancock4 writes:
Kochland : the secret history of Koch Industries and corporate power in America by Christopher Leonard

Kochland: The Secret History of Koch Industries and Corporate Power in America
https://www.amazon.com/Kochland-History-Industries-Corporate-America-ebook/dp/B07P5HCQ7G/
pg113/loc1898-1903:
The Libertarian Party sought to abolish a vast set of government agencies and programs, including Medicare, Medicaid, Social Security (which would be made voluntary), the Department of Transportation (and "all government agencies concerned with transportation," including the Federal Aviation Administration, which oversees airplane safety), the Environmental Protection Agency, the Department of Energy, the Food and Drug Administration, and the Consumer Product Safety Commission. And this is just a partial list. The party also sought to privatize all roads and highways, to privatize all schools, to privatize all mail delivery. It sought to abolish personal and corporate income taxes and, eventually, the "repeal of all taxation."
... snip ... other

Meet the Economist Behind the One Percent's Stealth Takeover of America. Nobel laureate James Buchanan is the intellectual linchpin of the Koch-funded attack on democratic institutions, argues Duke historian Nancy MacLean
https://www.ineteconomics.org/perspectives/blog/meet-the-economist-behind-the-one-percents-stealth-takeover-of-america
With Koch's money and enthusiasm, Buchanan's academic school evolved into something much bigger. By the 1990s, Koch realized that Buchanan's ideas -- transmitted through stealth and deliberate deception, as MacLean amply documents -- could help take government down through incremental assaults that the media would hardly notice. The tycoon knew that the project was extremely radical, even a "revolution" in governance, but he talked like a conservative to make his plans sound more palatable.
... snip ...

Democracy in Chains: The Deep History of the Radical Right's Stealth Plan for America
https://www.amazon.com/Democracy-Chains-History-Radical-Stealth-ebook/dp/B01EH1EL7A/
pgxxvii/loc293-97:
it was training operatives to staff the far-flung and purportedly separate, yet intricately connected, institutions funded by the Koch brothers and their now large network of fellow wealthy donors. These included the Cato Institute, the Heritage Foundation, Citizens for a Sound Economy, Americans for Prosperity, FreedomWorks, the Club for Growth, the State Policy Network, the Competitive Enterprise Institute, the Tax Foundation, the Reason Foundation, the Leadership Institute, and more, to say nothing of the Charles Koch Foundation and Koch Industries itself.

pgxxviii/loc317-22:
I was able to do so because Koch's team had since moved on to a vast new command-and-control facility at George Mason called the Mercatus Center, leaving Buchanan House largely untended. Future-oriented, Koch's men (and they are, overwhelmingly, men) gave no thought to the fate of the historical trail they left unguarded.
... snip ...

David Koch Got What He Paid For. The late Koch brother bought influence using PACs and other proxies. A prank call to Scott Walker revealed the truth about how the Kochs had their way with Republican politicians. (gone 404)
https://web.archive.org/web/20190823205808/https://www.thenation.com/article/david-koch-americans-for-prosperity-scott-walker/
It Turns Out the Koch Brothers Took an Interest in the VA Hospital System
https://www.esquire.com/news-politics/politics/news/a42938/koch-brothers-va-hospitals/
Inside the Koch Brothers' Toxic Empire. Together, Charles and David Koch control one of the world's largest fortunes, which they are using to buy up our political system. But what they don't want you to know is how they made all that money
https://www.rollingstone.com/politics/politics-news/inside-the-koch-brothers-toxic-empire-164403/
Revelations Over Koch Gifts Prompt Inquiry at George Mason University
https://www.nytimes.com/2018/05/01/us/koch-george-mason-university.html
Toxic Avenger: Did EPA Appointee Do Industry Employer's Bidding? This is why EPA ethics officials allowed David Dunlap, former head of regulatory policy for Koch Industries, to participate in selecting which chemicals to evaluate for health dangers after Dunlap started work as the number-two administrator of the EPA's main science office last October.
https://www.pogo.org/analysis/2019/05/toxic-avenger-did-epa-appointee-do-industry-employers-bidding/
How a Trojan Horse Project to Rewrite Our Constitution Could Actually Happen if Trump Wins in 2020. It's looking more and more like the endgame here for Trump--and the right-wing billionaires who support him and the GOP--is not just to get reelected, but to actually rewrite our Constitution and end the American experiment
https://www.commondreams.org/views/2019/07/17/how-trojan-horse-project-rewrite-our-constitution-could-actually-happen-if-trump
Koch-Funded Economist Wants "Less Democracy"
https://www.counterpunch.org/2015/03/27/koch-funded-economist-wants-less-democracy/
The Koch Brothers' Dirty War on Solar Power. All over the country, the Kochs and utilities have been blocking solar initiatives -- but nowhere more so than in Florida
https://www.rollingstone.com/politics/politics-news/the-koch-brothers-dirty-war-on-solar-power-193325/
David Koch Was the Ultimate Climate Change Denier. How a playboy billionaire built a political army to defend his fossil fuel empire.
https://www.nytimes.com/2019/08/23/opinion/sunday/david-koch-climate-change.html
Koch-Backed Think Tank Finds That "Medicare for All" Would Cut Health Care Spending and Raise Wages. Whoops.
https://theintercept.com/2018/07/30/medicare-for-all-cost-health-care-wages/
Koch brothers' higher-ed investments advance political goals
https://publicintegrity.org/2015/10/30/18684/koch-brothers-higher-ed-investments-advance-political-goals
Why the Koch brothers find higher education worth their money
https://publicintegrity.org/federal-politics/why-the-koch-brothers-find-higher-education-worth-their-money/

other Koch posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011o.html#72 Public misperception about scientific agreement on global warming undermines climate policy support
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015e.html#4 Western Union envisioned internet functionality
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016.html#31 I Feel Old
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016b.html#107 Qbasic - lies about Medicare
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017f.html#6 [CM] What was your first home computer?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017i.html#47 Retirement Heist: How Firms Plunder Workers' Nest Eggs
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018.html#84 The Warning
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018b.html#45 More Guns Do Not Stop More Crimes, Evidence Shows
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018c.html#83 Economists and the Powerful: Convenient Theories, Distorted Facts, Ample Rewards
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018c.html#91 Economists and the Powerful: Convenient Theories, Distorted Facts, Ample Rewards
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018d.html#11 Hell is ... ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018d.html#77 Nassim Nicholas Taleb
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#64 Mystery of the Underpaid American Worker
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019c.html#47 Day of Reckoning for KPMG-Failures in Ethics
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019d.html#97 David Koch Was the Ultimate Climate Change Denier
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019d.html#103 David Koch Was the Ultimate Climate Change Denier
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019d.html#116 David Koch Was the Ultimate Climate Change Denier
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2020.html#3 Meet the Economist Behind the One Percent's Stealth Takeover of America

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Onward, Christian fascists

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From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler lynn@garlic.com
Subject: Onward, Christian fascists
Date: 08 Jan 2020
Blog: Facebook
Onward, Christian fascists. Trump's legacy will be the empowerment of Christian totalitarians
https://www.salon.com/2020/01/03/onward-christian-fascists_partner/
Trump has filled his own ideological void with Christian fascism. He has elevated members of the Christian right to prominent positions, including Mike Pence to the vice presidency, Mike Pompeo to secretary of state, Betsy DeVos to secretary of education, Ben Carson to secretary of housing and urban development, William Barr to attorney general, Neil Gorsuch and Brett Kavanaugh to the Supreme Court and the televangelist Paula White to his Faith and Opportunities Initiative. More importantly, Trump has handed the Christian right veto and appointment power over key positions in government, especially in the federal courts. He has installed 133 district court judges out of 677 total, 50 appeals court judges out of 179 total, and two U.S. Supreme Court justices out of nine. Almost all of these judges were, in effect, selected by the Federalist Society and the Christian right.
... snip ...

racism posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#racism

recent federalist posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2020.html#4 Bots Are Destroying Political Discourse As We Know It
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#161 Fascists
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#158 Goliath
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#150 How Trump Lost an Evangelical Stalwart
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#127 The Barr Presidency
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#10 The 16919 Project
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019b.html#43 Actually, the Electoral College Was a Pro-Slavery Ploy
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#44 People are Happier in Social Democracies Because There's Less Capitalism

recent fascits (and/or equating capitalism w/christianity) posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2020.html#0 The modern education system was designed to teach future factory workers to be "punctual, docile, and sober"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#161 Fascists
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#158 Goliath
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#145 The Plots Against the President
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#144 PayPal, Western Union Named & Shamed for Overcharging the Most on Money Transfers to Mexico
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#112 When The Bankers Plotted To Overthrow FDR
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#107 The Great Scandal: Christianity's Role in the Rise of the Nazis
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#96 OT, "new" Heinlein book
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#91 OT, "new" Heinlein book
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#63 Profit propaganda ads witch-hunt era
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#62 Profit propaganda ads witch-hunt era
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#61 What Gandhi Believed Is the Purpose of a Corporation
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#43 Corporations Are People
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#41 Corporations Are People
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#30 OT, "new" Heinlein book
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#23 Radical Muslim
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019d.html#98 How Journalists Covered the Rise of Mussolini and Hitler
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019d.html#76 The Coming of American Fascism, 1920-1940
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019d.html#75 The Coming of American Fascism, 1920-1940
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019d.html#74 Employers escape sanctions, while the undocumented risk lives and prosecution
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019d.html#51 The global economy is broken, it must work for people, not vice versa
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019d.html#5 Don't Blame Capitalism
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019c.html#92 Holocaust
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019c.html#65 The Forever War Is So Normalized That Opposing It Is "Isolationism"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019c.html#58 Forget China - it's America's own economic system that's broken; US weakness is inbuilt
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019c.html#37 Is America A Christian Nation?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019c.html#36 Is America A Christian Nation?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019c.html#17 Family of Secrets
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019b.html#29 How corporate America invented 'Christian America' to fight the New Deal
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#81 LUsers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#44 People are Happier in Social Democracies Because There's Less Capitalism
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#43 Billionaire warlords: Why the future is medieval
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#34 The Rise of Leninist Personnel Policies
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#0 How Harvard Business School Has Reshaped American Capitalism

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

IBM timesharing terminal--offline preparation?

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: IBM timesharing terminal--offline preparation?
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Thu, 09 Jan 2020 16:05:46 -1000
hancock4 writes:
Most timesharing systems used Teletype model 33's. They had paper tape and an offline mode that allowed programs to be prepared offline--without the expensive meter charges building up.

But on IBM systems with Selectric style terminals, I don't recall their having paper tape or any kind of memory. Was it possible on those systems to prepare programs in advance offline to save on meter charges?

For instance, on the APL system, we slowly had to type in the Greek letters. P.I.T.A. and ran up charges.


not 2741 selectric ... but 1050 selectric had paper tape reader/punch as well as card reader/punch
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM_1050

1052 was more data entry (like later 3278) ... and 2741 adapted for interactive computing
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM_2741

CTSS/7094 ... this mentions supporting 1052
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Compatible_Time-Sharing_System

following, 2741 home terminal, CTSS & Multics (I didn't get 2741 at home until March 1970 for CP67)
https://multicians.org/terminals.html
I got my first home terminal in 1967, when I was working on Multics at Project MAC. It was an IBM 2741, the standard machine for the programming staff. Like the 1050, the 2741 had a Selectric mechanism built into a desk, but one smaller than the 1050's, and with a slimmer electronics box and fewer switches. The original 2741s were designed as "inquiry" terminals: the keyboard was normally locked, and the user was supposed to hit the ATTN button to get the attention of the computer, which would unlock the keyboard and let the user type one line, and then lock the keyboard on carriage return. This mode of operation was no good for time-sharing use, and we had to have two special features installed on the 2741's for CTSS (and later Multics) use. The 2741 used paper with perforations on each side, like printer paper, and had a tractor feed that kept the paper from going crooked and jamming. Annoyingly, the 2741 platen was a little narrower than the 14 7/8 inches wide regular line printer paper, and so Operations had to stock two sizes of paper, and more than once I brought home a box of the wrong size.
... snip ...

note that 2741 used tilt-rotate codes ... and standard golfball characters were what defined for EBCDIC ... with translate between EBCDIC and the golfball tilt-rotate codes ... however it was possible to get other golfballs ... like APL. In theory it should have been possible to have ASCII character set golfball ... and translate between ASCII and golfball tilt-rotate codes.

The bottom above webpage references
https://history.computer.org/pioneers/bemer.html

Bemer's web page that 360 originally was suppose to be ASCII (gone 404)
https://web.archive.org/web/20180513184025/http://www.bobbemer.com/P-BIT.HTM

I was myself in charge of such "Logical Systems Standards" for IBM at e he time, and have written 20 papers about ASCII. One doesn't get the sobriquet "Father of ASCII" for nothing.

The culprit was T. Vincent Learson. The only thing for his defense is that he had no idea of what he had done. It was when he was an IBM Vice President, prior to tenure as Chairman of the Board, those lofty positions where you believe that, if you order it done, it actually will be done. I've mentioned this fiasco elsewhere.

... snip ...

more of his history
https://web.archive.org/web/20180513184025/http://www.bobbemer.com/HISTORY.HTM
wiki age
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bob_Bemer

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

IBM timesharing terminal--offline preparation?

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: IBM timesharing terminal--offline preparation?
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Thu, 09 Jan 2020 16:32:38 -1000
David Wade <g4ugm@dave.invalid> writes:
Not with a Selectric! IBM was almost all card based, at Newcastle Polytechnic (now Northumbria University) we had paper tape on our remote 1130 but only used it for output for CNC.

Many places had small RJE systems as well as terminals. Later at NERC we built small RJE systems from PDP-11s with card readers.

I think a lot of folks still did the main program input from cards punched from coding forms which could be POSTED in, and then edit the source.

We also had HP26xx terminals with cassette tape which could be used for offline prep.

Lastly you could put ASR33s on IBM mainframes but I don't think many did...


re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2020.html#7 IBM timesharing terminal--offline preparation

within a year after taking intro to computers/fortran, univ. hired me fulltime to be responsible for ibm mainframe system (academic & administration) ... had gotten 360/67 (to replaced 709/1401) ... originally for tss/360 ... which never came to production fruition ... and ran as 360/65 with OS/360 production ... initially MFT and then MVT.

Three people from the science center came out last week of Jan1968 to install CP/67 ... I got to mostly play with it on weekends (datacenter was shutdown from 8am sat to 8am monday ... and I could have the whole place to myself for 48hrs) and rewrote lots of CP/67 during 1968. Part of presentation on performance related rewrites at fall 1968 (mainframe user group) SHARE:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/94.html#18 CP/67 & OS MFT14

science center posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech

Original CP/67 had 1052 & 2741 terminal support ... including dynamical terminal type identification ... switching terminal controller port scanner type with CCW SAD command (to match terminal type). The univ. had a bunch of TTY/ASCII terminals ... so I added support for TTY terminals ... incorporating it into dynamic terminal logic. I then wanted to have a single dial-in number ... single "HUNT GROUP"
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Line_hunting

which didn't quite work ... while could switch port scanner type for each line ... IBM took shortcut and hardwired port-line speed (1052/2741 134.5, TTY 110). This was part of motivation for univ. to start clone controller project ... initially built 360 channel interface board for Interdata/3 programmed to emulate mainframe terminal controller ... with the added feature that it would (also) do dynamic line speed. Later upgraded to Interdata/4 for mainframe channel interface and cluster of Interdata/3s for line/port scanner. This box was sold by Interdata (and later Perkin/Elmer) as mainframe clone communication controller (and four of us are written as responsible for some part of the clone controller business).
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interdata

terminal controller posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#360pcm

Start of the century, I ran across one of the (later) boxes in financial datacenter handling majority of the card-swipe point-of-sale terminals in US east of Mississippi.

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

IBM timesharing terminal--offline preparation?

