List of Archived Posts

2022 Newsgroup Postings (03/23 - 04/02)

System Response
Copying files on CTSS?
IBM 2250 Graphics Display
IBM 2250 Graphics Display
Industrial Espionage
4361/3092
We Have New Evidence of Saudi Involvement in 9/11, and Barely Anyone Cares
Cloud Timesharing
Cloud Timesharing
Cloud Timesharing
IBM z16: Built to Build the Future of Your Business
IBM z16: Built to Build the Future of Your Business
IBM z16: Built to Build the Future of Your Business
IBM z16: Built to Build the Future of Your Business
IBM z16: Built to Build the Future of Your Business
IBM z16: Built to Build the Future of Your Business
IBM z16: Built to Build the Future of Your Business
IBM z16: Built to Build the Future of Your Business
IBM Left Behind
Telum & z16
Telum & z16
Telum & z16
Telum & z16
Telum & z16
Someone needs to take responsibility for the cost of a tank of gas
IBM Mainframe time-sharing
IBM Cambridge Science Center
IBM Cambridge Science Center
IBM Cambridge Science Center
Unix work-alike
Unix work-alike
IBM Cambridge Science Center
CMSBACK & VMFPLC
CMSBACK & VMFPLC
How Stock Buybacks Undermine Investment in Innovation for the Sake of Stock-Price Manipulation
40 Years of the Reagan Revolution's Libertarian Experiment Have Brought Us Crisis & Chaos
The Supreme Court Has Never Been Apolitical
The Lost Opportunity to Set Post-Soviet Russia on a Stable Course
After IBM
After IBM
After IBM
CMSBACK & VMFPLC
Why did Dennis Ritchie write that UNIX was a modern implementation of CTSS?
Why did Dennis Ritchie write that UNIX was a modern implementation of CTSS?
IRS, Computers, and Tax Code
IBM deliberately misclassified mainframe sales to enrich execs, lawsuit claims
IBM deliberately misclassified mainframe sales to enrich execs, lawsuit claims
IBM deliberately misclassified mainframe sales to enrich execs, lawsuit claims
IBM 3033 Personal Computing
IBM 3033 Personal Computing
IBM 3033 Personal Computing
Why did Dennis Ritchie write that UNIX was a modern implementation of CTSS?
IBM Personal Computing
IBM Personal Computing
IBM Z16 Mainframe
What's different, was Why did Dennis Ritchie write that UNIX was a modern implementation of CTSS?
ASCI White
ASCI White
Rags-to-Riches Stories Are Actually Kind of Disturbing
Rags-to-Riches Stories Are Actually Kind of Disturbing
What's different, was Why did Dennis Ritchie write that UNIX was a modern implementation of CTSS?
Rags-to-Riches Stories Are Actually Kind of Disturbing
IBM RESPOND
What's different, was Why did Dennis Ritchie write that UNIX was a modern implementation of CTSS?
IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
lock me up, was IBM Mainframe market
IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
lock me up, was IBM Mainframe market
lock me up, was IBM Mainframe market
IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
Future F-35 Upgrades Send Program into Tailspin
Peer-Coupled Shared Data
Peer-Coupled Shared Data
Peer-Coupled Shared Data
We Have a Creativity Problem
VMworkshop.og 2022
VMworkshop.og 2022
VMworkshop.og 2022
APL & IBM 5100
The IRS misses billions in uncollected tax each year
How the Ukraine War - and COVID-19 - is Affecting Inflation and Supply Chains
Why did Linux Succeed while Hurd Failed?
Rags-to-Riches Stories Are Actually Kind of Disturbing
How the Ukraine War - and COVID-19 - is Affecting Inflation and Supply Chains
Growing US chip output an 'expensive exercise in futility', warns TSMC Founder
Crypto millionaires are pouring money into Central America to build their own cities
Does Wall Street Need New Storytelling? If all you offer is money, all you get are mercenaries
Why Companies Are Becoming B Corporations
Why Companies Are Becoming B Corporations
Why Companies Are Becoming B Corporations
IBM Systems Revenue Put Into a Historical Context
IBM Bookmaster, GML, SGML, HTML
IBM Bookmaster, GML, SGML, HTML
IBM 4300, VS1, VM370
IBM Bookmaster, GML, SGML, HTML
The Private Equity Giant KKR Bought Hundreds Of Homes For People With Disabilities
Scientists have established a link between brain damage and religious fundamentalism
The Bunker: Pentagon Hardware Hijinks
TCMs & IBM Mainframe
TCMs & IBM Mainframe
TCMs & IBM Mainframe
TCMs & IBM Mainframe
Financial longevity that redhat gives IBM
Financial longevity that redhat gives IBM
Why are gas prices so high? These obscure traders are partly to blame
The New New Right Was Forged in Greed and White Backlash
The New New Right Was Forged in Greed and White Backlash
The New New Right Was Forged in Greed and White Backlash
What's different, was Why did Dennis Ritchie write that UNIX was a modern implementation of CTSS?
Documentary Explores How Big Oil Stalled Climate Action for Decades
The Death of Neoliberalism Has Been Greatly Exaggerated
byte me, was What's different, was Why did Dennis Ritchie write that
Programming By Committee
Programming By Committee

System Response

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: System Response
Date: 23 Mar 2022
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#123 System Response
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#124 System Response

Within two semester hrs of taking intro to fortran/computers, I was hired fulltime at the univ to be responsible for os/360. The univ. had been sold a 360/67 for tss/360 (to replace 709/1401), but it never quite came to production fruition so ran as 360/65 (w/os360). Univ. shutdown datacenter over the weekend and I had to whole place to myself (although 48hrs w/o sleep could make monday morning classes hard). Student fortran had run less than second on 709 (ibsys tape->tape), but initially on OS/360 ran over a minute. I install HASP which cuts it in half. I then start completely redoing OS/360 SYSGEN to carefully places datasets and PDS members to optimize arm seek and PDS directory multi-track search, cutting it by another 2/3rds to 12.9secs (never got better than 709 until I install Univ. of Waterloo's WATFOR). Then IBM CSC came out (Jan1968) with CP67 (3rd location after CSC & Lincoln Labs), I got to play with it also on the weekends (rewriting lots of the code). I was then part of the CP67 announcement at SHARE, Houston, spring 1968.

The TSS/360 IBM SE was still around and to let him have some time. During spring 1968, we did a synthetic benchmark, edit, compile & execute for both CP67 & TSS/360. CP67 with 35 simulated users had better response time and throughput than TSSS/360 with four simulated users. I then started on rewriting lots of CP67, initially pathlengths for running OS/360 in CP67 virtual machine. Part of Fall68 SHARE presentation.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/94.html#18
OS/360 benchmark ran 322sec bare machine, originally under CP67 ran 856sec (534sec CP67 CPU). Rewriting lots of code got it down to 435sec (112sec CP67 CPU), reduced CP67 CPU from 534sec to 112sec, or reduction of 422sec. I then start algorithms, page replaceement algorithms, scheduling algorithms, dynamic adaptive resource management ... and IBM would much of it up and ship to customers.

dynamic adaptive resource management & scheduling posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#fairshare
page replacement algorithm posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#wsclock

Then before I graduate, I'm hired fulltime into small group in the Boeing CFO office to help with the formation of Boeing Computer Services, consolidate all dataprocessing into an independent business unit to better monetize the investment (including offering services to non-Boeing entities). I thot Renton datacenter was possibly largest in the world, couple hundred million in 360s, 360/65s arriving faster than they could be installed, boxes constantly staged in the hallways around the machine room (very large former plane assembly line). Lots of politics between head of Renton datacenter and CFO (who only had a 360/30 up at Boeing field for payroll, although they enlarge it and install a 360/67 for me to play with when I'm not doing other stuff).

After graduating, I join the science center (instead of staying at Boeing) and one of my hobbies was enhanced production operating systems for internal datacenters. In the morph from CP67->VM370, the new development group drops and/or greatly simplifies many of the CP67 features (including most of the stuff I had done as undergraduate).

science center posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech

Note 23Jan1969, IBM unbundling announcement starts to charge for (application) software, SE services, maint. etc. (but managed to make that case that kernel software should still be free).

Then with Future System in the early 70s (killing off 370 products ... giving 370 system clone makers their market foothold), and then FS demise and mad rush to get stuff back into product pipeline ... there is also decision to start charging for kernel software (giving the rise of 370 clones). Initially it is kernel addons (in transition to making all system software charged for) and my dynamic adaptive resource manager is chosen to be the 1st guinea pig (had been dropped in the CP67->VM370 morph, but I had redone all the stuff for internal VM370 datacenters). Had also done a process for automated benchmarking ... and for the release, put together a set of 2000 benchmarks that take 3months elapsed time to run (validating dynamic ability to adapt to different configurations, number and types of virtual machine activity, interactive users, batch, types of workload, etc) ... SHARE had various resolutions over the years for IBM to re-release the "wheeler" scheduler for vm370.

23jun1969 unbundling announcement posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#unbundling
future system posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#futuresys
benchmark posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#benchmark

A 2011 post, History of VM Performance (originally Oct86 SEAS, European SHARE) ... w/copy of presentation being regiven at 2011 DC Hillgang user group meeting
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011c.html#72

After leaving IBM, I do a lot of work in the financial industry ... eventually going to work for First Data. AMEX had spun off much of its computer centers, outsourcing for banks, call centers, etc (not just AMEX cards, but would have half of all credit card processing in the US) in 1992 as First Data in the largest IPO up until that time. Their US Call Centers had detailed personality profiles for employees and very detailed science on where call centers were located (for type of people they wanted) and very detailed science on how calls were handled. Trivia: the FDC executives had reported to Gerstner when he was president of AMEX.

gerstner posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#gerstner

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Copying files on CTSS?

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Copying files on CTSS?
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Wed, 23 Mar 2022 14:48:52 -1000
Lars Brinkhoff <lars.brinkhoff@gmail.com> writes:

Speaking of ITS and CTSS. Before ITS had separately powered calendar clock hardware installed, it relied on CTSS for providing the time. When ITS boots up, it uses a dial-out line to connect to CTSS and check the login prompt for the time and date.

some of the CTSS
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Compatible_Time-Sharing_System
people went to the 5th flr to project mac to do multics,
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multics

others went to the ibm science center on the 4th flr and did cp40/cms (on hardware modified 360/40 with virtual memory) and then morphs into cp67/cms when 360/67 standard with virtual memory becomes available.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_CP/CMS
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CP/CMS

The science center (360/40 & then 360/67) machines also had (real) external timer box for reading date/time on startup ... and also supported virtual machine simulated external box for reading date/time (channel/device I/O address "0FF' ... aka virtual machine specified as


           UNIT    0FF,TIMR


http://www.bitsavers.org/pdf/ibm/360/cp67/
configuration pg32 (I had scanned & contributed 2013)
http://www.bitsavers.org/pdf/ibm/360/cp67/GH20-0856-0_CP-67_Operators_Guide_Oct1970.pdf

science center posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

IBM 2250 Graphics Display

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: IBM 2250 Graphics Display
Date: 23 Mar 2022
Blog: Facebook
2250m1 (360 channel attach controller) was same price as 2250m4 (including the 1130 as controller).
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM_2250

univ. got a 2250m1 as part of 360/67 (seems like everybody that got 360/67 also seem to have 2250m1). within a year of taking two credit intro to computers/fortran, I was hired fulltime to by the univ. to be responsible for os/360 (tss/360 never came to production use). Then IBM CSC came out to install CP67 (3rd location after CSC & Lincoln Labs), I got to play with it also on the weekends (rewriting lots of the code). One of the things i did was interfacing CMS editor to Lincoln Library 2250m1 fortran library ... to use 2250 as terminal.

about the same time, Boeing huntsville had gotten two processor 360/67 with several 2250m1s, original to use with TSS/360 ... but (also) were using os/360 for 2250m1 CAD/CAM applications. This talks about asked to track down IBM's decision to convert all 370s to virtual memory ... basically MVT storage management was so bad that regions had to be four times larger than actually used, and a typical 1mbyte 370/165 could only have four regions (not sufficient to create utilization really justifying a 165). Going to MVT in a 16mbyte virtual memory could increase the number of regions by a factor of four times with little or no paging.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011d.html#73

MVT bad storage management was further exacerbated by long running applications, like CAD/CAM (... one of the reasons that CICS gets much of its resources at startup and then does its own management) ... and Boeing huntsville eventually modified MVT release 13 with virtual memory (in the 60s ... predating 370s and IBM's fix for MVT by moving to virtual memory). trivia: before I graduate I'm hired fulltime into a small group in the Boeing CFO office to help with the formation of Boeing Computer Services, consolidate all dataprocessing into independent business unit to better monetize the investment, including offering services to non-Boeing entities. When I graduate, instead of staying at Boeing, I join IBM cambridge science center.

other trivia: the science center had a 2250m4 (1130 as controller) ... and somebody had ported spacewars (from pdp1) to 2250/1130
https://www.computerhistory.org/pdp-1/spacewar/
I would bring my kids in on weekends to play.

Later, IBM gets a large tektronics screen (4013 or 4015) and wires it into the side of 3277 ... sort of an inexpensive 2250 (stuck with 3277, since the 3278 followon had moved much of the electronics back into the 3274 controller, reducing 3278 manufacturing costs) as 3277GA
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Talk%3AIBM_3270#3277_GA_information_is_incorrect
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM_3270

I think eventually Kingston logos sanders graphics display as IBM 3250 ... before coming out with the 5080.

science center posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech

2250 posts:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#73 MVT storage management issues
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#63 Calma, 3277GA, 2250-4
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#106 IBM Future System
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#47 IBM CSC, CMS\APL, IBM 2250, IBM 3277GA
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021g.html#39 iBM System/3 FORTRAN for engineering/science work?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021c.html#2 Colours on screen (mainframe history question)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021c.html#0 Colours on screen (mainframe history question) [EXTERNAL]
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021b.html#62 Early Computer Use
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018f.html#72 Jean Sammet — Designer of COBOL – A Computer of One's Own – Medium
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018f.html#59 1970s school compsci curriculum--what would you do?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017k.html#13 Now Hear This-Prepare For The "To Be Or To Do" Moment
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017g.html#62 Play the Pentagon-Funded Video Game That Predates Pong
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017f.html#93 Jean Sammet, Co-Designer of a Pioneering Computer Language, Dies at 89
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#75 Mainframe operating systems?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016h.html#5 "I used a real computer at home...and so will you" (Popular Science May 1967)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016g.html#40 Floating point registers or general purpose registers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016f.html#42 Computers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016e.html#4 Play the Pentagon-Funded Video Game That Predates 'Pong'
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016d.html#50 PL/I advertising
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016d.html#42 Old Computing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016c.html#9 You count as an old-timer if (was Re: Origin of the phrase "XYZZY")
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016b.html#81 Asynchronous Interrupts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015d.html#35 Remember 3277?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014l.html#69 Could this be the wrongest prediction of all time?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014j.html#103 ? How programs in c language drew graphics directly to screen in old days without X or Framebuffer?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014j.html#33 Univac 90 series info posted on bitsavers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014i.html#67 z/OS physical memory usage with multiple copies of same load module at different virtual addresses
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014g.html#77 Spacewar Oral History Research Project
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014d.html#32 [OT ] Mainframe memories
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013h.html#27 Getting at the original command name/line
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013g.html#72 DEC and the Bell System?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013e.html#63 The Atlas 2 and its Slave Store
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013b.html#77 Spacewar! on S/360
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012p.html#9 3270s & other stuff
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012o.html#40 PC/mainframe browser(s) was Re: 360/20, was 1132 printer history
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012k.html#55 Simulated PDP-11 Blinkenlight front panel for SimH
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012f.html#10 Layer 8: NASA unplugs last mainframe
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012f.html#6 Burroughs B5000, B5500, B6500 videos
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#38 Invention of Email
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#33 TINC?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011o.html#21 The "IBM Displays" Memory Lane (Was: TSO SCREENSIZE)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011n.html#9 Colossal Cave Adventure
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011m.html#74 Interesting Article on Big Iron
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011m.html#49 CMS load module format
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011l.html#24 computer bootlaces
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011j.html#4 Announcement of the disk drive (1956)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011g.html#45 My first mainframe experience
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011e.html#54 Downloading PoOps?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011e.html#3 Multiple Virtual Memory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011.html#86 Utility of find single set bit instruction?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011.html#73 Speed of Old Hard Disks - adcons
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010m.html#16 Region Size - Step or Jobcard
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010l.html#12 Idiotic programming style edicts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010k.html#11 TSO region size
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010j.html#11 Information on obscure text editors wanted
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010g.html#57 An Interview with Watts Humphrey, Part 6: The IBM 360
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010g.html#13 An Interview with Watts Humphrey, Part 6: The IBM 360
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010e.html#0 LPARs: More or Less?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010d.html#74 Adventure - Or Colossal Cave Adventure
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010c.html#91 Notes on two presentations by Gordon Bell ca. 1998
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010c.html#4 Processes' memory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010b.html#61 Source code for s/360 [PUBLIC]
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009s.html#0 tty
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009r.html#43 Boeings New Dreamliner Ready For Maiden Voyage
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009q.html#52 The 50th Anniversary of the Legendary IBM 1401
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009n.html#42 DARPA, at least, has a clue (maybe, sometimes)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009j.html#62 An Information Gap Sparks a Dust-Up over Remote Key Injection
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009j.html#33 IBM touts encryption innovation
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009j.html#26 Price Tag for End-to-End Encryption: $4.8 Billion, Mercator Says
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008r.html#62 PC premiered 40 years ago to awed crowd
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008q.html#41 TOPS-10
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008o.html#77 PDP-1 Spacewar! program internals
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008h.html#43 handling the SPAM on this group
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007v.html#11 IBM mainframe history, was Floating-point myths
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007r.html#8 IBM System/3 & 3277-1
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007m.html#60 Scholars needed to build a computer history bibliography
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007g.html#33 Wylbur and Paging
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007f.html#6 IBM S/360 series operating systems history
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007b.html#45 Is anyone still running
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006q.html#16 what's the difference between LF(Line Fee) and NL (New line) ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006o.html#3 MTS, Emacs, and... WYLBUR?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006n.html#41 Tek 4010, info and prices
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006n.html#7 Linux mainframe game machine
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006m.html#29 Mainframe Limericks
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006e.html#28 MCTS
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006c.html#2 Multiple address spaces
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006b.html#26 Multiple address spaces
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006.html#40 All Good Things
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005u.html#4 Fast action games on System/360+?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005n.html#45 Anyone know whether VM/370 EDGAR is still available anywhere?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005k.html#22 Where should the type information be?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005f.html#56 1401-S, 1470 "last gasp" computers?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005e.html#64 Graphics on the IBM 2260?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004f.html#44 Infiniband - practicalities for small clusters
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004d.html#45 who were the original fortran installations?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004c.html#47 IBM 360 memory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004.html#53 Mainframe not a good architecture for interactive workloads
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004.html#16 Holee shit! 30 years ago!
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003m.html#14 Seven of Nine
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003g.html#7 Any DEC 340 Display System Doco ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003f.html#39 1130 Games WAS Re: Any DEC 340 Display System Doco ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003d.html#38 The PDP-1 - games machine?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003c.html#0 Wanted: Weird Programming Language
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002q.html#47 myths about Multics
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002q.html#24 Vector display systems
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002q.html#3 Vector display systems
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002p.html#29 Vector display systems
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002o.html#17 PLX
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002j.html#22 Computer Terminal Design Over the Years
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002i.html#33 "Mass Storage System"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002i.html#20 6600 Console was Re: CDC6600 - just how powerful a machine was
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001m.html#55 TSS/360
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001m.html#22 When did full-screen come to VM/370?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001f.html#13 5-player Spacewar?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001d.html#67 Pentium 4 Prefetch engine?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001c.html#15 OS/360 (was LINUS for S/390)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001b.html#71 Z/90, S/390, 370/ESA (slightly off topic)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000g.html#24 A question for you old guys -- IBM 1130 information
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000f.html#66 360 Architecture, Multics, ... was (Re: X86 ultimate CISC? No.)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000e.html#32 Tektronics Storage Tube Terminals
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000b.html#67 oddly portable machines
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#174 S/360 history
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#109 OS/360 names and error codes (was: Humorous and/or Interesting Opcodes)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#41 A word processor from 1960
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/97.html#9 HELP! Chronology of word-processing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/97.html#2 IBM 1130 (was Re: IBM 7090--used for business or science?)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/94.html#47 Rethinking Virtual Memory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/94.html#2 Schedulers

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

IBM 2250 Graphics Display

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: IBM 2250 Graphics Display
Date: 24 Mar 2022
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#2 IBM 2250 Graphics Display

CICS trivia: Univ. library got an ONR (office naval research) grant to do online catalog ... part of the money went for a (data cell) 2321. The effort was also selected for beta test for the original CICS product ... and supporting CICS got added to list of duties ... had to shoot some number of early CICS "bugs" (w/o source).

cics/bdam posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#cics

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Industrial Espionage

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Industrial Espionage
Date: 24 Mar 2022
Blog: Facebook
spent much of my time at IBM being told I didn't have a career, promotions, and/or raises (apparently for periodically offending various people and organizations) ... so when I was asked to interview for assistant to president of one of the 370 clone vendors (front for clone maker on the other side of pacific), I said "why not". During the interview they make a veiled reference to 811 documents (candy-stripe, registered ibm confidential 370/xa documents, name for their Nov1978 publication date, I did have a whole drawer full ... double locks, surprise audits, etc) ... so I make a reference to having recently submitted an update for the IBM Business Conduct Guidelines (required reading every year by employees), because I didn't think the ethical standards were strong enough (that was end of interview). However, that wasn't the end of it. A couple years later, the federal gov. is suing the (parent) company for industrial espionage. Because I was on a visitors' list, I get a 3hr interview with an FBI agent. I tell him my story and suggest somebody in plant site security may have been feeding names to a recruiter (since plant security has list of everybody that has registered confidential documents ... for the surprise audits).

when helping with computer security in san jose (trivia ... somewhat earlier not long after joining IBM, IBM got a new CSO, formally from gov. service, at one time head of presidential detail ... and I was asked to run around with him some talking about computer security) ... IBM had sued a company for a couple billion claiming they had acquired IBM secrets that allowed them to build and bring a new disk drive to market ... which would cost IBM several billion in sales. The judge ruled that IBM had to demonstrate the security protecting the secrets had to be proportional to their (claimed several billion dollar) value.

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

4361/3092

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: 4361/3092
Date: 24 Mar 2022
Blog: Facebook
Endicott cons me into doing the analysis and help with the 138/148 microcode assist implementation (then cons me into running around the world giving pitches to wtc, emea, afe business planners) ... which also shows up in 4331/4341. I'm out in San Jose and rewrite I/O supervisor to make it bullet proof and never fail ... so bldg14(disk engineer) and bldg15(product test) can move from prescheduled, dedicated stand-alone testing ... to any amount of concurrent, on-demand testing ... greatly improving productivity. Bldg15 tended to get very early engineering processors (sometimes 3rd or 4th machine) for disk i/o channel testing. They get very early engineering 3033 and then a very early engineering 4341 ... people in Endicott start complaining that I have more 4341 time than they do. In Jan1979, I get con'ed into doing 4341 benchmarks on the bldg15 engineering machine, for national lab that was looking at getting 70 4341s for a compute farm (sort of the leading edge of the coming cluster supercomputing tsunami).

ECPS microcode assist analysis, originally for 138/148
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/94.html#21

Note 4300s sold into the same mid-range market as DEC VAX and in similar numbers for small unit orders ... big difference was large corporations with orders of hundreds of vm/4300s at a time for deploying out into departmental areas (sort of the leading edge of the coming departmental/distributed computing tsunami ... inside IBM, departmental conference room became scarce commodity, so many converted to vm/4341 rooms).

FE had bootstrap trouble diagnostic processing starting with scoping circuits ... move to TCMs starting with 3081 and "service processor" was created with lots of probes into the TCMs, could scope the UC service processor and then use the service processor to diagnose TCMs. With all the problems with the 3081 UC service processor ... they decided to move to 4331 with a highly modified version of VM370 release 6 for trout using CMS IOS3270 for service screens (which eventually becomes 3090). The 4331 service processor was eventually upgraded to pair of redundant 4361s with 3370 FBA disks as 3092 (service processor, note even MVS 3090 installations, which never had any FBA support, had to have a pair of 3370 FBA disks).
https://www.ibm.com/ibm/history/exhibits/mainframe/mainframe_PP3090.html

I had done a sophisticated system problem diagnosing application written in REXX (used by nearly every internal datacenter and PSR) ... old email the 3092 group wanted to ship it with service processor/3092.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010e.html#email861031
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010e.html#email861223

getting play disk engineer posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#disk
DASD, CKD, FBA, multi-track search, etc posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#dasd
DUMPRX posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#dumprx

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

We Have New Evidence of Saudi Involvement in 9/11, and Barely Anyone Cares

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: We Have New Evidence of Saudi Involvement in 9/11, and Barely Anyone Cares
Date: 25 Mar 2022
Blog: Facebook
We Have New Evidence of Saudi Involvement in 9/11, and Barely Anyone Cares. The FBI has quietly revealed further evidence of Saudi government complicity in the September 11 attacks -- and nothing's happened.
https://jacobinmag.com/2022/03/911-revelations-saudi-arabia-al-bayoumi-bandar-bush

WMD posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#wmd
military-industrial(-congressional) complex posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#military.industrial.complex
perpetual war posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#perpetual.war

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Cloud Timesharing

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Cloud Timesharing
Date: 25 Mar 2022
Blog: Facebook
In 80s, co-worker at IBM San Jose Research has left and was doing lots of contracting work in silicon valley. He had redone a lot of mainframe C, significantly improving instruction optimization for mainframe and ported the Berkeley chip tools to the mainframe. One day the local IBM rep stopped by and asked him what he was doing ... and he said mainframe->SGI ethernet support, so they can use SGI graphical workstations as front-ends to the mainframe. The IBM rep then told him he should do token-ring instead or customer might find that their mainframe support wasn't as timely as in the past. I then get a phone call and have to listen to an hour of four letter words. The next morning, the senior engineering VP of the (large VLSI chip) company calls a press conference and says they are moving everything off the IBM mainframe to SUN servers. IBM then have a bunch of task forces to decide why silicon valley wasn't using IBM mainframes ... but the IBM task forces weren't allowed to evaluate some of the real reasons

In 1980, STL (since renamed SVL) was bursting at the seams and they were moving 300 people from STL to offsite bldg with dataprocessor service back to STL datacenter. They had tried "remote" 3270 but found the human factors totally unacceptable (compared to resonse in STL). I get con'ed into doing channel-extender support so they can put local channel attach 3270 controllers in the offsite bldg. (with no perceived difference between offsite and in STL). The hardware vendor tries to talk IBM into release my support, but there are some engineers in POK playing with some serial stuff that get it vetoed (afraid if it was in the market, it would make it harder to release their stuff).

channel-extender posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#channel.extender

In 1988, I get asked by the branch to help LLNL (national lab) standardize some serial stuff that they were playing with, which quickly becomes fibre channel standard (including some stuff I had done in 1980). Initially it is 1gbit/sec full-duplex, 2gbit/sec aggregate (200mbyte/sec). Then the POK engineers finally get their stuff released in 1990 with ES/9000 as ESCON when it is already obsolete (17mbytes/sec).

Later some POK engineers become involved with fibre channel standard and define a protocol that radically reduces the throughput, eventually released as FICON. Latest benchmark I can find is "PEAK I/O" for max-configured z196 that gets 2M IOPS using 104 FICON (running over 104 FCS). About the same time there was a FCS announced for e5-2600 blade claiming over a million IOPS (two such FCS getting higher throughput than 104 FICON running over 104 FCS). Note the (z196 era) e5-2600 blade benchmarked at ten times max-configured z196 (benchmark is number of iterations compared to 370/158-3 assumed to be 1MIPs machine) .. and these blades have maintained the ten times processing of mainframe z-machines. A large cloud operation will have a dozen or more megadatacenters around the world, each with half million or more of these blades (each megadatacenter 5-10 million times processing of max configured mainframe and enormous automation with staffs of only 80-120 people at each center).

FICON posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#ficon
megadatacenter posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#megadatacenter

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Cloud Timesharing

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Cloud Timesharing
Date: 25 Mar 2022
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#7 Cloud Timesharing
also 2250m1 references
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#2 IBM 2250 Graphics Display
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#3 IBM 2250 Graphics Display

some of the MIT CTSS/7094 people went to the 5th flr Project MAC to do MULTICS (also spawns UNIX). Others went to the IBM science center on 4th flr to do virtual machine (CP40/CMS & CP67/CMS, precursors to VM370/CMS), internal network, lots of performance tools, etc. CTSS RUNOFF was redone for CP/CMS as SCRIPT. In 1969, GML was invented at the science center and GML tag processing added to SCRIPT (a decade later GML morphs into ISO standard SGML, and after another decade morphs into HTML at CERN). Trivia: one of the first mainline IBM manuals using CMS script was the 370 Architecture "Redbook" (for being distributed in "red" 3-ring binders), SCRIPT command line option would generate the full redbook (with engineering notes, justification, alternatives, other stuff) or just the Principles of Operation subset.

First "webserver" in the US was on Stanford SLAC VM370 system:
http://www.slac.stanford.edu/history/earlyweb/history.shtml
http://www.slac.stanford.edu/history/earlyweb/firstpages.shtml

trivia: CMS was precursor to personal computing; before ms/dos
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MS-DOS
there was Seattle computer
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seattle_Computer_Products
before Seattle computer, there was cp/m
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CP/M
before developing cp/m, kildall worked on cp67/cms at npg (gone 404, but lives on at the wayback machine)
http://web.archive.org/web/20071011100440/http://www.khet.net/gmc/docs/museum/en_cpmName.html
npg
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Naval_Postgraduate_School

science center posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech
runoff, script, GML, SGML, HTML, psts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#sgml

In the 60s, there were two spinoffs of the IBM cambridge scientific center, creating commercial online (virtual machine) cp67/cms service bureaus. There was other (virtual machine) service bureaus formed later ... like TYMSHARE
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tymshare
In aug1976, TYMSHARE offers their (VM370/)CMS-based computer conferencing system free to IBM user group, SHARE
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SHARE_(computing)
as VMSHARE ... archives here:
http://vm.marist.edu/~vmshare
also part of TYMSHARE
https://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Tymshare
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tymnet

I had cut a deal with TYMSHARE to get a monthly tape dump of all VMSHARE files for deploying on internal systems and networks.

commercial online timesharing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#timeshare

Other drift, within a year of taking two credit intro to computers/fortran, I was hired fulltime to by the univ. to be responsible for production operating systems. Then before I graduate, I'm hired into a small group in the Boeing CFO office to help with the creation of Boeing Computing Services, consolidate all datarocessing into an independent business unit to better monetize the investment, including offering services to non-Boeing entities. I thought (just the) Renton datacenter was possibly largest in the world, something like a couple hundred million in 360 systems (360/65s arriving faster than they could be installed, boxes constantly staged in the hallways around the machine room). Lots of politics between Renton manager and CFO, who only had a 360/30 up at Boeing field for payroll (although it was enlarged for a 360/67 that I could play with when I wasn't doing other stuff).

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Cloud Timesharing

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Cloud Timesharing
Date: 25 Mar 2022
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#7 Cloud Timesharing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#8 Cloud Timesharing

Last product we did at IBM was HA/6000, origianlly for NYTimes to move their newspaper system (ATEX) off DEC VAXcluster to RS/6000. I then renamed it HA/CMP when I was out working on technical/scientific cluster scaleup with national labs and commercial scaleup with RDBMS vendors (Ingres, Informix, Sybase, Oracle). We were out marketing five-nines availability and I coined the terms disaster survivability and geographic survivability ... and then was asked to write a section for corporate strategic continuous availability document. It got pulled when both Rochester (AS/400) and POK (IBM mainframe) said that they couldn't meet the requirements. Reference to JAN1992 meeting in Ellison's (Oracle CEO) conference room discussing cluster scaleup, 16-way mid-1992, 128-way ye-1992.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/95.html#13

Besides HA/CMP at national labs, was also working on migrating their supercomputer filesystems to HA/CMP ... and NII meetings at LLNL.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Information_Infrastructure
email about having conflict with LLNL NII meeting, and one of the other vendors coming by to fill me in on what happened
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006x.html#email920129
within possibly hrs, cluster scaleup is transferred for announce as IBM supercomputer (for technical/scientific *ONLY*) and we are told we can't work on an ything with more than four processors (we leave IBM a few months later). Possibly contributing was (mainframe) DB2 group complaining if we were allowed to continue, it would be at least five yrs ahead of them.

17Feb1992 press, announced for scientific and technical *ONLY*
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001n.html#6000clusters1
computerworld 1992-02-17 at wayback machine
https://archive.org/details/sim_computerworld_1992-02-17_26_7

11May1992 press, cluster supercomputing caught IBM by "surprise"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001n.html#6000clusters2
trivia: a decade earlier, Jan1979, I had been con'ed into doing 4341 bechmarks for national lab looking at getting 70 for a compute farm (sort of the leading edge of the coming cluster supercomputing tsunami) ... and I had been working off&on with them since that time.

ha/cmp posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#hacmp
availability posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#available

15Jun1992 press, cluster computers, mentions IBM plans to "demonstrate" mainframe 32-microprocessor later 1992, is that tightly-coupled or loosely-coupled??
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001n.html#6000clusters3

z900 16-processors not until 2000; z990 32-processors 2003. I've periodically mentioned got involved in 16-way processor (tightly-coupled) 370 mainframe in the 70s, and we con'ed the 3033 processor engineers to work on it in their spare time (lot more interesting than remapping 168 to 20% faster chips). Everybody thought it was great until somebody told head of POK that it could be decades before POK favorite son operating system (MVS) had (effective) 16-way support. Then some of us were invited to never visit POK again, and the 3033 processors engineers directed to stop being distracted.

smp posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#smp

trivia: In the implosion of Future System ... references:
http://www.jfsowa.com/computer/memo125.htm

(was going to completely replace 370 and completely different, internal politics was killing off 370 efforts, the lack of new 370 during the period is credited with giving clone 370 makers their market foothold) the quick&dirty 3033&3081 efforts were kicked off in parallel ... when 3033 is out the door, the 3033 processor engineers start on "trout" (becomes 3090).

future system posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#futuresys

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

IBM z16: Built to Build the Future of Your Business

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: IBM z16: Built to Build the Future of Your Business
Date: 26 Mar 2022
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#7 Cloud Timesharing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#8 Cloud Timesharing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#9 Cloud Timesharing

IBM z16: Built to Build the Future of Your Business. April 5, 2022 11:00 AM - 12:00 PM EDT
https://www.ibm.com/events/reg/flow/ibm/xbm9kkmb/ibmevents/createaccount

A brief overview of IBM's new 7 nm Telum mainframe CPU. A typical Telum-powered mainframe offers 256 cores at a base clock of 5+GHz.
https://arstechnica.com/gadgets/2021/09/ibms-telum-mainframe-processor-introduces-new-cache-architecture/

The 14 nm IBM z15 CPU which Telum is replacing features five total processors--two pairs of 12-core Compute Processors and one System Controller. Each Compute Processor hosts 256MiB of L3 cache shared between its 12 cores, while the System Controller hosts a whopping 960MiB of L4 cache shared between the four Compute Processors.

From here, four Telum CPU packages combine to make one four-socket "drawer," and four of those drawers go into a single mainframe system. This provides 256 total cores on 32 CPUs. Each core runs at a base clockrate over 5 GHz--providing more predictable and consistent latency for real-time transactions than a lower base with higher turbo rate would.


... snip ...

IBM and Samsung Unveil Semiconductor Breakthrough That Defies Conventional Design
https://newsroom.ibm.com/2021-12-14-IBM-and-Samsung-Unveil-Semiconductor-Breakthrough-That-Defies-Conventional-Design
IBM's New Mainframe 7nm CPU Telum: 16 Cores At 5GHz, Virtual L3 and L4 Cache
https://slashdot.org/story/21/09/05/0321217/ibms-new-mainframe-7nm-cpu-telum-16-cores-at-5ghz-virtual-l3-and-l4-cache
IBM Telum Processor: the next-gen microprocessor for IBM Z and IBM LinuxONE
https://www.ibm.com/blogs/systems/ibm-telum-processor-the-next-gen-microprocessor-for-ibm-z-and-ibm-linuxone/
Did IBM Just Preview The Future of Caches?
https://www.anandtech.com/show/16924/did-ibm-just-preview-the-future-of-caches
IBM's newest chip is more than meets the AI. Telum, an AI processor developed with technology from IBM Research, will power IBM systems.
https://www.research.ibm.com/blog/telum-processor
IBM Telum- A New Chapter In Vertically Integrated Chip Technology
https://www.forbes.com/sites/patrickmoorhead/2021/08/23/ibm-telum--a-new-chapter-in-vertically-integrated-chip-technology/
IBM's new Telum Processor is the company's first with an on-chip AI accelerator
https://www.techrepublic.com/article/ibms-new-telum-processor-is-the-companys-first-with-an-on-chip-ai-accelerator/
IBM introduces Telum chips aimed at AI inferencing workloads like fraud detection
https://www.zdnet.com/article/ibm-introduces-telum-chips-aimed-at-ai-inferencing-workloads-like-fraud-detection/
IBM Launches New Telum Processor
https://futurumresearch.com/research-notes/ibm-launches-new-telum-processor/
IBM's New System Z CPU Offers 40 Percent More Performance per Socket, Integrated AI
https://www.extremetech.com/computing/326402-ibms-new-system-z-cpu-offers-40-percent-more-performance-per-socket-integrated-ai
IBM Re-Architects The Mainframe With New Telum Processor
https://www.forbes.com/sites/tiriasresearch/2021/08/23/ibm-re-architects-the-mainframe-with-new-telum-processor/

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

IBM z16: Built to Build the Future of Your Business

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: IBM z16: Built to Build the Future of Your Business
Date: 26 Mar 2022
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#10 IBM z16: Built to Build the Future of Your Business

IBM's mainframe funding engine had significantly dwindled ... much of the low hanging fruit had moved to other platforms ... and IBM had gone into the red and was being re-orged into the 13 "baby blues" in preparation for breaking up the company
http://web.archive.org/web/20101120231857/http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,977353,00.html
may also work
http://content.time.com/time/subscriber/article/0,33009,977353-1,00.html
we had already left IBM, but we get a call from the bowels of Armonk (corp hdqtrs) asking if we could help with breakup of the company. Lots of business units were using supplier contracts in other units via MOUs. After the breakup, all of these contracts would be in different companies ... all of those MOUs would have to be cataloged and turned into their own contracts (however, before we get started, the board brings in a new CEO and reverses the breakup).

Mid-90s, financial industry, a perennial IBM mainframe funding source, was spending billions of dollars to move to "killer micros". The issue was that increasing workload and globalization was resulting in settlement no longer completing in the overnight batch window (increasing workload and reducing size of overnight window). Lots of the applications were from the 60s&70s ... having added real-time transaction options over the years ... but financial settlement was still batch operation done overnight. The implementations were being rewritten to do straight-through processing using parallelization on lots of killer micros to complete operations in real time. Some of us pointed out that they were using industry standard parallelization libraries that had 100 times the overhead of cobol batch ... but were ignored. Then major pilots started deploying and things went up in flames, the overhead of the parallelization libraries totally swamping any anticipated throughput increase using lots of killer micros.

At the turn of the century, I had gotten a gig to look at throughput of a major financial outsourcer (handled small community banks to large TBTF, handling total processing, call-centers, statementing, soup-to-nuts, for half of all US credit card accounts). It had >40 max configured IBM mainframes (@$30M, >$1.2B) with none older than 18m, constant rolling upgrades ... number needed to finish settlement in the overnight batch windows (all running the same 450K cobol statement application, account processing partitioned across the available systems). They had a large group that had been managing performance for decades, but had gotten somewhat myopically focused on specific analysis. Using some different analysis, was able to find 14% improvement ... another person brought in using yet different analysis found an additional 7% ... for 21% total (couple hundred million savings in IBM system costs). Mainframe hardware revenue was dwindling fast, mainframe business somewhat being sustained by software&services.

A few years later, I became involved in a new effort ... basically a high level financial business language that generated fine-grain SQL operations that were easily parallelized on RDBMS clusters (enormously reduced application development and maintenance costs) ... relying on the significant work that RDBMS vendors (including IBM) had put into (non-mainframe) RDBMS cluster throughput (providing throughput, redundancy, fault tolerant, ACID properties, etc, a lot of stuff that we had worked on at IBM for HA/6000 and HA/CMP) ... even modest I86 clusters outperforming largest complex mainframe clusters. Was getting high acceptance at financial industry meetings and then hit brick wall ... eventually told many executives still bore the scars of the mid-90s failed attempts and they weren't ready to try again.

posts mentioning HA/CMP
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#hacmp

recent posts mentioning overnight batch window &/or 450k cobol statement application
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#56 Fujitsu confirms end date for mainframe and Unix systems
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#3 Final Rules of Thumb on How Computing Affects Organizations and People
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#104 Mainframe Performance
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#23 Target Marketing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#123 Mainframe "Peak I/O" benchmark
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#120 Computer Performance
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#58 Card Associations
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#30 VM370, 3081, and AT&T Long Lines
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#87 UPS & PDUs
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#10 A brief overview of IBM's new 7 nm Telum mainframe CPU
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021g.html#18 IBM email migration disaster
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021e.html#61 Performance Monitoring, Analysis, Simulation, etc
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021d.html#68 How Gerstner Rebuilt IBM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021c.html#61 MAINFRAME (4341) History
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021c.html#49 IBM CEO
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021b.html#4 Killer Micros
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021.html#7 IBM CEOs
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#155 Book on monopoly (IBM)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019c.html#80 IBM: Buying While Apathetaic
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019c.html#11 mainframe hacking "success stories"?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019b.html#62 Cobol
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018f.html#85 Douglas Engelbart, the forgotten hero of modern computing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018f.html#13 IBM today
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018d.html#43 How IBM Was Left Behind
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018d.html#2 Has Microsoft commuted suicide
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018c.html#33 The Pentagon still uses computer software from 1958 to manage its contracts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018c.html#30 Bottlenecks and Capacity planning

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

IBM z16: Built to Build the Future of Your Business

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: IBM z16: Built to Build the Future of Your Business
Date: 26 Mar 2022
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#10 IBM z16: Built to Build the Future of Your Business
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#11 IBM z16: Built to Build the Future of Your Business

z196 seemed to have been the last where there were real live benchmark numbers ... since then things got a lot more obfuscated ... getting percents from previous machines. z196 documents have some statement that 1/3 to 1/2 of z10->z196 per processor performance improvement is introduction of memory latency compensating technology (that had been in other platforms for long time), out-of-order execution, branch prediction, etc ... aka memory is the new disk, (cache miss) memory operation latency, when measured in number of processor cycles, is comparable to 60s disk operation latency, when measured in number of 60s processor cycles.

z900, 16 processors, 2.5BIPS (156MIPS/proc), Dec2000
z990, 32 processors, 9BIPS, (281MIPS/proc), 2003
z9, 54 processors, 18BIPS (333MIPS/proc), July2005
z10, 64 processors, 30BIPS (469MIPS/proc), Feb2008
z196, 80 processors, 50BIPS (625MIPS/proc), Jul2010
EC12, 101 processors, 75BIPS (743MIPS/proc), Aug2012
z13, 140 processors, 100BIPS (710MIPS/proc), Jan2015
z14, 170 processors, 150BIPS (862MIPS/proc), Aug2017
z15, 190 processors, 190BIPS* (1000MIPS/proc), Sep2019

• pubs say z15 1.25 times z14 (1.25*150BIPS or 190BIPS)


... snip ...

Z196 max config @$30M, benchmark at 50BIPS (#iterations compared to 158-3), large cloud operations commodity was e5-2600 benchmarked 500BIPS (same 158-3 benchmark #iterations) ... before IBM sold off server business and IBM had base list price of $1815 ... z196 $600,000/BIPS, e5-2600 $3.60/BIPS

... large cloud operations for a couple decades have said that they assemble their own servers for 1/3rd cost of brand name servers ($1/BIPS ... compared to Z196 $600,000/BIPS) ... IBM sold off its server business about time press was quoting major server chip vendors were shipping half their product directly to the large cloud operations

... aka standard cloud rack mount server blade having at least 10 times the processing of max. configured mainframe at less than .00002% the cost/BIPS ... and large cloud operation will have a dozen or more large cloud megadatacenters around the world, each with more than half million of these blade servers (megadatacenters have so drastically reduced server costs, that power&cooling have increasingly become major factor).

cloud megadatacenter posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#megadatacenter

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

IBM z16: Built to Build the Future of Your Business

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: IBM z16: Built to Build the Future of Your Business
Date: 26 Mar 2022
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#10 IBM z16: Built to Build the Future of Your Business
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#11 IBM z16: Built to Build the Future of Your Business
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#12 IBM z16: Built to Build the Future of Your Business

Fall 1980, Jim Gray leaves IBM SJR (and System/R) for Tandem (and palms off some amount of stuff on me), he does a lot of work for DBMS ACID properties (formal definition, contributing to auditors trusting computerized financial systems) and DBMS benchmarking
http://www.tpc.org/information/who/gray5.asp
TPC history
https://www.tpc.org/information/about/history5.asp

May2008 at Berkeley (a year after he disappears on sailing trip), there was a gathering to celebrate Jim Gray. Part of that celebration involved acknowledging Jim Gray as father of (modern) financial dataprocessing (including enabling electronic payment transactions). Jim's formalizing of transaction semantics provided the basis that was crucial in allowing financial auditors to move from requiring paper ledgers to trusting computer operations (gone 404, but lives on at wayback machine)
http://web.archive.org/web/20080616153833/http://www.eecs.berkeley.edu/IPRO/JimGrayTribute/pressrelease.html

"Gray is known for his groundbreaking work as a programmer, database expert and Microsoft engineer. Gray's work helped make possible such technologies as the cash machine, ecommerce, online ticketing, and deep databases like Google. In 1998, he received the ACM A.M. Turing Award, the most prestigious honor in computer science. He was appointed an IEEE Fellow in 1982, and also received IEEE Charles Babbage Award"

... snip ...

trivia: Late70s & early80s, I was blamed for online computer conferencing (precursor to modern social media) on the internal network (larger than the arpanet/internet from just about the beginning until sometime mid/late 80s). It really took off the spring of 1981, after I distributed a trip report of visit to Jim Gray at Tandem ... from IBM Jargon
https://comlay.net/ibmjarg.pdf

Tandem Memos - n. Something constructive but hard to control; a fresh of breath air (sic). That's another Tandem Memos. A phrase to worry middle management. It refers to the computer-based conference (widely distributed in 1981) in which many technical personnel expressed dissatisfaction with the tools available to them at that time, and also constructively criticized the way products were [are] developed. The memos are required reading for anyone with a serious interest in quality products. If you have not seen the memos, try reading the November 1981 Datamation summary.

... snip ...

Only about 300 participated, but claims that possibly 25,000 were reading. We print six copies of some 300 pages, executive summary, and summary of the summary and package in Tandem 3-ring binders and send to the corporate executive committee (folklore is 5of6 wanted to fire me, possibly one of the inhibitors was that one of my hobbies after joining IBM was enhanced production operating systems for internal datacenters, including the world-wide sales&marketing support "HONE" systems). From summary of summary:

• The perception of many technical people in IBM is that the company is rapidly heading for disaster. Furthermore, people fear that this movement will not be appreciated until it begins more directly to affect revenue, at which point recovery may be impossible

• Many technical people are extremely frustrated with their management and with the way things are going in IBM. To an increasing extent, people are reacting to this by leaving IBM Most of the contributors to the present discussion would prefer to stay with IBM and see the problems rectified. However, there is increasing skepticism that correction is possible or likely, given the apparent lack of commitment by management to take action

• There is a widespread perception that IBM management has failed to understand how to manage technical people and high-technology development in an extremely competitive environment.


... snip ...

... took another decade (1981-1992) ... IBM had gone into the red and was being reorganized into the 13 "baby blues" in preparation for breaking up the company .... reference gone behind paywall but mostly lives free at wayback machine
http://web.archive.org/web/20101120231857/http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,977353,00.html
may also work
http://content.time.com/time/subscriber/article/0,33009,977353-1,00.html

system/r posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#systemr
online computer conferencing posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#cmc
internal network posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#internalnet

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

IBM z16: Built to Build the Future of Your Business

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: IBM z16: Built to Build the Future of Your Business
Date: 26 Mar 2022
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#10 IBM z16: Built to Build the Future of Your Business
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#11 IBM z16: Built to Build the Future of Your Business
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#12 IBM z16: Built to Build the Future of Your Business
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#13 IBM z16: Built to Build the Future of Your Business

UDP, etc. Early 80s, I had started HSDT, T1 and faster computer links, both terrestrial and satellite. One of the issues was dynamic adaptive congestion management. SNA and TCP had archaic windowing algorithms. HSDT implemented dynamic adaptive rate-based control. In 1988, Jacobson introduced "slow-start" windowing for congestion management. At the same time ACM SIGCOMM came out with detailed analysis that windowing algorithms were non-stable in multi-hop/link environment like the internet. I pontificated that possibly slow-start was used because too much of TCP/IP was running on low-end devices w/o adequate timer facilities.

HSDT posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#hsdt

Communication group was fighting all sorts of battles trying to block links faster than 56kbits and long latency (like satellite) links because of all sort of SNA deficiencies. Finally there were forced into corner and came out with 3737 purporting to support T1 (1.5mbit) ... at least for short haul, terrestrial operation. It had a boat load of 68k processors and memory ... with a mini-vtam implementation that spoofed VTAM it was a local CTCA machine ... and would immediately ACK the host VTAM (before transmission) and then use a different protocol for processing between the local 3737 and the remote 3737 at the other end of the T1 link. Host VTAM would exhaust its window limit on even a short haul T1 link and stop transmitting. However, with all the processing and memory in the 3737s, it peaked out about 2mbits/sec sustained (even short-haul T1, 1.5mbit full-duplex it is 3mbit/sec aggregate, EU T1, 2mbit full-duplex is 4mbit/sec)

old 3737 email
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011g.html#email880130
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011g.html#email880606
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011g.html#email881005
in these posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011g.html#75
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011g.html#77

I was also on the XTP technical advisory board (IBM communication group fought hard battle to prevent from participating) ... and had written dynamic adaptive rate-based control into the standard ... including for congestion control ... despite what is mentioned in this wiki article
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xpress_Transport_Protocol
above does mention Navy use for military applications (there were other unmentioned military agencies participating). But by the 90s, processor power and timer facilities were starting to become quite common, even the low-end devices.

XTP posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#xtphsp

Not long after leaving IBM (cluster scaleup was transferred and we were told we couldn't work on anything with more than four processors), we were brought in as consultants at a small client/server startup ... two former Oracle people (that we had worked with on commercial RDBMS cluster scaleup at Oracle) were there responsible for something they called commerce server and they wanted to do payment transactions, the startup had also invented this technology called "SSL" they wanted to use. The result is now frequently called "electronic commerce". I had complete authority over everything between the webservers and the payment gateways to the financial networks and had to do some amount of compensating software & procedures (which are now quite common place). However, at the time I put together a presentation "Why Internet Isn't Business Critical Dataprocessing" (based on what I had to do for "electronic commerce") that Postel (Internet Standards RFC Editor) would sponsor
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jon_Postel

electronic commerce gateways to payment networks posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#gateway
internet posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#internet

trivia: early on HSDT, was working with NSF director and was supposed to get $20M to interconnect the NSF supercomputer centers. Then congress cuts the budget, some other things happen, and finally an RFP is released (in part based on what we already had running). Copy of "Preliminary Announce" (Mar1986):
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002k.html#12

"The OASC has initiated three programs: The Supercomputer Centers Program to provide Supercomputer cycles; the New Technologies Program to foster new supercomputer software and hardware developments; and the Networking Program to build a National Supercomputer Access Network - NSFnet".

... snip ...

... internal IBM politics prevent us from bidding on the RFP (possibly contributing was being blamed for online computer conferencing), the NSF director tries to help by writing the company a letter (with support from other agencies), but that just makes the internal politics worse (as did claims that what we already had running was at least 5yrs ahead of the winning bid). The RFP called for T1 links ... but they only putting in 440kbit/sec links ... then to make it look like they were meeting the RFP, they put in T1 trunks with telco multiplexors running multiple 440kbit links. As regional networks connect in, it becomes the NSFNET backbone, precursor to modern internet
https://www.technologyreview.com/s/401444/grid-computing/

NSFNET posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#nsfnet

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

IBM z16: Built to Build the Future of Your Business

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: IBM z16: Built to Build the Future of Your Business
Date: 27 Mar 2022
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#10 IBM z16: Built to Build the Future of Your Business
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#11 IBM z16: Built to Build the Future of Your Business
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#12 IBM z16: Built to Build the Future of Your Business
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#13 IBM z16: Built to Build the Future of Your Business
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#14 IBM z16: Built to Build the Future of Your Business

... implication is almost all the z16 performance gain is more cores ... i.e. z16 16 cores/socket, 1/3 more than z15 12 cores/socket

IBM's New System Z CPU Offers 40 Percent More Performance per Socket, Integrated AI
https://www.extremetech.com/computing/326402-ibms-new-system-z-cpu-offers-40-percent-more-performance-per-socket-integrated-ai

Telum is a significant departure from IBM's previous z-15 architecture. The z-15 used a large off-die cache and a separate System Control chip with just 12 cores per socket. Not only does Telum increase that to 16 cores, but it also integrates new functionality on-die compared with previous z-machines.

... snip ...

past references to z15 performance
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#12 IBM z16: Built to Build the Future of Your Business
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#63 Mainframes
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#57 Fujitsu confirms end date for mainframe and Unix systems
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#45 Mainframe MIPS
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#96 370/195
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#84 Mainframe Benchmark
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#120 Computer Performance
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#92 How IBM lost the cloud
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#2 A brief overview of IBM's new 7 nm Telum mainframe CPU
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021h.html#44 OoO S/360 descendants
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021f.html#41 IBM Mainframe
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021f.html#18 IBM Zcloud - is it just outsourcing ?

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

IBM z16: Built to Build the Future of Your Business

Refed: **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: IBM z16: Built to Build the Future of Your Business
Date: 27 Mar 2022
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#10 IBM z16: Built to Build the Future of Your Business
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#11 IBM z16: Built to Build the Future of Your Business
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#12 IBM z16: Built to Build the Future of Your Business
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#13 IBM z16: Built to Build the Future of Your Business
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#14 IBM z16: Built to Build the Future of Your Business
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#15 IBM z16: Built to Build the Future of Your Business

most clouds are linux ... they specifically needed full source for tailoring to megadatacenter operation with enormously aggressive automation ... also as mentioned ... major cloud operators have claimed they assemble their own server systems for 1/3rd the cost of brand name systems (presumably major motivation for IBM selling off its server system business ... not long after it was published that major server chip vendors were shipping half their product directly to cloud operators, each with dozen or more megadatacenters, each with half million or more blade servers)

... one might claim that after the cloud vendors had done the linux megadatacenter enhancements ... that m'soft got around to retrofitting similar changes to windows (NT?, DEC lore is that head of NT had previously headed up VMS at DEC).

The major cloud operators have so drastically optimized their system, software, and people costs that power/cooling became major cost and for some time they have been putting heavy pressure on I86 chip vendors to significantly improve computation power efficiency ... periodically threatening to move megadatacenters to ARM RISC chips, specifically optimized computation power efficiency for battery powered devices.

megadatacenter posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#megadatacenter

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

IBM z16: Built to Build the Future of Your Business

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: IBM z16: Built to Build the Future of Your Business
Date: 27 Mar 2022
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#10 IBM z16: Built to Build the Future of Your Business
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#11 IBM z16: Built to Build the Future of Your Business
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#12 IBM z16: Built to Build the Future of Your Business
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#13 IBM z16: Built to Build the Future of Your Business
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#14 IBM z16: Built to Build the Future of Your Business
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#15 IBM z16: Built to Build the Future of Your Business
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#16 IBM z16: Built to Build the Future of Your Business

Note AIM (Apple, IBM, Motorola) for Power/PC ... had Apple converting to Power/PC (from 68k) for their machines.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/AIM_alliance

IBM used PReP and CHRP for the PCI version of IBM's RS/6000 platform, which was adapted from existing Micro Channel architecture models, and changed only to support the new 60x bus style of the PowerPC.[13]

... snip ...