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: IBM timesharing terminal--offline preparation?
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Thu, 09 Jan 2020 16:44:23 -1000
Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com> writes:
Original CP/67 had 1052 & 2741 terminal support ... including dynamical terminal type identification ... switching terminal controller port scanner type with CCW SAD command (to match terminal type). The univ. had a bunch of TTY/ASCII terminals ... so I added support for TTY terminals ... incorporating it into dynamic terminal logic. I then wanted to have a single dial-in number ... single "HUNT GROUP"
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Line_hunting


re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2020.html#7 IBM timesharing terminal--offline preparation
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2020.html#8 IBM timesharing terminal--offline preparation

science center pickedd up my tty support (as well as a bunch of my other stuff) and included it in official distribution. This is post about MIT USL which was datacenter in another tech sq. bldg (across courtyard from 545tech sq that had Multics and IBM science center)
https://www.multicians.org/thvv/360-67.html

My tty support used one byte length value, 255, since tty lines weren't longer than 80. Above description has somebody hacking CP67 to change TTY max line length to 1200 (but didn't change the one byte games) ... for some sort of plotter(?) device down at Harvard ... resulting in 27 CP/67 crashes in a short period of time.

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

"This Plane Was Designed By Clowns, Who Are Supervised By Monkeys"

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler lynn@garlic.com
Subject: "This Plane Was Designed By Clowns, Who Are Supervised By Monkeys"
Date: 10 Jan 2020
Blog: Facebook
"This Plane Was Designed By Clowns, Who Are Supervised By Monkeys" - Shocking Boeing Emails Reveal Contempt For Management, FAA
https://www.zerohedge.com/markets/plane-was-designed-clowns-shocking-boeing-emails-reveal-contempt-management-faa

The 100yr, 2016 Boeing "century" publication had article that the "merger" with M/D nearly took down Boeing and might yet still. More recent articles about senior safety engineers resigning after the M/D takeover

The Coming Boeing Bailout?
https://mattstoller.substack.com/p/the-coming-boeing-bailout
Unlike Boeing, McDonnell Douglas was run by financiers rather than engineers. And though Boeing was the buyer, McDonnell Douglas executives somehow took power in what analysts started calling a "reverse takeover." The joke in Seattle was, "McDonnell Douglas bought Boeing with Boeing's money."

Boeing's travails show what's wrong with modern capitalism. Deregulation means a company once run by engineers is now in the thrall of financiers and its stock remains high even as its planes fall from the sky
https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2019/sep/11/boeing-capitalism-deregulation
Crash Course
https://newrepublic.com/article/154944/boeing-737-max-investigation-indonesia-lion-air-ethiopian-airlines-managerial-revolution
Sorscher had spent the early aughts campaigning to preserve the company's estimable engineering legacy. He had mountains of evidence to support his position, mostly acquired via Boeing's 1997 acquisition of McDonnell Douglas, a dysfunctional firm with a dilapidated aircraft plant in Long Beach and a CEO who liked to use what he called the "Hollywood model" for dealing with engineers: Hire them for a few months when project deadlines are nigh, fire them when you need to make numbers. In 2000, Boeing's engineers staged a 40-day strike over the McDonnell deal's fallout; while they won major material concessions from management, they lost the culture war. They also inherited a notoriously dysfunctional product line from the corner-cutting market gurus at McDonnell.

Former Boeing Engineers Say Relentless Cost-Cutting Sacrificed Safety
https://www.bloomberg.com/news/features/2019-05-09/former-boeing-engineers-say-relentless-cost-cutting-sacrificed-safety
At Boeing, C.E.O.'s Stumbles Deepen a Crisis. Dennis Muilenburg's handling of the 737 Max grounding after two fatal crashes has angered lawmakers, airlines, regulators and victims' families.
https://www.nytimes.com/2019/12/22/business/boeing-dennis-muilenburg-737-max.html

disclaimer: within year of taking two semester hr intro to fortran/computers was hired fulltime by the univ. to be responsible for their ibm mainframe systems. then before I graduate, I'm hired fulltime into a small group in the Boeing CFO office to help with the formation of Boeing Computer Services (consolidate all dataprocessing into an independent business unit to better monetize the investment, including offering services to non-Boeing entities). 747#3 was flying the skies of seattle getting FAA flt certification and tour of 747 cabin mockup (a little south of boeing field) would claim that a 747 would be serviced by a minimum of four jetways (because the large number of people carried by the plane).

There was battle between the CFO (which had just 360/30 at the time for payroll) and the head of renton datacenter ... which had $200M-$300M (60s $$$) in IBM 360s ... 360/65s were arriving faster than they could be installed, boxes constantly staged in the hallways around the machine room (I thot Boeing had the largest machine room in the world). There was a disaster/recovery plan (Mt. Rainier heats up and the resulting mud slide takes out the renton datacenter) to build a duplicate of Renton up at new 747 plant at Paine Field in Everett.

recent posts mentioning Boeing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#22 The American Military Sucks at Cybersecurity; A new report from US military watchdogs outlines hundreds of cybersecurity vulnerabilities
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#54 IBM bureaucracy
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#69 Digital Planes
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019b.html#38 Reminder over in linkedin, IBM Mainframe announce 7April1964
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019b.html#39 Building the System/360 Mainframe Nearly Destroyed IBM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019b.html#51 System/360 consoles
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019b.html#69 Contractors Are Giving Away America's Military Edge
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019b.html#80 TCM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019c.html#25 virtual memory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019d.html#2 Rise and Fall of IBM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019d.html#16 The amount of software running on traditional servers is set to almost halve in the next 3 years amid the shift to the cloud, and it's great news for the data center business
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019d.html#20 The Coming Boeing Bailout?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019d.html#39 The Roots of Boeing's 737 Max Crisis: A Regulator Relaxes Its Oversight
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019d.html#42 Defense contractors aren't securing sensitive information, watchdog finds
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019d.html#60 IBM 360/67
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019d.html#118 Armed with J-20 stealth fighters, China's future flattops could 'eventually fight US carriers'
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#33 Boeing's travails show what's wrong with modern capitalism
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#34 The U.S. Forgot What Antitrust Is For
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#39 Crash Course
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#64 Capitalism as we know it is dead
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#77 Collins radio 1956
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#84 Collins radio and Braniff Airways 1945
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#110 ROMP & Displaywriter
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#151 OT: Boeing to temporarily halt manufacturing of 737 MAX
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#153 At Boeing, C.E.O.'s Stumbles Deepen a Crisis
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#158 Goliath

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

"This Plane Was Designed By Clowns, Who Are Supervised By Monkeys"

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler lynn@garlic.com
Subject: "This Plane Was Designed By Clowns, Who Are Supervised By Monkeys"
Date: 10 Jan 2020
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2020.html#10 "This Plane Was Designed By Clowns, Who Are Supervised By Monkeys"

'I Honestly Don't Trust Many People at Boeing': A Broken Culture Exposed. A trove of internal employee communications shows that the aviation giant's troubles go beyond one poorly designed plane.
https://www.nytimes.com/2020/01/10/business/boeing-737-employees-messages.html?smid=fb-nytimes&smtyp=cur&
Boeing Employees Mocked FAA In Internal Messages Before 737 Max Disasters
https://www.npr.org/2020/01/09/795123158/boeing-employees-mocked-faa-in-internal-messages-before-737-max-disasters
It's Not Just Software: New Safety Risks Under Scrutiny on Boeing's 737 Max. The company and regulators are looking into everything from the wiring on the plane to its engines.
https://www.nytimes.com/2020/01/05/business/boeing-737-max.html?fbclid=IwAR0cUX17Xpkv6x9dFGj2dB-Jj20Qzd1YmPReWn3R8EIsILZYwfNQc3KogOQ

Goliath, Note over 100 years ago ... transportation company run by financiers with little or no interest in safety
https://www.amazon.com/Goliath-Monopolies-Secretly-Took-World-ebook/dp/B07GNSSTGJ/
pg27/loc590-97:
But Brandeis was right. The New Haven was grossly mismanaged. It invested little in safety equipment, and its board of directors comprised financiers so busy they paid no attention to the company. Soon, grisly accidents led to dozens of deaths on a regular basis. After one particularly deadly accident in Wallingford, Connecticut, "a disastrous wreck even in the history of that disastrous road," a reporter tried to ask J. P. Morgan's son, who inherited the firm from his famous father, what could be done. "Mr. Morgan cannot see you," said his butler. "He says he can do nothing about it and does not care to be annoyed." 66 By 1912, the press had turned on Morgan and the New Haven. The railroad was, as the Interstate Commerce Commission later called it, "one of the most glaring instances of maladministration revealed in all the history of American railroading."
... snip ...

recent Goliath ref
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#158 Goliath

inequality posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#inequality
racism posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#racism

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Boyd: The Fighter Pilot Who Loathed Lean?

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler lynn@garlic.com
Subject: Boyd: The Fighter Pilot Who Loathed Lean?
Date: 12 Jan 2020
Blog: Facebook
Boyd: The Fighter Pilot Who Loathed Lean?
https://www.aglx.consulting/post/boyd-the-fighter-pilot-who-loathed-lean

I would say favored efficient (not necessarily lean) ... and especially against the enormous bloat (graft and corruption) at the pentagon

In briefings Boyd would talk about needing decisions pushed to the lowest level possible, to the people next to the problems (most knowledgeable about the immediate issue). In the early 80s, he would talk about former military officers, steeped in rigid, top-down, command&control (a legacy of WW2, leverage few experienced resources "managing" millions of new soldiers), were starting to contaminate US corporate cultures (not about the same time, articles were starting to appear that MBAs were starting to destr0y US corporations with their myopic focus on quarterly numbers).

He would contrast US with Guderian's Verbal Orders Only for the Blitzkrieg ... that he (Guderian) wanted the commander on the spot making the decisions, not having to worry about higher authority and/or after action reviews.

Consistent with this "How Toyota Turns Workers Into Problem Solvers"
http://hbswk.hbs.edu/item/how-toyota-turns-workers-into-problem-solvers
To paraphrase one of our contacts, he said, "It's not that we don't want to tell you what TPS is, it's that we can't. We don't have adequate words for it. But, we can show you what TPS is."

We've observed that Toyota, its best suppliers, and other companies that have learned well from Toyota can confidently distribute a tremendous amount of responsibility to the people who actually do the work, from the most senior, experienced member of the organization to the most junior. This is accomplished because of the tremendous emphasis on teaching everyone how to be a skillful problem solver.

... snip ...

... and enormous bloat ... "John Boyd's Art of War; Why our greatest military theorist only made colonel":
http://www.theamericanconservative.com/articles/john-boyds-art-of-war/
"Here too Boyd had a favorite line. He often said, 'It is not true the Pentagon has no strategy. It has a strategy, and once you understand what that strategy is, everything the Pentagon does makes sense. The strategy is, don't interrupt the money flow, add to it.'"
... snip ...

Boyd had example of others twisting his opinions to their own purpose. He talked about being against the original introduction of the heads-up display in the F16 ... which was scrolling digital numbers. Boyd would point out that pilots became less efficient trying to convert the scrolling digital numbers into meaning. He would say that his detractors would characterize him as "Luddite" (for his heads-up opposition). This discounts his E/M theory used for fighter design and YF16 being the first fighter with relaxed stability and requiring the use of "fly-by-wire"
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/General_Dynamics_F-16_Fighting_Falcon#Negative_stability_and_fly-by-wire

A New Conception of WAR, John Boyd, The U.S. Marines, and Maneuver Warfare
https://www.usmcu.edu/Portals/218/ANewConceptionOfWar.pdf
loc1783-88:
Boyd's collaboration with associate Pierre Sprey on the development of the A-10 close air support (CAS) aircraft sparked his exploration of history. The project was Sprey's, with Sprey consulting Boyd on performance analysis, E-M Theory, and views on warfare in general. When designing the A-10, Sprey had to determine what aircraft features provided the firepower and loiter time required by ground forces, while also granting survivability against the enemy ground fire that would inevitably be directed against it.4The German Wehrmacht had pioneered both the design and employment of dedicated CAS aircraft in World War II.

loc1792-95:
From this, the inquiring mind that had developed the Aerial Attack Study and E-M Theory again went into action. Sprey had focused on the aircraft and tactics that made German CAS missions successful. Building on that, Boyd, in his first year of retirement, broadened the scope to examine German tactics and strategy in World War II, and then worked his way back to the time of Sun Tzu as he studied history's most successful military commanders.6
... snip ...

Saving Democracy From the Managerial Elite. To heal our deep social and political divisions, urban professionals must start sharing power with the working class.
https://www.wsj.com/articles/saving-democracy-from-the-managerial-elite-11578672945

Boyd posts (&/or URLs)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subboyd.html
military-industrial complex
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#military.industrial.complex

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Office jobs eroding

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Office jobs eroding
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Sun, 12 Jan 2020 10:35:33 -1000
J. Clarke <jclarke.873638@gmail.com> writes:
They don't? They pay tolls, per axle, the tax on diesel is higher than on gas, so in what way do they not pay?

highway design, wear&tear, maint, costs are based on projected 18wheeler axle-ton (cars and light trucks have no affect).

This has moved a couple times (and/or unavailable) since originally posted ... so from wayback machine
https://web.archive.org/web/20090421013132/http://www.dot.ca.gov/hq/oppd/hdm/hdmtoc.htm
pavement engineering
https://web.archive.org/web/20090411065841/http://www.dot.ca.gov/hq/oppd/hdm/pdf/chp0600.pdf
603.1 Introduction

The primary goal of the design of the pavement structural section is to provide a structurally stable and durable pavement and base system which, with a minimum of maintenance, will carry the projected traffic loading for the designated design period. This topic discusses the factors to be considered and procedures to be followed in developing a projection of truck traffic for design of the "pavement structure" or the structural section for specific projects.

Pavement structural sections are designed to carry the projected truck traffic considering the expanded truck traffic volume, mix, and the axle loads converted to 80 kN equivalent single axle loads (ESAL's) expected to occur during the design period. **The effects on pavement life of passenger cars, pickups, and two-axle trucks are considered to be negligible**.

Traffic information that is required for structural section design includes axle loads, axle configurations, and number of applications. The results of the AASHO Road Test (performed in the early 1960's in Illinois) have shown that the damaging effect of the passage of an axle load can be represented by a number of 80 kN ESAL's. For example, one application of a 53 kN single axle load was found to cause damage equal to an application of approximately 0.23 of an 80 kN single axle load, and four applications of a 53 kN single axle were found to cause the same damage (or reduction in serviceability) as one application of an 80 kN single axle.

... snip ...

past posts/refs
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002j.html#41 Transportation
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002j.html#42 Transportation
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004e.html#7 OT Global warming
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006g.html#56 The Pankian Metaphor
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006g.html#57 The Pankian Metaphor
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006g.html#59 The Pankian Metaphor
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006g.html#60 The Pankian Metaphor
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006g.html#61 The Pankian Metaphor
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006g.html#62 The Pankian Metaphor
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006h.html#0 The Pankian Metaphor
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006h.html#6 The Pankian Metaphor
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006h.html#8 The Pankian Metaphor
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006h.html#11 The Pankian Metaphor
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006h.html#23 The Pankian Metaphor
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008e.html#48 fraying infrastructure
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008k.html#68 Historian predicts the end of 'science superpowers'
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008l.html#36 dollar coins
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010m.html#61 Idiotic cars driving themselves
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010n.html#39 Central vs. expanded storage
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010p.html#52 TCM's Moguls documentary series
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011h.html#5 Home prices may drop another 25%, Shiller predicts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011n.html#80 A Close Look at the Perry Tax Plan
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011n.html#83 A Close Look at the Perry Tax Plan
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013h.html#28 "Highway Patrol" back on TV
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013h.html#29 "Highway Patrol" back on TV
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015b.html#47 Future of support for telephone rotary dial ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015h.html#76 IMPI (System/38 / AS/400 historical)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016.html#12 1970--protesters seize computer center
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016h.html#109 Minimum Wage
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017f.html#70 [CM] What was your first home computer?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017h.html#31 Disregard post (another screwup; absolutely nothing to do with computers whatsoever!)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018.html#42 Predicting the future in five years as seen from 1983
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018.html#44 Predicting the future in five years as seen from 1983
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018b.html#26 Bitcoin confusion?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018f.html#103 Is LINUX the inheritor of the Earth?