... when AWD (advanced workstation) RS/6000 came out with microchannel, AWD were forced to use the PS2 microchannel cards (performance heavily kneecaped by the communication group) and weren't allowed to do their own cards. Trivial example is that for PC/RT (PC/AT bus, precursor to RS/6000), they did their own 4mbit token/ring card ... that card, had higher throughput than the PS2 microchannel 16mbit token/ring card. The joke was that with RS/6000 restricted to the PS2 microchannel cards, AWD advanced workstation RS/6000, for many things, it wouldn't have any better throughput than PS2/486.

other trivia from the wikipedia article:

The development of the PowerPC is centered at an Austin, Texas, facility called the Somerset Design Center. The building is named after the site in Arthurian legend where warring forces put aside their swords, and members of the three teams that staff the building say the spirit that inspired the name has been a key factor in the project's success thus far. -- MacWeek, 1993[1

... snip ....

... when we started the HA6000/HACMP product development, we reported directly to executive ... who then left to head up Somerset.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM_High_Availability_Cluster_Multiprocessing
HA/CMP posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#hacmp
RISC, 801, iliad, romp, rios, pc/rt, rs/6000, power, power/pc posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#801

... back to Apple; folklore is that Apple moved off Power/PC to I86 because Power/PC wasn't keeping up with computational power efficiency ... and then recently again moved, to ARM RISC (to further improve power efficiency) with some additional tweaks.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ARM_architecture_family

Due to their low costs, minimal power consumption, and lower heat generation than their competitors, ARM processors are desirable for light, portable, battery-powered devices, including smartphones, laptops and tablet computers, and other embedded systems.[5][6][7] However, ARM processors are also used for desktops and servers, including the world's fastest supercomputer.[8] With over 200 billion ARM chips produced,[9][10][11] as of 2021, ARM is the most widely used family of instruction set architectures (ISA) and the ISAs produced in the largest quantity

... snip ....

a couple recent posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#27 MS/DOS for IBM/PC
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021g.html#36 Cloud computing's destiny
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021.html#1 How an obscure British PC maker invented ARM and changed the world

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

IBM Left Behind

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: IBM Left Behind
Date: 27 Mar 2022
Blog: Facebook
There was email circulating at the time asking that the last person to leave POK, please turn out the lights

Note 4300s sold into the same mid-range market as DEC VAX and in similar numbers for small unit orders ... decade of DEC VAX sliced&diced by year, model, us/non-us ... by mid-80s can see mid-range was starting to moved to workstations and large PCs.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002f.html#0

big difference was large corporations with orders of hundreds of vm/4300s at a time for deploying out into departmental areas (sort of the leading edge of the coming departmental/distributed computing tsunami ... inside IBM, departmental conference room became scarce commodity, so many converted to vm/4341 rooms).

Communication group was then fiercely fighting off client/server and distributed computing. senior disk engineer got a talk scheduled at internal, world-wide, annual communication group conference in the later 80s, supposedly on 3174 performance, but opens the talk with the statement that the communication group was going to be responsible for the demise of the disk division. The issue was that the communication group had stranglehold on datacenters with its corporate strategic ownership of everything that crossed datacenter wall (and fiercely fighting off client/server and distributed computing trying to preserve their dumb terminal paradigm). The disk division was seeing drop in disk sales with customers moving to more distributed computing friendly platforms. The disk division had come up with a number of solutions, but the communication group (with their datacenter stanglehold) would veto them.

The disk division software VP ... trying to work-around corporate politics was investing in distributed computing startups that would use IBM disks ... and he would ask us to periodically drop by his investments to see if we could lend any help.

communication group / distributed computing battle posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#terminal

IBM hasn't made disks for decades, for platforms that don't support FBA, CKD DASD has to be emulated on industry standard fixed-block disks. DASD, CKD, FBA, multi-track search, eec posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#dasd

other vm/4341 trivia; Jan1979 I get con'ed into doing benchmarks for national lab that was looking at getting 70 for compute farm ... sort of the leading edge of the coming cluster scaleup supercomputing tsunami (and lots of the cluster scaleup technology leaking into cloud datacenters)

IBM had gone into the red and was being re-orged into the 13 "baby blues" in preparation for breaking up the company
http://web.archive.org/web/20101120231857/http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,977353,00.html
may also work
http://content.time.com/time/subscriber/article/0,33009,977353-1,00.html

we had already left IBM, but we get a call from the bowels of Armonk (corp hdqtrs) asking if we could help with breakup of the company. Lots of business units were using supplier contracts in other units via MOUs. After the breakup, all of these contracts would be in different companies ... all of those MOUs would have to be cataloged and turned into their own contracts (however, before we get started, the board brings in a new CEO and reverses the breakup).

recent posts mentioning distributed computing, demise of disk division talk, and/or "ibm left behind"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#5 4361/3092
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#107 15 Examples of How Different Life Was Before The Internet
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#90 Computer BUNCH
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#78 Channel I/O
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#75 Frameworks Quagmire
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#73 IBM Disks
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#63 Mainframes
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#56 Fujitsu confirms end date for mainframe and Unix systems
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#52 IBM History
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#51 IBM History
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#16 Channel I/O
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#7 USENET still around
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#6 On why it's CR+LF and not LF+CR [ASR33]
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#124 TCP/IP and Mid-range market
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#123 SHARE LSRAD Report
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#110 Not counting dividends IBM delivered an annualized yearly loss of 2.27%
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#102 Online Computer Conferencing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#88 Virtual Machine SIE instruction
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#59 370 Architecture Redbook
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#54 Automated Benchmarking
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#53 Automated Benchmarking
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#47 IBM Conduct
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#126 The Network Nation
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#123 Mainframe "Peak I/O" benchmark
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#117 Building the System/360 Mainframe Nearly Destroyed IBM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#107 IBM Future System
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#87 IBM and Internet Old Farts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#79 IBM Fridays
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#76 'Flying Blind' Review: Downward Trajectory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#18 IBM's social media policy
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#113 IBM Downturn
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#100 Who Says Elephants Can't Dance?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#96 IBM 3278
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#76 IBM 370 and Future System
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#74 IBM 3278
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#70 IBM Wild Ducks
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#68 MTS, 360/67, FS, Internet, SNA
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#56 IBM and Cloud Computing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#1 IBM Lost Opportunities
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#79 IBM Downturn
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#64 Virtual Machine Debugging
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#47 vs/pascal
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021h.html#93 CMSBACK, ADSM, TSM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021h.html#1 Cloud computing's destiny
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021g.html#51 Intel rumored to be in talks to buy chip manufacturer GlobalFoundries for $30B
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021g.html#45 Cloud computing's destiny
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021g.html#33 Big Blue's big email blues signal terminal decline - unless it learns to migrate itself
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021g.html#31 IBM Programming Projects
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021g.html#20 Big Blue's big email blues signal terminal decline - unless it learns to migrate itself
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021g.html#18 IBM email migration disaster
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021f.html#84 Mainframe mid-range computing market
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021f.html#61 Private Inequity: How a Powerful Industry Conquered the Tax System
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021f.html#55 3380 disk capacity
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021f.html#47 Martial Arts "OODA-loop"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021f.html#32 IBM HSDT & HA/CMP
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021f.html#24 IBM Remains Big Tech's Disaster
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021f.html#7 The Rise of Private Equity
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021f.html#6 Financial Engineering
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021f.html#4 Study: Are You Too Nice to be Financially Successful?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021e.html#28 IBM Cottle Plant Site
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021e.html#16 IBM Internal Network
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021d.html#68 How Gerstner Rebuilt IBM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021d.html#36 April 7, 1964: IBM Bets Big on System/360
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021d.html#15 The Rise of the Internet
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021c.html#95 What's Fortran?!?!
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021c.html#85 IBM SNA/VTAM (& HSDT)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021c.html#84 IBM SNA/VTAM (& HSDT)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021c.html#63 Distributed Computing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021c.html#61 MAINFRAME (4341) History
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021c.html#49 IBM CEO
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021c.html#48 MAINFRAME (4341) History
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021c.html#47 MAINFRAME (4341) History
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021b.html#97 IBM Glory days
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021b.html#55 In the 1970s, Email Was Special
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021b.html#24 IBM Recruiting
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021b.html#9 IBM Kneecapping products
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021b.html#7 IBM & Apple
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021b.html#4 Killer Micros
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021b.html#0 Will The Cloud Take Down The Mainframe?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021.html#79 IBM Disk Division
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021.html#39 IBM Tech
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021.html#26 CMSBACK, ADSM, TSM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021.html#7 IBM CEOs
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2020.html#38 Early mainframe security

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Telum & z16

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Telum & z16
Date: 28 Mar 2022
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#18 IBM Left Behind

z196 seemed to have been the last where there were real live benchmark numbers ... since then things got a lot more obfuscated ... getting percents from previous machines. z196 documents have some statement that 1/3 to 1/2 of z10->z196 per processor performance improvement is introduction of memory latency compensating technology (that had been in other platforms for long time), out-of-order execution, branch prediction, etc ... aka memory is the new disk, (cache miss) memory operation latency, when measured in number of processor cycles, is comparable to 60s disk operation latency, when measured in number of 60s processor cycles.

z900, 16 processors, 2.5BIPS (156MIPS/proc), Dec2000
z990, 32 processors, 9BIPS, (281MIPS/proc), 2003
z9, 54 processors, 18BIPS (333MIPS/proc), July2005
z10, 64 processors, 30BIPS (469MIPS/proc), Feb2008
z196, 80 processors, 50BIPS (625MIPS/proc), Jul2010
EC12, 101 processors, 75BIPS (743MIPS/proc), Aug2012
z13, 140 processors, 100BIPS (710MIPS/proc), Jan2015
z14, 170 processors, 150BIPS (862MIPS/proc), Aug2017
z15, 190 processors, 190BIPS* (1000MIPS/proc), Sep2019

• pubs say z15 1.25 times z14 (1.25*150BIPS or 190BIPS)


... snip ...

Z196 max config @$30M, benchmark at 50BIPS (no iterations compared to 158-3), large cloud operations commodity was e5-2600 benchmarked 500BIPS (same 158-3 benchmark no. iterations) ... before IBM sold off server business and IBM had base list price of $1815 ... z196 $600,000/BIPS, e5-2600 $3.60/BIPS

... large cloud operations for a couple decades have said that they assemble their own servers for 1/3rd cost of brand name servers ($1/BIPS ... compared to Z196 $600,000/BIPS) ... IBM sold off its server business about time press was quoting major server chip vendors were shipping half their product directly to the large cloud operations

... aka each standard cloud rack mount server blade having at least 10 times the processing of max. configured mainframe at less than .00002% the cost/BIPS ... and large cloud operation will have a dozen or more large cloud megadatacenters around the world, each with more than half million of these blade servers (each large cloud megadatacenter having equivalent processing of more than several million max. configured mainframes and have so drastically reduced server costs, that power&cooling have increasingly become major factor).

megadatacenter posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#megadatacenter

... implication is almost all the z16 performance gain is more cores ... i.e. z16 16 cores/socket, 1/3 more than z15 12 cores/socket

IBM's New System Z CPU Offers 40 Percent More Performance per Socket, Integrated AI
https://www.extremetech.com/computing/326402-ibms-new-system-z-cpu-offers-40-percent-more-performance-per-socket-integrated-ai

Telum is a significant departure from IBM's previous z-15 architecture. The z-15 used a large off-die cache and a separate System Control chip with just 12 cores per socket. Not only does Telum increase that to 16 cores, but it also integrates new functionality on-die compared with previous z-machines.

... snip ..

In 1980, STL (since renamed SVL) was bursting at the seams and they were moving 300 people from STL to offsite bldg with dataprocessor service back to STL datacenter. They had tried "remote" 3270 but found the human factors totally unacceptable (compared to response in STL). I get con'ed into doing channel-extender support so they can put local channel attach 3270 controllers in the offsite bldg. (with no perceived difference between offsite and in STL). The hardware vendor tries to talk IBM into release my support, but there are some engineers in POK playing with some serial stuff that get it vetoed (afraid if it was in the market, it would make it harder to release their stuff).

channel-extender posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#channel.extender

In 1988, I get asked by the branch to help LLNL (national lab) standardize some serial stuff that they were playing with, which quickly becomes fibre channel standard (including some stuff I had done in 1980). Initially it is 1gbit/sec full-duplex, 2gbit/sec aggregate (200mbyte/sec). Then the POK engineers finally get their stuff released in 1990 with ES/9000 as ESCON when it is already obsolete (17mbytes/sec).

Later some POK engineers become involved with fibre channel standard and define a protocol that radically reduces the throughput, eventually released as FICON. Latest benchmark I can find is "PEAK I/O" for max-configured z196 that gets 2M IOPS using 104 FICON (running over 104 FCS). About the same time there was a FCS announced for e5-2600 blade claiming over a million IOPS (two such FCS getting higher throughput than 104 FICON running over 104 FCS) Also IBM hasn't made DASD for decades, IBM platforms that don't have FBA support must suffer the additional overhead of CKD simulation on industry standard fixed-block disks.

FICON posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#ficon
DASD, CKD, FBA, multi-track search, etc posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#dasd

Note 4300s sold into the same mid-range market as DEC VAX and in similar numbers for small unit orders ... decade of DEC VAX sliced&diced by year, model, us/non-us ... by mid-80s can see mid-range was starting to move to workstations and large PCs.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002f.html#0

big difference was large corporations with orders of hundreds of vm/4300s at a time for deploying out into departmental areas (sort of the leading edge of the coming departmental/distributed computing tsunami ... inside IBM, departmental conference room became scarce commodity, so many converted to vm/4341 rooms).

Communication group was fiercely fighting off client/server and distributed computing. In later 80s, senior disk engineer got a talk scheduled at internal, world-wide, annual communication group conference, supposedly on 3174 performance, but opens the talk with the statement that the communication group was going to be responsible for the demise of the disk division. The issue was that the communication group had stranglehold on datacenters with its corporate strategic ownership of everything that crossed datacenter walls (and fiercely fighting off client/server and distributed computing trying to preserve their dumb terminal paradigm). The disk division was seeing drop in disk sales with customers moving to more distributed computing friendly platforms. The disk division had come up with a number of solutions, but the communication group (with their datacenter stranglehold) would veto them.

communication group stranglehold & dumb terminal paradigm
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#terminal

The disk division (GPD had been renamed ADSTAR) software VP ... trying to work around corporate politics, was investing in distributed computing startups that would use IBM disks ... and he would ask us to periodically drop by his investments to see if we could lend any help.

other vm/4341 trivia; Jan1979 I get con'ed into doing benchmarks for national lab that was looking at getting 70 for compute farm ... sort of the leading edge of the coming cluster scaleup supercomputing tsunami (and lots of the cluster scaleup technology leaking into cloud megadatacenters)

telum/z16 posts/threads
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#17 IBM z16: Built to Build the Future of Your Business
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#16 IBM z16: Built to Build the Future of Your Business
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#15 IBM z16: Built to Build the Future of Your Business
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#14 IBM z16: Built to Build the Future of Your Business
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#13 IBM z16: Built to Build the Future of Your Business
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#12 IBM z16: Built to Build the Future of Your Business
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#11 IBM z16: Built to Build the Future of Your Business
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#10 IBM z16: Built to Build the Future of Your Business
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#42 A brief overview of IBM's new 7 nm Telum mainframe CPU
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#19 A brief overview of IBM's new 7 nm Telum mainframe CPU
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#16 A brief overview of IBM's new 7 nm Telum mainframe CPU
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#10 A brief overview of IBM's new 7 nm Telum mainframe CPU
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#7 A brief overview of IBM's new 7 nm Telum mainframe CPU
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#2 A brief overview of IBM's new 7 nm Telum mainframe CPU

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Telum & z16

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Telum & z16
Date: 28 Mar 2022
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#18 IBM Left Behind
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#19 Telum & z16

one of the other things done by the GPD/Adstar software VP was fund the original MVS "posix" (aka "unix") ... partial work around to the communication group fiercely fighting off distributed computing and client/server ... since MVS "posix" support didn't directly involve something crossing the datacenter walls.

automation trivia:

1) most cloud megadatacenters are LINUX ... cloud operators had needed full source to adapt to cloud operation ... including extreme aggressive automatition ... typical megadatacenter with over half million systems are staffed with (total) 80-120 people (covering all aspects).

2) after leaving IBM, we did a lot of work in the financial industry in the 90s ... the guy running fedwire (triple redundant IMS hot-standby, two in one location, one at another geographic distant location) liked us to stop by and talk technology. He would claim 100% availability for several years due to

a) automated operater (people mistakes had become a major service outage)

b) IMS hot-standby (environmental had become the other major service outage, power, floods, earthquakes, etc)

availability posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#available

trivia: my wife had been con'ed into going to POK to be responsible for loosely-coupled (i.e. cluster) architecture ... where she had done peer-coupled shared data architecture. She didn't remain long because

1) constant battles with communication group trying to force her into using VTAM for loosely-coupled operation

2) little uptake (until many years later with sysplex and parallel sysplex) except for IMS hot-standby

... she had funny story, after work asking Vern Watts who he was going to ask permission of to implement "hot-standby" ... he said "nobody" ... he would just do it and tell them when it was all done.

peer-coupled shared data architecture posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#shareddata

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Telum & z16

Refed: **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Telum & z16
Date: 28 Mar 2022
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#18 IBM Left Behind
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#19 Telum & z16
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#20 Telum & z16

Communication group was trying hard to prevent mainframe tcp/ip support from being announced (part of their fierce battles against distributed computing and client/server). When they lost, they changed their tactic and said that since they had corporate strategic ownership of everything that crossed datacenter walls, it had to be released through them. What shipped got 44kbytes/sec aggregate using nearly whole 3090 processor.

I then did the enhancements for RFC1044 and some tuning tests at Cray Research between IBM 4341 and Cray, got sustained 4341 channel throughput using only modest amount of 4341 processor (something like 500 times improvement in bytes moved per instruction executed).

rfc1044 posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#1044

Later the communication group outsourced to silicon valley contractor, implementing TCP/IP support directly in VTAM. What he initially demo'ed was TCP/IP significantly faster than LU6.2. He was then told that *everybody* *knows* that *properly* implemented TCP/IP is significantly slower than LU62 ... and they would only be paying for a *proper* implementation.

In the late 80s, study of VTAM LU6.2 had 160k instruction pathlength and large number of buffer copies (estimating the processor time for the buffer copies could be larger than the 160k instructions) ... compared to high-performance workstation TCP/IP having 5k instruction pathlength.

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Telum & z16

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Telum & z16
Date: 28 Mar 2022
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#18 IBM Left Behind
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#19 Telum & z16
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#20 Telum & z16
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#21 Telum & z16

3624 & 3614
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM_3624

The IBM 3624 was released in 1978 as a second-generation automatic teller machine (ATM), a successor to the IBM 3614.[1] Designed at the IBM Los Gatos lab, the IBM 3624, along with the later IBM 4732 model, was manufactured at IBM facilities in Charlotte, North Carolina and Havant, England until all operations were sold to Diebold, tied to the formation of the InterBold partnership between IBM and Diebold

... snip ...

trivia: early 80s, Los Gatos let me have part of office wing and labs, also labs in the basement ... a lot of it for my HSDT project (t1 and faster speed computer links) Initially had T1 satellite from Los Gatos to Clementi E&S lab in Kingston
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enrico_Clementi
he had boatload of FPS gear (that included 40mbyte/sec disk arrays)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Floating_Point_Systems

... circuit over the T3 collins digital radio, Los Gatos to bldg12 then to San Jose C-band T3, satellite to Kingston).

I then had pilot 3 node (4.5M dishes in los gatos and yorktown, with 7M dish in austin awd) Ku band TDMA satellite ... even custom hardware being built on the other side of the pacific.

Lots of battles with communication group ... starting with nobody wanted/needed more than 56kbit/sec (because thats all they had) and definitely not over satellite (VTAM windowing algorithm didn't tolerate the round-trip latency ... while we had implemented dynamic adaptive rate-based pacing.

hsdt posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#hsdt
xtp posts (with dynamic rate-based pacing writeup)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#xtphsp

I had been transferred from SJR to YKT for lots of transgressions, left to live in San Jose (with office in SJR, later ALM) and also got offices in Los Gatos and got to play disk engineer in bldg14&15 ... and also spent some amount of time up at the HONE system in palo alto ... but I had to commute to YKT couple times a month (monday in san jose, redeye to kennedy, bright and early tues in YKT). I've mentioned before that one of my hobbies after joining IBM was enhanced production operating systems for internal datacenters that lots of places ran ... including world-wide, online sales&marketing HONE systems were long time customers.

hone posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#hone

... I've mentioned before when 1st transferred to San Jose got to wander around a lot of IBM and non-IBM datacenters ... including disk engineering (bldg14) and disk product test (bldg15) across the street. They were running 7x24, prescheduled, around the clock, stand-alone mainframe testing. They said that they had tried MVS ... but it had 15min mean-time-between-failure in that environment. I offered to rewrite input/output supervisor to make it never fail and bullet proof enable any amount of concurrent, on-demand mainframe testing ... greatly improving productivity. Downside they would kneejerk complain any problems were mine ... and I would have to frequently shoot their hardware problems ... increasingly having to spend time playing disk engineer.

I then wrote a (internal only) research report describing the work and happen to mention the MVS MTBF ... bringing down the wrath of the MVS organization on my head (informally, offline, told they tried to have me separating from the company).

getting to play disk engineer posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#disk

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Telum & z16

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Telum & z16
Date: 28 Mar 2022
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#18 IBM Left Behind
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#19 Telum & z16
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#20 Telum & z16
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#21 Telum & z16
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#22 Telum & z16

worse than small stuff ... communication group was fiercely fighting off distributed computing and client/server and were severely kneecapping microchannel PS2 cards.

some mention that rs/6000 also had to use the kneecapped PS2 microchannel cards
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#801

Senior disk engineer got a talk scheduled at annual, world-wide, internal communication group conference, supposedly on 3174 performance, but opened his talk that the communication group was going to be responsible for the demise of the disk division. The communication group fighting off distributed computing and disk division was seeing drop in disk sales with customers moving data off mainframes to more distributed computing friendly platforms. The disk division had come up with several solutions, but the communication group was veto'ing them, with their corporate strategic responsibility for everything that crossed datacenter walls.

posts mentioning communication group trying to preserve their dumb terminal paradigm at all costs ... even if it takes down the company
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#terminal

Their stranglehold on mainframe datacenters was so complete that a couple years later ... IBM was being reorganized into the 13 baby blues in preparation for breaking up the company and the stranglehold had driven IBM far into the red ... reference gone behind paywall but still mostly free at wayback machine
http://web.archive.org/web/20101120231857/http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,977353,00.html
may also work
http://content.time.com/time/subscriber/article/0,33009,977353-1,00.html

Only a year ago, IBM reorganized its operations into 13 semiautonomous units, called "Baby Blues." The latest round of cuts will include the first layoffs in the company's history and will lead to a $6 billion write-off for the fourth quarter. IBM is expected to post a net loss of about $4.8 billion for the year -- the second largest in American corporate history.

... snip ...

we had already left IBM, but we get a call from the bowels of Armonk (corp hdqtrs) asking if we could help with breakup of the company. Lots of business units were using supplier contracts in other units via MOUs. After the breakup, all of these contracts would be in different companies ... all of those MOUs would have to be cataloged and turned into their own contracts (however, before we get started, the board brings in a new CEO and reverses the breakup).

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Someone needs to take responsibility for the cost of a tank of gas

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Someone needs to take responsibility for the cost of a tank of gas
Date: 31 Mar 2022
Blog: Facebook
1) CFTC used to require that commodity players had significant position because speculators were causing wild irrational price fluctuation (i.e. they profited by manipulating price, buy low sell high, then short sale on the way down ... including manipulating news to push price in the direction they wanted. But then CFTC sent (secret) letters to selected speculators allowing them play ... responsible for the huge oil&gas price hike summer of 2008. Later a member of congress published the transactions for 2008 showing the speculators that were responsible for the huge price spike summer of 2008. Instead of vilifying the speculators responsible, somehow the press vilified the member of congress for violating corporation privacy (as if corporations were people, disinformation to distract from those responsible). (summer 2008) Oil settles at record high above $140
https://money.cnn.com/2008/06/27/markets/oil/

posts mentioning griftopia
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#griftopia

2) a number of years ago there was news that cal. might go after SUVs/hummers ... a lot of people were getting them as residential vehicles ... but claiming commercial truck tax break ... but also many of the residential streets have weight limit ... exceeded by hummers and high end SUVs (and if properly enforced, prohibited on residential streets). Public feeling especially irate since commercial vehicles have qualified for up to a $100k tax benefit, which is automatically determined just by gross vehicle weight (therefor purchase of any of these super-SUVs automatically qualifies).

another issue is that the roads built to handle repeated axle-loads for vehicles above certain weight (possible to save significant amount of money on construction costs). there is associated claim that long haul heavy trucking was enabled by the interstate highway system in the 50s and the related heavy trucking road subsidy designed for their use i.e. tolls & road gas taxes for all vehicles when road design, maintenance, etc. is based on projected heavy truck (18-wheeler) axle-load miles (ESAL), autos and light trucks having no effect).

misc road construction ref:
https://web.archive.org/web/19990508000322/http://www.dot.ca.gov/hq/oppd/hdm/chapters/t603.htm

603.1 Introduction

The primary goal of the design of the pavement structural section is to provide a structurally stable and durable pavement and base system which, with a minimum of maintenance, will carry the projected traffic loading for the designated design period. This topic discusses the factors to be considered and procedures to be followed in developing a projection of truck traffic for design of the "pavement structure" or the structural section for specific projects.

Pavement structural sections are designed to carry the projected truck traffic considering the expanded truck traffic volume, mix, and the axle loads converted to 80 kN equivalent single axle loads (ESAL's) expected to occur during the design period. The effects on pavement life of passenger cars, pickups, and two-axle trucks are considered to be negligible.

Traffic information that is required for structural section design includes axle loads, axle configurations, and number of applications. The results of the AASHO Road Test (performed in the early 1960's in Illinois) have shown that the damaging effect of the passage of an axle load can be represented by a number of 80 kN ESAL's. For example, one application of a 53 kN single axle load was found to cause damage equal to an application of approximately 0.23 of an 80 kN single axle load, and four applications of a 53 kN single axle were found to cause the same damage (or reduction in serviceability) as one application of an 80 kN single axle.


... snip ...

posts mentioning ESAL:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2020.html#13 Office jobs eroding
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018f.html#103 Is LINUX the inheritor of the Earth?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016h.html#109 Minimum Wage
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016.html#12 1970--protesters seize computer center
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015h.html#76 IMPI (System/38 / AS/400 historical)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015b.html#47 Future of support for telephone rotary dial ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013h.html#29 "Highway Patrol" back on TV
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013h.html#28 "Highway Patrol" back on TV
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010p.html#52 TCM's Moguls documentary series
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008l.html#36 dollar coins
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008e.html#48 fraying infrastructure
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006h.html#23 The Pankian Metaphor
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006h.html#11 The Pankian Metaphor
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006h.html#6 The Pankian Metaphor
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006h.html#0 The Pankian Metaphor
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006g.html#62 The Pankian Metaphor
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006g.html#61 The Pankian Metaphor
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006g.html#60 The Pankian Metaphor
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006g.html#59 The Pankian Metaphor
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006g.html#57 The Pankian Metaphor
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006g.html#56 The Pankian Metaphor
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002j.html#41 Transportation

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

IBM Mainframe time-sharing

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: IBM Mainframe time-sharing
Date: 31 Mar 2022
Blog: Facebook
Some of the CTSS people
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Compatible_Time-Sharing_System
went to the 5th flr, project mac, and MULTICS.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multics

Others went to the 4th flr, IBM Cambridge Science Center, did virtual machine CP40/CMS (on 360/40 with hardware mods for virtual memory, morphs into CP67/CMS when 360/67 standard with virtual memory becomes available), online and performance apps, CTSS RUNOFF redid for CMS as SCRIPT, GML invented at science center in 1969 (and GML tag processing added to SCRIPT, a decade later GML morphs into ISO SGML and after another decade morphs into HTML at CERN), networking, etc.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CP/CMS
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conversational_Monitor_System

Electronic Mail and Text Messaging in CTSS, 1965 - 1973
https://multicians.org/thvv/anhc-34-1-anec.html
The History of Electronic Mail
https://multicians.org/thvv/mail-history.html

Other Companies: IBM CP/CMS had electronic mail as early as 1966, and was widely used within IBM in the 1970s. Eventually this facility evolved into the PROFS product in the 1980s.

... snip ...

i.e., coworker at science center (passes aug2020) was responsible for internal network, larger than arpanet/internet from just about the beginning until sometime mid/late 80s. At the time of cut-over from IMP/HOST protocol to internetworking in 1jan1983, they had approx. 100 IMP network nodes and 255 hosts ... at a time when internal network was rapidly approaching 1000. trivia: archived post w/list of corporate, world-wide locations that added one or more network nodes during 1983 (also sample of some of the 1983 notifications):
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006k.html#8
Also used for the corporate sponsored univ. BITNET in the 80s.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BITNET

internal network posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#internalnet
bitnet posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#bitnet

Science Center had two CP/67 commercial online timesharing spin-offs in the 60s, and all three (CSC & the spin-offs) worked on CP/67 support for 7x24 operation ... including offshift dark room, unattended operation and automagic full ipl (w/o operator). In the 60s, IBM mainframes were rented/leased and charges were based on the processor "system meter" (which ran whenever any processor and/or channel was busy). There was work on special channel programs that would allow channel to go idle ... so system meter would stop when system idle, but be instantly on for any arriving characters. Trivia: everything had to be idle for at least 400ms before mainframe system meter would come to a stop; in the late 70s, long after IBM had switched to selling mainframes ... MVS still had a 400ms timer event guaranteeing that system meter never stopped.

science center posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech
commercial timesharing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#timeshare

Note large cloud operators have so aggressively reduced system costs, that power&cooling for large cloud megadatacenter has increasingly become major cost. Equivalent to CP/67 work in the 60s, is that they've pressured major server chip vendors so that power requirements drop to (nearly) zero when idle ... but are instantly "on" when needed. They've also aggressively enhanced (linux, full source) software/system automation so that a cloud megadatacenter with half-million or more blade servers (each with ten times processing of max-configured mainframe) is staffed with only 80-120 people.

cloud megadatacenter posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#megadatacenter

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

IBM Cambridge Science Center

Refed: **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: IBM Cambridge Science Center
Date: 01 Apr 2022
Blog: Facebook
IBM Cambridge Science Center had two CP/67 commercial online timesharing spin-offs in the 60s, and all three (CSC & the spin-offs) worked on CP/67 support for 7x24 operation ... including offshift dark room, unattended operation and automagic full ipl (w/o operator). In the 60s, IBM mainframes were rented/leased and charges were based on the processor "system meter" (which ran whenever any processor and/or channel was busy). There was work on special channel programs that would allow channel to go idle ... so system meter would stop when system idle, but be instantly on for any arriving characters (CSC even owed IBM "funny money" for the machine, based on "system meter"). Trivia: Everything had to be idle for at least 400ms before mainframe system meter would come to a stop; in the late 70s, long after IBM had switched to selling mainframes ... MVS still had a 400ms timer event guaranteeing that system meter never stopped.

Note large cloud operators have so aggressively reduced system costs, that power&cooling for large cloud megadatacenter has increasingly become major cost. Equivalent to CP/67 work in the 60s, is that they've pressured major server chip vendors so that power requirements drop to (nearly) zero when idle ... but are instantly "on" when needed. They've also aggressively enhanced (linux, full source) software/system automation so that a cloud megadatacenter with half-million or more blade servers (each with ten times processing of max-configured mainframe) is staffed with only 80-120 people.

Science Center had also ported APL\360 to CMS\APL ... redoing storage management for large, (demand paged) virtual memory (rather than swapped 16kbyte) workspaces and API for system services (like file I/O) ... enabling real-world applications. Picked up business planner users in Armonk hdqtrs who loaded the most classified IBM business data (detailed customer info & using CMS\APL for business modeling) on the Cambridge system (Cambridge had to demonstrate extremely strong computer security for CP67, since staff, professors, and students from boston/cambridge area university. also used the system).

cambridge science center posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech
commercial timesharing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#timeshare
HONE &/or APL posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#hone
cloud megadatacenter posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#megadatacenter

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

IBM Cambridge Science Center

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: IBM Cambridge Science Center
Date: 01 Apr 2022
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#26 IBM Cambridge Science Center

Some of the CTSS people
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Compatible_Time-Sharing_System
went to the 5th flr, project mac, and MULTICS.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multics

... others went to the 4th flr, IBM Cambridge Science Center, did virtual machine CP40/CMS (on 360/40 with hardware mods for virtual memory, morphs into CP67/CMS when 360/67 standard with virtual memory becomes available), online and performance apps, CTSS RUNOFF redid for CMS as SCRIPT, GML invented at science center in 1969 (and GML tag processing added to SCRIPT, a decade later GML morphs into ISO SGML and after another decade morphs into HTML at CERN), networking, etc.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CP/CMS
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conversational_Monitor_System

Electronic Mail and Text Messaging in CTSS, 1965 - 1973
https://multicians.org/thvv/anhc-34-1-anec.html
The History of Electronic Mail
https://multicians.org/thvv/mail-history.html

Other Companies: IBM CP/CMS had electronic mail as early as 1966, and was widely used within IBM in the 1970s. Eventually this facility evolved into the PROFS product in the 1980s.

... snip ...

i.e., coworker at science center (passes aug2020) was responsible for internal network, larger than arpanet/internet from just about the beginning until sometime mid/late 80s. At the time of cut-over from IMP/HOST protocol to internetworking in 1jan1983, they had approx. 100 IMP network nodes and 255 hosts ... at a time when internal network was rapidly approaching 1000. trivia: archived post w/list of corporate, world-wide locations that added one or more network nodes during 1983 (also sample of some of the 1983 notifications):
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006k.html#8
Also used for the corporate sponsored univ. BITNET in the 80s.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BITNET

science center posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech
gml, sgml, html posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#sgml
internal network posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#internalnet
bitnet (&/or EARN) posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#bitnet

JES NJE had several design & implementations problems, originally node definitions were in spare entries in (originally HASP) 255 entry psuedo device table ... usually no more than 160 ... (traffic with origin or destination not in local table were trashed) and internal network was already over 255. Also JES intermixed job control and network information in the header ... MVS JES systems communicating at different release levels (with slightly different header formats) had habit of crashing either and/or both systems. There was infamous case where new MVS/JES system in San Jose was causing Hursley MVS system to crash (because of incompatible release levels, all the intermediate systems between the two were VNET/RSCS and were impervious to the JES2 header formats).

At some point marketing forced VNET/RSCS to only ship just NJE drivers ... although internal network kept running VNET/RSCS native drivers because they had higher throughput (at least until later in the 80s when communication group forced internal network to convert to SNA and eliminate the native, non-SNA drivers). MVS JES eventually increased max network definitions to 999 ... but it was after internal network had passed 1000.

HASP, JES, NJE/NJI, etc posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#hasp

trivia: as undergraduate in the 60s, I rewrote a lot of CP67 code that IBM picked up and shipped to customers ... and would periodically suggest things I might do, in retrospect some may of originated from gov agencies ... which I didn't learn about until after joining IBM and tech them computer&security classes ... from long ago and far away:
http://web.archive.org/web/20090117083033/http://www.nsa.gov/research/selinux/list-archive/0409/8362.shtml

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

IBM Cambridge Science Center

Refed: **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: IBM Cambridge Science Center
Date: 01 Apr 2022
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#26 IBM Cambridge Science Center
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#27 IBM Cambridge Science Center

The two commercial science center spinoffs in the 60s had quickly moved up the value stream specializing in offering services to wallstreet and the financial industry. one of the original 4th generation languages, Mathematica made available through NCSS (a cp67/cms spin-off of the ibm science center, cp67/cms virtual machine precursor to vm37/cms)
http://www.decosta.com/Nomad/tales/history.html

One could say PRINT ACROSS MONTH SUM SALES BY DIVISION and receive a report that would have taken many hundreds of lines of Cobol to produce. The product grew in capability and in revenue, both to NCSS and to Mathematica, who enjoyed increasing royalty payments from the sizable customer base. FOCUS from Information Builders, Inc (IBI), did even better, with revenue approaching a reported $150M per year. RAMIS moved among several owners, ending at Computer Associates in 1990, and has had little limelight since. NOMAD's owners, Thomson, continue to market the language from Aonix, Inc. While the three continue to deliver 10-to-1 coding improvements over the 3GL alternatives of Fortran, Cobol, or PL/1, the movements to object orientation and outsourcing have stagnated acceptance.

... snip ...

Mathematica 4thgen language
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ramis_software
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fourth-generation_programming_language

When Mathematica makes Ramis available to TYMSHARE for their VM370-based commercial online service, NCSS does their own version
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nomad_software
and then followon FOCUS from IBI
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FOCUS

Information Builders's FOCUS product began as an alternate product to Mathematica's RAMIS, the first Fourth-generation programming language (4GL). Key developers/programmers of RAMIS, some stayed with Mathematica others left to form the company that became Information Builders, known for its FOCUS product 4th gen programming language

... snip ...

this mentions "first financial language" done in 60s at IDC (another science center cp67/cms 60s spinoff)
https://www.computerhistory.org/collections/catalog/102658182
as an aside, a decade later, person responsible for FFL joins with another to form startup and does the original spreadsheet
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Visicalc

Also in the 70s, SJR did the 1st SQL/relational DBMS, System/R on their VM370/CMS system and managed to do tech transfer "under the radar", to Endicott for SQL/DS while STL/company was pre-occupied with the next great followon DBMS, EAGLE. When EAGLE implodes, request is made for how fast could it be ported to MVS ... which eventually ships as DB2. system/r posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#systemr

Note Tymshare had their own network, Tymnet
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tymnet
and had made their CMS-based online computer conferencing system, "free" to ibm user group SHARE
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SHARE_(computing)
as VMSHARE in Aug1976 ... archives here:
http://vm.marist.edu/~vmshare

I had cut a deal with Tymshare to get monthly tape dump of all VMSHARE files for putting up on internal IBM systems (including world-wide, online sales&marketing support HONE systems). The biggest problem I had was IBM lawyers, who were concerned that internal IBM employess would be contaminated exposed to customer information (and/or what IBM execs were telling them about customers weren't what customers werre saying).

trivia: on a regular visit to Tymshare, they demonstrated a game that they had found on Stanford SAIL PDP10 system and ported to VM370/CMS ("Adventure"). I got a copy and started making it available internally inside IBM.

commercial timesharing posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#timeshare

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Unix work-alike

Refed: **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Unix work-alike
Date: 02 Apr 2022
Blog: Facebook
... unix work-alike trivia

UCB did BSD unix work-alike
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berkeley_Software_Distribution

UCLA did Locus unix work-alike, IBM ported it to S/1, 370 & 386, two of which became AIX/370 & AIX/386
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LOCUS

IBM had gaven $50M to CMU ... did Camelot, Andred File System, and MACH ... their UNIX work-alike
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mach_(kernel)

After Jobs left Apple and founded NeXT, he used MACH kernel
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NeXT
when Jobs returned to Apple, he used MACH for Mac OS X.

And the SUN/AT&T tie-up gave rise to Open Software Foundation
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open_Software_Foundation
and POSIX
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/POSIX

Note the original UNIX was AT&T doing a simplified MULTICS
https://homepage.cs.uri.edu/~thenry/resources/unix_art/ch02s01.html

As I've mentioned several times, Some of the CTSS people
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Compatible_Time-Sharing_System
went to the 5th flr, project mac, and MULTICS.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multics
Others went to the 4th flr, IBM Cambridge Science Center, did virtual machine CP40/CMS (on 360/40 with hardware mods for virtual memory, morphs into CP67/CMS when 360/67 standard with virtual memory becomes available)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CP/CMS
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conversational_Monitor_System
And CMS as precursor to personal computing; before ms/dos
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MS-DOS
there was Seattle computer
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seattle_Computer_Products
before Seattle computer, there was cp/m
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CP/M
before developing cp/m, kildall worked on cp/67-cms at npg (gone 404, but lives on at the wayback machine)
http://web.archive.org/web/20071011100440/http://www.khet.net/gmc/docs/museum/en_cpmName.html
npg
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Naval_Postgraduate_School

science center posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech
timesharing posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#timeshare

... trivia: In the mid-80s, Apple was selling a computer with unix on it. Silicon Valley was different in those days ... we had annual conference (invitation only) where people could bring unannounced products and we could play with them ... and nobody tried to steal each other's products. other trivia: my brother was regional Apple marketing rep (largest physical region, CONUS) and when he came into town for corporate meetings, I would get invited to business dinners and could argue MAC design with the MAC developers (before original MAC was announced). Even more trivia, my brother figured out how to dial into the IBM S/38 that ran Apple to track manufacturing and delivery schedules.

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Unix work-alike

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Unix work-alike
Date: 02 Apr 2022
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#29 Unix work-alike

IBM had two aix'es ... UCLA locus for aix/370&aix/386 .... and the one for PC/RT & RS/6000 .... ROMP chip used for PC/RT originally started out for displaywriter followon. When that got canceled, they decided to retarget to unix workstation market and got the company that had done PC/IX for the IBM/PC using AT&T unix, to do one for what became PC/RT AIX (and then RS/6000 AIX).

Note: Stanford people had approached IBM Palo Alto Science Center about IBM producing a workstation they had done (started out with UCB BSD "unix"). PASC asked for review and also invited YKT workstation group, SJR workstation group, and Boca "ACORN" group (which becomes IBM/PC). All three groups claimed that what they were doing was much better than the Stanford work. The Stanford people people then form their own company to produce the SUN workstation.

Palo Alto people before adapting UCLA Locus for AIX/370 & AIX/386 ... had been working on UCB BSD for VM370 ... but then got redirected to do BSD for PC/RT ... which was marketed (mostly to universities) as "AOS".

some other recent UCLA Locus, UCB BSD, &/or CMU Mach posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#5 On why it's CR+LF and not LF+CR [ASR33]
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#1 On why it's CR+LF and not LF+CR [ASR33]
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#8 DEC VAX, VAX/Cluster and HA/CMP
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#64 1973 Holmdel IBM 370's
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#63 1973 Holmdel IBM 370's
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#27 MS/DOS for IBM/PC
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#29 IBM AIX
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#45 not a 360 either, was Design a better 16 or 32 bit processor
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021e.html#83 Amdahl
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021d.html#83 IBM AIX
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021b.html#51 CISC to FS to RISC, Holy wars of the past - how did they turn out?

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

IBM Cambridge Science Center

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: IBM Cambridge Science Center
Date: 02 Apr 2022
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#26 IBM Cambridge Science Center
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#27 IBM Cambridge Science Center
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#28 IBM Cambridge Science Center

tymshare told story that when head of TYMSHARE was told that people were using TYMSHARE for games ... he proclaimed that TYMSHARE was for business use and all games had to be removed ... he then changed his mind when they told him game playing had come to account for 30% of TYMSHARE revenue.

timsharing posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#timeshare

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

CMSBACK & VMFPLC

Refed: **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: CMSBACK & VMFPLC
Date: 03 Apr 2022
Blog: Facebook
... from email sent yesterday:

In the wake of the failure of "future system" (during FS, internal politics was killing off 370 activity, plans for FS to replace all 370s), there was mad rush to get stuff back into the 370 product pipelines ... including kicking off quick&dirty 3033&3081 efforts in parallel. The head of POK also managed to convince corporate to kill vm370, shutdown the development group, and transfer all the people to mvs/xa ... or otherwise mvs/xa wouldn't be able to ship on time.

Endicott managed to save the VM370 product mission, but had to reconstitute a development group from scratch. Also all internal stuff from the vm370 development group in burlington mall appears to be wiped ... only thing they had was source shipped as part of product to customers. One of the things that they hadn't shipped source was VMFPLC (that generated distribution tapes, and was part of stuff that had been wiped) ... which Endicott had to recreate from reversing engineering vm370 distribution tapes.


... snip ...

future system posts
http://www.garlic.com/submain.html#futuresys

.. I was asked to provide help in reverse engineering format of a tape recently found. I had done a modified version of VMFPLC (from source before the Burlington Mall development group was closed) and used it when I did CMSBACK in the late 70s ... which morphs into Workstation Datasave a decade later (PC & workstation clients added), then morphs into ADSM, then TSM. Tape records looked similar to my modified version of VMFPLC (tape records prefixed with four byte x'02'/"CMS"). This had some records that were 02/CMS ... but most records had four byte 03/BLT prefix ... that were similar (but recognizably different format). I suggested implementing tape load in "REXX" (I have vague memories of somebody doing something similar in the past). Not sure when the 03/BLT changed format was added.

IBM Tivoli Storage Manager
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM_Tivoli_Storage_Manager

some old CMSBACK email
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/lhwemail.html#cmsback
backup/archive/cmsback posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#backup

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

CMSBACK & VMFPLC

Refed: **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: CMSBACK & VMFPLC
Date: 03 Apr 2022
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#32 CMSBACK & VMFPLC

CMSBACK status dated "12/11/80 15:21:31":

CMSBACK is now installed in; Los Gatos (2 CPUs), GPD SNJ (3), GPD STL (1), Austin (1) Note: Austin has installed CMSBACK in other locations. Also it is running on a production 3033 at STL in a statistical gathering mode. It is also being installed in Yorktown.

... snip ...

There was also a "CMSBACK" service virtual machine using SPM ... where users could request looking at lists of (their) backed up files and could request specific backed up files sent to them (CMSBACK normal mode incremental backup of new/changed files). From start CMSBACK had simulated OS volser tapes, and CMSBACK service virtual machine would send mount tape requests and check volser. SPM was a programmed interface for all kinds of messages ... originally done by the Pisa Scientific Center for CP67 and later ported to VM370 (it was a superset of combined VMCF, IUCV, and SMSG found later in VM370 product). Early automated operator support were also implemented using SPM.

trivia, in the 70s, the REXX author did a client/server multi-user spacewar game using SPM ... which even worked over the network (even tho SPM never shipped to customerrs, from the very start, RCSC/VNET product included SPM support). Problem was that early on, people started writing robot spacewar clients ... that beat human players (faster reaction time) ... server enhancement was to increase energy use non-linearly for short reaction times to help level the playing field.

... other trivia: in summer of 1981, got a request from a "Ron xxxxxx" at PKNMRVM in POK for CMSBACK documentation

internal network posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#internalnet

old SPM (history) email
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006k.html#email851017
some old SPM documentation (& CMSBACK ref) in this post
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006w.html#16

othere (recent) SPM posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#29 IBM HONE
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021h.html#78 IBM Internal network
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021c.html#11 Air Force thinking of a new F-16ish fighter
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021b.html#62 Early Computer Use
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2020.html#46 Watch AI-controlled virtual fighters take on an Air Force pilot on August 18th
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#104 The (broken) economics of OSS
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017k.html#37 CMS style XMITMSG for Unix and other platforms
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016h.html#5 "I used a real computer at home...and so will you" (Popular Science May 1967)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016c.html#1 You count as an old-timer if (was Re: Origin of the phrase "XYZZY")
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016b.html#17 IBM Destination z - What the Heck Is JCL and Why Does It Look So Funny?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015g.html#99 PROFS & GML
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015d.html#9 PROFS
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014k.html#48 1950: Northrop's Digital Differential Analyzer
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014g.html#93 Costs of core
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014e.html#48 Before the Internet: The golden age of online service
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014.html#1 Application development paradigms [was: RE: Learning Rexx]
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013j.html#42 1969 networked word processor "Astrotype"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013j.html#38 1969 networked word processor "Astrotype"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013i.html#27 RBS Mainframe Meltdown: A year on, the fallout is still coming
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013b.html#77 Spacewar! on S/360
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012n.html#68 Should you support or abandon the 3270 as a User Interface?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012l.html#36 PDP-10 system calls, was 1132 printer history
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012j.html#7 Operating System, what is it?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012e.html#64 Typeface (font) and city identity
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#38 Invention of Email
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#24 Inventor of e-mail honored by Smithsonian

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

How Stock Buybacks Undermine Investment in Innovation for the Sake of Stock-Price Manipulation

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: How Stock Buybacks Undermine Investment in Innovation for the Sake of Stock-Price Manipulation
Date: 03 Apr 2022
Blog: Facebook
Letter to SEC: How Stock Buybacks Undermine Investment in Innovation for the Sake of Stock-Price Manipulation
https://www.nakedcapitalism.com/2022/04/letter-to-sec-how-stock-buybacks-undermine-investment-in-innovation-for-the-sake-of-stock-price-manipulation.html

In this comprehensive post, Lazonick and co-author Ken Jacobsen analyse how: " Rule 10b-18, as originally written in 1982 and revised by the Commission in 2003, has in fact undermined capital formation by business corporations in the U.S. economy." [By providing a safe-harbour and thus enabling stock-price manipulation], "the Rule has contributed to growing inequality in the distribution of income in the United States, with consequences that are economically destructive, socially dangerous, and morally reprehensible. For these reasons we recommend that the Commission rescind Rule 10b-18."

... snip ...

stock buybacks use to be illegal (because it was too easy for executives to manipulate the market ... aka banned in wake of '29crash)
https://corpgov.law.harvard.edu/2020/10/23/the-dangers-of-buybacks-mitigating-common-pitfalls/

Buybacks are a fairly new phenomenon and have been gaining in popularity relative to dividends recently. All but banned in the US during the 1930s, buybacks were seen as a form of market manipulation. Buybacks were largely illegal until 1982, when the SEC adopted Rule 10B-18 (the safe-harbor provision) under the Reagan administration to combat corporate raiders. This change reintroduced buybacks in the US, leading to wider adoption around the world over the next 20 years. Figure 1 (below) shows that the use of buybacks in non-US companies grew from 14 percent in 1999 to 43 percent in 2018.

... snip ...

stock buyback posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#stock.buyback
capitalism posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#capitalism

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

40 Years of the Reagan Revolution's Libertarian Experiment Have Brought Us Crisis & Chaos

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: 40 Years of the Reagan Revolution's Libertarian Experiment Have Brought Us Crisis & Chaos.
Date: 04 Apr 2022
Blog: Facebook
40 Years of the Reagan Revolution's Libertarian Experiment Have Brought Us Crisis & Chaos. "Please name one country, anywhere in the world, any time in the last 7000 years, where libertarianism has succeeded and produced general peace and prosperity?"
https://hartmannreport.com/p/40-years-of-the-reagan-revolutions

Kochland talks about Koch taking over the republican party and congress for 2011 enabled by Citizen United decision and enormous amounts of money ... running carefully selected candidates in primaries against incumbent, telling their candidate to stay home and not even having to campaign, winning with enormous number of paid for attack adds ... but then battling with Trump and religious right after 2017 (Koch libertarian stealth take-over of the conservative Republican party)
https://www.amazon.com/Kochland-History-Industries-Corporate-America-ebook/dp/B07P5HCQ7G/
pg113/loc1898-1903:

The Libertarian Party sought to abolish a vast set of government agencies and programs, including Medicare, Medicaid, Social Security (which would be made voluntary), the Department of Transportation (and "all government agencies concerned with transportation," including the Federal Aviation Administration, which oversees airplane safety), the Environmental Protection Agency, the Department of Energy, the Food and Drug Administration, and the Consumer Product Safety Commission. And this is just a partial list. The party also sought to privatize all roads and highways, to privatize all schools, to privatize all mail delivery. It sought to abolish personal and corporate income taxes and, eventually, the "repeal of all taxation."

... snip ...

In 1980, billionaire David Koch ran for vice president on the newly formed Libertarian Party ticket. His platform was to privatize the Post Office, shut down all public schools, privatize Medicare and Medicaid, end food stamps and all other forms of "welfare," deregulate all corporate oversight, and sell off much of the federal government's land and other assets to billionaires and big corporations.

capitalism posts
http://ww.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#capitalism
inequality posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#inequality

some specific posts mentioning koch bros &/or libertarian
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#30 Why Mislead Readers about Milton Friedman and Segregation?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#20 Koch Funding for Campuses Comes With Dangerous Strings Attached
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#43 Koch Empire
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021g.html#40 Why do people hate universal health care? It turns out -- they don't
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021c.html#77 Meet the "New Koch Brothers"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021.html#27 We must stop calling Trump's enablers 'conservative.' They are the radical right
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021.html#20 Trickle Down Economics Started it All
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2020.html#5 Book: Kochland : the secret history of Koch Industries and corporate power in America
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2020.html#4 Bots Are Destroying Political Discourse As We Know It
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2020.html#3 Meet the Economist Behind the One Percent's Stealth Takeover of America
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019d.html#116 David Koch Was the Ultimate Climate Change Denier
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019d.html#103 David Koch Was the Ultimate Climate Change Denier
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019d.html#97 David Koch Was the Ultimate Climate Change Denier
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019c.html#47 Day of Reckoning for KPMG-Failures in Ethics
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#37 Democracy in Chains
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#64 Mystery of the Underpaid American Worker
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018d.html#77 Nassim Nicholas Taleb
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018d.html#11 Hell is ... ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018c.html#91 Economists and the Powerful: Convenient Theories, Distorted Facts, Ample Rewards
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018c.html#83 Economists and the Powerful: Convenient Theories, Distorted Facts, Ample Rewards
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018b.html#45 More Guns Do Not Stop More Crimes, Evidence Shows
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018.html#84 The Warning
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017i.html#47 Retirement Heist: How Firms Plunder Workers' Nest Eggs

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

The Supreme Court Has Never Been Apolitical

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: The Supreme Court Has Never Been Apolitical
Date: 04 Apr 2022
Blog: Facebook
The Supreme Court Has Never Been Apolitical. Many today fear the court is becoming just another partisan institution. But, in the past, justices sought elective office and counseled partisan allies. Some even coveted the White House themselves.
https://www.politico.com/news/magazine/2022/04/03/the-supreme-court-has-never-been-apolitical-00022482

But maybe that's not a bad thing. You can't address a problem until you acknowledge it exists. We have pretended over the past 50 years that the Supreme Court is an apolitical institution. It never really was, and it isn't today.

... snip ...

In the 1880s, Supreme Court were scammed (by the railroads) to give corporations "person rights" under the 14th amendment.
https://www.amazon.com/We-Corporations-American-Businesses-Rights-ebook/dp/B01M64LRDJ/
pgxiii/loc45-50:

IN DECEMBER 1882, ROSCOE CONKLING, A FORMER SENATOR and close confidant of President Chester Arthur, appeared before the justices of the Supreme Court of the United States to argue that corporations like his client, the Southern Pacific Railroad Company, were entitled to equal rights under the Fourteenth Amendment. Although that provision of the Constitution said that no state shall "deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law" or "deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws," Conkling insisted the amendment's drafters intended to cover business corporations too.

... snip ...

... testimony falsely claiming authors of 14th amendment intended to include corporations, pgxiv/loc74-78:

Between 1868, when the amendment was ratified, and 1912, when a scholar set out to identify every Fourteenth Amendment case heard by the Supreme Court, the justices decided 28 cases dealing with the rights of African Americans--and an astonishing 312 cases dealing with the rights of corporations.

pg36/loc726-28:

On this issue, Hamiltonians were corporationalists--proponents of corporate enterprise who advocated for expansive constitutional rights for business. Jeffersonians, meanwhile, were populists--opponents of corporate power who sought to limit corporate rights in the name of the people.

pg229/loc3667-68:

IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY, CORPORATIONS WON LIBERTY RIGHTS, SUCH AS FREEDOM OF SPEECH AND RELIGION, WITH THE HELP OF ORGANIZATIONS LIKE THE CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.