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Book on monopoly (IBM)

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Book on monopoly (IBM)
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Sun, 12 Jan 2020 10:58:25 -1000
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#154 Book on monopoly (IBM)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#155 Book on monopoly (IBM)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#156 Book on monopoly (IBM)

Goliath
https://www.amazon.com/Goliath-Monopolies-Secretly-Took-World-ebook/dp/B07GNSSTGJ/
Mellon description (SECTREAS for 3 administrations) during the 20s and early 30s seems to have a lot of similarities with description in Kochland and large diversified conglomerate with monopoly (or near monopoly) and huge political leverage. Also opaque, complex ownerships to obscure scope of the interlocking businesses., recent posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2020.html#5 Book: Kochland : the secret history of Koch Industries and corporate power in America
book
https://www.amazon.com/Kochland-History-Industries-Corporate-America-ebook/dp/B07P5HCQ7G/

racism posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#racism Mellons "self-dealing" also is similar to current day descriptions of administration graft and corruption. It also starts to get into oligarch affinity for fascism that increased during the 20s&30s (as well as US industry&corporation support for Hitler and Germany during the period).
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#63 Profit propaganda ads witch-hunt era
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#91 OT, "new" Heinlein book
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#96 OT, "new" Heinlein book

other recent fascist references:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019c.html#17 Family of Secrets
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019c.html#36 Is America A Christian Nation?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019d.html#75 The Coming of American Fascism, 1920-1940
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019d.html#94 The War Was Won Before Hiroshima--And the Generals Who Dropped the Bomb Knew It
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#43 Corporations Are People
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#106 OT, "new" Heinlein book
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#107 The Great Scandal: Christianity's Role in the Rise of the Nazis
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#112 When The Bankers Plotted To Overthrow FDR
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#145 The Plots Against the President
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#161 Fascists
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2020.html#0 The modern education system was designed to teach future factory workers to be "punctual, docile, and sober"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2020.html#6 Onward, Christian fascists

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

The Other 1 Percent": Morgan Stanley Spots A Market Ratio That Is "Unprecedented Even During The Tech Bubble"

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler lynn@garlic.com
Subject: The Other 1 Percent": Morgan Stanley Spots A Market Ratio That Is "Unprecedented Even During The Tech Bubble"
Date: 12 Jan 2020
Blog: Facebook
The Other 1 Percent": Morgan Stanley Spots A Market Ratio That Is "Unprecedented Even During The Tech Bubble"
https://www.zerohedge.com/markets/morgan-stanley-spots-market-ratio-unprecedented-even-during-tech-bubble

... note other reports show worker compensation going flat around 1980 ... about the time Milton Friedman taking hold. This was also about the time press started appearing that MBAs were destroying US corporations with their myopic focus on quarterly numbers.

Income inequality in America is the highest it's been since Census Bureau started tracking it, data shows. In the midst of the nation's longest economic expansion, the separation between rich and poor is at a five-decade high
https://www.washingtonpost.com/business/2019/09/26/income-inequality-america-highest-its-been-since-census-started-tracking-it-data-show/
Politicians have caused a pay 'collapse' for the bottom 90 percent of workers, researchers say
https://www.washingtonpost.com/business/2018/12/17/politicians-have-deliberately-eroded-workers-power-resulting-collapse-pay-bottom-percent-researchers-say/
Destruction of Middle Class
http://www.nytimes.com/imagepages/2011/09/04/opinion/04reich-graphic.html?ref=sunday
http://www.nytimes.com/2011/09/04/opinion/sunday/jobs-will-follow-a-strengthening-of-the-middle-class.html
The Real Reason Wages Have Stagnated: Our Economy Is Optimized For Financialization
http://www.zerohedge.com/news/2017-09-08/real-reason-wages-have-stagnated-our-economy-optimized-financialization
How GE, GM, Coca-Cola And Kodak Put Shareholders Ahead Of Employees
https://www.forbes.com/sites/stevedenning/2017/06/29/how-ge-gm-coca-cola-kodak-put-shareholders-ahead-of-employees/
... from here, productivity/pay gap (updated July2019)
http://www.epi.org/productivity-pay-gap/
Meet the Economist Behind the One Percent's Stealth Takeover of America
https://www.nakedcapitalism.com/2018/05/meet-economist-behind-one-percents-stealth-takeover-america.html
Bad Ideas; Reknowned economist James K. Galbraith, one of our expert panelists, pulls no punches in talking about the damage wrought by financial innovation
https://www.gfmag.com/magazine/june-2017/bad-ideas
Center for Public Integrity launches inequality team
https://publicintegrity.org/inside-publici/center-for-public-integrity-launches-inequality-team/
U.S. Inequality Reached Highest Level in 50 Years: Census
https://us.glbnews.com/09-2019/52780394201778/
Census: US inequality grew, including in heartland states
https://apnews.com/bfa51032ee27470c9f908914328eea99
United States Income Inequality Continues to Surge
https://johnhively.wordpress.com/2019/09/27/united-states-income-inequality-continues-to-surge/

inequality posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#inequality

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Boyd: The Fighter Pilot Who Loathed Lean?

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler lynn@garlic.com
Subject: Boyd: The Fighter Pilot Who Loathed Lean?
Date: 12 Jan 2020
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2020.html#12 Boyd: The Fighter Pilot Who Loathed Lean?

(NOT) Fuhrerprinzip https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/F%C3%BChrerprinzip
(German for "leader principle") prescribed the fundamental basis of political authority in the governmental structures of the Third Reich. This principle can be most succinctly understood to mean that "the Führer's word is above all written law" and that governmental policies, decisions, and offices ought to work toward the realization of this end.[1] In actual political usage, it refers mainly to the practice of dictatorship within the ranks of a political party itself, and as such, it has become an earmark of political fascism.
... snip ...

Command Culture ... compares German & US military education the first half of last decade
https://www.amazon.com/Command-Culture-Education-1901-1940-Consequences-ebook/dp/B009K7VYLI/

Boyd would say that tiger had 10:1 kill ratio over Sherman ... but the US could easily tolerate such losses. 3/4s of German military were fighting the Soviets on the eastern front. What was left was used to deal with the US and the rest of the allies.

From Guderian's Panzer Leader
https://www.amazon.com/Panzer-Leader-Heinz-Guderian-ebook/dp/B07KTBSD1L/
loc2902-3:
Hitler then said: 'If I had known that the figures for Russian tank strength which you gave in your book were in fact the true ones, I would not--I believe--ever have started this war.'

loc2903-6:
He was referring to my book Achtung! Panzer!, published in 1937, in which I had estimated Russian tank strength at that time as 10,000; both the Chief of the Army General Staff, Beck, and the censor had disagreed with this statement. It had cost me a lot of trouble to get that figure printed; but I had been able to show that intelligence reports at the time spoke of 17,000 Russian tanks and that my estimate was therefore, if anything, a very conservative one.

loc2262-64:
At this time our yearly tank production scarcely amounted to more than 1,000 of all types. In view of our enemies' production figures this was very small. As far back as 1933 I had visited a single Russian tank factory which was producing 22 tanks per day of the Christie-Russki type.
... snip ...

Tanks in the German Army
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tanks_in_the_German_Army
First encountered on 23 June 1941,[24] the T-34 outclassed the existing Panzer III and IV.[25] At the insistence of General Heinz Guderian, a special Panzerkommision was dispatched to the Eastern Front to assess the T-34.[26] Among the features of the Soviet tank considered most significant were the sloping armor, which gave much improved shot deflection and also increased the effective armor thickness against penetration, the wide track, which improved mobility over soft ground, and the 76.2 mm gun, which had good armor penetration and fired an effective high-explosive round.
... snip ...

The british referred to Shermans as Tommy Cookers because crews were being sent out out to be slaughtered; Boyd's briefings had German's with 10:1 kill ratio (10 Shermans killed for every German tank, even inferior to the Russians), US was planning on winning with battle of attrition; Germans would run out of tanks and crew before the US (even at 10:1)
http://warfarehistorynetwork.com/daily/m4-sherman-vs-german-panther/
The Sherman was at a disadvantage. Although it mounted 75mm cannon, it was of a low-velocity type. The Sherman's designers felt that a low-velocity gun would last longer than a high-velocity one. They failed to realize that few Shermans would ever last long enough in combat to wear out their barrels. Later versions would have an upgraded high-velocity gun, but they would not reach front-line units until late November 1944, five months after the Normandy invasion. The armor, at 81mm, was considerably thinner than the Panther's and unable to withstand its armor-piercing ammunition.
... snip ...

Sand&Steel
https://www.amazon.com/Sand-Steel-Invasion-Liberation-France-ebook/dp/B07PPVG8HG/
pg19/loc992-a98:
However, OB West's remaining twenty-three Bodenständige (static position) divisions were either immobile or reserve infantry formations, with low Kampfwert (combat effectiveness) ratings. They were assessed as incapable of taking on offensive missions, and suitable only for limited defence. For the latter's transportation needs, in Rundstedt's domain there were 115,000 military horses on strength, a stark reminder of how reliant on these creatures the German armed forces were in 1944 - by contrast, the Allies would bring with them not a single equine. 3 A year earlier, roughly twenty-five per cent of officers stationed in France had fought in Russia; by 1944, this figure had almost doubled to sixty per cent. This did not necessarily reflect a reinforcement of the west, but a higher proportion of wounded and convalescing leaders.

pg38/loc1415-18:
It still comes as a surprise to many that the German Army in Normandy was predominantly horse-drawn. When Second Lieutenant Bob Sheehan of the US 60th Chemical Company (an outfit responsible for smoke weapons) breasted a rise over the dunes of Omaha on 7 June, he saw ‘a mind-shattering sight that convinced me the war was as good as won. It was a dead horse. The poor animal was still attached to the wagon it had been pulling.

pg47/loc1600-1604:
The stature of the Nazi war machine, forged in North Africa, Italy and on the Eastern Front, was still feared in 1944, though demonstrably hollowed out. It also helped Berlin that the Western Allies, particularly the 21st Army Group, were also excessively cautious, which played to the German inclination - despite their convoluted command - of tactical speed of reaction. Finally, it also suited many Allied commanders after the war to talk up the prowess of their opponents, making the achievement of subduing them all the greater.
... snip ...

Boyd posts (& URLs)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subboyd.html
military-industrial complex
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#military.industrial.complex

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

The Other 1 Percent": Morgan Stanley Spots A Market Ratio That Is "Unprecedented Even During The Tech Bubble"

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler lynn@garlic.com
Subject: The Other 1 Percent": Morgan Stanley Spots A Market Ratio That Is "Unprecedented Even During The Tech Bubble"
Date: 12 Jan 2020
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2020.html#15 The Other 1 Percent": Morgan Stanley Spots A Market Ratio That Is "Unprecedented Even During The Tech Bubble"

The Dismal Forecasts of the Dismal Scientists. How economists keep getting things wrong and not learning from their mistakes
https://prospect.org/economy/the-dismal-forecasts-of-the-dismal-scientists/
James Galbraith's memoir of lifelong struggles to make economics a force for good
https://diem25.org/james-galbraiths-memoir-of-lifelong-struggles-to-make-economics-a-force-for-good/

inequality posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#inequality

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

How many ways can one sentence be wrong dept

From: lynn@GARLIC.COM (Anne & Lynn Wheeler)
Subject: Re: How many ways can one sentence be wrong dept
Newsgroups: bit.listserv.ibm-main
Date: 13 Jan 2020 20:54:03 -0800
remember no real CKD devices have been made for decades ... all being simulated on industry standard fixed-block ... need a fair amount electronics and processing between the emulated CKD layer and the real fixed-block hardware (whether fixed-block spinning disks or fixed-block SSD).

a lot of the CKD optimization work ... may actually have little or no meaning by the time things reach the fixed-block physical device.

matt@HOGSTROM.ORG (Matt Hogstrom) writes:
Out of curiosity, its been a while since I did storage admin but it occurred to me that for the most part a lot of the work in defragging, worrying about disk geometry and other issues are really not / less of an issue with cache and SSD technologies. So, perhaps naive on my part, but it would seem to me the work to "defrag" is really more to keep up the legacy z/OS concepts like # of extents, CKD processing for PDS', etc. Are there benefits to defragging these days apart from the consequences of the limitations from older architectures and paradigms like directory blocks and member placement?

posts mentioning FBA, CKD, multi-track search, etc
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#dasd

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

What is a mainframe?

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: lynn@GARLIC.COM (Anne & Lynn Wheeler)
Subject: Re: What is a mainframe?
Newsgroups: bit.listserv.ibm-main
Date: 14 Jan 2020 11:33:44 -0800
z.schdlr@GMAIL.COM (z/OS scheduler) writes:
IMHO TCP/ip is part and parcel of this new "Open Source / Written by Hackers" we are living in. I cannot believe that C.C.I.T.T.would have recommended to IBM to make their product more hack-able - unless Microsoft or SUN had big influence on C.C.I.T.T.

The original mainframe TCP/IP implementation was done in VS/PASCAL which had none of the typical exploits found commonly in C-language TCP/IP implementatins. The communication group fought fierce battle to prevent its release. When they lost the battle, they then changed their story and said that since it was "communication" it had to be released through the communication group. What shipped would used nearly a whole 3090 processor to get 44kbytes/sec aggregate throughput.

I then did the enhancements to support RFC044 and in tuning tests at Cray Research between a Cray and 4341 ... got channel speed sustained throughput using only modest amount of 4341 processor (something like 500 times improvement in bytes moved per instruction executed).

rfc1044 posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#1044

Later the communication group hired a silicon valley contractor to implement TCP/IP support directly in VTAM. He initially demonstrated TCP/IP running significantly faster than LU6.2. He was then told that *everybody* knows that a *valid* TCP/IP implementation runs significantly slower than LU6.2 and they would only be paying for a *valid* TCP/IP implementation.

After leaving IBM, I was brought in as consultant to small client/server startup that wanted to do payment transactions on their server (two Oracle people that I had worked with at IBM when we were doing IBM's HA/CMP product were then at startup responsible for something called "commerce server). The startup had invented this technology they called "SSL" they wanted to use, the result is now frequently called "electronic commerce". I had complete responsibility for the server to payment networks ... but could only make recommendations on the client/server side ... some of which were almost immediately violated ... continues to account for some number of exploits.

At the time, internet exploits were about half C-language related programming problems and half social enginnering ... with a few misc. other items. Then at 1996 m'soft moscone MDC conference, all the banners said "Internet" ... but the constant refrain in every session was "protect your investment" ... aka Visual Basic applications embedded in data files that would be automagically executed. They were going to transition from the safe, small closed LANs network environments to the wild anarchy of the Internet w/o any additional countermeasures. By the end of the decade over 1/3rd of "internet" exploits were these automagically executed code snippets (the numbers of the other exploits didn't decrease, there was just an explosion of this new category of exploits).

Early part of the century I did some work on categorizing exploits in the NIST CVE exploit database ... and tried to get MITRE to require additional information in exploit reports. At the time MITRE said that they had hard enough time getting reports to have any information ... and additional requirements would just inhibit people writing anything.

Some archived posts about CVE exploit categrizing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004e.html#43
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005d.html#0
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005d.html#67
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005k.html#3
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007q.html#20

internet posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#internet
c-language related exploits
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subintegrity.html#buffer

old posts about IBM evaluation of the 30yr old gov. MULTICS security evaluation ... implemented in PLI and having none of the exploitable bugs typical in C-lanugage implementations.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002l.html#42
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002l.html#44

The copy of the IBM paper was originally on IBM website ... but all such websites have since disappeared and I had to find copy at other locations.

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

32 Misinformation Schemes & Other Tactics Used by Wall Street, Corporate America & the Media

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler lynn@garlic.com
Subject: 32 Misinformation Schemes & Other Tactics Used by Wall Street, Corporate America & the Media
Date: 14 Jan 2020
Blog: Facebook
32 Misinformation Schemes & Other Tactics Used by Wall Street, Corporate America & the Media, as Pointed Out Hilariously by WOLF STREET Commenters
https://wolfstreet.com/2020/01/14/32-misinformation-schemes-other-tactics-used-by-wall-street-corporate-america-the-media-as-pointed-out-hilariously-by-wolf-street-commenters/
#12: "Debt-financed share buybacks" - a form of equity stripping.