... snip ...

False Profits: Reviving the Corporation's Public Purpose
https://www.uclalawreview.org/false-profits-reviving-the-corporations-public-purpose/

I Origins of the Corporation. Although the corporate structure dates back as far as the Greek and Roman Empires, characteristics of the modern corporation began to appear in England in the mid-thirteenth century.[4] "Merchant guilds" were loose organizations of merchants "governed through a council somewhat akin to a board of directors," and organized to "achieve a common purpose"[5] that was public in nature. Indeed, merchant guilds registered with the state and were approved only if they were "serving national purposes."[6]

... snip ...

Railroaded
http://phys.org/news/2012-01-railroad-hyperbole-echoes-dot-com-frenzy.html
and
https://www.amazon.com/Railroaded-Transcontinentals-Making-America-ebook/dp/B0051GST1U
pg77/pg1984-86:

By the end of the summer of 1873 the western railroads had, within the span of two years, ended the Indian treaty system in the United States, brought down a Canadian government, and nearly paralyzed the U.S. Congress. The greatest blow remained to be delivered. The railroads were about to bring down the North American economy.

pg510/loc10030-33:

The result was not only unneeded railroads whose effects were as often bad as beneficial but also corruption of the markets and the government. The men who directed this capital were frequently not themselves capitalists. They were entrepreneurs who borrowed money or collected subsidies. These entrepreneurs did not invent the railroad, but they were inventing corporations, railroad systems, and new forms of competition. Those things yielded both personal wealth and social disasters

pg515/loc10118-22:

The need to invest capital and labor in large amounts to maintain and upgrade what had already been built was one debt owed to the past, but the second one was what Charles Francis Adams in his days as a reformer referred to as a tax on trade. All of the watered stock, money siphoned off into private pockets, waste, and fraud that characterized the building of the railroads created a corporate debt that had to be paid through higher rates and scrimping on service. A shipper in 1885 was still paying for the frauds of the 1860s.

... snip ...

capitalism posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#capitalism
inequality posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#inequality

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

The Lost Opportunity to Set Post-Soviet Russia on a Stable Course

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: The Lost Opportunity to Set Post-Soviet Russia on a Stable Course
Date: 04 Apr 2022
Blog: Facebook
The Lost Opportunity to Set Post-Soviet Russia on a Stable Course
https://historynewsnetwork.org/article/182848

When the Soviet Union collapsed between 1989 and 1991, many Russians hoped their society would quickly transform into a democratic and prosperous country. They were terribly disappointed when it didn't in the tumultuous 1990s. Russia's economy cratered. Per-capita income declined by a third. Inflation surged. Corruption was pervasive. By the end of the decade, many disillusioned Russians wanted a strongman to seize control and impose order. Valdimir Putin appeared to be that savior after the outgoing president, Boris Yeltsin, elevated him. In 22 years of rule, Putin strengthened his grip on Russian affairs and became a menacing autocrat.

... snip ...

"Was Harvard responsible for the rise of Putin" ... after the fall of the Soviet Union, those sent over to teach capitalism were more intent on looting the country (and the Russians needed a Russian to oppose US looting). John Helmer: Convicted Fraudster Jonathan Hay, Harvard's Man Who Wrecked Russia, Resurfaces in Ukraine
http://www.nakedcapitalism.com/2015/02/convicted-fraudster-jonathan-hay-harvards-man-who-wrecked-russia-resurfaces-in-ukraine.html

If you are unfamiliar with this fiasco, which was also the true proximate cause of Larry Summers' ouster from Harvard, you must read an extraordinary expose, How Harvard Lost Russia, from Institutional Investor. I am told copies of this article were stuffed in every Harvard faculty member's inbox the day Summers got a vote of no confidence and resigned shortly thereafter.

... snip ...

How Harvard lost Russia; The best and brightest of America's premier university came to Moscow in the 1990s to teach Russians how to be capitalists. This is the inside story of how their efforts led to scandal and disgrace (gone 404, but lives on at wayback machine)
https://web.archive.org/web/20130211131020/http://www.institutionalinvestor.com/Article/1020662/How-Harvard-lost-Russia.html

Mostly, they hurt Russia and its hopes of establishing a lasting framework for a stable Western-style capitalism, as Summers himself acknowledged when he testified under oath in the U.S. lawsuit in Cambridge in 2002. "The project was of enormous value," said Summers, who by then had been installed as the president of Harvard. "Its cessation was damaging to Russian economic reform and to the U.S.-Russian relationship."

... snip ...

trivia: I had gotten asked to help figure out how to do 5,000 banks across Russia (@$1M, $5B total) as part of making it a Democratic country, however before it got very far, the US capitalism looting (kleptocracy) put end to efforts.

capitalism posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#capitalism

some recent past posts mentioning "How Harvard Lost Russia"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#104 Why Nixon's Prediction About Putin and Ukraine Matters
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021e.html#95 Larry Summers, the Man Who Won't Shut Up, No Matter How Wrong He's Been
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021d.html#76 The "Innocence" of Early Capitalism is Another Fantastical Myth
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#132 Ukraine's Post-Independence Struggles, 1991 - 2019
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#92 OT, "new" Heinlein book
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#69 Profit propaganda ads witch-hunt era
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019d.html#54 Global Warming and U.S. National Security Diplomacy
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019d.html#52 The global economy is broken, it must work for people, not vice versa
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019c.html#15 Don't forget how the Soviet Union saved the world from Hitler
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019b.html#40 Has Privatization Benefitted the Public?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#85 LUsers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018f.html#45 Why Finance Is Too Important to Leave to Larry Summers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018d.html#100 tablets and desktops was Has Microsoft
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018d.html#75 Nassim Nicholas Taleb
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018c.html#50 Anatomy of Failure: Why America Loses Every War It Starts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018b.html#60 Revealed - the capitalist network that runs the world
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018.html#82 DEC and HVAC
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018.html#14 Predicting the future in five years as seen from 1983

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

After IBM

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: After IBM
Date: 05 Apr 2022
Blog: Facebook
after IBM, in Jan1999 was asked to help try and prevent the coming economic mess (we failed). I was told some investment bankers had walked away "clean" from the S&L crisis and were then running Internet IPO mills (invest a few million, hype, IPO for a couple billion, needed to fail to leave field clear for next round), and were predicted to get into securitized mortgages next. I was to improve the integrity of securitized mortgage supporting documents as countermeasure. They then find that they can pay rating agencies for triple-A (when the agencies knew they weren't worth triple-A, from Oct2008 congressional testimony). Triple-A rating met they could start doing no-documentation, liar loans, securitize, pay for triple-A and sold over $27T into the bond market 2001-2008 ("no-documentation" met no issue of document integrity). From the law of unintended consequences, the biggest fines from the economic mess were for the "robo-signing mills" fabricating the "missing" documents (the fines were transferred to agencies that supposedly were to aid the defrauded borrowers ... very little found it to them ... some agencies were even headed by some of the same people involved in the economic mess).

A decade later, Jan2009, I was asked to web'ize the Pecora Hearings (scanned the fall before at Boston Public Library, 30s congressional hearings into the '29 crash) with lots of internal HREFs and URLs between what happened then and what happened this time (and who did what, comments that the new congress might have an appetite to do something). I work on it for awhile and then get a call saying it won't be needed after all (... references to capital hill was buried under enormous mountains of wallstreet cash).

economic mess posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#economic.mess
S&L crisis posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#s&l.crisis
(triple-A rated) toxic CDOs posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#toxic.cdo
Too Big To Fail (too big to prosecute, too big to jail) posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#too-big-to-fail
zirp posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#zirp

I was introduced to John Boyd in the early 80s and use to sponsor his briefings at IBM. In 1989/1990, the Commandant of the Marine Corps leverages Boyd for a makeover of the Corps ... at a time when IBM was desperately in need of makeover, aka 1992, IBM had gone into the red and was being reorg'ed into the 13 "baby blues" in preparation for breaking up the company ... gone behind paywall, mostly lives free at wayback machine
http://web.archive.org/web/20101120231857/http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,977353,00.html
may also work
http://content.time.com/time/subscriber/article/0,33009,977353-1,00.html

By the time Boyd passes in 1997, the USAF had pretty much disowned him (even though he redid the original F15 design, cutting weight nearly in half and responsible for the YF16&YF18, which become the F16 & F18), and it was the Marines at Arlington. We've continued to have Boyd strategy conferences at Marine Corps Univ. in Quantico.

More, People, Ideas, and Things in that Order: Some Observations (Boyd Symposium, Marine Corps Univ. 2012)
https://fasttransients.files.wordpress.com/2010/03/wilcox_people_ideas_things.pdf
and
https://pogoblog.typepad.com/pogo/2011/03/air-force-colonel-john-boyds-1991-house-armed-services-committee-testimony.html
... also "John Boyd's Art of War; Why our greatest military theorist only made colonel":
http://www.theamericanconservative.com/articles/john-boyds-art-of-war/

Boyd posts & web URLs
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subboyd.html

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

After IBM

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: After IBM
Date: 05 Apr 2022
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#38 After IBM

Not long after leaving IBM was brought as consultant to small client/server startup ... two former oracle employees (that had worked with on commercial cluster scaleup ha/cmp ... last product done at ibm) were there responsible for something called commerce server and they wanted to do payment transactions. Startup had also invented "SSL" they wanted to use, now frequently called "electronic commerce". I had responsibility for everything between webservers and payment networks. posts about internet gateways to payment networks
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#gateway
HA/CMP posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#hacmp

Was also brought in as consultant for the backend systems for the 2000 census (20yr old stuff rolling out spring 1997, immediately replaced with new stuff) ... and census also had me handle audits of how they were doing.

about same time as census work (brought in as consultants for the backend systems for the 2000 census), was also asked into NIH to look at NLM's UMLS ... analyze taxonomy of medical knowledge ... they gave me a CDROM with all the UMLS files
https://www.nlm.nih.gov/research/umls/index.html

two guys were still there that had done the original online catalog/abstract NLM implementation in the 60s (their own online interface with mainframe BDAM files). Now I had talken two credit hr intro to fortran/computers and within a year was hired fulltime to be responsible for mainframe systems. About the sametime they were doing NLM online, the univ. library had gotten ONR grant to do online catalog ... some of the money went for a 2321 datacell, but the project was also selected to be betatest site for the original CICS product ... and debugging CICS was added to my tasks. One of the 1st "bugs" was CICS had undocumented, hardcoded BDAM file options and library had created BDAM files with different set of options and CICS wouldn't start (took several days with no source and no documentation). In any case we pontificated about 60s mainframe.

cics/bdam posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#bdam

posts mentioning UMLS
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018c.html#13 Graph database on z/OS?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018b.html#55 Brain size of human ancestors evolved gradually over 3 million years
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018b.html#54 Brain size of human ancestors evolved gradually over 3 million years
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017h.html#94 What is SQL? The language of databases
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017g.html#57 Stopping the Internet of noise
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017f.html#34 The head of the Census Bureau just quit, and the consequences are huge
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017f.html#14 Fast OODA-Loops increase Maneuverability
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016d.html#36 The Network Nation, Revised Edition
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014d.html#55 Difference between MVS and z / OS systems
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014c.html#77 Bloat
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013g.html#87 Old data storage or data base
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010o.html#39 Compressing the OODA-Loop - Removing the D (and maybe even an O)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010o.html#10 Boyd & Beyond 2010, review at Zenpundit
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008m.html#74 Speculation ONLY
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005j.html#47 Where should the type information be?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005j.html#45 Where should the type information be?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005d.html#57 Thou shalt have no other gods before the ANSI C standard
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004p.html#0 Relational vs network vs hierarchic databases
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004o.html#67 Relational vs network vs hierarchic databases
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004l.html#52 Specifying all biz rules in relational data
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004f.html#7 The Network Data Model, foundation for Relational Model
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004f.html#0 c.d.theory glossary (repost)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004e.html#53 c.d.theory glossary (repost)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002o.html#50 XML, AI, Cyc, psych, and literature
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002o.html#45 XML, AI, Cyc, psych, and literature
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001j.html#1 Off-topic everywhere [was: Re: thee and thou
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001i.html#27 History of Microsoft Word (and wordprocessing in general)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/94.html#26 Misc. more on bidirectional links
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aadsm15.htm#15 Resolving an identifier into a meaning
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aadsm7.htm#auth2 Who or what to authenticate? (addenda)

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

After IBM

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: After IBM
Date: 05 Apr 2022
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#38 After IBM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#39 After IBM

4/2/2009 "IBM Connection" BIO (gone 404)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/ibmconnect.html
reference gone 404
https://web.archive.org/web/20110203034355/http://www.ibm.com/ibm/greateribm/

possibly because of census & NLM UMLS work, summer of 2002 got a phone call saying that a IC-ARDA (since renamed IARPA) unclassified BAA (basically saying that none of the tools at the agency did the job) was about to close and could we get an answer in before the close. We get an answer in and have a few (unclassified) meetings at the agency showing that we could do the job ... then complete silence. It wasn't until the Success of Failure articles that we figured out what went on (aka beltway bandits and gov. contractors find more money in series of failures, including many dataprocessing efforts)
http://www.govexec.com/excellence/management-matters/2007/04/the-success-of-failure/24107/

some IBM connection:

"Barbarians at the Capital" is take-off on "Barbarians at the Gate"; AMEX was in competition with KKR for (private equity) LBO of RJR and KKR wins. KKR runs into trouble and hires away AMEX president to help with RJR.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barbarians_at_the_Gate:_The_Fall_of_RJR_Nabisco
Then IBM was being reorganized into the 13 "baby blues" in preparation for breaking up the company (behind paywall but mostly free at wayback machine).
http://web.archive.org/web/20101120231857/http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,977353,00.html
may also work
http://content.time.com/time/subscriber/article/0,33009,977353-1,00.html

when IBM Board hires away the AMEX ex-president as CEO who reverses the breakup and uses some of the PE techniques used at RJR (gone 404 but lives on at wayback machine)
https://web.archive.org/web/20181019074906/http://www.ibmemployee.com/RetirementHeist.shtml

... then he leaves to head up Carlyle and private equity companies found buying up beltway bandits and gov. contractors (that become involved in "sucess of failure") and hiring prominent politicians to lobby congress to outsource gov to their companies
http://www.motherjones.com/politics/2007/10/barbarians-capitol-private-equity-public-enemy/

"Lou Gerstner, former ceo of ibm, now heads the Carlyle Group, a Washington-based global private equity firm whose 2006 revenues of $87 billion were just a few billion below ibm's. Carlyle has boasted George H.W. Bush, George W. Bush, and former Secretary of State James Baker III on its employee roster."

... snip ..

just gov. intelligence, 70% of the budget and half the people
http://www.investingdaily.com/17693/spies-like-us

another article from 2005 IBM Systems mag (got some of the early details garbled) ... they sent photographer to house for pictures that appeared in the paper version
https://web.archive.org/web/20200103152517/http://archive.ibmsystemsmag.com/mainframe/stoprun/stop-run/making-history/

gerstner posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#gerstner
pension posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#pension
success of failure posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#success.of.failure
private equity posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#private.equity

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

CMSBACK & VMFPLC

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: CMSBACK & VMFPLC
Date: 05 Apr 2022
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#32 CMSBACK & VMFPLC
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#33 CMSBACK & VMFPLC

FS info
http://www.jfsowa.com/computer/memo125.htm
folklore is some retreated to Rochester and did a greatly simplified FS as S/38

one of the last nails in the FS coffin was study by IBM Houston Science Center that if 370/195 apps were moved to FS machine made out of the fastest available technology, they would have throughput of 370/145 (about 30times slowdown). One of the things in the low-end s/38 market was there was huge headroom between throughput requirements and available technology.

this list low end FS machine at .08MIPS (80KIPS, about same as 370/115, note cisc 370 emulation avg. 10 native instructions for each 370 instruction, or 115 needed 800kip processor for 80kip 370)
https://people.cs.clemson.edu/~mark/fs.html

future system posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#futuresys

AS/400 combined followon for s/34, s/36, & s/38
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM_AS/400

Starting 1980, IBM had project to convert the large variety of internal (cisc) microprocessors all to 801/RISC processors, low&mid-range 370, controllers, and as/400. For various reason all the efforts floundered and cisc microprocessor business continued as usual. This fumbles the explanation, low/mid range 370 was still going to be emulated 370 instructions, except instead of a cisc microprocessor, it was going to be a 801/RISC "Iliad" chip.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM_AS/400#Fort_Knox

however, in the 90s, with power/pc, as/400 (finally) did move to 801/risc power/pc (64bit) chip
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PowerPC

IBM's RS64 processors are a family of chips implementing the "Amazon" variant of the PowerPC architecture. These processors are used in the RS/6000 and IBM AS/400 computer families; the Amazon architecture includes proprietary extensions used by AS/400.[13] The POWER4 and later POWER processors implement the Amazon architecture and replaced the RS64 chips in the RS/6000 and AS/400 families.

... snip ...

trivia: In early 80s, I was ask to contribute to an Endicott white paper that instead of 370 emulation with 801/RISC Iliad chip for 4361&4381 (replacing custom cisc microprocessor for emulation) ... the advance in VLSI met that it was possible to implement nearly the complete 370 architecture directly in silicon with much better performance and price/performance. In the first half of the 80s, Boeblingen had done ROMAN 3-chip 370 with performance of 168 (3MIPS). other trivia: I would see a lot of Amdahl people at monthly user group meetings hosted at Stanford SLAC. One of them on business trip to Nixdorf in Germany found Nixdorf had a bootlegged copy of the ROMAN specification. He confiscated it and mailed it to me for mailing back to Boeblingen.

801/risc, iliad, romp, rios, pc/rt, rs/6000, power/pc, etc posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#801

post about ECPS microcode assist (originally for 138/148), getting 10:1 performance improvement moving some 370 kernel code to native microcode
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/94.html#21

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Why did Dennis Ritchie write that UNIX was a modern implementation of CTSS?

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Why did Dennis Ritchie write that UNIX was a modern implementation of CTSS?
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Wed, 06 Apr 2022 07:38:08 -1000
Acceptable Name <metta.crawler@gmail.com> writes:

Ritchie, Dennis M. (1977). The Unix Time-sharing System: A retrospective. Tenth Hawaii International Conference on the System Sciences. "...a good case can be made that UNIX is in essence a modern implementation of MIT's CTSS system."
https://www.bell-labs.com/usr/dmr/www/retro.pdf

There's the citation. Why did he write that?


reference to unix, AT&T doing a simplified MULTICS
https://homepage.cs.uri.edu/~thenry/resources/unix_art/ch02s01.html

Unix was born in 1969 out of the mind of a computer scientist at Bell Laboratories, Ken Thompson. Thompson had been a researcher on the Multics project, an experience which spoiled him for the primitive batch computing that was the rule almost everywhere else. But the concept of timesharing was still a novel one in the late 1960s; the first speculations on it had been uttered barely ten years earlier by computer scientist John McCarthy (also the inventor of the Lisp language), the first actual deployment had been in 1962, seven years earlier, and timesharing operating systems were still experimental and temperamental beasts.

... snip ...

As I've mentioned several times, Some of the CTSS people
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Compatible_Time-Sharing_System
went to the 5th flr, project mac, and MULTICS.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multics
Others went to the 4th flr, IBM Cambridge Science Center, did virtual machine CP40/CMS (on 360/40 with hardware mods for virtual memory, morphs into CP67/CMS when 360/67 standard with virtual memory becomes available)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CP/CMS
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conversational_Monitor_System

other drift, CMS as precursor to personal computing; before ms/dos
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MS-DOS
there was Seattle computer
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seattle_Computer_Products
before Seattle computer, there was cp/m
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CP/M
before developing cp/m, kildall worked on cp/67-cms at npg (gone 404, but lives on at the wayback machine)
http://web.archive.org/web/20071011100440/http://www.khet.net/gmc/docs/museum/en_cpmName.html
npg
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Naval_Postgraduate_School

This is story from MIT Urban Systems lab CP67 (across tech sq quad from science center) had somebody down at Harvard wanted to use the system with a ASCII device with 1200 length ... and made a change to maximum length (but not my one byte fiddling) ... had 27 crashes in one day (all before I graduated and left Boeing CFO office for the science center)
http://www.multicians.org/thvv/360-67.html
and some motivation for MULTICS doing new filesystem (because it took so long for MULTICS to recover the filesystem after a crash, compared to CP67 ... might be considered a little bit of rivalry between 5th & 4th flrs)
https://www.multicians.org/nss.html

Three people came out to univ to install CP67 (3rd after CSC itself & MIT Lincol Labs). Univ shutdown datacenter over the weekend and I had the place dedicated ... although 48hrs w/o sleep made monday morning classes hard. CP67 had 2741 & 1052 terminal support and some automagic terminal identification code (using SAD ccw in 360 terminal controller to switch line scanner type, trivia: when tty line scanner arrived at univ for IBM engineers to install in terminal controller, it came in a Heathkit box). Univ. had some ascii/TTY33&TTY35 terminals, so I added ascii terminal support (including extending automagic terminal type for tty, IBM picked up a lot of my CP67 rewrite and shipped it, including tty support). However I done some fiddling with one byte length values ... the line length change that Van Vleck made at URBAN system lab for ascii device down at harvard ... didn't catch the one byte fiddling.

later doing some work on UNIX in the 80s, found the (unix) scheduler code looked a lot like original cp67 scheduler that I complete rewrote as undergraduate in the 60s (assumed possibly common heritage back to CTSS).

other trivia/background (comments on Van Vlecks article) in the morph of CP67->VM370 they greatly simplified and/or dropped a lot of feature/function ... including much of the code that I had done as undergraduate in the 60s. IBM user group SHARE kept submitting resolutions that IBM had my stuff back to VM370. After joining IBM, one of my hobbies was enhanced production operating systems for internal datacenters ... and got around to moving lots of the code from CP67 to VM370 (for internal datacenters).

note, IBM 23June1969 unbundling announce started charging for (application) software, SE services, maint., etc ... but IBM managed to make the case that kernel software should still be free.

early 70s, IBM had future system project which was going to completely replace 370 ... lot more info
http://www.jfsowa.com/computer/memo125.htm

internal politics was killing off 370 efforts (the lack of new 370 products during the period is credited with giving 370 clone makers their market foothold). Then with the death of FS ... there was mad rush to get stuff back into the 370 product pipelines (including kicking off the quick&dirty 3033&3081 in parallel).

The other outcome (because of rise of 370 clones) was decision to start charging for kernel software, starting with incremental addons (un the transition to charging for all kernel software). Bunch of my vm370 stuff (for internal datacenters, much of it originally in cp67) was selected as guinea pig for charged-for kernel addon (and I had to spend a lot of time with lawyers and business planners).

TSS comment trivia: Early 80s, AT&T had contracted with IBM to do a stripped down TSS/370 (called SSUP) that AT&T would layer UNIX kernel services on top of. Issue was customer mainframe hardware support required lots of RAS & error reporting ... adding that level of RAS/EREP to UNIX was many times larger than just porting unix to mainframe ... thus the decision to layer UNIX services on low-level TSS kernel (providing the required RAS&EREP features). The other approach was GOLD/UTS ... running it on VM370 in virtual machine ... with VM370 providing the necessary RAS&EREP features. Later IBM did something similar with the port of UCLA's LOCUS (unix work alike) port to mainframe as AIX/370 ... running it on VM370.

science center posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech
future system posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#futuresys
dynamic adaptive resource management posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#fairshare
unbundling posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#unbundling

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Why did Dennis Ritchie write that UNIX was a modern implementation of CTSS?

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Why did Dennis Ritchie write that UNIX was a modern implementation of CTSS?
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Wed, 06 Apr 2022 07:50:00 -1000
Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com> writes:

Three people came out to univ to install CP67 (3rd after CSC itself & MIT Lincol Labs). Univ shutdown datacenter over the weekend and I had the place dedicated ... although 48hrs w/o sleep made monday morning classes hard. CP67 had 2741 & 1052 terminal support and some automagic terminal identification code (using SAD ccw in 360 terminal controller to switch line scanner type, trivia: when tty line scanner arrived at univ for IBM engineers to install in terminal controller, it came in a Heathkit box). Univ. had some ascii/TTY33&TTY35 terminals, so I added ascii terminal support (including extending automagic terminal type for tty

re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#42 Why did Dennis Ritchie write that UNIX was a modern implementation of CTSS?

I also wanted to have single dial-in number for all terminals ... hunt group
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Line_hunting

Didn't quite work since I could switch line scanner for each port (on IBM telecommunication controller), IBM had took short cut and hard wired line speed for each port (TTY was different line speed from 2741&1052). Thus was born univ. project to do a clone controller, built a mainframe channel interface board for Interdata/3 programmed to emulate mainframe telecommunication controller with the addition it could also do dynamic line speed determination. Later it was enhanced with Interdata/4 for the channel interface and cluster of Interdata/3s for the port interfaces. Interdata (and later Perkin/Elmer) sell it commercially as IBM clone controller. Four of us at the univ. get written up responsible for (some part of the) clone controller business.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interdata
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perkin-Elmer

around turn of the century ran into one of the descendants of the box handling majority of the credit card point-of-sale dialup terminals (east of the mississippi) ... some claim that it still used our original channel interface board design.

IBM Future System trivia: major motivation for FS was countermeasure to clone controllers ... make interface so complex that clone makers couldn't keep up (as it turned out so complex that even IBM wasn't successful) ... but from the law of unintended consequences, clone controllers gave rise to FS ... and IBM FS politics killing off 370 efforts, give rise to clone 370s (getting market foothold).

clone controller posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#360pcm
future system posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#futuresys

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

IRS, Computers, and Tax Code

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: IRS, Computers, and Tax Code
Date: 07 Apr 2022
Blog: Facebook
IRS details strategy for replacing its most ancient computer code
https://federalnewsnetwork.com/tom-temin-commentary/2020/10/irs-details-strategy-for-replacing-its-most-ancient-computer-code/

Some number of meetings at New Carrollton IRS in the late 90s about the failing data processing modernization efforts. Beltway bandits with kids right out of college with the latest programming technology ... animosity between the new kids trying to have the oldtimer IRS mainframe assembler programmers explain what it did, not all business rules were sufficiently documented, so it wasn't clear to anybody what some of the assembler code was for.

congress has managed to add enormous number of loopholes over the years as a result the tax code has become an enormous document ... and congress continues to add loopholes ... making it ever increasingly complex ... sometimes right up to end of fiscal year ... increasingly unlikely that they can complete previous changes before they have to start on the next changes.

I remember tv broadcast of roundtable at economist conference discussing justification for move to flat rate tax (and eliminating *ALL* loop holes) ... dealing with number of provisions ("loop holes") in current tax code was costing 6% if GDP (one of the largest groups lobbying against any such change was tax preparation industry) ... any loss in benefits from "beneficial" loopholes would be more than made up by 6% increase in effective GDP. Prediction was that it would never happen because congress is considered most corrupt institution on earth primarily for its selling of tax loopholes. One problem was that congress had sold so many loopholes that it was starting to saturate the market, they had to come up with new mechanism that had annual lease on loopholes & reoccurring revenue. In the mean time, there is Kabuki theater where one party would threaten to eliminate loopholes ... attracting "contributions" for both sides.

capitalism posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#capitalism
Kabuki theater posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#kabuki.theater

flat rate tax posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#86 Trump's tax law threatens charities. The poor will pay
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018c.html#90 The G.O.P. Tax Cut Is Draining the Treasury Even Faster Than Expected
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#77 Corporate Tax Rate
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015e.html#96 1973--TI 8 digit electric calculator--$99.95
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011n.html#80 A Close Look at the Perry Tax Plan
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011d.html#18 The first personal computer (PC)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010o.html#59 They always think we don't understand
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010m.html#73 Idiotic programming style edicts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010l.html#69 Who is Really to Blame for the Financial Crisis?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010k.html#58 History--automated payroll processing by other than a computer?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010k.html#37 taking down the machine - z9 series
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010f.html#40 F.B.I. Faces New Setback in Computer Overhaul
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010d.html#49 search engine history, was Happy DEC-10 Day
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010d.html#48 search engine history, was Happy DEC-10 Day
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009p.html#31 Opinions on the 'Unix Haters' Handbook
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009h.html#20 China's yuan 'set to usurp US dollar' as world's reserve currency
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009e.html#83 Architectural Diversity
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009e.html#43 Architectural Diversity
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008m.html#49 Taxes
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008k.html#71 Cormpany sponsored insurance

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

IBM deliberately misclassified mainframe sales to enrich execs, lawsuit claims

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: IBM deliberately misclassified mainframe sales to enrich execs, lawsuit claims
Date: 07 Apr 2022
Blog: Facebook
IBM deliberately misclassified mainframe sales to enrich execs, lawsuit claims. Lawsuit accuses Big Blue of cheating investors by shifting systems revenue to trendy cloud, mobile tech
https://www.theregister.com/2022/04/07/ibm_securities_lawsuit/

IBM has been sued by investors who claim the company under former CEO Ginni Rometty propped up its stock price and deceived shareholders by misclassifying revenues from its non-strategic mainframe business - and moving said sales to its strategic business segments - in violation of securities regulations.

... snip ...

In another forum there was discussion of how much "product grouping" went on for cloud ... however product grouping started happening after the 23jun1969 unbundling announcement and starting to charge for application software products. Much of mainstream IBM software development wasn't use to financial constraints ... with requirement that revenue had to cover original development and ongoing maintenance.

The initial case was for announcement of JES2 NJE networking ... where there was no price forecast and customer orders that would cover NJE product development&maint (business planing did low, medium, and high price multiplied by the resulting expected numbers for total revenue ... and there was no price number that resulted in total required minimum revenue).

Apparently loophole in the regulation allowed for it to be calculated on a grouping basis. Now the dominant IBM networking was VNET/RSCS ... originally work of co-worker at the science center. However POK was in the process of getting VM370 killed and there was no way of getting new VM370 announcements (forecast was large and huge revenue for forecast $30/month up thru $600/month). JES2 cut a deal where there would be a "joint" product announcement of NJE&RSCS/VNET at $600/month ... where the enormous revenue from RSCS/VNET meeting regulations to cover JES2 NGE development and maint). There was similar grouping later with ISPF and VM370 performance products (covering ISPF development and maint costs with VM370 performance product revenue).

After the demise of Future System project (which was planned to completely replace 370) in mid-70s and mad rush to get stuff back into 370 product pipelines ... including kicking off quick&dirty 3033&3081 efforts in parallel ... the head of POK managed to convince corporate to kill VM370, shutdown the burlington mall development group and transfer all the people to POK for MVS/XA (or otherwise MVS/XA wouldn't ship on time).

Endicott eventually managed to save the VM370 product mission, but had to reconstitute a development group from scratch.

unbundling posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#unbundle
future system posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#futuresys
internal network posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#internalnet
HASP, JES2, NJE, posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#hasp

some killing vm370 posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#98 Virtual Machine SIE instruction
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#82 Virtual Machine SIE instruction
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#55 Precursor to current virtual machines and containers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#33 138/148
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#29 IBM HONE
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#119 70s & 80s mainframes
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#89 IBM PROFs
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#49 VM/SP crashing all over the place
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#4 IBM 370 and Future System
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021h.html#91 IBM XT/370
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021h.html#53 PROFS
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021c.html#64 CMS Support
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021c.html#56 MAINFRAME (4341) History
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021b.html#75 In the 1970s, Email Was Special
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021.html#57 ES/9000 as POK was being scaled way back
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2020.html#39 If Memory Had Been Cheaper
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#137 Half an operating system: The triumph and tragedy of OS/2
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#126 23Jun1969 Unbundling
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019c.html#49 IBM NUMBERS BIPOLAR'S DAYS WITH G5 CMOS MAINFRAMES
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019b.html#78 IBM Tumbles After Reporting Worst Revenue In 17 Years As Cloud Hits Air Pocket
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019b.html#77 IBM downturn
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019b.html#22 Online Computer Conferencing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#38 long-winded post thread, 3033, 3081, Future System

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

IBM deliberately misclassified mainframe sales to enrich execs, lawsuit claims

Refed: **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: IBM deliberately misclassified mainframe sales to enrich execs, lawsuit claims
Date: 07 Apr 2022
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#45 IBM deliberately misclassified mainframe sales to enrich execs, lawsuit claims

Note after troubles of the early 90s, IBM was increasingly becoming a financial engineering company ... ... stock buybacks use to be illegal (because it was too easy for executives to manipulate the market ... aka banned in wake of '29crash)
https://corpgov.law.harvard.edu/2020/10/23/the-dangers-of-buybacks-mitigating-common-pitfalls/

Buybacks are a fairly new phenomenon and have been gaining in popularity relative to dividends recently. All but banned in the US during the 1930s, buybacks were seen as a form of market manipulation. Buybacks were largely illegal until 1982, when the SEC adopted Rule 10B-18 (the safe-harbor provision) under the Reagan administration to combat corporate raiders. This change reintroduced buybacks in the US, leading to wider adoption around the world over the next 20 years. Figure 1 (below) shows that the use of buybacks in non-US companies grew from 14 percent in 1999 to 43 percent in 2018.

... snip ...

Stockman and IBM financial engineering company:
https://www.amazon.com/Great-Deformation-Corruption-Capitalism-America-ebook/dp/B00B3M3UK6/
pg464/loc9995-10000:

IBM was not the born-again growth machine trumpeted by the mob of Wall Street momo traders. It was actually a stock buyback contraption on steroids. During the five years ending in fiscal 2011, the company spent a staggering $67 billion repurchasing its own shares, a figure that was equal to 100 percent of its net income.

pg465/loc10014-17:

Total shareholder distributions, including dividends, amounted to $82 billion, or 122 percent, of net income over this five-year period. Likewise, during the last five years IBM spent less on capital investment than its depreciation and amortization charges, and also shrank its constant dollar spending for research and development by nearly 2 percent annually.

... snip ...

(2013) New IBM Buyback Plan Is For Over 10 Percent Of Its Stock
http://247wallst.com/technology-3/2013/10/29/new-ibm-buyback-plan-is-for-over-10-percent-of-its-stock/
(2014) IBM Asian Revenues Crash, Adjusted Earnings Beat On Tax Rate Fudge; Debt Rises 20% To Fund Stock Buybacks
http://www.zerohedge.com/news/2014-01-21/ibm-asian-revenues-crash-adjusted-earnings-beat-tax-rate-fudge-debt-rises-20-fund-st

The company has represented that its dividends and share repurchases have come to a total of over $159 billion since 2000.

... snip ...

(2016) After Forking Out $110 Billion on Stock Buybacks, IBM Shifts Its Spending Focus
https://www.fool.com/investing/general/2016/04/25/after-forking-out-110-billion-on-stock-buybacks-ib.aspx
(2018) ... still doing buybacks ... but will (now?, finally?, a little?) shift focus needing it for redhat purchase.
https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2018-10-30/ibm-to-buy-back-up-to-4-billion-of-its-own-shares
(2019) IBM Tumbles After Reporting Worst Revenue In 17 Years As Cloud Hits Air Pocket
https://www.zerohedge.com/news/2019-04-16/ibm-tumbles-after-reporting-worst-revenue-17-years-cloud-hits-air-pocket

stock buyback posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#stock.buyback

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

IBM deliberately misclassified mainframe sales to enrich execs, lawsuit claims

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: IBM deliberately misclassified mainframe sales to enrich execs, lawsuit claims
Date: 07 Apr 2022
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#45 IBM deliberately misclassified mainframe sales to enrich execs, lawsuit claims
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#46 IBM deliberately misclassified mainframe sales to enrich execs, lawsuit claims

I was blamed for online computer conferencing on the internal network in late 70s and early 80s. It really took off after I distributed a trip report about visit to Jim Gray at Tandem (only maybe 300 participated, claims upwards of 25,000 were reading). We print six copies of some 300 pages, along with executive summary and summary of the summary, packaged in Tandem 3-ring binders and send them to the corporate executive committee (folklore is 5of6 wanted to fire me). One of the outcomes was official sanctioned IBM software and moderated forums ... although there was a joke that periodically half of all postings were mine. There was also a researcher paid to sit in the back of my office for nine months taking notes on how I communicated, face-to-face, telephone, got copies of all my incoming and outgoing email and logs of all my instant messages. Results were internal IBM reports, conference papers and talks, books and Stanford PHD (joint with language and computer AI) ... from IBM JARGON:
https://comlay.net/ibmjarg.pdf

Tandem Memos - n. Something constructive but hard to control; a fresh of breath air (sic). That's another Tandem Memos. A phrase to worry middle management. It refers to the computer-based conference (widely distributed in 1981) in which many technical personnel expressed dissatisfaction with the tools available to them at that time, and also constructively criticized the way products were [are] developed. The memos are required reading for anyone with a serious interest in quality products. If you have not seen the memos, try reading the November 1981 Datamation summary.

... snip ...

... and from summary of summary:

• The perception of many technical people in IBM is that the company is rapidly heading for disaster. Furthermore, people fear that this movement will not be appreciated until it begins more directly to affect revenue, at which point recovery may be impossible

• Many technical people are extremely frustrated with their management and with the way things are going in IBM. To an increasing extent, people are reacting to this by leaving IBM Most of the contributors to the present discussion would prefer to stay with IBM and see the problems rectified. However, there is increasing skepticism that correction is possible or likely, given the apparent lack of commitment by management to take action

• There is a widespread perception that IBM management has failed to understand how to manage technical people and high-technology development in an extremely competitive environment.


... snip ...

posts mentioning online computer conferencing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#cmc

... took another decade (1981-1992) ... IBM had gone into the red (expected net loss $4.8B, 2nd largest in US corporate history) and was being reorganized into the 13 "baby blues" in preparation for breaking up the company .... reference gone behind paywall but mostly lives free at wayback machine
http://web.archive.org/web/20101120231857/http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,977353,00.html
may also work
http://content.time.com/time/subscriber/article/0,33009,977353-1,00.html

we had already left IBM, but we get a call from the bowels of Armonk asking if we could help with breakup of the company. Lots of business units were using supplier contracts in other units via MOUs. After the breakup, all of these contracts would be in different companies ... all of those MOUs would have to be cataloged and turned into their own contracts (however, before we get started, the board brings in a new CEO and reverses the breakup).

Also we were hearing from former co-workers that top IBM executives weren't paying attention to business and spending all their time shifting expenses from the following year to the current year. We ask our contact from the bowels of Armonk what was going on. He said that the current year had gone into the red and the executives wouldn't get a bonus. However, if they can shift enough expenses from the following year to the current year, even putting following year just slightly into the black ... the way the executive bonus plan was written, they would get a bonus more than twice as large as any previous bonus (rewarded for taking the company into the red)

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

IBM 3033 Personal Computing

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: IBM 3033 Personal Computing
Date: 07 Apr 2022
Blog: Facebook
I had transferred from science center to san jose research and allowed to wander around IBM and non-IBM datacenters in silicon valley ... including disk engineering (bldg14) and product test (bldg15) across the street. They were running pre-scheduled, 7x24, around the clock, stand-alone mainframe testing ... they mentioned had recently tried MVS, but it had 15min mean-time-between-failure (requiring manual re-ipl) in that environment. I offered to rewrite I/O supervisor to make it bullet proof and never fail, allowing any amount of on-demand concurrent testing greatly improving productivity.

Now product test would get very early engineering processors for disk I/O testing ... and 3033 #3(#4?) arrives and we find a spare 3830 and couple strings of 3330 disk drives and put up own private online service (disk i/o testing only requiring percent or two CPU). I get 3270 coax run under the street to coax switch in my office ... which gives me access to several 370 machines ... including 3033 that rarely had any significant utilization by anybody else, sort of 3033 personal computer).

trivia: I wrote a (internal only) research report on the work for disk engineering and product test ... and happen to mention the MVS MTBF ... which brings down the wrath of the MVS group on my head (was told they even tried to have me separated from IBM).

posts getting to play disk engineer
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#disk

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

IBM 3033 Personal Computing

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: IBM 3033 Personal Computing
Date: 07 Apr 2022
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#48 IBM 3033 Personal Computing

Before XA, MVS was having an increasing difficult problem ... in the transition from real memory to virtual memory, they gave each application and subsystem their own 16mbyte virtual address space ... however, OS/360 heavily used pointer-passing API ... so system calls had to be in the same address space as the parameter list ... and as a result, they mapped an 8mbyte image of the MVS kernel into each 16mbyte address space ... leaving only 8mbytes for the application. Then because they moved each subsystem was in different address space than the application (and their subsystem calling parameters), they created the common segment ... a one megabyte area for applications to place parameters when calling subsystems. However, space for parameters were somewhat proportional to system size, number of subsystems, and number of concurrent running applications. By 3033, space for subsystem parameters was running 5-6mbytes and the common segments had become "common system area" or CSA ... and for some customers was threatening to becomes 8mbytes (with the 8mbyte kernel image and an 8mbyte CSA would leave zero bytes for application ... in the 16mbyte application virtual address space).

At the same time there was explosion in distributed vm/4341s around IBM ... being placed out in non-datacenter departmental areas ... and increasing pressure to run MVS applications out on these vm/4341s (that had non-datacenter 3370 FBA disks). Part of the problem was CMS only had 64kbytes of OS/360 simulation and there were some MVS features not available in CMS. Los Gatos found that by adding another 12kbytes of OS/360 simulation, most of these MVS-only applications could be run on CMS.

IBM Burlington had a critical 7mbyte VLSI Fortran application with several large MVS systems dedicated to running it ... carefully constructed MVS systems with CSA limited to 1mbyte ... allowing their critical VLSI program to run. However, there was constant downside, any maint. and/or enhancement was constantly threatening to push the application over 7mbyte. Los Gatos demonstrated that with another 12kbytes of OS/360 simulation, the application could be moved to CMS (giving them nearly whole 16mbytes) and all the Burlington systems could be changed from MVS to CMS.

DASD, CKD, FBA, multi-track search, etc posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#dasd

some recent posts mentioning recent common segement/system area
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#19 Channel I/O
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#113 IBM Future System
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#17 Versatile Cache from IBM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021h.html#70 IBM Research, Adtech, Science Center
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021b.html#63 Early Computer Use
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2020.html#36 IBM S/360 - 370
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019d.html#115 Assembler :- PC Instruction
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019b.html#94 MVS Boney Fingers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019b.html#25 Online Computer Conferencing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#38 long-winded post thread, 3033, 3081, Future System
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#18 IBM assembler
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018c.html#23 VS History
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018.html#92 S/360 addressing, not Honeywell 200
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017i.html#48 64 bit addressing into the future
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017e.html#40 Mainframe Family tree and chronology 2
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#61 Paging subsystems in the era of bigass memory

some other recent posts mentioning vm/4341
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#19 Telum & z16
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#18 IBM Left Behind
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#5 4361/3092
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#102 370/158 Integrated Channel
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#124 TCP/IP and Mid-range market
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#59 370 Architecture Redbook
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#17 Mainframe I/O
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#15 Mainframe I/O
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#129 Computer Performance
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#115 Peer-Coupled Shared Data Architecture
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#107 IBM Future System
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#51 3380 DASD
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021h.html#78 IBM Internal network
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021f.html#84 Mainframe mid-range computing market
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021d.html#1 What's Fortran?!?!
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021c.html#67 MAINFRAME (4341) History
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021c.html#47 MAINFRAME (4341) History
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021b.html#57 In the 1970s, Email Was Special
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2020.html#38 Early mainframe security
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2020.html#28 50 years online at home

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

IBM 3033 Personal Computing

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: IBM 3033 Personal Computing
Date: 07 Apr 2022
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#48 IBM 3033 Personal Computing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#49 IBM 3033 Personal Computing

other trivia: decade ago, I got asked if I could track down decision to make all 370s "virtual memory" ... eventually tracked down somebody reporting to executive involved ... basically MVT storage management was so bad that regions had to be four times larger than used ... so typical 1mbyte 370/165 would only have four regions ... not sufficient to keep processor busy enough to justify 165. Adding virtual memory allows number of regions to be increased by factor of four times with little or no paging. Archived post with some of the email exchange
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011d.html#73

some recent posts mentioning MVT storage management & virtual memory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#2 IBM 2250 Graphics Display
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#92 Computer BUNCH
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#76 Link FEC and Encryption
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#73 MVT storage management issues
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#70 165/168/3033 & 370 virtual memory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#31 370/195
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#10 360/65, 360/67, 360/75
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#106 IBM Future System
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#77 IBM 370 and Future System
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#23 fast sort/merge, OoO S/360 descendants
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021h.html#70 IBM Research, Adtech, Science Center
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021h.html#48 Dynamic Adaptive Resource Management
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021g.html#39 iBM System/3 FORTRAN for engineering/science work?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021g.html#25 Execute and IBM history, not Sequencer vs microcode
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021g.html#6 IBM 370
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021e.html#32 Univac 90/30 DIAG instruction
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021d.html#39 IBM 370/155
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021c.html#2 Colours on screen (mainframe history question)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021b.html#63 Early Computer Use

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Why did Dennis Ritchie write that UNIX was a modern implementation of CTSS?

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Why did Dennis Ritchie write that UNIX was a modern implementation of CTSS?
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Fri, 08 Apr 2022 08:32:35 -1000
Acceptable Name <metta.crawler@gmail.com> writes:

UNIX and CTSS terminal drivers have multiple similarities. Both share the same word for processing erase and kill (erase a line), canonical. Both used the same erase character, #, and the same kill character, @. Both CTSS and UNIX could be sent quit and interrupt signals (and the CTSS Programmer's Guide does use the word signal for this) generated by pressing keys on the terminal to processes.

re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#43 Why did Dennis Ritchie write that UNIX was a modern implementation of CTSS?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#42 Why did Dennis Ritchie write that UNIX was a modern implementation of CTSS?

other CTSS, MULTICS, CP67 drift, all used 1052 and then 2741 keyboard (1965) ... "@" was lower-case next to letter "P" and "cent-sign" was upper case, "#" was lower case below the @/cent-sign ... and double quotes was uppercase. CP67 used (lower-case) "@" for character-delete and (on same key, upper-case) "cent-sign" for line-delete.

pg19/figure 9
http://www.bitsavers.org/pdf/ibm/2741/A24-3415-2_2741_Communication_Terminal.pdf

when I added ASCII/TTY support to CP67m I had choose something else at least for cent-sign ... but also tried to use keys that were approx. same position on keyboard (character/line kill)... so played with useing left&right brackets (in place of "@" and cent-sign).

CTSS & 1050 terminals
https://multicians.org/terminals.html
referenced in above
https://history.computer.org/pioneers/bemer.html

Bemer also at IBM ... ibm 360 was originally suppose to be ASCII machine (instead of EBCDIC) ... web pages gone 404 but lives on at wayback machine (biggest computer goof ever)
https://web.archive.org/web/20180513184025/http://www.bobbemer.com/P-BIT.HTM
https://web.archive.org/web/20180402200104/http://www.bobbemer.com/ASCII.HTM
https://web.archive.org/web/20180402194530/http://www.bobbemer.com/FATHEROF.HTM
https://web.archive.org/web/20180402200149/http://www.bobbemer.com/HISTORY.HTM

science center posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

IBM Personal Computing

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: IBM Personal Computing
Date: 09 Apr 2022
Blog: Facebook
One of my labs in basement of los gatos lab looked something like that (rows of PCs monitoring HSDT activity). HSDT started out T1 and faster computer links (both terrestrial and satellite). First T1 satellite was link between Los Gatos and Clementi's E&S lab in kingston (and IBM mainframe and boatload of floating point systems ... that had 40mbyte/sec disk arrays). Then got custom TDMA satellite network with 4.5M dishes in Los Gatos and Yorktown and a 7M dish in Austin.

Had a number of fireberd and phoenix bit error testers on side channels that had ascii output. I wrote Turbo Pascal program for PC/ATs that supported up to four ascii inputs from bit error testers for keeping machine readable logs.

By that time I had been transferred to Yorktown (for numerous transgressions), but lived in San Jose with offices in San Jose Research (later Almaden) and wing plus lab space in Los Gatos ... although I had to commute to YKT a couple times a month.

Lucky FSD didn't ask project to pay for audience ... FSD hassled me to give all day presentation on HSDT. I finally agreed and something like 40-50 people showed up. A couple weeks later, I got a bill from FSD ... they wanted to charge HSDT for day's time for everybody that showed up (at gov. rate), I refused, I said instead I should be billing them for a one day class.

Early in HSDT we started working with NSF director and was suppose to get $20M to interconnect the NSF supercomputere centers. Then congress cuts the budget, some other things happen and eventually and RFP is released (in part based on what we already had running). We continued to work with NSF during the interim, anticipating that NSF would somehow come up with the money. I was also working on effort to see how many processors I could cram into a rack and how many racks could cram into a room. I was suppose to do HSDT update for NSF director (including a presentation I was to give to UofCal on NSF supercomputer interconnect) ... but YKT also wanted me for a week to discuss processors cramed into a rack.

Old email about trying to do both, fly in from west coast and then back and forth between DC and YKT. Eventually I had to find somebody else to do the HSDT update for NSF.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011b.html#email850312
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011b.html#email850313
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011b.html#email850314
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007d.html#email850315

Preliminary (RFP) announce (Mar1986)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002k.html#12

The OASC has initiated three programs: The Supercomputer Centers Program to provide Supercomputer cycles; the New Technologies Program to foster new supercomputer software and hardware developments; and the Networking Program to build a National Supercomputer Access Network - NSFnet.

... snip ...

... internal IBM politics prevent us from bidding on the RFP. the NSF director tries to help by writing the company a letter (with support from other agencies), but that just makes the internal politics worse (as did claims that what we already had running was at least 5yrs ahead of the winning bid). The winning bid doesn't even install T1 links called for ... they are 440kbit/sec links ... but apparently to make it look like its meeting the requirements, they install telco multiplexors with T1 trunks (running multiple links/trunk). We periodically ridicule them that why don't they call it a T5 network (because some of those T1 trunks would in turn be multiplexed over T3 or even T5 trunks). as regional networks connect in, it becomes the NSFNET backbone, precursor to modern internet
https://www.technologyreview.com/s/401444/grid-computing/

hsdt posts:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#hsdt
NSFNET posts:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#nsfnet

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

IBM Personal Computing

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: IBM Personal Computing
Date: 09 Apr 2022
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#52 IBM Personal Computing

Boca had contracted with Dataquest (since bought by gartner) for a future of PCs study ... including a videotaped roundtable of half dozen silicon valley experts. The Dataquest person running the study, I had known for several years back to when they worked at IBM and they asked me to be one of the "experts" ... I cleared it with my IBM management and Dataquest said they would garble my bio so Boca wouldn't recognize me as IBM employee.

Part of it was Boca was loosing $5 on every machine sold ... but they claimed they would make it up by selling in volume. Boca's projected volume business price was much larger than the volume one sales advertised in the Sunday San Jose Mercury paper (I got into habit of every month or so posting the adverts in an internal forum).

trivia: some years later after leaving IBM was working in financial industry and asked to spend a year on assignment working with large PC company and a number of security companies in the seattle area (on electronic commerce). One of the security companies had a "for hire" CEO (I think brought in by the VCs) that had formally been IBM executive, including head of POK and then Boca ... we needed to have meetings with him once or twice a month.

At one point the large PC company got involved in developing a server branded "service" for financial institutions ... and I was elected to explain to their CEO that their PC server product didn't scale up to the required throughput (and would have to be done with SUN servers). Just before my briefing, some of their executives decided to change the mission, the financial institution load would be controlled/managed to what their PC server product could handle (institutional solution, rather than having me explain to their CEO about throughput requirements).

past posts mentioning dataquest
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#36 OS/2
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021f.html#72 IBM OS/2
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021c.html#89 Silicon Valley
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021.html#68 OS/2
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#27 PC Market
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018f.html#49 PC Personal Computing Market
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017i.html#89 Obsolete processors, 286 vs. 386
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017i.html#0 EasyLink email ad
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017h.html#113 IBM PS2
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017f.html#110 IBM downfall
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#33 ARM Cortex A53 64 bit
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#26 ARM Cortex A53 64 bit
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#23 IBM "Breakup"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016g.html#94 What would Klinger look like in business attire?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014l.html#46 Could this be the wrongest prediction of all time?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014f.html#26 upcoming TV show, "Halt & Catch Fire"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014c.html#24 IBM sells Intel server business, company is doomed
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014c.html#20 9th Feb 2014
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013i.html#4 IBM commitment to academia
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012k.html#44 Slackware
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011f.html#47 First 5.25in 1GB drive?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010c.html#78 SLIGHTLY OT - Home Computer of the Future (not IBM)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010c.html#10 Happy DEC-10 Day
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010.html#62 How long before Microsoft goes the way of DEC (and in part, IBM)?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009b.html#69 Intel's Future is integrated
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008o.html#6 Houses
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008o.html#5 Houses
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008d.html#60 more on (the new 40+ yr old) virtualization
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007h.html#0 The Perfect Computer - 36 bits?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007g.html#81 IBM to the PCM market
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005t.html#21 What ever happened to Tandem and NonStop OS ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004.html#34 Two subjects: 64-bit OS2/eCs, Innotek Products
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002k.html#55 Moore law

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

IBM Z16 Mainframe

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: IBM Z16  Mainframe
Date: 09 Apr 2022
Blog: Facebook
dearth of Z16 benchmarks and/or throughput data (and/or compared to previous generations) ... says 200 cores, only 10 more than z15 190 cores, specification, mostly stuff about new features
https://www.ibm.com/downloads/cas/6NW3RPQV
... and from
https://www.ibm.com/downloads/cas/OXM4KQKR

A 2-port FICON Express32S adapter that connects your IBM z16 to switches, directors, and storage devices at up to 32 Gbps. With support for native FICON®, High Performance FICON for IBM Z (zHPF) and Fibre Channel Protocol (FCP), the adapter helps meet the low latency and increased bandwidth demands of applications

... snip ...

1980, STL (now SVL) was bursting at the seams and they were moving 300 from the IMS group to offsite bldg, with dataprocessing back to STL datacenter. They had tried "remote 3270s" and found the human factors totally unacceptable. I get con'ed into doing channel-extender support, allowing channel attached 3270 controllers to be placed at offsite bldg, with no difference in human factors offsite and in STL. The hardware vendor tries to get IBM to release my support, but there is a group in POK, playing with some serial stuff, that get it vetoed (afraid that if it was in the market, it would make it harder to justify releasing their stuff).

channel-extender posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#channel.extender

Then in 1988, branch asks me to help LLNL (national lab) get some serial stuff they were playing with, standardized ... which quickly becomes Fibre Channel Standard (FCS, including some stuff I had done in 1980) ... initially 1gbit/sec, full-duplex, 2gbit/sec aggregate (200mbyte/sec aggregate). Then the POK people finally get their stuff released in 1990 with ES/9000 as ESCON (when it was already obsolete, 17mbytes/sec). Later some POK engineers become involved in FCS and defined a heavy weight protocol that radically cuts the native throughput that is eventually released as FICON.

The most recent "published" benchmark I've been able to find is "peak I/O" benchmark for z196 (2010, 12yrs ago, 22yrs after original FCS work and 30yrs after channel-extender work 42yrs ago) that got 2M IOPS using 104 FICON (running over 104 FCS). About the same time as z196, there was a FCS announced for E5-2600 blade claiming over million IOPS (two of these FCS having higher throughput than 104 FICON running over 104 FCS).