#13: "Positive coverage of 'share buy backs,' ostensibly to enrich share 'owners,' but really to enrich share sellers and to recycle management stock options through the corporate treasury?"

In the same vein: "Mopping up overgenerous stock options by looting the treasury with share buybacks, described as "Returning Shareholder Value," while never paying a dividend."

#14: "Leveraged buyouts with asset-stripping." This was a favorite in brick-and-mortar retail some years ago, leading to a massive pileup of bankruptcies by major retailers, such as Toys "R" Us.

... snip ...

stock/share buyback posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#stock.buyback
private-equity, LBOs. etc, posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#private.equity

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Saudi ruler aimed to 'silence' Washington Post

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From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler lynn@garlic.com
Subject: Saudi ruler aimed to 'silence' Washington Post
Date: 23 Jan 2020
Blog: Facebook
Saudi ruler aimed to 'silence' Washington Post. The heir to the Saudi throne is believed to have personally sent malware via the messaging application Whatsapp
https://www.asiatimes.com/2020/01/article/saudi-crown-prince-behind-jeff-bezos-hack-reports/
Everything We Know About the Jeff Bezos Phone Hack. A UN report links the attack on Jeff Bezos' iPhone X directly to Saudi Arabian Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman.
https://www.wired.com/story/bezos-phone-hack-mbs-saudi-arabia/

Who honestly has a crown prince in their threat model? UN report officially fingers Saudi royal as Bezos hacker
https://www.theregister.co.uk/2020/01/22/saudi_bezos_phone_hack/
A timeline of events surrounding the Bezos phone hack
https://www.zdnet.com/article/a-timeline-of-events-surrounding-the-bezos-phone-hack/
How Saudi Arabia allegedly hacked Jeff Bezos's phone
https://www.fastcompany.com/90454667/how-saudi-arabia-allegedly-hacked-into-jeff-bezos-phone

also Khashoggi was journalist for Washington Post, owned by Bezos ... and the president has frequently expressed dislike for both the Post and Bezos numerous times in the past.

Trump sold nuclear tech to Saudis in secret after Khashoggi killing. The Trump administration secretly approved the transfer of nuclear technology to Saudi Arabia after the killing of Jamal Khashoggi without informing Congress.
https://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/trump-sold-nuclear-tech-to-saudis-in-secret-after-khashoggi-killing-9q39glhwc
Report: Trump Secretly Sold Nuclear Technology To Saudi Arabia
https://mavenroundtable.io/theintellectualist/news/report-trump-secretly-sold-nuclear-technology-to-saudi-arabia-ghyRWpmKKk-Odo-zLzR9vg

The Saudi Crown Prince Plans to Make Us Forget About the Murder of Jamal Khashoggi Before the US Election
https://www.counterpunch.org/2019/09/18/the-saudi-crown-prince-plans-to-make-us-forget-about-the-murder-of-jamal-khashoggi-before-the-us-election/
Kushner allowed Saudis to arrest Khashoggi
https://www.middleeastmonitor.com/20191104-kushner-allowed-saudis-to-arrest-khashoggi/
Jared Kushner advised Saudi prince on how to 'weather' Khashoggi slaying, report says
https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/politics/2018/12/09/jared-kushner-advised-saudi-prince-after-khashoggi-murder-report-says/2257098002/
What is Trump trying to cover up about his Saudi phone calls and Jamal Khashoggi's murder?
https://www.inquirer.com/columnists/attytood/trump-jamal-khashoggi-murder-cover-up-saudi-arabia-mbs-20191001.html
White House calls claim that Jared Kushner gave Saudi ruler permission to arrest Jamal Khashoggi before journalist was killed and dismembered 'false nonsense'
https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-7646171/Jared-Kushner-claim-greenlit-arrest-Jamal-Khashoggi-phone-call-Saudi-Prince-nonsense-White-House.html
In Death, Khashoggi Exposes the Corruption of Kushner and Trump. There's a word for what may be going on here: espionage
https://medium.com/s/story/in-death-khashoggi-exposes-the-corruption-of-kushner-and-trump-236c85e659aa
A report released yesterday by the CIA concluded that Jamal Khashoggi, a prominent Saudi journalist who was living in the United States, was assassinated on direct orders from Mohammed bin Salman (MbS), crown prince of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The Kingdom dispatched a 15-man "death squad" to Istanbul, comprised of members of MbS's own security detail, to make the hit. On Oct. 2, the assassins concocted a reason to lure Khashoggi into the consulate. There, they spent seven full minutes torturing him, slicing off his fingers and other body parts while he was still alive. Then they killed him and hacked up the remains with a bone saw.

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

The Saudi Connection: Inside the 9/11 Case That Divided the F.B.I

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler lynn@garlic.com
Subject: The Saudi Connection: Inside the 9/11 Case That Divided the F.B.I.
Date: 23 Jan 2020
Blog: Facebook
The Saudi Connection: Inside the 9/11 Case That Divided the F.B.I. A small team of agents spent years investigating whether one of Washington's closest allies was involved in the worst terror attack in U.S. history. This is their story.
https://www.nytimes.com/2020/01/23/magazine/9-11-saudi-arabia-fbi.html
Operation Encore and the Saudi Connection: A Secret History of the 9/11 Investigation. Behind the scenes, a small team of FBI agents spent years trying to solve a stubborn mystery -- whether officials from Saudi Arabia, one of Washington's closest allies, were involved in the worst terror attack in U.S. history. This is their story.
https://www.propublica.org/article/9-11-investigation-saudi-connections-operation-encore-fbi

from truth is stranger than fiction and law of unintended consequences that come back to bite you, much of the radical Islam & ISIS can be considered our own fault, (Bush) Family Secrets
https://www.amazon.com/Family-Secrets-Americas-Invisible-Government-ebook/dp/B003NSBMNA/
pg292/loc6057-59:
There was also a calculated decision to use the Saudis as surrogates in the cold war. The United States actually encouraged Saudi efforts to spread the extremist Wahhabi form of Islam as a way of stirring up large Muslim communities in Soviet-controlled countries. (It didn't hurt that Muslim Soviet Asia contained what were believed to be the world's largest undeveloped reserves of oil.)
... snip ...

Saudi radical Islam/Wahhabi loosened on the world ... bin Laden & 15 of 9/11 were Saudis
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wahhabism
The majority of Sunni and Shia Muslims worldwide disagree with the interpretation of Wahhabism, and many Muslims denounce them as a faction or a "vile sect".[7] Islamic scholars, including those from the Al-Azhar University, regularly denounce Wahhabism with terms such as "Satanic faith".[33] Wahhabism has been accused of being "a source of global terrorism",[34][35] inspiring the ideology of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL),[36] and for causing disunity in Muslim communities by labelling Muslims who disagreed with the Wahhabi definition of monotheism as apostates[37] (takfir) and justifying their killing.[38][39][40] It has also been criticized for the destruction of historic shrines of saints, mausoleums, and other Muslim and non-Muslim buildings and artifacts.[41][42][43]
... snip ...

Mattis somewhat more PC (political correct)
https://www.amazon.com/Call-Sign-Chaos-Learning-Lead-ebook/dp/B07SBRFVNH/
pg21/loc349-51:
Ayatollah Khomeini's revolutionary regime took hold in Iran by ousting the Shah and swearing hostility against the United States. That same year, the Soviet Union was pouring troops into Afghanistan to prop up a pro-Russian government that was opposed by Sunni Islamist fundamentalists and tribal factions. The United States was supporting Saudi Arabia's involvement in forming a counterweight to Soviet influence.

pg96/loc1373-75:
On the other hand, invading Iraq stunned me. Why were we fighting them again? I was unaware of the discussions in Washington linking Al Qaeda to Saddam. There was broad consensus among international intelligence agencies that he possessed chemical weapons.
... snip ...

and internal CIA
https://www.amazon.com/Permanent-Record-Edward-Snowden-ebook/dp/B07STQPGH6/
pg133/loc1916-17:
But al-Qaeda did maintain unusually close ties with our allies the Saudis, a fact that the Bush White House worked suspiciously hard to suppress as we went to war with two other countries.
... snip ...

In May2017, Fareed has segment on Saudi Arabia is supporting world wide wahhabism ... which is "extreme" version of Islam ... including ISIS ... also something like 96% of world-wide extreme Islam terrorism is Wahhabi related and that Iran is one of the major forces fighting Wahhabi extremism (highlighting US war on terror supporting Saudi and opposing Iran).

You Can't Understand ISIS If You Don't Know the History of Wahhabism in Saudi Arabia
http://www.huffingtonpost.com/alastair-crooke/isis-wahhabism-saudi-arabia_b_5717157.html

Initially, families of 9/11 victims were prohibited suing the Saudi gov for 9/11 responsibility. That was changed in fall of 2013 ... apparently because of big uptic in fracking and getting off Saudi oil dependency.

9/11 Families 'Ecstatic' They Can Finally Sue Saudi Arabia
http://news.yahoo.com/9-11-families-39-ecstatic-39-finally-sue-222121660--abc-news-topstories.html
Inside the Saudi 9/11 coverup
http://nypost.com/2013/12/15/inside-the-saudi-911-coverup/
Murdoch's NY Post Backs Michael Moore's Bush-Saudi 9/11 Claims
http://news.firedoglake.com/2013/12/16/murdochs-ny-post-backs-michael-moores-bush-saudi-911-claims/

US chooses to invade the countries fighting extreme radical Wahhabi ... instead of the country responsible.

recent Wahhabi related posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#41 Family of Secrets
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#43 Billionaire warlords: Why the future is medieval
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#45 Jeffrey Skilling, Former Enron Chief, Released After 12 Years in Prison
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#48 Iran Payments
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019b.html#17 How Iran Won Our Iraq War
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019b.html#56 U.S. Has Spent Six Trillion Dollars on Wars That Killed Half a Million People Since 9/11, Report Says
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019c.html#15 Don't forget how the Soviet Union saved the world from Hitler
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019c.html#65 The Forever War Is So Normalized That Opposing It Is "Isolationism"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019d.html#7 You paid taxes. These corporations didn't
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019d.html#32 William Barr Supported Pardons In An Earlier D.C. 'Witch Hunt': Iran-Contra
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019d.html#47 Declassified CIA Document Reveals Iraq War Had Zero Justification
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019d.html#54 Global Warming and U.S. National Security Diplomacy
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019d.html#65 What Happened to Aung San Suu Kyi?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019d.html#77 Magic and Mayhem: The Delusions of American Foreign Policy From Korea to Afghanistan
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019d.html#79 Bretton Woods Institutions: Enforcers, Not Saviours?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019d.html#99 Trump claims he's the messiah. Maybe he should quit while he's ahead
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#15 Before the First Shots Are Fired
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#18 Before the First Shots Are Fired
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#22 Radical Muslim
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#23 Radical Muslim
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#25 Radical Muslim
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#26 Radical Muslim
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#58 Homeland Security Dept. Affirms Threat of White Supremacy After Years of Prodding
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#67 Profit propaganda ads witch-hunt era
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#70 Since 2001 We Have Spent $32 Million Per Hour on War
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#85 Just and Unjust Wars
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#105 OT, "new" Heinlein book
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#113 Post 9/11 wars have cost American taxpayers $6.4 trillion, study finds
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#124 'Deep, Dark Conspiracy Theories' Hound Some Civil Servants In Trump Era
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#135 Permanent Record
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#143 "Undeniable Evidence": Explosive Classified Docs Reveal Afghan War Mass Deception

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

when sorting was important, If a compiler could compile itself

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: when sorting was important, If a compiler could compile itself...
Newsgroups: comp.arch
Date: Sat, 25 Jan 2020 11:08:48 -1000
John Levine <johnl@taugh.com> writes:
It was both. Mainframe sorts were actually sort generators which compiled the sort spec into machine code which did the comparisons in the inner loop. For all I know they might have in-lined it into a heapsort to cut down on call and return instructions.

IBM mainframes gave applications a great deal of control over I/O, down to the level of letting applications write and run their own channel programs, and disk controllers were a lot dumber, so there was plenty of room for cleverness to keep everything running at full speed.


and the system i/o library routines would (also) build channel programs in user space. Conventon was then to do supervisor call (EXCP0) to execute the channel (I/O) program.

problem was transition to virtual memory operating system ... channel programs required "real" addresses and now all of user space was virtual. EXCP0 now had to create a copy of the passed channel programs (from user space), replacing the passed addresses with "real" addresses (and "pin" the associated virtual pages in real storage until the I/O completed).

Initial transition was effectively the POK favorite-son batch operating system, MVT running in the equivalent of a CP67 virtual machine, 16mbyte virtual memory ... with a little bit of code dropped into MVT to build its own virtual memory tables and handle page faults. The largest amount of code needed in MVT for the transition was a copy of CP67's CCWTRANS ... hacked into EXCP0 to build channel program copies with real addresses.

The virtualized EXCP0 has been doing that for 50yrs.

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Promtheus' Fire: Climate Change in the Time of Willful Ignorance

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From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler lynn@garlic.com
Subject: Promtheus' Fire: Climate Change in the Time of Willful Ignorance
Date: 25 Jan 2020
Blog: Facebook
In Greek lore, knowledge & wisdom raised man above other animals,
https://www.counterpunch.org/2020/01/24/promtheus-fire-climate-change-in-the-time-of-willful-ignorance/

In Christianity, knowledge & wisdom is evil and got man kicked out of garden of eden. In Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, Gibbon blames the fall on Christianity, sapping the Roman martial spirit and in combination with the corruption and infighting of the 1800 christian bishops, made Rome vulnerable to barbarians, leading to the dark ages. Part of the description of Christianity becoming the official Roman religion is that they had to rewrite history to blame the crucifixion on Jews (rather than Rome).

a couple recent refs
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019b.html#29 How corporate America invented 'Christian America' to fight the New Deal
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019c.html#17 Family of Secrets
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019c.html#36 Is America A Christian Nation?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019c.html#37 Is America A Christian Nation?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019c.html#58 Forget China - it's America's own economic system that's broken; US weakness is inbuilt
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019c.html#62 The Fall of the Roman Empire
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019c.html#65 The Forever War Is So Normalized That Opposing It Is "Isolationism"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019c.html#92 Holocaust
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019d.html#5 Don't Blame Capitalism
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019d.html#51 The global economy is broken, it must work for people, not vice versa
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019d.html#75 The Coming of American Fascism, 1920-1940
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019d.html#98 How Journalists Covered the Rise of Mussolini and Hitler
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#23 Radical Muslim
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#30 OT, "new" Heinlein book
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#41 Corporations Are People
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#61 What Gandhi Believed Is the Purpose of a Corporation
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#62 Profit propaganda ads witch-hunt era
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#107 The Great Scandal: Christianity's Role in the Rise of the Nazis
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#112 When The Bankers Plotted To Overthrow FDR
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#125 'Deep, Dark Conspiracy Theories' Hound Some Civil Servants In Trump Era
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#145 The Plots Against the President
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#150 How Trump Lost an Evangelical Stalwart
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#158 Goliath
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#161 Fascists
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2020.html#0 The modern education system was designed to teach future factory workers to be "punctual, docile, and sober"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2020.html#6 Onward, Christian fascists
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2020.html#14 Book on monopoly (IBM)

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Huawei 5G networks

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From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Huawei 5G networks
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Sun, 09 Feb 2020 17:11:09 -1000
hancock4 writes:
While corporations were always a type of a "person", that "personhood" was always known as artificial, not a natural person. Historically, they had limitations, like not having the right to vote. Personally, I was shocked by the Citizens United court decision granting corporations more 'human rights'. I thought that decision was a disgrace and not in the best interest of the country. Big business, however, loved it.

Originally corporations were charters for entities that operated in the public interest ... however almost immediately there was push to give corporate charters for entities that would operate in self interest and then constitutional rights and protection. False Profits: Reviving the Corporation's Public Purpose
https://www.uclalawreview.org/false-profits-reviving-the-corporation%E2%80%99s-public-purpose/
I Origins of the Corporation. Although the corporate structure dates back as far as the Greek and Roman Empires, characteristics of the modern corporation began to appear in England in the mid-thirteenth century.[4] "Merchant guilds" were loose organizations of merchants "governed through a council somewhat akin to a board of directors," and organized to "achieve a common purpose"[5] that was public in nature. Indeed, merchant guilds registered with the state and were approved only if they were "serving national purposes."[6]
... snip ...

Supreme Court was scammed to give corporations "person rights" under the 14th amendment. For-profit, self-interest corporations pushing for "people" rights under the constitution
https://www.amazon.com/We-Corporations-American-Businesses-Rights-ebook/dp/B01M64LRDJ/
pgxiv/loc74-78:
Between 1868, when the amendment was ratified, and 1912, when a scholar set out to identify every Fourteenth Amendment case heard by the Supreme Court, the justices decided 28 cases dealing with the rights of African Americans--and an astonishing 312 cases dealing with the rights of corporation.

pg36/loc726-28:
On this issue, Hamiltonians were corporationalists--proponents of corporate enterprise who advocated for expansive constitutional rights for business. Jeffersonians, meanwhile, were populists--opponents of corporate power who sought to limit corporate rights in the name of the people.

pg229/loc3667-68:
IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY, CORPORATIONS WON LIBERTY RIGHTS, SUCH AS FREEDOM OF SPEECH AND RELIGION, WITH THE HELP OF ORGANIZATIONS LIKE THE CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.
... snip ...

Why the "Maximizing Shareholder Value" Theory of Corporate Governance is Bogus; One mantra you see regularly in the business and popular press goes something along the lines of "the CEO and board have a fiduciary duty to maximize shareholder value."
http://www.nakedcapitalism.com/2013/10/why-the-maximizing-shareholder-value-theory-of-corporate-governance-is-bogus.html
If you review any of the numerous guides prepared for directors of corporations prepared by law firms and other experts, you won't find a stipulation for them to maximize shareholder value on the list of things they are supposed to do. It's not a legal requirement. And there is a good reason for that. Directors and officers, broadly speaking, have a duty of care and duty of loyalty to the corporation. From that flow more specific obligations under Federal and state law. But notice: those responsibilities are to the corporation, not to shareholders in particular.
... snip ...

Some Thoughts On the Business Roundtable's Statement of Corporate Purpose
https://www.realclearmarkets.com/articles/2020/02/05/some_thoughts_on_the_business_roundtables_statement_of_corporate_purpose_104069.html
The BRT has scrapped its longstanding view (since 1997) that "the paramount duty of management and of boards of directors is to the corporation's stockholders...The interests of other stakeholders are relevant as a derivative of the duty to stockholders." In its place, the BRT stipulates that U.S. companies should consider the interests of numerous stakeholders - including employees, customers, and communities in which the company operates, along with shareholders when making corporate decisions. Underlying the Roundtable's new view is its belief that companies have a social responsibility that transcends their role as producers of goods and services in a freely competitive economy.
... snip ...

there has been lots written about effects of milton friedman, deregulation and corporate governance (and pension plans) in the 80s ... that have since turned out to have been disastrous.
https://www.amazon.com/Economists-Powerful-Convenient-Distorted-Economics-ebook/dp/B01B4X4KOS/
loc1193-95:
According to economists' estimates, such collusion between asset management firms and companies is robbing a large proportion of the retirees of the company of a noticeable share of their retirement benefits. Losses for investors in small fund families with large 401(k) plans can reach more than 13 percent (Cohen and Schmidt 2009).

loc1200-1206:
There are plenty of examples from other countries to copy: the US individual retirement account system is based on the Chilean pension reform of 1980/81 that in turn was based heavily on proposals made in the book Capitalism and Freedom by Milton Friedman. In response to the Chilean system facing a likely collapse in a few decades time, it was substantially overhauled in 2008 to require mandatory participation of all citizens in exchange for universal pension coverage.
... snip ...

more on IBM specific effects (from Retirement Heist book) ... recently gone 404, but lives on at wayback machines
https://web.archive.org/web/20181019074906/http://www.ibmemployee.com/RetirementHeist.shtml

Some of the articles from the 90s was that wallstreet heavily backing the pension changes ... large corporate pension managers were (mostly) tightly controlling how much wallstreet could make from the huge amounts in the funds. Wallstreet reasoned that they could skim off enormous amounts from 401K because most of the individuals were much less sophisticated than the large pension managers.

recent articles are that Friedman was wrong about just about everything ... unless taking the objective as corporations taking much bigger slice.
https://www.theatlantic.com/ideas/archive/2019/08/milton-friedman-shareholder-wrong/596545/
https://www.prospectmagazine.co.uk/magazine/high-finance-is-wrecking-the-economy-and-the-planet-but-it-wont-reform-itself-banking-wall-street-city-of-london

studies show around 1980 (as Friedman's influence was increasingly felt) workers compensation (including pension and other benefits) went nearly flat, while productivity increased

Destruction of Middle Class
http://www.nytimes.com/imagepages/2011/09/04/opinion/04reich-graphic.html?ref=sunday
http://www.nytimes.com/2011/09/04/opinion/sunday/jobs-will-follow-a-strengthening-of-the-middle-class.html
The Real Reason Wages Have Stagnated: Our Economy Is Optimized For Financialization
http://www.zerohedge.com/news/2017-09-08/real-reason-wages-have-stagnated-our-economy-optimized-financialization
How GE, GM, Coca-Cola And Kodak Put Shareholders Ahead Of Employees
https://www.forbes.com/sites/stevedenning/2017/06/29/how-ge-gm-coca-cola-kodak-put-shareholders-ahead-of-employees/
... from here, productivity/pay gap (updated July2019)
http://www.epi.org/productivity-pay-gap/

recent friedman posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#37 Democracy in Chains
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019c.html#68 Wage Stagnation
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019c.html#73 Wage Stagnation
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019d.html#48 Here's what Nobel Prize-winning research says will make you more influential
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019d.html#78 Bretton Woods Institutions: Enforcers, Not Saviours?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019d.html#100 Destruction of Middle Class
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#14 Chicago Theory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#31 Milton Friedman's "Shareholder" Theory Was Wrong
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#32 Milton Friedman's "Shareholder" Theory Was Wrong
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#34 The U.S. Forgot What Antitrust Is For
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#50 Economic Mess and Regulations
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#51 Big Pharma CEO: 'We're in Business of Shareholder Profit, Not Helping The Sick
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#64 Capitalism as we know it is dead
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#149 Why big business can count on courts to keep its deadly secrets
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#158 Goliath

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

What's Fortran?!?!

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From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: What's Fortran?!?!
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Thu, 27 Feb 2020 17:45:30 -1000
Charlie Gibbs <cgibbs@kltpzyxm.invalid> writes:
In a school environment, where most programs were small and compiled many times (during debugging) but executed only a few times, the other choice was WATFOR. Perhaps execution was not too efficient, but compiles were lightning-fast.

within a year of taking two semester hr intro to computers/fortran, univ hired me fulltime to be responsible for mainframe systems. they were running fortran tape->tape on 709 with student jobs taking less than second. Initial conversion to os/360 (360/67 running as 360/65), they were running over a minute (3step fortran g). Cut it in half with installation of HASP (over 30seconds). I then tore apart stage2 sysgen and put it back together to control placement of files and pds members to optimize arm seek and pds directory multi-track search ... getting nearly 3times speed up to 12.9seconds. student fortran didn't get faster than 709 until installation of WATFOR.

watfor was single step monitor ... loaded once and ran thru multiple student jobs ... student fortran typically ran 40-60 cards per job and univ typically collected a tray of cards (over 2000 cards) or about 40 student jobs for a single watfor run. i had got single step overhead to about 4seconds (i.e. 1/3rd 12.9) and watfor compiled at about 20,000/min on 360/65 (hasp spool->spool) or about 333cards/sec (student execution was typically negligible) or around 6-7seconds for tray of cards aka 10-11seconds with system job step overhead ... or about quarter of second/job ... finally beating 709.

old post with part of presentation that I did at (ibm user group) SHARE meeting fall1968.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/94.html#18

decade later I was at IBM San Jose Research and Backus office was just down the hall.

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

What's Fortran?!?!

Refed: **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: What's Fortran?!?!
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Thu, 27 Feb 2020 17:59:52 -1000
John Levine <johnl@taugh.com> writes:
Sort of. The well documented fact is that Bill's mother knew John Opel, IBM's CEO, as both were members of the national United Way. She talked up Bill's tiny company, Opel encouraged IBM staff to make a deal with Mary's son's company, and the rest is history.

Her obit in the Seattle Times describes this:

https://archive.seattletimes.com/archive/?date=19940610&slug=1914904


also in Opel's obit ...
https://www.pcworld.com/article/243311/former_ibm_ceo_john_opel_dies.html
According to the New York Times, it was Opel who met with Bill Gates, CEO of the then-small software firm Microsoft, to discuss the possibility of using Microsoft PC-DOS OS for IBM's about-to-be-released PC. Opel set up the meeting at the request of Gates' mother, Mary Maxwell Gates. The two had both served on the National United Way's executive committee.

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

50 years online at home

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From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler lynn@garlic.com
Subject: 50 years online at home
Date: 01 Mar 2020
Blog: Facebook
50 years online at home

IBM 2741 terminal (selectric mechanism) ... with wooden box modem ... lift the lid and put the phone handset and close the lid. Had one at office desk for a couple years before that, but didn't get one at home until March1970
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM_2741

Didn't have dedicated phone line until 1977 when installed ibm timeline in the house

... launched on my online life ... late 70s and early 80s (40+years ago) I was blamed for online computer conferencing (precursor to modern social media) on the internal network (larger than arpanet/internet from just about the beginning until sometime mid-80s). Folklore is that when the corporate executive committee was told about online computer conferencing (and the internal network) ... 5of6 wanted to fire me.

There was lots of discussion about how the company was run and what was wrong ... people from all over the world sent me examples and details

Kicked off when I distributed a trip report after visiting Jim Gray at Tandem ... and it came to be referred to as "Tandem Memos" (some amount comparing Tandem & IBM ... especially from the viewpoint of technical people). I had transferred to San Jose Research after most of the 70s at IBM Cambridge Science Center (responsible for virtual machines, internal network, lots of online apps, invented GML in 1969 (morphs into ISO international standard SGML a decade later, after another decade morphs into HTML at CERN) ... lot of other stuff ... and Jim cons me into helping with System/R (original relational database). When Jim leaves for Tandem he tries to palm off more System/R stuff, helping Bank of America who were going to install 60 branch VM/4341s for System/R, consulting with the IMS group in STL, etc. ... and from IBM Jargon:
Tandem Memos - n. Something constructive but hard to control; a fresh of breath air (sic). That's another Tandem Memos. A phrase to worry middle management. It refers to the computer-based conference (widely distributed in 1981) in which many technical personnel expressed dissatisfaction with the tools available to them at that time, and also constructively criticised the way products were [are] developed. The memos are required reading for anyone with a serious interest in quality products. If you have not seen the memos, try reading the November 1981 Datamation summary.
... snip ...

system/r posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#systemr

... possibly one of the reasons not fired was one of my hobbies after joining IBM was enhanced production operating systems for internal datacenters ... including the world-wide online sales&marketing HONE systems from its inception (but with five that wanted to fire me, the campaign to give me promotion would never be approved ... lots of discussion about the positions had become mostly political anyway)

In any case, we packaged up 300 printed pages from the online discussions, wrote an executive overview and then a one page executive overview of the executive overview, packaged them in Tandem 3-ring binders and sent one to each of the corporate executive committee.

online computer conferencing posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#cmc
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#hone

In mid-70s, CERN did a SHARE report comparing MVS/TSO and VM370/CMS that was readily available from SHARE ... but copies inside IBM were stamped IBM Confidential - Restricted, on a need to know basis only (2nd highest IBM security classification, after Registered IBM Confidential) ... aka didn't want most IBMers to know what customers were really saying.

In Aug1976, TYMSHARE started providing their CMS-based online computer conferencing "free" to (ibm mainframe user group) SHARE ... archives here
http://vm.marist.edu/~vmshare

I had cut a deal with TYMSHARE to get a monthly tape copy of all VMSHARE (and later PCSHARE) files for making available on internal online systems (including world-wide online sales&marketing support HONE system) and internal network ... the biggest hurdle was with IBM lawyers that were concerned internal employees would be contaminated by customer information.

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Online Computer Conferencing

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From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler lynn@garlic.com
Subject: Online Computer Conferencing
Date: 01 Mar 2020
Blog: Facebook
I had just posted this to an IBM group about 40+yrs ago ... I was blamed for online computer conferencing (precursor to modern social media) on the IBM internal network (larger than arpanet/internet from just about the beginning until sometime mid-80s) in the late 70s and early 80s (40+yrs ago) ... folklore is that when corporate executive committee was told about online computer conferencing (and internal network), 5of6 wanted to fire me. There was some topic drift to non-business related subjects ... but people usually responded well to criticism about such comments. However, corporate really objected to any critique and/or criticism of IBM business. This eventually led to corporate sanctioned discussions with moderators (that filtered unwanted/undesirable comments). From IBM Jargon:
Tandem Memos - n. Something constructive but hard to control; a fresh of breath air (sic). That's another Tandem Memos. A phrase to worry middle management. It refers to the computer-based conference (widely distributed in 1981) in which many technical personnel expressed dissatisfaction with the tools available to them at that time, and also constructively criticised the way products were [are] developed. The memos are required reading for anyone with a serious interest in quality products. If you have not seen the memos, try reading the November 1981 Datamation summary.
... snip ...

Also had "HSDT" program and in early 80s, we were working with director of National Science Foundation and were suppose to get $20M to interconnect the NSF supercomputer centers. Then congress cuts the budget, some other things happen and eventually NSF releases RFP (in part based on what we already had running) ... old post with 28Mar1986 preliminary release.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002k.html#12
Internal politics prevent us from bidding, NSF director tries to help by writing IBM a letter (copying CEO) with support from other 3-letter agencies ... but that just makes the internal politics worse (further aggrevated along the way with comments that what we already have running was at least 5yrs ahead of all RFP responses). The iBM communication group was internally distributing enormous amounts of (SNA) misinformation (including to the corporate executive committee) about the (non-SNA) internal network, NSF networking, customer demand for high-speed, etc. Somebody collected a lot of the misinformation email (communication group executives) and forwarded it to us. In the past, I posted to (usenet) a.f.c. an heavily clipped and redacted subset (to protect the guilty). As regional networks connected into the centers, it grows into the NSFNET backbone (precursor to modern internet)
https://www.technologyreview.com/s/401444/grid-computing/

HSDT posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#hsdt
NSF posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#nsfnet
online computer conferencing posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#cmc

In the late 80s, there was uptic with new college freshman at start of fall semester discovering online groups and realizing they sometimes could get online to do their homework. Then with the advent of AOL in the early 90s ... came "eternal september" ... students of all grades trying year around to get others to do their homework.

More than decade earlier, I had taken 2hr into to computers/fortran and within a year, the univ. hires me fulltime to be responsible for the IBM productin mainframe systems. Then before I graduate, I'm hired fulltime into small group in the Boeing CFO's office to help with the formation of Boeing Computer Services (consolidate all computers into a independent business unit to better monetize the investment, including offering services to non-Boeing entities). Big battles with the head of the Renton datacenter ... which I thought was possibly largest in the world ($200M-$300M, 60s$$$, in IBM mainframes). When I graduate, instead of staying at Boeing, I join IBM science center at MIT campus.