FICON posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#ficon

z900, 16 processors, 2.5BIPS (156MIPS/proc), Dec2000
z990, 32 processors, 9BIPS, (281MIPS/proc), 2003
z9, 54 processors, 18BIPS (333MIPS/proc), July2005
z10, 64 processors, 30BIPS (469MIPS/proc), Feb2008
z196, 80 processors, 50BIPS (625MIPS/proc), Jul2010
EC12, 101 processors, 75BIPS (743MIPS/proc), Aug2012
z13, 140 processors, 100BIPS (710MIPS/proc), Jan2015
z14, 170 processors, 150BIPS (862MIPS/proc), Aug2017 z15, 190 processors, 190BIPS* (1000MIPS/proc), Sep2019

• pubs say z15 1.25 times z14 (1.25*150BIPS or 190BIPS)
• z16, 200 processors, ???BIPS (???MIPS/proc),


telum/z16 posts/threads
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#23 Telum & z16
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#22 Telum & z16
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#21 Telum & z16
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#20 Telum & z16
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#19 Telum & z16
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#17 IBM z16: Built to Build the Future of Your Business
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#16 IBM z16: Built to Build the Future of Your Business
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#15 IBM z16: Built to Build the Future of Your Business
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#14 IBM z16: Built to Build the Future of Your Business
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#13 IBM z16: Built to Build the Future of Your Business
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#12 IBM z16: Built to Build the Future of Your Business
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#11 IBM z16: Built to Build the Future of Your Business
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#10 IBM z16: Built to Build the Future of Your Business
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#42 A brief overview of IBM's new 7 nm Telum mainframe CPU
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#19 A brief overview of IBM's new 7 nm Telum mainframe CPU
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#16 A brief overview of IBM's new 7 nm Telum mainframe CPU
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#10 A brief overview of IBM's new 7 nm Telum mainframe CPU
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#7 A brief overview of IBM's new 7 nm Telum mainframe CPU
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#2 A brief overview of IBM's new 7 nm Telum mainframe CPU

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

What's different, was Why did Dennis Ritchie write that UNIX was a modern implementation of CTSS?

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: What's different, was Why did Dennis Ritchie write that UNIX was a modern implementation of CTSS?
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Sat, 09 Apr 2022 13:19:23 -1000
Acceptable Name <metta.crawler@gmail.com> writes:

Re: IBM being different, in the 1990s I learn Logical Volume Manager (LVM). It was created during the time when OSF/1 was being written by three-headed monster, IBM, HP and DEC. HP and IBM had essentially the same commands with different names. IBM used varyonvg for what HP called vgchange, etc.

re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#51 Why did Dennis Ritchie write that UNIX was a modern implementation of CTSS?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#43 Why did Dennis Ritchie write that UNIX was a modern implementation of CTSS?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#42 Why did Dennis Ritchie write that UNIX was a modern implementation of CTSS?

... from long ago and far away ....

Date: Thu, 24 Mar 1988 11:46:54 CST
From: wheeler
Subject: system management;

Early rough draft on system management document has been updated on proto disk. It is sja021 (and includes sja021a and sja006c). It includes greatly expanded sections on install, logical volume manager, and boot.


... snip ... top of post, old email index

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Logical_volume_management
above says IBM LVM w/AIXv3, 1989 and HP LVM with HP9.x
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HP-UX
1992.

it was part of IBM Austin AIXv3 work for original RS/6000. AIXv3 filesystem also used RIOS (rs/6000 chipset) "transaction" memory capturing filesystem metadata changes for logging. IBM Palo Alto then redid filesystem logging purely in software and demo'ed it even ran faster than transaction memory logging (on same system). IBM Palo Alto had worked on UCLA LOCUS port
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LOCUS
for AIX/370 and AIX/386
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM_AIX#IBM_PS/2_series
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM_AIX#AIX/370

... also offered to OS/1
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open_Software_Foundation
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OSF/1

OSF/1 is a variant of the Unix operating system developed by the Open Software Foundation during the late 1980s and early 1990s. OSF/1 is one of the first operating systems to have used the Mach kernel developed at Carnegie Mellon University, and is probably best known as the native Unix operating system for DEC Alpha architecture systems.

801/risc, iliad, romp, rios, aix, rs/6000, power, power/pc posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#801

older thread:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011p.html#4 Dennis Ritchie
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011o.html#24 Dennis Ritchie
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011o.html#16 Dennis Ritchie
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011o.html#2 Dennis Ritchie
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011n.html#36 Last Word on Dennis Ritchie
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011n.html#35 Last Word on Dennis Ritchie
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011n.html#34 Last Word on Dennis Ritchie
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011n.html#33 Last Word on Dennis Ritchie
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011n.html#29 Dennis Ritchie's Wonderful Web Pages
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011n.html#25 Dennis Ritchie's Wonderful Web Pages
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011n.html#17 Dennis Ritchie
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011n.html#14 Dennis Ritchie

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

ASCI White

Refed: **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: ASCI White
Date: 09 Apr 2022
Blog: Facebook
ASCI White
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ASCI_White

vm/4341 trivia; Jan1979 I get con'ed into doing benchmarks for national lab that was looking at getting 70 for compute farm ... sort of the leading edge of the coming cluster scaleup supercomputing tsunami (and lots of the cluster scaleup technology leaking into cloud datacenters)

Last product we did at IBM was HA/6000, originally for NYTimes to move their newspaper system (ATEX) off DEC VAXcluster to RS/6000. I then renamed it HA/CMP when I was out working on technical/scientific cluster scaleup with national labs and commercial scaleup with RDBMS vendors (Ingres, Informix, Sybase, Oracle). We were out marketing five-nines availability and I coined the terms disaster survivability and geographic survivability ... and then was asked to write a section for corporate strategic continuous availability document. It got pulled when both Rochester (AS/400) and POK (IBM mainframe) said that they couldn't meet the requirements. Reference to JAN1992 meeting in Ellison's (Oracle CEO) conference room discussing cluster scaleup, 16-way mid-1992, 128-way ye-1992.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/95.html#13

Besides HA/CMP at national labs (supercomputing)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM_High_Availability_Cluster_Multiprocessing
was also working on migrating their supercomputer filesystems to HA/CMP ... and NII meetings at LLNL.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Information_Infrastructure
email about having conflict with LLNL NII meeting, and one of the other vendors coming by to fill me in on what happened
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006x.html#email920129

within possibly hrs, cluster scaleup is transferred for announce as IBM supercomputer (for technical/scientific *ONLY*) and we are told we can't work on anything with more than four processors (we leave IBM a few months later). Possibly contributing was (mainframe) DB2 group complaining if we were allowed to continue, it would be at least five yrs ahead of them.

17Feb1992 (computerworld) press, announced for scientific and technical *ONLY*
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001n.html#6000clusters1
computerworld 1992-02-17 at wayback machine
https://archive.org/details/sim_computerworld_1992-02-17_26_7
11May1992 press, cluster supercomputing caught IBM by "surprise"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001n.html#6000clusters2
15Jun1992 press, cluster computers, mentions IBM plans to "demonstrate" mainframe 32-microprocessor later 1992, is that tightly-coupled or loosely-coupled (or even really mainframe)??
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001n.html#6000clusters3

z900 16-processors not until 2000; z990 32-processors 2003. I've periodically mentioned got involved in 16-way processor (tightly-coupled) 370 mainframe in the 70s, and we con'ed the 3033 processor engineers to work on it in their spare time (lot more interesting than remapping 168 to 20% faster chips). Everybody thought it was great until somebody told head of POK that it could be decades before POK favorite son operating system (MVS) had (effective) 16-way support. Then some of us were invited to never visit POK again, and the 3033 processors engineers directed to stop being distracted.

ha/cmp posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#hacmp
availability posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#available

and for some mainframe ASCII trivia: "The Greatest Computer Goof Ever" (gone 404, but lives on at wayback machine)
https://web.archive.org/web/20180513184025/http://www.bobbemer.com/P-BIT.HTM

Who Goofed?

The culprit was T. Vincent Learson. The only thing for his defense is that he had no idea of what he had done. It was when he was an IBM Vice President, prior to tenure as Chairman of the Board, those lofty positions where you believe that, if you order it done, it actually will be done. I've mentioned this fiasco elsewhere


... snip ...

his history index
https://web.archive.org/web/20180402200149/http://www.bobbemer.com/HISTORY.HTM

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

ASCI White

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: ASCI White
Date: 09 Apr 2022
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#56 ASCI White

other supercomuter trivia, in the early 80s, also started HSDT project (T1 and faster computer links), was working with director of NSF and was suppose to get $20M to interconnect the NSF supercomputer centers. Was also doing some FEC work with Cyclotomics up at Berkeley (founded by Berlekamp, later bought by Kodak) on 15/16s Reed-Solomon forward error correcting. Trivia, Cyclotomics also provided the encoding standard for CDROMs. Then congress cuts the budget, some other things happen and eventually an RFP is released (in part based on what we already had running). Preliminary announce (Mar1986)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002k.html#12

The OASC has initiated three programs: The Supercomputer Centers Program to provide Supercomputer cycles; the New Technologies Program to foster new supercomputer software and hardware developments; and the Networking Program to build a National Supercomputer Access Network - NSFnet.

... snip ...

... internal IBM politics prevent us from bidding on the RFP. the NSF director tries to help by writing the company a letter (with support from other agencies), but that just makes the internal politics worse (as did claims that what we already had running was at least 5yrs ahead of the winning bid). The winning bid doesn't even install T1 links called for ... they are 440kbit/sec links ... but apparently to make it look like its meeting the requirements, they install telco multiplexors with T1 trunks (running multiple links/trunk). We periodically ridicule them that why don't they call it a T5 network (because some of those T1 trunks would in turn be multiplexed over T3 or even T5 trunks). as regional networks connect in, it becomes the NSFNET backbone, precursor to modern internet
https://www.technologyreview.com/s/401444/grid-computing/

First part of 80s (somewhat preparing for interconnecting NSF supercomputer centers) ... HSDT had T1 satellite link between IBM Los Gatos and Clementi
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enrico_Clementi
E&S lab in IBM Kingston (this was different and not related to the 80s IBM Kingston's "supercomputer" effort). Clementi's lab had boatload of FPS boxes (with 40mbyte/sec disk arrays)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Floating_Point_Systems
the Cornell supercomputer center then also getting boatload of FPS boxes.
https://www.nytimes.com/1985/03/16/nyregion/cornell-prepares-to-enter-the-supercomputer-era.html

hsdt posts:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#hsdt
NSFNET posts:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#nsfnet

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Rags-to-Riches Stories Are Actually Kind of Disturbing

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Rags-to-Riches Stories Are Actually Kind of Disturbing
Date: 10 Apr 2022
Blog: Facebook
Rags-to-Riches Stories Are Actually Kind of Disturbing. From Horatio Alger and E.L. James to T. Boone Pickens and Charles Koch, books by and about the ultrawealthy reveal some of our darkest American fantasies.
https://www.nytimes.com/2022/04/05/magazine/billionaire-books.html

When Mayer broke her story, which she turned into the best-selling 2016 book, "Dark Money," published a year after Koch's own book, she became the subject of a campaign to discredit her that she traced back to people affiliated with Koch business concerns. Seen in this context, "Good Profit" is almost comic in its hypocrisy, and the book takes on a defensive air.

... snip ...

Kochland review: how the Kochs bought America - and trashed it
https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2019/dec/07/kochland-review-koch-brothers-pollution-congress-republicans

In 1980, David Koch was the Libertarian candidate for vice-president. The party's modest plans included the abolition of "Medicare, Medicaid, social security (which would be made voluntary), the Department of Transportation, the Federal Aviation Administration, the Environmental Protection Agency, the Department of Energy, the Food and Drug Administration, and the Consumer Product Safety Commission."

... snip ...

Meet the Economist Behind the One Percent's Stealth Takeover of America. Nobel laureate James Buchanan is the intellectual linchpin of the Koch-funded attack on democratic institutions, argues Duke historian Nancy MacLean
https://www.ineteconomics.org/perspectives/blog/meet-the-economist-behind-the-one-percents-stealth-takeover-of-america

With Koch's money and enthusiasm, Buchanan's academic school evolved into something much bigger. By the 1990s, Koch realized that Buchanan's ideas -- transmitted through stealth and deliberate deception, as MacLean amply documents -- could help take government down through incremental assaults that the media would hardly notice. The tycoon knew that the project was extremely radical, even a "revolution" in governance, but he talked like a conservative to make his plans sound more palatable.

... snip ...

Kochland talks about Koch taking over the republican party and congress for 2011 enabled by Citizen United decision and enormous amounts of money ... running carefully selected candidates in primaries against incumbent, telling their candidate to stay home and not even having to campaign, winning with enormous number of paid-for attack adds ... but then battling with Trump and religious right after 2017 (Koch libertarian stealth take-over of the conservative Republican party)
https://www.amazon.com/Kochland-History-Industries-Corporate-America-ebook/dp/B07P5HCQ7G/
pg113/loc1898-1903:

The Libertarian Party sought to abolish a vast set of government agencies and programs, including Medicare, Medicaid, Social Security (which would be made voluntary), the Department of Transportation (and "all government agencies concerned with transportation," including the Federal Aviation Administration, which oversees airplane safety), the Environmental Protection Agency, the Department of Energy, the Food and Drug Administration, and the Consumer Product Safety Commission. And this is just a partial list. The party also sought to privatize all roads and highways, to privatize all schools, to privatize all mail delivery. It sought to abolish personal and corporate income taxes and, eventually, the "repeal of all taxation."

... snip ...

capitalism posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#capitalism

some past posts mentioning Koch Empire, Brothers, Industry, Funding, etc
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#35 40 Years of the Reagan Revolution's Libertarian Experiment Have Brought Us Crisis & Chaos
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#20 Koch Funding for Campuses Comes With Dangerous Strings Attached
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#43 Koch Empire
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#98 The Koch Empire Goes All Out to Sink Joe Biden's Agenda -- and His Presidency, Too
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021g.html#40 Why do people hate universal health care? It turns out -- they don't
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021f.html#13 Elizabeth Warren hammers JPMorgan Chase CEO Jamie Dimon on pandemic overdraft fees
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021c.html#77 Meet the "New Koch Brothers"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021c.html#51 In Biden's recovery plan, an overdue rebuke of trickle-down economics
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021.html#27 We must stop calling Trump's enablers 'conservative.' They are the radical right
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021.html#20 Trickle Down Economics Started it All
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2020.html#14 Book on monopoly (IBM)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2020.html#5 Book: Kochland : the secret history of Koch Industries and corporate power in America
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2020.html#4 Bots Are Destroying Political Discourse As We Know It
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2020.html#3 Meet the Economist Behind the One Percent's Stealth Takeover of America
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#134 12 EU states reject move to expose companies' tax avoidance
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019d.html#116 David Koch Was the Ultimate Climate Change Denier
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019d.html#103 David Koch Was the Ultimate Climate Change Denier
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019d.html#97 David Koch Was the Ultimate Climate Change Denier
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019d.html#64 How the Supreme Court Is Rebranding Corruption
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019c.html#47 Day of Reckoning for KPMG-Failures in Ethics
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#45 Jeffrey Skilling, Former Enron Chief, Released After 12 Years in Prison
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#37 Democracy in Chains
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018f.html#11 A Tea Party Movement to Overhaul the Constitution Is Quietly Gaining
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#102 Can we learn from financial lessons of 90 years ago?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#64 Mystery of the Underpaid American Worker
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018d.html#77 Nassim Nicholas Taleb
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018d.html#11 Hell is ... ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018c.html#91 Economists and the Powerful: Convenient Theories, Distorted Facts, Ample Rewards
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018c.html#83 Economists and the Powerful: Convenient Theories, Distorted Facts, Ample Rewards
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018b.html#45 More Guns Do Not Stop More Crimes, Evidence Shows
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018.html#84 The Warning
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017i.html#47 Retirement Heist: How Firms Plunder Workers' Nest Eggs
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017h.html#13 What the Enron E-mails Say About Us
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017f.html#6 [CM] What was your first home computer?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#5 Trump to sign cyber security order
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016g.html#32 Ma Bell is coming back and, boy, is she pissed! She bought Bugs Bunny!
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016g.html#31 Economic Mess
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016b.html#110 The Koch-Fueled Plot to Destroy the VA
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016b.html#107 Qbasic - lies about Medicare
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016.html#38 Shout out to Grace Hopper (State of the Union)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016.html#31 I Feel Old
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015e.html#52 1973--TI 8 digit electric calculator--$99.95
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015e.html#4 Western Union envisioned internet functionality
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014m.html#27 LEO
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013h.html#52 "Highway Patrol" back on TV
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011o.html#72 Public misperception about scientific agreement on global warming undermines climate policy support
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011o.html#64 Civilization, doomed?

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Rags-to-Riches Stories Are Actually Kind of Disturbing

Refed: **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Rags-to-Riches Stories Are Actually Kind of Disturbing
Date: 10 Apr 2022
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#58 Rags-to-Riches Stories Are Actually Kind of Disturbing

Gramm, #2 on time's list of those responsible for economic mess (2001-2008)
http://content.time.com/time/specials/packages/article/0,28804,1877351_1877350_1877330,00.html

Now better known for GLBA and repeal of Glass-Steagall (enabling Too Big To Fail, used as excuse for not holding TBTF accountable), but on the list for legislation blocking regulation of CDS gambling bets (derivatives). Born, CFTC chair, suggested regulating derivatives. Gramm's wife replaces Born, while Gramm gets legislation passed blocking derivative regulation), then his wife resigns to join Enron board (and audit committee).
http://www.nytimes.com/2008/11/17/business/17grammside.html

Enron was a major contributor to Mr. Gramm's political campaigns, and Mr. Gramm's wife, Wendy, served on the Enron board, which she joined after stepping down as chairwoman of the Commodity Futures Trading Commission.

... snip ...

https://web.archive.org/web/20080711114839/http://www.villagevoice.com/2002-01-15/news/phil-gramm-s-enron-favor/

A few days after she got the ball rolling on the exemption, Wendy Gramm resigned from the commission. Enron soon appointed her to its board of directors, where she served on the audit committee, which oversees the inner financial workings of the corporation. For this, the company paid her between $915,000 and $1.85 million in stocks and dividends, as much as $50,000 in annual salary, and $176,000 in attendance fees

... snip ...

slightly different description: "Dark Money: The Hidden History of the Billionaires Behind the Rise of the Radical Right"
https://www.amazon.com/Dark-Money-History-Billionaires-RadicalRight-ebook/dp/B0180SU4OA/
loc2953-55:

The most fateful Mercatus Center hire might have been Wendy Gramm, an economist and director at the giant Texas energy company Enron who was the wife of Senator Phil Gramm, the powerful Texas Republican. In the mid-1990s, she became the head of Mercatus's Regulatory Studies Program.

loc2955-57:

There, she pushed Congress to support what came to be known as the Enron Loophole, exempting the type of energy derivatives from which Enron profited from regulatory oversight. Both Enron and Koch Industries, which also was a major trader of derivatives, lobbied desperately for the loophole.

loc2958-59:

Some experts foresaw danger. In 1998, Brooksley Born, chair of the Commodity Futures Trading Commission, warned that the lucrative but risky derivatives market needed more government oversight.

loc2959-61:

But Senator Gramm, who chaired the Senate Banking Committee, ignored such warnings, crafting a deregulatory bill made to order for Enron and Koch, called the Commodity Futures Modernization Act.

... snip ...

Mercatus Center
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mercatus_Center

economic mess posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#economic.mess
Too Big To Fail (too big to prosecute, too big to jail) posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#too-big-to-fail
'29 crash, Pecora Hearings, FDIC insured and/or Glass-Steagall posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#Pecora&/orGlass-Steagall<
capitalism posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#capitalism

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

What's different, was Why did Dennis Ritchie write that UNIX was a modern implementation of CTSS?

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: What's different, was Why did Dennis Ritchie write that UNIX was a modern implementation of CTSS?
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Mon, 11 Apr 2022 08:22:55 -1000
Johnny Billquist <bqt@softjar.se> writes:

Before 1969? Hmm, maybe they did. Interdata was founded in 1966. They must have had some product before 1970. Wikipedia claims their architectures were based on the IBM 360. Never really used any Interdata. Never liked them...

re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#55 What's different, was Why did Dennis Ritchie write that UNIX was a modern implementation of CTSS?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#51 Why did Dennis Ritchie write that UNIX was a modern implementation of CTSS?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#43 Why did Dennis Ritchie write that UNIX was a modern implementation of CTSS?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#42 Why did Dennis Ritchie write that UNIX was a modern implementation of CTSS?

up thread, my post about we built a 360 clone telecommunication using interdata/3 (design/built channel interface board) ... which was enhanced to interdata/4 for the channel interface and cluster of interdata/3 for the port/line scanners.

posts mentioning clone controllers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#360pcm

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Rags-to-Riches Stories Are Actually Kind of Disturbing

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Rags-to-Riches Stories Are Actually Kind of Disturbing
Date: 11 Apr 2022
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#59 Rags-to-Riches Stories Are Actually Kind of Disturbing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#58 Rags-to-Riches Stories Are Actually Kind of Disturbing

The Big, Big Money
https://talkingpointsmemo.com/edblog/the-big-big-money

This is possibly the largest and most brazen instance of public corruption I've seen in twenty five years covering American politics as a journalist. And this is saying something since, as you know, public corruption has always been one of my greatest interests and consistent beats. We knew a relationship like this was building through the Trump administration. Trump's son-in-law, callow and hungry, had taken over administration Middle East policy, in the expectations of the big money pay offs the Saudis especially but not only them could provide to the Trump-Kushner family.

... snip ...

Before Giving Billions to Jared Kushner, Saudi Investment Fund Had Big Doubts. Before committing $2 billion to Mr. Kushner's fledgling firm, officials at a fund led by the Saudi crown prince questioned taking such a big risk.
https://www.nytimes.com/2022/04/10/us/jared-kushner-saudi-investment-fund.html

capitalism posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#capitalism

posts mentioning Jared Kushner and/or Mohammed bin Salman
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021c.html#27 US intelligence report finds Saudi Crown Prince responsible for approving operation that killed Khashoggi
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021c.html#24 US intelligence report finds Saudi Crown Prince responsible for approving operation that killed Khashoggi
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2020.html#21 Saudi ruler aimed to 'silence' Washington Post
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#58 Homeland Security Dept. Affirms Threat of White Supremacy After Years of Prodding
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#26 Radical Muslim
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019d.html#53 Those 'rat infested' places in Baltimore? They're owned by Trump's son-in-law
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019c.html#38 Did The 'B-Team' Overplay It's Hand On Iran?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017g.html#78 This Afghan War Plan By The Guy Who Founded Blackwater Should Scare The Hell Out Of You
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017f.html#21 [CM] What was your first home computer?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#6 ComputerWorld Says: Cobol plays major role in U.S. government breaches

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

IBM RESPOND

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: IBM RESPOND
Date: 11 Apr 2022
Blog: Facebook
from long ago and far away, RESPOND would put a hold on files coming through larger than 5,000 bytes and purge files larger than 10,000 bytes. I was distributing VMSHARE monthly updates as one large file, which frequently exceeded 10,000 bytes.

Date: 02/23/81 08:41:40
From: SJRLVM1 wheeler
To: RESPOND xxxxx
Cc: WINH6 xxxxx, UITHON1 xxxxx

too bad RESPOND doesn't put up a copy of VMSHARE 291 also. The current list is SJRLVM1, TOROHONE, HONE1/2/3, UITHON, WINH6, & YKTVMV. If RESPOND also put up a VMSHARE 291 disk, I could send the monthly file directly there and somebody at RESPOND could forward copies of the file to both UITHON & WINH6. That wouldn't eliminate the problem, but . . it would have somebody in RESPOND making sure the files got thru.


... snip ... top of post, old email index

TYMSHARE started making their CMS-based online computer conferencing system free to SHARE as VMSHARE in AUG1976 ... archives:
http://vm.marist.edu/~vmshare

I had cut a deal with TYMSHARE to get complete monthly tape dump of all VMSHARE files for putting up on internal network & systems. We had a service that people on the internal network could retrieve files remotely ... and I also offered to distribute copies to other systems internally (I would only distribute new/changed since the previous distribution) ... especially sales&marketing people on HONE systems (after joining IBM, one of my hobbies was enhanced production operating systems for internal datacenters and HONE was long time customer from just about its inception).

One of the troubles I had making VMSHARE available was with IBM lawyers who were afraid than internal employees would be contaminated being exposed to what customers were saying.

I had done a trip report on 6weeks summer of 1982 touring Europe giving talks, classes, and customer calls.

Date: 09/15/82 09:34:22
From: RESPOND xxxxxx
To: SJRLVM1 wheeler

Thanks for the copy of your trip report, which I'm reading with great interest - especially the section on Orleans - I was involved in the early days of the project, in trying to get them a sensible interface to the European CON/370 network. The odd thing is that BOIS obviously fills a need not catered for by thorough-designed systems like AAS, but the developers of AAS (ie Respond) don't have any intention to add "Information Center" products to their output: they still believe in the cycle of specification, design, coding release and improvement request, in spite of the fact that the cycle can last two years.


... snip ... top of post, old email index

HONE posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#hone
internal network posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#internalnet

some prior posts mentioning BOIS
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021h.html#82 IBM Internal network
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021f.html#85 Mainframe mid-range computing market
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013m.html#32 Work long hours (Was Re: Pissing contest(s))
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006p.html#34 "25th Anniversary of the Personal Computer"

Part of trip report
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006p.html#email820912

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

What's different, was Why did Dennis Ritchie write that UNIX was a modern implementation of CTSS?

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: What's different, was Why did Dennis Ritchie write that UNIX was a modern implementation of CTSS?
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Tue, 12 Apr 2022 09:52:58 -1000
Dan Espen <dan1espen@gmail.com> writes:

Yep, fairly large project were I worked was on RS/6000. For a while IBM had a line of RS/6000 workstations to compete with Sun. Never liked smit.

re: re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#60 What's different, was Why did Dennis Ritchie write that UNIX was a modern implementation of CTSS?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#55 What's different, was Why did Dennis Ritchie write that UNIX was a modern implementation of CTSS?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#51 Why did Dennis Ritchie write that UNIX was a modern implementation of CTSS?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#43 Why did Dennis Ritchie write that UNIX was a modern implementation of CTSS?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#42 Why did Dennis Ritchie write that UNIX was a modern implementation of CTSS?

the last product did at IBM ... started out HA/6000 to move NYTimes newspaper system (ATEX) off VAXCluster. I renamed it HA/CMP when I started doing technically/scientific cluster scaleup with national labs and commercial cluster scaleup with RDBMS vendors (oracle, informix, sybase, ingres). It started out relying on the aixv3 journal/logging filesystem for fast fallover.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM_High_Availability_Cluster_Multiprocessing

The RDBMS vendors all had vaxcluster support in same source base as unix .. and so I did distributed lock manager with VAXCluster API semantics to simplify the port. The RDBMS vendors also had their list of VAXcluster shortcomings that needed improvement .... I had my own list having worked on mainframe loosely-coupled (cluster) for a couple decades and having been involved with System/R (original sql/relational) implementation.

old post about JAN1992 meeting in Ellison's (oracle ceo) conference room mention 16-way cluster by mid92 and 128-way cluster by ye92
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/95.html#13

within a few weeks, cluster-scaleup is transferred, announced as IBM supercomputer (for technical/scientific *ONLY*), and we were told we couldn't work with anything involving more than four processors. We leave IBM a few months later. Part of the issue was the mainframe DB2 people were complaining if we were allowed to continue, it would be years ahead of them.

ha/cmp posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#hacmp
system/r posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#systemr

After leaving IBM we ware then involved with multiple projects mostly in the financial industry, although at one point, SUN asks me if I would consider productizing and shipping
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spring_(operating_system)
had hardcopy, softcopy gone 404, but lives free at wayback
http://web.archive.org/web/20030404182953/http://java.sun.com/people/kgh/spring/
From one of the Spring Papers:

A Client-Side Stub Interpreter

Petere B. Kessler

Abstract

We have built a research operating system in which all services are presented through interfaces described by an interface description language. The system consists of a micro-kernel that supports a small number of these interfaces, and a large number of interfaces that are implemented by user-level code. A typical service implements one or more interfaces, but is a client of many other interfaces that are implemented elsewhere in the system. We have an interface compiler that generates client-side and service-side stubs to deliver calls from clients to services providing location transparency if the client and server are in different address spaces. The code for client-side stubs was occupying a large amount of the text space on our clients, so a stub interpreter was written to replace the client-side stub methods. The result was that we traded 125k bytes of stub code for 13k bytes of stub descriptions and 4k bytes of stub interpreter. This paper describes the stub interpreter, the stub descriptions, and discusses some alternatives.