Early 80s, I'm (also) introduced to John Boyd and would sponsor his briefings.
http://radio-weblogs.com/0107127/stories/2002/12/23/genghisJohnChuckSpinneysBioOfJohnBoyd.html
other refs
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Boyd_(military_strategist)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OODA_loop
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Energy-Maneuverability_theory
https://www.amazon.com/Warfighting-Maneuver-Warfare-Marine-Corps/dp/1853671983
https://www.professionalmilitaryeducation.com/episode-eleven-john-boyd-maneuver-warfare-and-mcdp-1/
https://www.theamericanconservative.com/articles/40-years-of-the-fighter-mafia/
http://www.aviation-history.com/airmen/boyd.htm
https://www.usmcu.edu/Portals/218/ANewConceptionOfWar.pdf
http://www.theamericanconservative.com/articles/john-boyds-art-of-war/

He had story about being very vocal that the electronics across the trail wouldn't work. Possibly as punishment, he is put in command of "spook base" (about the same time I'm at Boeing) some refs:
http://web.archive.org/web/20030212092342/http://home.att.net/~c.jeppeson/igloo_white.html
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Igloo_White
One of Boyd's biographies has "spook base" a $2.5B windfall for IBM (again 60s$$$, ten times Renton).

boyd postings
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subboyd.html

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Main memory as an I/O device

Refed: **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Main memory as an I/O device
Newsgroups: comp.arch
Date: Sun, 03 May 2020 12:00:39 -1000
MitchAlsup <MitchAlsup@aol.com> writes:
The first mainframe I worked on had 16 MB pf main memory, one processor, ran TSS and could handle 30-ish concurrent users. IBM 360/67.

TSS/360 on 360/67 had 32bit virtual addressing, but max single processor real memory was 1mbyte, two processor SMP could have two mbyte. Later TSS/370 had enormous amount of optimization and did better on 168-3 with 4mbytes.

within year of taking intro to computers/fortran, univ hired me fulltime to be responsible for mainframe systems. They had replaced 709/1401 with (768kbyte) 360/67 for TSS/360 ... which didn't quite come to production fruition ... so spent it time running as 360/65 with os/360.

Univ. shutdown dataceenter on the weekends and I could have the whole place mostly to myself ... although sometimes I had to share a litte with IBM SE that played with TSS/360.

Some people came out from cambridge science center and installed CP67/CMS (virtual machines) the last week of Jan1968 ... but it was also limited to playing with on weekends. Spring 1968, the IBM SE and I created a synthetic benchmark, fortran edit, compile, load, and execute. Running 35 synthetic users on CP67/CMS got much better response and throughput than TSS/360 got running running four synthetic users (TSS/360 was really a large lumbering hog).

Early 1970s, I wrote a page-mapped filesystem (memory as I/O device) for CMS, which was deployed inside IBM (but never shipped to customers), that had three times throughput of standard CMS filesystem for moderate I/O benchmarks ... and scaled-up with heavy loads much better than the standard file system. I would claim I learned how not to implement a paged-mapped filesystem by observing TSS/360.

science center posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech
page mapped filesystem
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#mmap

Early 80s, I wrote some number of tomes about the increase in number of users over previous decade from CP67/CMS with 80 users on 360/67 to 300 users with VM370/CMS on 3081 ... was almost exactly proportional to increase in disk throughput ... cpu & memory increased by nearly a factor of 50 while disk throughput only increased by a factor of 3-5 times (aka relative system throughput had declined by a factor of ten times ... rather than having 4000 users, only had 300).

Top disk division executive took exception and assigned the division performance group to refute my claims, after a few weeks they basically came back and said I had slightly understated the problem.

getting to play disk engineer posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#disk

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Main memory as an I/O device

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Main memory as an I/O device
Newsgroups: comp.arch
Date: Sun, 03 May 2020 12:36:35 -1000
Thomas Koenig <tkoenig@netcologne.de> writes:
The first mainframe I worked on had 32 MB of main memory, two processors, ran MVS and could handle 100 concurrent users under TSO.

Looking at the z15 processor, it has 960 MB level 4 cache and 12 cores, and even the level 3 cache is 256 MB for 12 cores - more memory for core than the old mainframe.

Given the (lack of) speed of today's main memory, I wonder if it would be better to run the OS and application software in cache and use the main memory just as an I/O device or backup storage.


IBM San Jose research had 168-3 running MVS and 158-3 running VM370/CMS and pool of 3330 disk strings each with two channel switches connected to both systems ... but organized with some 3330 strings dedictated to MVS and other strings dedicated for VM370. One morning the operators "accidentially" mounted a MVS pack on 3330 drive in a VM370 string. Within 5mins the datacenter was deluged with calls from all over the bldg complaining about interactive response.

The problem is that OS/360 heritage made enormous use of multi-track search in its disk I/O ... mid-60s tradeoff of scarce real memory so filesystem structure was kept on disk and used I/O to linearly search the structure for data locations. Multi-track search locked up the channel, the controller, and the drive (all other devices on the same channel or controller were locked out). A 3330 multi-track search could take 1/3rd second elapsed time. By the mid-70s the trade-off had switched ... for OS/360 descendents, multi-track search was so embedded that they continued to use it for decades.

In any case, one of the horrible response problems for MVS/TSO was anything that involved any file I/O would be severely degraded by these 1/3rd second I/Os.

In the case of the problem the morning of this particlar problem ... while MVS/TSO uses had become accostomed to horrible respose ... having a MVS pack ... doing these multi-track search ... on a VM370/CMS string was locking out CMS user file accesses ... resulted in an immediate severe gradation in response (that they weren't use to).

Operations first said that they would wait until 2nd shift to move the MVS pack off the VM370 string. We then got a 3330 pack with a customized VS1 (another os/360 descendent) that was highly optimized for running under VM370 and mounted it a MVS string drive ... and started it doing lots of multi-track search operations .... that so degraded MVS throughput (including the use of the MVS pack on the VM370 string ... alleviating much of the CMS response problems). The issue was that it was possible to have a highly optimized VS1 system running in a virtual machine on a heavily loaded VM370 370/158-3 (about 1mip) outperform a MVS running on a real 370/168-3 (about 3mips). In any case, operations immediately said they would move the MVS pack if we would move the VS1 pack.

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

IBM TSS

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From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: IBM TSS
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Sat, 09 May 2020 12:36:19 -1000
David Lesher <wb8foz@panix.com> writes:
No, not TSO... TSS.

I used it at NASA-LeRC, and know Ames used it too. I just wonder if anyone here had.


science center posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech

univ had 709 with 1401 for unit record front end when I took two semester hour intro to computers/fortran. the univ. was talked into replacing 709/1401 with 360/67 for tss/360. at the end of the semester the 1401 was (temporarily) replaced with 360/30 (as part of transition to 360/67) and I got programming job to redo 1401 MPIO (tape<->unit record) on 360/30 (they could have just ran 1401 MPIO on 360/30 in 1401 hardware emulation mode, but they apparently wanted to get some 360 experience). I got to design & implement my own monitor, commands, device drivers, interrupt handlers, error recovery, storage management, etc. Univ. shutdown datacenter on weekends and I (mostly) had datacenter all to myself (although 48hrs w/o sleep could make monday morning classes difficult). Within about ten weeks, I had 2000 card assembler program that took 30mins to assemble under os/360 on 360/30 ... for stand-alone version loaded with BPS loader ... or 60mins for version that ran under OS/360 (DCB macros took 5-6 mins elapsed time each).

768kbyte 360/67 then replaced 709 & 360/30 ... and mostly ran os/360 ... tss/360 never quite coming to product fruition. Few months later, I was hired fulltime to be response of os/360 system. On weekends I sometimes had to share the machine with IBM SE who was playing with TSS/360.

Last week Jan1968, three people from the IBM science center came out and installed CP67/CMS. The IBM SE and I put together a simulated edit-compile-load-execute benchmark that I ran with 35 simulated users under CP67 and he ran four simuulated users under TSS/360; the CP67 with 35 users had better interactive response and throughput thatn TSS/360 with four users. TSS/360 was enormous CPU and real storage hog ... IBM did some TSS/360 1mbyte, single processor benchmarks compared to 2mbyte, two processor benchmarks which got 3.8 times the throughput of the single processor. IBM tried to spin that TSS/360 was so sophisticated that its algorithms got nearly four times the thoughput with just twice the hardware ... when realisticly TSS/360 needed over mbyte of real storage just to handle the kernel before it could start getting any user work done.

Before I graduate, I'm hired fulltime into small group in the Boeing CFO office to help with the formation of Boeing Computer Services (consolidate all dataprocessing into independent business unit to bettern monitize the investment, even offering services to non-Boeing entities). I thought Renton was possibly largest datacenter in the world, something like $200M-$300M in 360 gear (60s dollar), 360/65s were arriving faster than they could be installed, boxes constantly staged in the hallways around the machine room. They get me a 1mbyte single process 360/67 to play with and they bring up the dual processor 360/67 to Seattle from Boeing Huntsville (that had been configured as two 360/65 running OS/360).

When I graduate, instead of staying at Boeing, I join the cambridge science center. I do a page-mapped filesystem for CP67/CMS (later ported to VM370/CMS) that never ships to customers but I get it deployed at a lot of installations (one of my hobbies after joining IBM was production operating systems for internal datacenters, including the online world-wide sales&marketing HONE systems). In moderately heavy filesystem benchmarks get three times the throughput of standard CMS filesystem ... I would say I learned what *NOT* to do for paged-mapped filesystem from TSS/360.

page mapped filesystem
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#mmap

TSS/370 finally starts to come into production quality ... a lot of performance work was done after they cut the organization from 1200 people to 20 people and they start getting 370/168 machines with 4mbytes of memory (enough to start running applications w/o heavy page thrashing). I had interactions off and on with the group through the mid-80s.

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

IBM TSS

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: IBM TSS
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Thu, 14 May 2020 20:51:07 -1000
David Lesher <wb8foz@panix.com> writes:
I first used in ~~1985. We had 100-150 users on it. I recall our guru was A. L. Armsted. Someone told me that the IBM Support office was in Dallas, and had 6-8 people. We, however, had Al.

there was dallas ... and then a new project in boeblingan germany

there was project with AT&T to port UNIX on top of TSS kernel as moving to 370 ... started before Amdahl's GOLD/UTS.

Issue was that both IBM & Amdhal UNIX ran in VM370 virtual machine ... because the field maintenance engineers required mainframe (real hardware) error recovery and recording ... and to add that (mainframe hardware error recovery/recording) to "native" UNIX was several times larger than the straight forward 370 port.

SSUP was stripped down TSS/370 kernel (with mainframe error recovery/recording) with UNIX APIs layered on top.

Although SSUP+UNIX had significant better performance (especially with multiprocessor) than Amdahl UTS ... but there apparently was politics inside AT&T. I would see Amdahl people fairly regularly at Stanford SLAC sponsored monthly mainframe meeting ... and we would go out afterwards to the Oasis (which has since closed) on El Camino ... just north of stanford shopping center ... and they would tell lots of the internal Amdahl politics. Simpson, from Houston HASP, had left IBM and was with Amdahl in Dallas recreating "RASP" ... sort of mainframe MFT+ with real paged mapped filesystem, contrasted to MVS which was MVT with separate virtual address space for each application, but kept the OS/360 filesystem) ... and there was rivalry between him and the people in silicon valley. I tried talking them into making truce with Simpson and sort of doing UTS on stripped down RASP ... similar to what IBM was doing with SSUP, a stripped down TSS with UNIX on top.

I also got email from the Dallas TSS/370 about the internal politics that seemed to be going on inside of AT&T with SSUP and Unix on top.

past posts mentioning TSS/370 SSUP:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007m.html#69 Operating systems are old and busted
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010e.html#17 Senior Java Developer vs. MVS Systems Programmer (warning: Conley rant)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010h.html#61 (slightly OT - Linux) Did IBM bet on the wrong OS?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010i.html#44 someone smarter than Dave Cutler
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010l.html#2 TSS (Transaction Security System)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010o.html#0 Hashing for DISTINCT or GROUP BY in SQL
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011.html#73 Speed of Old Hard Disks - adcons
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011.html#96 History of copy on write
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011f.html#85 SV: USS vs USS
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#67 Has anyone successfully migrated off mainframes?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012f.html#28 which one came first
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012o.html#34 Regarding Time Sharing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013n.html#24 Aging Sysprogs = Aging Farmers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013n.html#92 'Free Unix!': The world-changing proclamation made30yearsagotoday
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014f.html#74 Is end of mainframe near ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014j.html#17 The SDS 92, its place in history?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#20 {wtf} Tymshare SuperBasic Source Code
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#76 Mainframe operating systems?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#80 Mainframe operating systems?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#82 Mainframe operating systems?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017g.html#102 SEX
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017j.html#66 A Computer That Never Was: the IBM 7095
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018d.html#93 tablets and desktops was Has Microsoft
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019d.html#121 IBM Acronyms

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

CR or LF?

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: CR or LF?
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Mon, 25 May 2020 15:04:57 -1000
Charlie Gibbs <cgibbs@kltpzyxm.invalid> writes:
Multiplexor channels handled all sorts of low-speed record-oriented peripherals as well, e.g. card readers, line printers, and slower tape drives. However, when handling character-mode terminals, they imposed as much overhead per byte as they would for an entire block of data on those other peripherals - at least if you wanted the flexibility of responding to each byte as the user typed it.

270x controllers handled terminals ... they had different type of terminal/port scanner for handling different kinds of terminals. The scanner buffered chars and only presented interrupt on specific signals (not each character)

when cp67/cms was installed at the univ (last week Jan1968), it had automagic terminal type identification for 2741 and 1052 terminals and would use the controller "SAD" ccw to switch the type of scanner ... trying operations until it got the scanner that worked for that terminal type.

the univ. had some number of ASCII TTY 33&35 terminals ... and so added ascii support ... extending the automagic logic of switching type of scanner until got the one for the type of terminal.

I wanted to have a single dial-up number for all terminals (single "hunt group") ... which almost worked ... except that while IBM allowed the type of line scanner to be switched for each port ... the line speed was hardwired ... aka 2471 & 1052 were same line-speed ... so could share a common "hunt group" ... but TTY had slower line-speed and would only reliably work on ports that had been wired for that speed.

That was part of motivation for the univ. clone controller project, build channel interface board for Interdata/3, programmed to simulate IBM terminal controller ... with the addition that line-speed was (internally) software controlled and could change speed for each line/port.

Two early "bugs" ... 1) this was 360/67 with "high" resolution timer that updated storage on each tic. When the interface acquired the memory bus for data transfer ... if it held it for too long, the timer storage update would redlight and stop the machine. 2) turns out standard ibm terminal controller convention reversed the bit order in each byte ... leading bit went into low-order bit position (instead of high position). We had overlooked that detail until we were trying to figure out why data in memory was all garbage.

Later this was enhanced to Interdata/4 handling the IBM channel interface and a cluster of Interdata/3s to handle the line/port interfaces. Interdata (and later Perkin/Elmer) sells the boxes as clone controllers and four of us got written up for (some part of) IBM clone controller business.

In 80s, supporting UNIX on mainframe, IBM provided a Series/1 front end terminal controller, programmed to handle wider range of ascii character interrupting (and full-duplex) options

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Who introduced named files?

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Who introduced named files?
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Sat, 13 Jun 2020 15:18:45 -1000
Thomas Koenig <tkoenig@netcologne.de> writes:
I've been looking around a bit, but I cannot find which operating system introduced named files.

OS/360 certainly had them, as did EXEC II. I would think that peole started using them as soon as discs with random access made their appearance - does anybody know more?


at least as soon as there was "system" storage devices where items for different people & programs were stored ... as opposed to dedicated storage devices (cards, tapes, etc) for specific program execution (needed to select the data as opposed to select the device).

7094/CTSS
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Compatible_Time-Sharing_System
The Compatible Time-Sharing System (CTSS) was one of the first time-sharing operating systems; it was developed at the MIT Computation Center. CTSS was first demonstrated on MIT's IBM 709 in November 1961; service to MIT users began in the summer of 1963 and was operated until 1973.[1] During part of this time, MIT's influential Project MAC also ran a CTSS service, but the system did not spread beyond these two sites.

some of the 7094/CTSS people went to 5th to do multics
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multics
others went to IBM science center to do virtual machines, online applications, performance, work profile and capacity planning, invented GML in 1969 (morphs into international SGML after decade and after another decade mophs into HTML at CERN).
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_CP/CMS

Experimental Time-Sharing System
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Compatible_Time-Sharing_System#Experimental_Time-Sharing_System
John Backus said in the 1954 summer session at MIT that "By time sharing, a big computer could be used as several small ones; there would need to be a reading station for each user".[2] Computers at that time, like IBM 704, were not powerful enough to implement such system, but at the end of 1958, MIT's Computation Center nevertheless added a typewriter input to its 704 with the intent that a programmer or operator could "obtain additional answers from the machine on a time-sharing basis with other programs using the machine simultaneously".[3]

CTSS filesystem implementation (CP40/CMS & CP67/CMS inherited some similarities)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Compatible_Time-Sharing_System#File_system

scientific center posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech
GML/SGML/HTML posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#sgml

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

IBM S/360 - 370

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From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: IBM S/360 - 370
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Fri, 26 Jun 2020 18:59:46 -1000
Dan Espen <dan1espen@gmail.com> writes:
z/Architecture has PC Program Call, PR Program Return. One instruction, but it has to do the same register save. My guess is it won't be any faster.

PC/PR was part 370/xa "access registers" (up to eight alternate address space pointer control registers) ... alternate address space. when VS2 went from SVS (basically MVT in 16mbyte virtual memory, very similar to running MVT under CP67 in 16mbyte virtual machine) to MVS with separate 16mbyte virtual address space per application ... they had enormous problem with OS/360 pointer-based API. For kernel services they solved it by mapping a 8mbyte kernel image into every application virtual address space (kernel svc routine could directly address caller's parameters).

However, there were still a lot of system services that were outside the kernel, now resident in their own separate virtual address space. To invoke it, the application made kernel call, which swapped address space pointers and entered the non-kernel system services. The problem was that those system services know had pointer to parameters back in the caller's address sapce (not in the non-kernel system services address space). A stop gap was they created "common segment area" ... a one mbyte area that was mapped in every virtual address space (reducing application to 7mbytes out of 16mbyes) ... API parameters would be allocated in the CSA so that same parameter data area appeared in both the application and the non-kernel system services address spaces at the same address.

Problem was by 3033, late 370 ... MVS bloat required CSA size somewhat proportional to number of concurrent applications and number of non-kernel system services ... the CSA was now "common system area" ... typically 5-6 mbytes at many installations (leaving 2-3mbytes for applications) and threatening to increase to 8mbytes (leaving zero mbytes for applications).

370/xa PC created hardware referenced kernel table with entries for every (non-kernel system service) callable routine ... that included the system service address space. PC would save the caller's address space pointer, load the system services address space pointer and enter the system service at specified address.

To go along with PC ... there were instructions where the system service could fetch/store data from the callers address space ... rather than addressing the system services address space.

It allowed moving all sorts of servicee & library code out of the application address space ... and made the address space swap in hardware (rather than kernel call) as well as allowing the system service to access data in the caller's (different) address space.

PR then returned to the calling application address space (swapping address space pointers in hardware rather than kernel call software). Library routines in different address spaces could now be called almost as fast as if they were in the same address space.

Program Call, pg 10-57
https://www.ibm.com/support/pages/sites/default/files/inline-files/SA22-7832-00.pdf

(Program Call) PC-number translation, starts on pg 5-27 and then continues with the entry-table entry 5-30, and then (more) PC-number translation 5-31, then linkage-table looking and entry-table lookup (5-33)
https://www.ibm.com/support/pages/sites/default/files/inline-files/SA22-7832-00.pdf

now "home-address" and up to 15 "AR-specified address spaces), pg 3-16 and goes on for more than you would ever want to know
https://www.ibm.com/support/pages/sites/default/files/inline-files/SA22-7832-00.pdf

trivia: MVS also had another kind of bloat in 3033 area ... where real storage requirements were exceeding 16mbytes (and system could page thrash). real & virtual addressing was 24bit/16mbytes ... they came up with hack for 3033 to use two unused bits in the page table entry ... to prefix the 12bit 4kbyte page number ... allowing to "address" up to 64mbytes of 4kbyte pages. Instruction addressing was still limited to 24bit/16mbyte ... but a 24virtual address could be translated into a 26bit/64mbyte real address.

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Early mainframe security

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From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Early mainframe security
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Mon, 03 Aug 2020 12:25:56 -1000
Within a year of taking two semester hr intro to computers/fortran, I was hired fulltime by the univ to be responsible for mainframe systems. Last week some of the people came out from the science center to install CP67. I rewrote lot of the code and sometimes IBM would suggest things to rewrite ... in retrospect, some of the suggestions could have originated with gov. agencies ... I didn't learn about these guys until much later (gone 404, but lives on at wayback machine).
http://web.archive.org/web/20090117083033/http://www.nsa.gov/research/selinux/list-archive/0409/8362.shtml

When I graduate, I join the science center. The science center had ported APL\360 to CP67/CMS as CMS\APL ... had to redo the storage management and garbage collection for large demand page virtual memory ... also added API to systems services (like file read/write) ... enabling lots of real-world applications.

One of the remote online CMS\APL early users were the business planners in Armonk corporate hdqtrs that installed the most holiest of corporate assets on the cambridge system (detailed customer information) to do business modeling. We had to demonstrate a very high level of security since the system also had profs, staff, and students online users from some of the univ. in the boston/cambridge area.

Then company got a new CSO that had come from gov. service (at one time head of presidential detail) and I got asked to run around with him and talk about computer security (while a little bit of physical security rubs off on me).

there is MVS folklore about one of the agencies looking at installing MVS ... but before they wanted the "exact" source for all the components they would be running (for review). Company spent $5M investigating the problem before deciding that it was practical.

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Early mainframe security

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From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Early mainframe security
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Mon, 03 Aug 2020 12:58:03 -1000
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2020.html#37 Early mainframe security

some of the CTSS people had gone to the 5th flr to do Multics and others went to the science center and did virtual machines, the internal network (technology also used for the corporate sponsored BITNET), invented GML in 1969, bunch of online stuff. Somewhat as a result, there was a little friendly rivalry between the 4th and 5th flrs.

One area the gov. and military installation
https://www.multicians.org/sites.html
including
https://www.multicians.org/site-afdsc.html

spring 1979, got a call that some AFDS people wanted to come by to talk about getting 20 vm/4341 ... they never made it to fall 1979 ... at which time it had grown 210 (distributed) vm/4341s (large customers started ordering hundreds of vm/4341s at a time, sort of the leading ege of the coming distributed computing tsunami). archived multics posting with old email
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001m.html#email790404
archived afc posting with same old email
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001m.html#email790404b

It had possibly started from early 1979 when I got con'ed into doing some benchmarks on engineering 4341 for one of national labs (4341 had yet to ship to customers) ... they were looking at getting 70 4341s for a compute farm (sort of the leading edge of the coming cluster supercomputing tsunami). old archived afc posts with some of benchmark
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000d.html#0

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

If Memory Had Been Cheaper

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From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: If Memory Had Been Cheaper
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Sat, 08 Aug 2020 16:10:13 -1000
Terry Kennedy <terry-groups@glaver.org> writes:
The "baby" 370, the 3115 Processor, actually used a bunch (5, IIRC) 801-ish microprocessors to implement both the 370 instruction set and the I/O control- lers. IBM also offered plug-in 370-ish processor boards for the IBM PC and AT - the XT/370 and the AT/370. These were done with a custom Motorola 68K for the CPU core and an Intel 8087 for floating point. These boards were "problem state" (IBM's term for user application programs) compatible with the 370 instruction set but not for privileged execution (supervisor state / operating system). They needed a rather heavily modified version of VM/SP to run.

Boeblingen got their hands slapped for 115/125. They had 9-position memory bus for (up to) nine microprocessors. For the 115, all the microprocessors were the same. For the 125, the microprocessor running 370 microcodee was 50% faster.

As undergraduate, I had done a lot of work on CP67 to reduce its fixed real memory requirements to improve it running on 256kbyte 360/67 ... including making parts of the kernel pageable (while lot of other stuff I did as undergraduate shipped in standard CP67, pageable kernel pieces didn't ship until VM370). In the morph from CP67->VM370, they simplified and/or dropped a lot of stuff (including all my dynamic adaptive resource management and scheduling). However, they still managed to greatly bloat the vm370 fixed real memory (even with pieces of the kernel pageable). It was so bloated that it wasn't even announced for (370/125) 256kbyte memory. I get con'ed into getting vm370 running on 370/125 for a Scandinavian ship company (cutting back on the vm370 real memory bloat).
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech

I then get con'ed into design of 5-way 370/125 multiprocessor ... up to five of the 125 microprocessors (which never announced/shipped) ... I define a microcoded queued interface for dispatching and disk I/O ... VM kernel puts things on the dispatching list ... but microprocessors pull things off the dispatching list for execution ... when done ... they place request block on queue for kernel execution. Do something similar for disk i/o requests (disk controller, can pull things off for optimal disk servicing throughput ... not FIFO).
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#bounce
and
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#smp

About the same time I do the 5-way 370/125 effort, Endicott con's me into doing a lot of work for 138/148 ECPS microcode. Told that 370 instructions drop into microcode on about a byte-for-byte basis with ten times speed up. There is 6kbytes of available microcode storage and need to identify the 6kbytes of highest kernel execution pathlengths. Old archive post that identified the 6kbytes of highest executed kernel pathlengths accounted for 79.55% of kernel exeuction time
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/94.html#21

I also established that all the 138/148 ECPS changes could also be done for the 125 5-way multiproceessor. However, then Endicott complained that the 125 5-way multiprocessor would overlap the throughput of the 148. In the escalation meetings I had to do the arguments for both sides of the table ... however corporate decided that the 125 5-way multiprocessor wouldn't get announced.

Note that first half of the 70s, internally there was the Future System project ... that was completely different than 370 and was going to completely replace 370s original motivation was to signficantly raise barrier for clone controllers (370 efforts were being killed off and the lack of new 370 stuff during the period is credited with giving clone 370 processor makers market foothold). When FS imploded, there was a made rush to get stuff back into 370 product pipelines ... and quick & dirty 3033 and 3081 efforts were kicked off in parallel some more details
http://www.jfsowa.com/computer/memo125.htm
posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#futuresys

Head of POK managed to convince corporate to kill off the vm370 product, shutdown the vm370 group (burlington/mass), and transfer all the people to POK to work on MVS/XA (or otherwise MVS/XA wouldn't be able to ship on time). Eventually Endicott managed to save the vm370 product mission, but had to reconstitute a VM370 development group from scratch. Endicott also tried to have VM370 integrated into every 138/148 shipped (something like current LPAR) ... but they weren't able to get that through corporate.

trivia: POK wasn't going to tell the VM370 group until the last minute to minimize the number of people that manage to escape. The information leaked and there was a witch hunt for who leaked the information (fortunately for me, nobody leaked who it was). This was in the early days of DEC VMS and one of the jokes is that the head of (IBM) POK was one of the largest contributors to VMS.

By the 80s, there was significant more bloat for both VM370 and CMS. They send me an early XT/370 to play with and do a lot of benchmarks showing page thrashing with its 384kbyte 370 memory. Endicott blames me for a six month slip in announce and ship to customers while they upgrade 370 memory from 384kbyte to 512kbyte. The XT/370 processor doesn't do any device I/O ... everything is interprocessor communication with application running on 8088 ... doing I/O to the PC/XT devices. The page thrashing and throughput was aggrevated by all CP paging & CMS file I/O was done to the XT hard disk at 100ms per record. I also contributed a page replacement algorithm that was more effective ... especially in constrained memory environment.

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

If Memory Had Been Cheaper

Refed: **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: If Memory Had Been Cheaper
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Sat, 08 Aug 2020 16:29:31 -1000
drb@ihatespam.msu.edu (Dennis Boone) writes:
IIRC the 5100 emulated those other systems only to the extent that it could run APL\360 and the System/3 BASIC. I.e. it had a minimum emulation of problem state.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM_5100

re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2020.html#39 If Memory Had Been Cheaper

note error in the above ... it was done at the palo alto science center (not los gatos lab) ... trivia: palo alto science center also did the 370/145 APL microcode assist (roughly ran apl applications at throughput of 370/168 w/o microcode). topic drift ... nearly all low & mid range 360s & 370s implemented in native microcode in avg ten native microcode instructions per 360/370 instruction. other drift: I had part of Los Gatos wing with offices and labs.

similar but different, not far from palo alto science center (on page mill), SLAC (on sandhill, in combination with CERN) did 168E in late 70s... hardware processor that implement problem state 370 for fortran program execution with throughput of 370/168 ... placing at sensors along the accelerator for initial data reduction. then in the early 80s, replaced/upgraded with 3081E
http://www.slac.stanford.edu/cgi-wrap/getdoc/slac-pub-3069.pdf
http://www.slac.stanford.edu/cgi-wrap/getdoc/slac-pub-3680.pdf
http://www.slac.stanford.edu/cgi-wrap/getdoc/slac-pub-3753.pdf

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

If Memory Had Been Cheaper

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: If Memory Had Been Cheaper
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Sun, 09 Aug 2020 11:04:02 -1000
Peter Flass <peter_flass@yahoo.com> writes:
Was that you? Doesn't VM use a "sweep" algorithm? Process all requests that will keep the arm moving in one direction, then reverse and process all the requests in the other.

re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2020.html#39 If Memory Had Been Cheaper
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2020.html#40 If Memory Had Been Cheaper

Original CP67 was FIFO, at the univ. as undergraduate in the 60s, I changed it to ordered seek ... also did chained requests for paging in one channel program (ordered by rotation, if didn't require seek) ... instead of separate channel program/SIO for every page (which was one of the things retained for vm370, but a lot of other stuff was dropped and/or at least drastically simplified).

for 370/125 ... the controller had real-time rotational position, there was delay for rotation and delay for seek arm ... there were some situations where could do a further seek delay might be less than closer arm rotation delay ... it was possible because the whole I/O request queue was exposed to the controller ... and could do real-time reordering ... not only knowing the disk arm position but also the real-time rotational position.

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

If Memory Had Been Cheaper

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From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: If Memory Had Been Cheaper
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Sun, 09 Aug 2020 12:03:06 -1000
Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com> writes:
Original CP67 was FIFO, at the univ. as undergraduate in the 60s, I changed it to ordered seek ... also did chained requests for paging in one channel program (ordered by rotation, if didn't require seek) ... instead of separate channel program/SIO for every page (which was one of the things retained for vm370, but a lot of other stuff was dropped and/or at least drastically simplified).

re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2020.html#39 If Memory Had Been Cheaper
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2020.html#40 If Memory Had Been Cheaper
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2020.html#41 If Memory Had Been Cheaper

cp67 peaked around 80 page I/O transfers per second with 2301 fixed head drums. with rotational chaining got it up to 270 page I/O transfers per second (nine transfer per two rotations, drum formatted nine 4k pages per pair of tracks with one of the 4k records spanning the end of one track and the start of the next).

2301 & 2303 fixed head drums, except 2301 read/wrote on four heads in parallel, 1/4 the number of "tracks", each track four times larger, and four times the transfer rate of 2303 ... 60 revs/second, 9 page transfers per pair of revolutions; (60/2)*9 = 270/sec.

CP67 had a special CHFREE function ... that was invoked by the interrupt handler has soon as device handler got past initial phase ... which drastically cut the device redrive latency (for queued requests).

One of the things that got simplified in morph to VM370 ... queued request redrive wasn't checked until previous device interrupt had been completely handled ... significantly increasing latency for starting queued requests.

After transfer from cambridge science center to san jose research in later part of the 70s ... I got to wander around most IBM and customer locations in silicon valley ... including bldg14 (disk engineering) and bldg15 (disk product test) across the street from SJR. At the time 14/15 were running dedicated, prescheduled, stand-alone mainframe testing, 7x24. The had recently tried MVS (for some concurrent testing), but MVS had 15min mean-time-between failure in that environment. I offerred to rewrite input/output supervisor to make in bullet proof and never fail ... so they could do any amount of on-demand concurrent testing (creatly improving productivity).

Downside was they started pointing the figure at my software when ever there was a problem ... and I spent a lot of time playing disk engineer shooting their hardware problems. I had also effectively reimplemented CHFREE in VM370 ... significantly cutting redrive latency.

This turned up another problem in the new 3880 disk controller. While it supported 3mbye/sec transfer with special hardware bypass ... everything else was handled by a really slow JIB-prime processor (making everything but actual data transfer much slower than 3830 controller that had a fast horisontal microprogram processor). Trying to mask how slow the 3880 had become they tried to present end of channel program interrupt ... before the 3880 was actually done ... hoping that the extra processing would be hidden between the 3880 queued the end-of-operation interrupt and the time the system tried to redrive a new I/O.

Bldg15 product test got #2 or #3 operational engineering processor for doing disk i/o channel testing and had the first 3033 outside POK and the first 4341 outside Endicott. Since product channel i/o testing used trivial amounts of CPU ... we put up private online service on the 3033 with a 3830 and two spare strings of 3330 (16) drives.

Early monday morning, I got irate call from bldg15 asking what I had done to the online service software ... online response had horribly deteriorated. They repeatedly denied making any change ... until I tracked down that they had swapped the 3830 controller for a test 3880 controller. 3880 was presenting ending interrupt ... I was almost immediately responding with SIOF for queued request, because 3880 was still busy, it responded with cc=1, SM+BUSY (controller busy), and i had to requeue the request and wait for the CUE (control unit busy end) interrupt before retrying the request again. This was six months before any 3880s shipped to customers and they came up with some 3880 microcode changes that tried to do a better job of masking the problem.

I write an IBM internal only report about the work for bldg14&15 and happen to mention the MVS 15min MTBF ... for which the MVS group attempts to get me separated from the company ... we that fails, they try and make my career in IBM irritable in other ways.

getting to play disk engineer posts in 14&15
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#disk

Note that 3090 had design number of channels based on total channel busy for each channel assuming 3830 controller performance, However, when they started real live testing ... they found 3880 drastically increased channel busy for each operation ... and as a result 3090 had to significantly increase the number of channels (trying to achieve desired total system throughput). The increase in number of channels required an extra TCM ... and 3090 product group semi-facetiously claimed that the 3880 product group had to credit 3090 group for the manufacturing cost of the additional TCM for each 3090.

Note IBM marketing then respun the significant increase in number of 3090 channels as it being a marvelous I/O throughput machine (rather than the increase in channels to compensate for the enormous increase in channel busy caused by the slow 3880 controller).

Other channel trivia: In 1980, STL was bursting at the seams and planning on moving 300 people from the IMS group to offsite bldg, with dataprocessing service back to STL datacenter. The people had tried remote 3270 support and found the human factors totally unacceptable. I get con'ed into doing channel extender support so they can have local channel attached 3270 controllers at the offsite bldg (weren't able to see response difference between offsite and in STL).

channel-extender posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#channel.extender

Hardware vendor tries to get IBM to approve allowing them to ship my support ... but there is group in POK playing with some serial stuff that gets releasing my stuff vetoed (they were afraid that if it was in the market, it would make it more difficult to ship their stuff).

In 1988, I'm asked to help LLNL standardize some serial stuff they are playing with that quickly becomes Fibre Channel Standard (including some of the stuff I had done in 1980). Then in 1990, the POK people get their stuff released with ES/9000 as ESCON (when it is already obsolete). Then some of the POK people become involved with Fibre Channel Standard and define an extremely heavy weight protocol that drastically reduces the native throughput ... which is eventually released as FICON. The most recent mainframe PEAK IO benchmark I've found is Z196 that used 104 FICON to get 2M IOPS. At that time, there was a Fibre Channel announced for E5-2600 blade claiming over million IOPS (two such Fibre Channel have higher throughput than 104 FICON running over 104 Fibre Channel).

FICON posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#ficon

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Watch AI-controlled virtual fighters take on an Air Force pilot on August 18th

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From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler lynn@garlic.com
Subject: Watch AI-controlled virtual fighters take on an Air Force pilot on August 18th
Date: 12 Aug 2020
Blog: Facebook
Watch AI-controlled virtual fighters take on an Air Force pilot on August 18th
https://www.msn.com/en-us/news/technology/watch-ai-controlled-virtual-fighters-take-on-an-air-force-pilot-on-august-18th/ar-BB17Kbkq

disclaimer: I was introduced to John Boyd in the early 80s and would sponsor his briefings at IBM. The first time I tried to do it thru (san jose) plant site employee education, at first they agreed. Then as I provided more information ... especially how to prevail in a competitive situation ... they changed their mind, saying that IBM spends a great deal of money educating managers on how to deal with employees ... and sponsoring Boyd could be considered not in the best interests. They suggested that I restrict audience to senior members of competitive analysis departments. The first presentation was in the San Jose Research auditorium, open to all.

John has story about using E/M theory
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Boyd_(military_strategist)#Military_theories
to redo the original F15 design, cutting the weight nearly in half. Then he was responsible for YF16 and YF17 (which becomes F16 and F18). F16 had relaxed stability design
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Relaxed_stability
which required computer controlled fly-by-wire (pilot provides intention, and computers decide how to do it).
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fly-by-wire
How the F-16 Became the World's First Fly-By-Wire Combat Aircraft
http://www.f-16.net/articles_article13.html

... note in 89/90 time-frame, the Commandant of the Marine Corps leverage Boyd for a corps makeover (same time that IBM was also desperately in need of makeover)

John Boyd - USAF. The Fighter Pilot Who Changed the Art of Air Warfare
http://www.aviation-history.com/airmen/boyd.htm
During the 1950s, John Boyd dominated fighter aviation in the U.S. Air Force. His fame came on the wings of the quirky and treacherous F-100; the infamous "Hun." Boyd was known throughout the Air Force as "Forty-Second Boyd," because he had a standing offer to all pilots that if they could defeat them in simulated air-to-air combat in under 40 seconds, he would pay them $40. Like any gunslinger with a name and a reputation, he was called out many times. As an instructor at the Fighter Weapons School (FWS) at Nellis AFB, he fought students, cadre pilots, Marine and Navy pilots, and pilots from a dozen countries, who were attending the FWS as part of the Mutual Defense Assistance Pact.

... he never lost ... he always did it within 20secs ... asked why he specified 40sec, he replied that there might be somebody in the world almost as good as he was and he might need the extra time.

Boyd was equally famous in the classroom where he developed the "Aerial Attack Study." Until Boyd came along, fighter pilots thought that air combat was an art rather than a science; that it could never be codified. Boyd proved them wrong when he demonstrated that for every maneuver there is a series of counter maneuvers. And there is a counter to every counter. Afterwards, when fighter pilots attacked (or were attacked), they knew every option open to their adversary and how to respond. After the study was declassified, foreign pilots passing through Nellis took it home where it changed the way every air force in the world flies and fights. Even today, more than 40 years later, nothing substantial has been added to the Aerial Attack Study.

Boyd posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subboyd.html

-- virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Watch AI-controlled virtual fighters take on an Air Force pilot on August 18th

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler lynn@garlic.com
Subject: Watch AI-controlled virtual fighters take on an Air Force pilot on August 18th
Date: 12 Aug 2020
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2020.html#43 Watch AI-controlled virtual fighters take on an Air Force pilot on August 18th

much of my career (starting long before I met Boyd), frequently the first thing I did when I woke up each morning was to ask myself if I was still willing to bet my job today. Starting early at IBM, I would be periodically told I had no career and could expect no promotions or raises. Something I could easily relate to; by the time that Boyd passes in 1997, the USAF had pretty much disowned him and it was the Marines at Arlington. Something of a surprise then that USAF dedicated Boyd Hall in 1999 (they may have felt safe?, now that he had passed). From 1999 dedication:

There are two career paths in front of you, and you have to choose which path you will follow. One path leads to promotions, titles, and positions of distinction.... The other path leads to doing things that are truly significant for the Air Force, but the rewards will quite often be a kick in the stomach because you may have to cross swords with the party line on occasion. You can't go down both paths, you have to choose. Do you want to be a man of distinction or do you want to do things that really influence the shape of the Air Force? To be or to do, that is the question. Colonel John R. Boyd, USAF 1927-1997 From the dedication of Boyd Hall, United States Air Force Weapons School, Nellis Air Force Base, Nevada. 17 September 1999
... snip ...

A Boyd acolyte, graduate of the 1st USAF Academy class and on fast track to general when he says Boyd destroyed his career by challenging to do what was right. At the time, Burton was in Pentagon procurement and dealing with Bradley ... later wrote a book about experience.
https://www.amazon.com/Pentagon-Wars-Reformers-Challenge-Guard-ebook/dp/B00HXY969W/
HBO turned into movie
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Pentagon_Wars
related NYT article: Corrupt from top to bottom
https://www.nytimes.com/1993/10/03/books/corrupt-from-top-to-bottom.html

We've continued to have Boyd strategy conferences at Marine Corps Univ. in Quantico ... and the battle still rages between the attritionists and the reform maneuverists ... one conference, I was seated next to one the "anonymous" authors of this satire
https://fabiusmaximus.com/2011/05/11/27461/ originally published 2010 in Marine Corps Gazette
https://mca-marines.org/magazine-category/attritionist-letter/

Boyd posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subboyd.html

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Watch AI-controlled virtual fighters take on an Air Force pilot on August 18th

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler lynn@garlic.com
Subject: Watch AI-controlled virtual fighters take on an Air Force pilot on August 18th
Date: 12 Aug 2020
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2020.html#43 Watch AI-controlled virtual fighters take on an Air Force pilot on August 18th
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2020.html#44 Watch AI-controlled virtual fighters take on an Air Force pilot on August 18th

and another Boyd story ... USAF asked Boyd to review the latest USAF air-to-air missile, they show him documentation and a film showing the missile hitting flares on a drone every time. Boyd says it will be lucky to hit 10% of the time and asks them to replay the film and asks them to stop just before it hits the flare. He asks what kind of guidance does it have and eventually gets them to say heat-seeking, he then asks what kind of heat-seeking and eventually they say pin-point heat-seeking, he then asks them what is the hottest part of a jet plane and they say engine. He says nope, its in the plume 30yrds behind the plane. The only time the missile will hit is when it is being shot straight up the tail-pipe. They gather up all their stuff and leave w/o saying a further word.

Roll forward to Vietnam and he is proved right. The USAF one star in Vietnam grounds all USAF fighters and have the USAF missiles replace with Navy sidewinders that have better than twice the hit rate of the USAF missile. He lasts 3months before he is replaced and called on the carpet back in the pentagon. He had violated fundamental rules of the pentagon ... he had reduced USAF budget share by not using USAF missiles and worst of all had increased Navy budget share by using Navy missiles (the war viewed from the distance of the pentagon only involved money and service rivalry).

and another ... he says that he spent 18months making sure there was written authorization for everything presented to congress ... however SECDEF still tried to prosecute for the time article (taken from the congressional hearing) ... gone behind paywall, but mostly lives free at wayback machine (may have to select individual pages no, rather than just "next", to get around missing pages).
http://web.archive.org/web/20070320170523/http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,953733,00.html

at the time Boyd also had cover in congress ... which wouldn't exist in this day and age.

Boyd was very critical of F111 and the original F15 swing-wing design ... before he eliminated the swing wing and cut the weight nearly in half. The weight of the swing wing pivot infrastructure more than offset any swing advantage

I've also pointed out that Boeing came to same conclusion in its SST
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boeing_2707 A key design feature of the 2707 was its use of a swing wing configuration. During development the required weight and size of this mechanism continued to grow, forcing the team to start over using a conventional delta wing. Rising costs and the lack of a clear market led to its cancellation in 1971 before two prototypes had been completed.

... i took two semester hr intro to computers/fortran and within a year was hired fulltime by the univ. to be responsible for univ. academic & administration mainframe systems. Then before I graduate I'm hired fulltime into a small group in the Boeing CFO office to help with the formation of Boeing Computing Services (consolidate all dataprocessing into independent business unit to better monetize the investment). 747#3 was flying skies of Seattle getting FAA flat certification. There was a 747 cabin mockup in bldg south of Boeing Field ... many of the early press photos were taken in that mockup. In the tour they would claim that 747 would be served by no fewer than four jetways (because of the number of people ... although I don't remember ever seeing even four). Got to hear a lot of 747 folklore from 747 engineers.

I thought Renton datacenter was possibly largest in the world with something like $200M-$300M (60s dollars) in IBM 360s; 360/65s were arriving faster than they could be installed with boxes constantly staged in the hallways around the machine room. There was a disaster plan to replicate Renton datacenter up at the new 747 plant in Everett ... Mt. Rainier could heat up and the resulting mud slide would take out Renton datacenter. When I graduate, I join the IBM Cambridge Science Center (instead of staying at Boeing).

Boyd tells about being very vocal that the electronics across the trail won't work ... so possibly as punishment they put him in command of "spook base" (about the same time I'm at Boeing) ... "spook base" reference, gone 404 but lives on at wayback machine
http://web.archive.org/web/20030212092342/http://home.att.net/~c.jeppeson/igloo_white.html
also
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Igloo_White

Boyd biography says that "spook base" was a $2.5B "windfall" for IBM (60s dollars).

Boyd posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subboyd.html
Science Center posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Watch AI-controlled virtual fighters take on an Air Force pilot on August 18th

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler lynn@garlic.com
Subject: Watch AI-controlled virtual fighters take on an Air Force pilot on August 18th
Date: 12 Aug 2020
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2020.html#43 Watch AI-controlled virtual fighters take on an Air Force pilot on August 18th
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2020.html#44 Watch AI-controlled virtual fighters take on an Air Force pilot on August 18th
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2020.html#45 Watch AI-controlled virtual fighters take on an Air Force pilot on August 18th

AI wins flawless victory against human F-16 fighter pilot in DARPA dogfight
https://taskandpurpose.com/military-tech/darpa-artificial-intelligence-dogfight-competition

around 1980, the author of REXX did a multi-user 3270 spacewar game ... involved a server with clients on the same machine or different machines (used the internal IBM SPM modification, which was supported over the internal network). Almost immediately "robot" players appeared that were dominating all the human players ... making movements much faster than human players. To somewhat level play field, movements faster that nominal human response, energy use was increased non-linearly

F-16 first (computer controlled) fly-by-wire ... humans don't have fast enough reaction time to control relaxed-stability airframe .. AI could just be taking it one step further.

SPM was originally done by the IBM Pisa Scientific Center for CP67 ... which was then ported to VM370. It was a superset of combination of the later VMCF+IUCV+SMSG ... in fact the original product VNET/RSCS shipped with SPM support ... even tho SPM support never shipped in VM370.

I had done the autolog command as porting lots of my changes to VM370 ... originally done for automated benchmarking ... automatigically spawning specific benchmarks ... but quickly also become used for automated operator and service virtual machines. old email about my migration from cp67->vm370
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006v.html#email731212
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006w.html#email750102
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006w.html#email750430

Some of the stuff from my enhanced production systems for internal datacenters was picked up for vm370 release 3. Other stuff was part of my separately changed for dynamic adaptive resource manager ... and other stuff in vm370 release 4 multiprocessor support.

long winded archived post that has some SPM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006w.html#16

Round One: Machine beats man in air-combat exercise
https://publicintegrity.org/national-security/future-of-warfare/machine-beats-man-in-air-combat-simulations/

F16 fly-by-wire is already computer controlled ... human provides intention, but computer figures out how to do it .... human response isn't capable of handling relaxed stability airframe

F16 had relaxed stability design
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Relaxed_stability

which required computer controlled fly-by-wire (pilot provides intention, and computers decide how to do it).
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fly-by-wire
How the F-16 Became the World's First Fly-By-Wire Combat Aircraft
http://www.f-16.net/articles_article13.html

Round One: Machine beats man in air-combat exercise
https://publicintegrity.org/national-security/future-of-warfare/machine-beats-man-in-air-combat-simulations/

A Dogfight Renews Concerns About AI's Lethal Potential. Alphabet's DeepMind pioneered reinforcement learning. A California company used it to create an algorithm that defeated an F-16 pilot in a simulation.
https://www.wired.com/story/dogfight-renews-concerns-ai-lethal-potential/

... google was re-orged with Alphabet as parent company for a lot of things that weren't directly search related ... quantum, AI, self-driving, etc ... a lot required computers fast enough to do things in "real-time" (or faster) ... as in example from a 2011 radar tutorial that said to do real-time targeting of stealth aircraft it needed more computing than available at the time. YE2017 article about self-driving cars was they had hundred times that amount of computing.

Boyd posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subboyd.html

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970





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