... snip ...

There was also financial company that used cluster oracle and HA/SUN for the first stored-value (gift and merchant) magstripe cards in the US ... and doing large pilot (with a couple large merchants & gas stations) ... there was glitch and database was lost and had to be recreated with all cards having original $$$ value.

I was brought in to be part of the review ... that opened with SUN VP giving introducton ... I noted that it was almost word-for-word one of my sales pitches for HA/CMP.

Turns out it was a couple hardware failures with human errors in between over a couple month period (disk failure in RAID configuration, fall-over, a system RAID driver card failure ... and one of the systems was partially misconfigured).

some spring/doe refs:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021b.html#20 IBM Recruiting
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019c.html#2 S/38, AS/400
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017f.html#93 Jean Sammet, Co-Designer of a Pioneering Computer Language, Dies at 89
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#46 The ICL 2900
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016f.html#97 ABO Automatic Binary Optimizer
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014b.html#39 Resistance to Java
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014.html#85 the suckage of MS-DOS, was Re: 'Free Unix!
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013i.html#71 Future of COBOL based on RDz policies was Re: RDz or RDzEnterprise developers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013b.html#21 New HD
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013.html#27 Java Security?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012p.html#13 AMC proposes 1980s computer TV series Halt & Catch Fire
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012f.html#94 Time to competency for new software language?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011k.html#50 The real reason IBM didn't want to dump more money into Blue Waters
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010g.html#53 Far and near pointers on the 80286 and later
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010g.html#9 Far and near pointers on the 80286 and later
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010f.html#47 Nonlinear systems and nonlocal supercomputing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010e.html#18 Senior Java Developer vs. MVS Systems Programmer (warning: Conley rant)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010d.html#80 Senior Java Developer vs. MVS Systems Programmer
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009h.html#60 Architectural Diversity
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008.html#46 Computer Science Education: Where Are the Software Engineers of Tomorrow?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007g.html#69 The Perfect Computer - 36 bits?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003e.html#51 A Speculative question
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001j.html#32 Whom Do Programmers Admire Now???

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
Newsgroups: comp.arch
Date: Tue, 12 Apr 2022 13:45:50 -1000
Stephen Fuld <sfuld@alumni.cmu.edu.invalid> writes:

IMNSHO this is plain wrong. IBM had tried to enter lower range, presumably higher volume, market segments before, but their attemps were, to put it charitably, not a runaway success. In fact, it seem the lower the market segment is, the worse they did. See, for example, the lower range 4300 series and the 9370, AKA "VAX Killer".

4331/4341 sold in the same mid-range marget and in about the same numbers as VAX ... for small unit orders. The big differrence was large corporations ordering hundreds at a time for placing out in departmental areas ... sort of the leading edge of the coming distributed computing market, inside IBM departmental conference rooms became scarce commodity being converted to vm/4341 rooms ... also led up to the internal network passing 1000 nodes in 1983 ... archived post with list of internal world-wide locations that added one or more networked systems during 1983 (one of the factors in internet passing internal systems in number of nodes was the communication group forced all workstations and PCs to be connected as dumb terminal emulation)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006k.html#8

VAX numbers sliced&diced by year, model, US/non-US (in this archived post)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002f.html#0

can see by the mid-80s, the mid-range market was starting to shift to large PCs and workstations. The same thing was happening to the anticipated 4361/4381 sales explosion (followons to the 4331/4341).

we would ridicule the POK favorite son operating system (MVS) as they couldn't play in that (exploding) distributed computing market because all the CKD DASD were high-end datacenter ... the only new mid-range non-datacenter disks were 3370/FBA (and MVS didn't have FBA support). Eventually a 3375 was made available (CKD DASD emulated on 3370/FBA) ... but even that didn't do them much good, MVS required tens of support people per system ... while the distributed VM/4341s were measured in tens of systems per support person.

DASD, CKD, FBA, multi-track search, etc
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#dasd

late 80s, a senior disk engineer got a talk scheduled at an annual, internal, world-wide communication group conference supposedly on 3174 performance ... but opened his talk with statement that the communication group was going to be responsible for the demise of the disk division ... that was seeing drop in disk sales with customers migrating data to more distributed computing friendly platforms. The communication group had corporate strategic responsibility for everything that crossed the datacenter walls and were fiercely fighting off client/server and distributed computing, trying to preserve their dumb terminal install base. The disk division had come up with number of solutions ... but they were all being vetoed by the communication group.

dumb terminal
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#terminal

a couple years later, IBM had gone into the red (2nd largest loss in US corporate history) and was being re-orged into the 13 "baby blues" in preparation for breaking up the company ... gone 404, but lives on at wayback machine.
http://web.archive.org/web/20101120231857/http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,977353,00.html
may also work
http://content.time.com/time/subscriber/article/0,33009,977353-1,00.html
had already left IBM, but get a call from the bowels of Armonk asking if could help with breakup of the company. Lots of business units were using supplier contracts in other units via MOUs. After the breakup, all of these contracts would be in different companies ... all of those MOUs would have to be cataloged and turned into their own contracts (however, before getting started, the board brings in a new CEO and reverses the breakup).

Also was hearing from former co-workers that top IBM executives weren't paying attention to business and spending all their time shifting expenses from the following year to the current year. Ask contact from the bowels of Armonk what was going on. He said that the current year had gone into the red and the executives wouldn't get a bonus. However, if they can shift enough expenses from the following year to the current year, even putting following year just slightly into the black ... the way the executive bonus plan was written, they would get a bonus more than twice as large as any previous bonus (rewarded for taking the company into the red)

now, I wasn't exactly upset ... in the late70s&early80s I was blamed for online computer conferencing on the internal network ... it really took off spring 1981 after I distributed trip report of visit to Jim Gray at Tandem ... only about 300 active, but claims upwards of 25,000 reading ... supposedly when corporate executive committee was told, 5of6 wanted to fire me. We printed six copies, approx. 300 pages from communication along with executive summary and summary of summary packaged in six tandem 3-ring binders and mailed to the executive committee; from summary of the summary:

• The perception of many technical people in IBM is that the company is rapidly heading for disaster. Furthermore, people fear that this movement will not be appreciated until it begins more directly to affect revenue, at which point recovery may be impossible

• Many technical people are extremely frustrated with their management and with the way things are going in IBM. To an increasing extent, people are reacting to this by leaving IBM Most of the contributors to the present discussion would prefer to stay with IBM and see the problems rectified. However, there is increasing skepticism that correction is possible or likely, given the apparent lack of commitment by management to take action

• There is a widespread perception that IBM management has failed to understand how to manage technical people and high-technology development in an extremely competitive environment.


... took another decade (1981-1992) ... in my executive exit interview I was told they could have forgiven me for being wrong, but they would never forgive me for being right; from IBM JARGON:
https://comlay.net/ibmjarg.pdf

Tandem Memos - n. Something constructive but hard to control; a fresh of breath air (sic). That's another Tandem Memos. A phrase to worry middle management. It refers to the computer-based conference (widely distributed in 1981) in which many technical personnel expressed dissatisfaction with the tools available to them at that time, and also constructively criticized the way products were [are] developed. The memos are required reading for anyone with a serious interest in quality products. If you have not seen the memos, try reading the November 1981 Datamation summary.

... snip ...

internal network
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#internalnet
online computer conferencing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#cmc

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
Newsgroups: comp.arch
Date: Tue, 12 Apr 2022 18:53:26 -1000
John Levine <johnl@taugh.com> writes:

In 1980 IBM made the XT/370 which was a 370 implemented in a remicrocoded Motorola 68000, with the floating point in a customized 8087, and a third normal 68000 controlling them. It worked, it fit on a card you could plug into your PC XT or PC AT, and nobody cared. I think its main use was as a single user VM/370 system for software development because of a loophole in the software pricing that made it cheaper than buying a seat for a normal terminal on a regular VM system.

re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#64 IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals

Endicott let me have an early xt/370 engineering model (late 1983) ... and I benchmarked several things and showed it was page thrashing on almost everything. I was then blamed for 6month slip in schedule while they added another 128kbytes of real memory (384k->512k)

as undergraduate in the 60s ... I got the cp67 fixed kernel requirements down to nearly 60kbytes ... but in the morpth of cp67->vm370 they dropped and/or simplified a lot of stuff ... including a lot of my stuff from 60s that had been picked up and were shipping ... and vm370 fixed memory size becomes increasingly bloated (leaving less for applications). The other issue was a lot of CMS had gotten increasingly bloated in memory requirements (contributing to the page thrashing) and more file system intensive. I/O was done as communitation between VM370 and a PC/XT application ... which then simulated the original I/O request. Page I/O and CMS filesystem I/O was all done on the XT hard disk that had 100ms access time (exacerbating things compared to mainframe disk access time). I also provided them more efficient page replacement algorithm and some speedups for the filesystem. xt/370 processor ran about 100KIPS (.1MIPS), but the constrained real storage and disk I/O time was much more of problem.

page replacement algorithms
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#wsclock
mmap/pam filesystem
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#mmap

Leading up to this, in the mid-70s Endicott had con'ed me helping them with ECPS, initially doing analysis for 138/148 microcode assist (ECPS), moving 6kbytes of most executed kernel pathlengths into microcode at 90% speedup ... the machines emulated 370 instructions at approx. 10 native instructions for every 370 instruction ... and most 370 kernel code could translate for same number of bytes, running ten times faster. old post with initial analysis showing the highest executed 6kbytes of kernel code account for 79.55% of kernel execution time http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/94.html#21

later in the 80s, POK came out with "A74" 370 workstation in PS2, 3+ times faster 370 execution, much larger real storage, and much faster had disks. A few fall 1988 press releases in this archived post
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002d.html#4
earlier A74 internal email
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015d.html#email850503
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000e.html#email880622

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
Newsgroups: comp.arch
Date: Wed, 13 Apr 2022 07:10:54 -1000
Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com> writes:

Endicott let me have an early xt/370 engineering model (late 1983) ... and I benchmarked several things and showed it was page thrashing on almost everything. I was then blamed for 6month slip in schedule while they added another 128kbytes of real memory (384k->512k)

re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#65 IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#64 IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals

Not long after doing ECPS, transferred from science center to san jose research ... and got to wander around a lot of IBM and non-IBM places ... including bldg14 (disk engineer) and bldg15 (product test) across the street. They were running 7x24, prescheduled, stand-alone, dedicated mainframe test time .. and happened to mention that they had recently tried MVS (POK favorite son operating system), but it had 15min MTBF in that enivronment (in that environment). I offer to rewrite input/output supervisor making it bullet-proof and never fail ... allowing any amount of on-demand concurrent testing, significantly improving productivity. Downside, they would complain any problems were my fault, and I would have to increasingly play disk engineer diagnosing their hardware issues

trivia: I also did an internal research report on the never fail work and happened to mention MVS 15min MTBF ... which brings down the wrath of the MVS group on my head (information told they tried to have me separated from the company)

Note one of the things bldg14 was testing was new controller (3880) designed to handle 3380 3mbyte/sec transfer. It had a special hardware path for data transfer ... but otherwise the 3880 microprocessor was significantly slower than the previous 3830 controller. Later the 3090 group
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM_3090
https://www.ibm.com/ibm/history/exhibits/mainframe/mainframe_PP3090.html

had configured number of channels assuming 3880 was like 3830 but adding 3mbyte/sec transfer. When they found out how slow the 3880 really was they realized that had to significantly increase the number of channels (for target total i/o throughput), which required added a TCM, which increased the manufacturing costs. The 3090 group semi-facetiously claimed they were going to bill the 3880 group for the increased 3090 manufacturing costs. The issue was IBM mainframe channel was half-duplex with enormous amount of protocol chatter going back&forth ... latency for the actual protocol transmission, but also waiting for 3880 "think time" response ... drastically increasing (idle) channel busy. Marketing eventually respins the huge increase in channels as 3090 being fantastic I/O machine ... when it was actually to offset the huge increase in channel busy because of the slow 3880 microprocessor (drastically cutting effective channel throughput).

playing disk engineer posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#disk

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
Newsgroups: comp.arch
Date: Wed, 13 Apr 2022 08:02:36 -1000
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#66 IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#65 IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#64 IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals

Also in 1980, STL (now SVL) was bursting at the seams and they are moving 300 people from the IMS group to offsite bldg, with dataprocessing service to STL datacenter. They had tried "remote" 3270 and found human factors totally unacceptable. I get con'ed into doing channel-extender support so they can place channel attached 3270 controllers at the offsite bldg (with human factors the same as service inside STL). Hardware vendor tries to get IBM to release my support, but there are some engineers playing with some serial stuff in POK and get it vetoed (afraid that if it was in the market, it would make it hardware to release their stuff).

channel extender posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#channel.extender

In 1988, branch asks me to help LLNL (national lab) get some serial stuff they are playing with standardized ... which quickly becomes fibre channel standard (including some stuff I had done in 1980), initiially 1gbit/sec full-duplex, 2gbit agreegate (200mbyte/sec). In 1990, the POK engineers get their stuff released with ES/9000 as ESCON, when it is already obsolete (17mbyte/sec compared to FCS 200mbyte/sec).

Later some POK engineers becomes involved in FCS and define a protocol that radically reduces the native throughput, which eventually ships as FICON. Latest published benchmarks I can find is "peak I/O" for max-configured z196 getting 2M IOPS using 104 FICON (running over 104 FCS). About the same time a FCS was announced for E5-2600 blades claiming over million IOPS (two FCS having higher "native" throughput than 104 FICON running over 104 FCS).

FICON posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#ficon

I did find some notes about "peak I/O" ran the z196 system assist (I/O) processors at 100% utilization ... compared to recommendation that SAP processors be kept to no more than 70% utilization. Real benchmarks numbers have disappeared, now have to reconstruct sequence based on statements about change from prior machines.

z900, 16 processors, 2.5BIPS (156MIPS/proc), Dec2000
z990, 32 processors, 9BIPS, (281MIPS/proc), 2003
z9, 54 processors, 18BIPS (333MIPS/proc), July2005
z10, 64 processors, 30BIPS (469MIPS/proc), Feb2008
z196, 80 processors, 50BIPS (625MIPS/proc), Jul2010
EC12, 101 processors, 75BIPS (743MIPS/proc), Aug2012
z13, 140 processors, 100BIPS (710MIPS/proc), Jan2015
z14, 170 processors, 150BIPS (862MIPS/proc), Aug2017
z15, 190 processors, 190BIPS* (1000MIPS/proc), Sep2019

• pubs say z15 1.25 times z14 (1.25*150BIPS or 190BIPS)
• z16, 200 processors, ???BIPS (???MIPS/proc),


Mainframe hardware used to be mainstay of IBM revenue ... after the troubles&losses in the early 90s that was all changing. Around turn of century, mainframe hardware was only a few percent of revenue and dropping. Decade ago, analysis was mainframe hardware was couple percent of revenue. However mainframe group was 25% of revenue and 40% of profit ... software & services.

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
Newsgroups: comp.arch
Date: Wed, 13 Apr 2022 13:30:05 -1000
John Levine <johnl@taugh.com> writes:

That's how a 3270 works. The computer paints the screen marking the fields that you can change, unlocks the keyboard, and when you're done typing, you press Send or whatever it's called, and the terminal sends the input fields as a block back to the computer.

The goal was to minimize the number of transfers so it could put a whole lot of terminals on a single controller and have a manageable amount of I/O traffic.


re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#67 IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#66 IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#65 IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#64 IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals

3272 controller with 3277 terminals from the 70s, 3272/3277 (coax) interface and had .089sec hardware response.

then they did 3274 controller with 3278 terminal where they moved much of the terminal electronics back into the controller ... to reduce the cost of terminal manufacturing ... but it really drove up the coax protocol chatter ... increasing "hardware" response to .3 to .5 sec response. this is during the days with papers on productivity improvements with subsecond response ... especially .25sec (or better). letters were written to the 3278 product administrator complaining that 3278 was much worse for interactive computing ... eventual response that 3278 was not targeted for interactive computing ... but "data entry" ... aka electronic keypunch.

some number of internal installations were bragging about .25sec system response ... but coupled with 3278, that made it .34sec to more likely .75sec seen by the person. MVS/TSO systems very rarely even saw 1sec system response ... so they wouldn't have noticed difference between 3277 & 3278 terminals.

However, I've mentioned periodically that after joining IBM one of my hobbies was enhanced production operating systems for internal datacenters. At the time when some were bragging about .25sec avg system response ... I had systems with similar hardware configurations and workload profiles with .11sec system response (plus 3277 .089sec gave .199sec and was within .25sec requirement seen by humans).

science center posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech
dynamic adaptive resource management & scheduling posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#fairshare

This also shows up in my post in this thread earlier today, Above numbers are for direct 3270 channel attached controllers that ran at 640kbyte/sec over the channel. The initial configuration for the 300 IMS developerss using "remote" 3270 controllers that ran over 19.2kbit/sec links back to mainframe ... before they got me to do channel-extender support so they could place direct channel attached 3270 controllers at the offsite bldg (with human factors same inside STL and at offsite bldg).

The other place the 3277/3278 difference shows up, is later with IBM/PCs, 3277 emulation cards would have 3-4 times the upload/download throughput of 3278 emulation cards (because of the huge increase in 3278 coax protocol chatter).

some 3272/3277 & 3274/3278 posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#33 IBM 3270 Terminals
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013k.html#89 spacewar
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013g.html#17 Tech Time Warp of the Week: The 50-Pound Portable PC, 1977
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013e.html#66 Sequence Numbrs (was 32760?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012e.html#87 Just for a laugh... How to spot an old IBMer
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#19 Writing article on telework/telecommuting
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011p.html#19 Deja Cloud?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010o.html#57 So why doesn't the mainstream IT press seem to get the IBM mainframe?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007r.html#7 IBM System/3 & 3277-1
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005r.html#28 Intel strikes back with a parallel x86 design
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003k.html#20 What is timesharing, anyway?

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
Newsgroups: comp.arch
Date: Wed, 13 Apr 2022 16:58:02 -1000
John Levine <johnl@taugh.com> writes:

Read up on Address Space Numbers and primary and secondary address spaces and access registers in 370-XA and S/390. They didn't call them segments but that's sure what they look like.

re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#68 IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#67 IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#66 IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#65 IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#64 IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals

370 had 2k & 4k page options and 64kbyte and 1mbyte segment options for 16mbyte virtual memory (now 4k page , 1mbyte segments, 24-bit, 31-bit and 64-bit address spacess).

Problem was OS/360 (real memory) heritage had pervasive pointer-passing API. This was carried over to MVS ... where each application got its own 16mbyte virtual address space ... however, because of the pervasive pointer-passing API, an 8mbyte "image" of the MVS kernel was mapped into every 16mbyte virtual address space (so kernel could directly access the application address space). Then because subsystem functions were put into their own 16mbyte virtual address space ... application->subsystem call passing a address pointer ... they created the 1mbyte "common segment" mapped into every virtual address space ... where API calling and return values could be stashed (both caller and callee). However parameter space was somewhat proportional to concurrent applications and number of subsystems ... so by 3033 time (late 70s), "common segment" had morphed into "common system area" (CSA) ... typically 5-6 mbytes (and threatening to become 8mbyte, leaving zero in the application 16mbyte virtual address space for applications).

To address this in 370-XA they created "program call", "program return", primary and secondary address space, acess registers, etc. A hardware table of subsystems would be created with address space pointer for each subsystem, program call would move the caller's address pointer into the secondary access space register and load the subsystem's address space value into the primary address space register. That way, the subsystem could have access to data at addresses in the caller's address space. program return then would reverse the process (helping reduce the pressure on the use of the "common system area").

(z/architecture) principles of operation
https://www.ibm.com/support/pages/sites/default/files/inline-files/SA22-7832-00.pdf

chapter 5. program execution 5-29 "pc number translation" (i.e program call number) pg197 5-34 "home address space" pg202

chapter 10. control instructions pg503 10-57 "program call" pg559-572 10-70 "program return" pg572-576

some recent posts mentioning common segment/system area
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#49 IBM 3033 Personal Computing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#19 Channel I/O
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#70 165/168/3033 & 370 virtual memory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#113 IBM Future System
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#17 Versatile Cache from IBM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021h.html#70 IBM Research, Adtech, Science Center
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021b.html#63 Early Computer Use
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2020.html#36 IBM S/360 - 370
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019d.html#115 Assembler :- PC Instruction
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019b.html#94 MVS Boney Fingers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019b.html#25 Online Computer Conferencing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#38 long-winded post thread, 3033, 3081, Future System
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#18 IBM assembler

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
Newsgroups: comp.arch
Date: Thu, 14 Apr 2022 08:46:19 -1000
Stephen Fuld <sfuld@alumni.cmu.edu.invalid> writes:

I very much agree that CKD, and its associated allocations in tracks and cylinders were a mistake. But consider a system that allows the user to specify these in increments of say 1 MB instead of a "track".

re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#69 IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#68 IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#67 IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#66 IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#65 IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#64 IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals

when 360 originally came out, there was significant more i/o disk resource than storage resource ... besides having variable length records that could be tailored to the application (to optimize space), search channel programs could be used to find data (than using processor & memory caches to find data). However, by the mid-70s ... that trade-off was starting to invert.

as undergraduate, a year after taking intro to fortran/computers (709/1401), I was hired fulltime at the univ responsible for os/360 (univ. sold 360/67 to replace 709/1401 supposedly to run tss/360, but never came to production fruition, so ran as 360/65 with os/360). Studen fortran jobs ran less than second on 709, ibsys, tape->tape. Initially ran over a minute on 360/65 w/os360. I installed HASP which cut it in half. I then started doing carefully constructed sysgens to place data on disks for arm seek optimization and order in PDS datasets to optimize multitrack search of directory ... cutting another 2/3rds, getting student fortran to 12.9secs ... never got better than 709/1401 until installed Univ. of Waterloo's WATFOR.

More than decade later (end of 70s), I'm called into datacenter for large national grocer (large hundreds of stores) ... multiple large MVS mainframes ... in loosely-coupled configuration sharing disks. All the usual IBM MVS experts had been in trying to find a severe performance problem before getting around to bringing me into classroom with tables covered with system activity reports showing processor & disk i/o activity for all the systems every few minutes. After looking at data for 30mins or so ... I noticed that a specific (shared) disk drive ... manually suming total I/O counts/sec across all systems, was peaking at 7/sec aggregate ... and correlated with worst performance period. They say it has the store controller application library (for all stores) ... PDS dataset with three cylinder member directory.

To load PDS member, OS/360 first does multi-track search of the directory ... a channel program that does a search, matching against member name in directory. In this case 19track/cylinder 3330 ... and avg of 1.5 cylinders to find member ... before doing channel program to load the application member. Avg. search of 1.5cyls, first i/o searches 19tracks at 60revs/sec, 2nd i/o search 9.5tracks ... then 3rd i/o to load. 28.5tracks at 60res/sec is two disk i/os taking .475secs followed by the I/O to load the member. Effectively whole complex (across all the mvs systems) was reduced to doing slightly over two (store controller) transactions/sec for the hundreds of stores in the country (multi-track search has further downside of not only locking up the drive for the duration, but also the disk controller and the channel, original design was the search argument had to be reread from processor memory for every record compare).

dask, ckd, fba, multi-track search posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#dasd

Solution was splitting the store controller library into smaller datasets and then replicating them across non-shared multiple disk drives per system. OS/360 descendents still require CKD even though no real CKD have been manufactured for decades ... currently being simulated on industry standard fixed-block disks. Migration from real variable-length to fixed-block had started back with CKD 3380, can be seen in calculations of number of records per track, where record lengths had to be rounded up to 3380 "cell-size" ... similar reason to fixed-block migration from 512 to 4096 involving error correcting data
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fixed-block_architecture
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Advanced_Format

A hardware shortcoming of (real) CKD dasd has been power-outage in the middle of write operation, processor memory would loose power before controller and disk ... the write would continue even though no data was coming through the channel ... so it would complete with all zeros ... and then record error-correcting code would be written for the partial zero record (so there was no error indication). If this happened in update of the OS/360 DASD control information (VTOC ... or volume table of contents), eventually find that the disk filesystem becomes corrupted.

VM370/CMS filesystem countermeasure for the (zeros write on power outage) problem was to maintain pair of master file records with trailing version followed by ones. Updated filesystem information was written to new records, and then the pointers were written to alternating master record. On startup, both master records were read, and the most recent valid record used (power problem would show in end-of-record "ones" field). Version roll-over required writing both master records.

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
Newsgroups: comp.arch
Date: Thu, 14 Apr 2022 08:53:56 -1000
John Levine <johnl@taugh.com> writes:

These days if we care about file system performance we do I/O with mmap() and tune it with madvise(). OS/360's I/O system went to great effort to try and avoid extra copying for I/O, e.g., QSAM LOCATE mode and the PL/I LOCATE statement. But mmap() gives us that for free.

re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#70 IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#69 IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#68 IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#67 IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#66 IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#65 IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#64 IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals

however, old comparison of VTAM LU6.2 I/O compared to Unix tcp/ip nfs ... VTAM had 160K instruction pathlength and 15 buffer copies compared to something like 5k instructions and 5 buffer copies (in XTP was working on pipelining with scatter/gather I/O and no buffer copies, Greg Chesson, et al, I was on technical advisory board, despite best efforts of the IBM communication group to block my participation)

xtp posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#xtphsp

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
Newsgroups: comp.arch
Date: Thu, 14 Apr 2022 14:06:10 -1000
Stephen Fuld <sfuld@alumni.cmu.edu.invalid> writes:

IMO, this was the "original sin" of OS/360 (I don't know if given the architecture it could have been done differently, but certainly other architectures did it differently). Besides the problems you outlined below, it led to things like CICS being a single program, which meant that a user's COBOL transaction could, by say an errant subscript that wouldn't be caught by the HW, dribble all over another user's code or data, or even the CICS program itself! Of course, this was fixed later, but it was "awkward".

re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#71 IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#70 IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#69 IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#68 IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#67 IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#66 IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#65 IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#64 IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals

OS/360 was extremely heavyweight and disk I/O intensive ... trying to cram into minimal real storage sizes, like file open/close had a long sequence of sequentially loaded 2kbyte routines. CICS would obtain all resources possible at startup (including doing all file opens) and then do as much of its own management. It basically tried as much as possible to be its own operating system (for transactions) and using as few os/360s operations as possible. Around turn of century I visited datacenter that had banner over large mainframe saying it was (concurrently) running 129 "instances" (different copies) of CICS.

triva: previously mentioned, as undergraduate, univ. hired me fulltime responsible for os/360. The univ. library got ONR grant to do online catalog ... and used part of the money to get 2321 "data cell"
https://www.ibm.com/ibm/history/exhibits/storage/storage_2321.html

it was also selected to be betatest for original CICS product and debugging cics was added to my tasks. One of the 1st problems was CICS had some hardcoded undocument BDAM file options and library had built bdam files with different set of options ... and CICS would fail startup with no explanation.

cics &/or bdam posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#cics

other triva: a decade ago, I was asked if I could track down the decision to make all 370s "virtual memory" ... eventually found somebody that was aid to the executive. Basically OS/360 MVT storage management was so bad, that regions had to be four time larger than used ... as a result typical 1mbyte 370/165 would only have four regions ... not sufficient to keep the processor busy (and justified). Moving to 16mbyte virtual address space would allow number of (currently executing) regions could be increased by a factor of four times (OS/VS2, original MVS name) ... with little or no paging. old archived post with some of the email exchange:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011d.html#73

note: before I graduate, I'm hired fulltime into a small group in the Boeing CFO office to help with the formation of Boeing Computer Services, consolidate all dataprocessing into independent business unit (to better monetize the investment). I thot Renton datacenter possibly largest in the world (something like $200m-$300m), 360/65s arriving faster than they could be installed, boxes constantly staged in in hallways around the machine room. While I was there, they brought a two CPU 360/67 up to Seattle from Boeing Huntsville ... Boeing had been sold it originally for tss/360 (like the univ) for multiple 2250 (large graphic display) cad/cam work ... but was being run with OS/360.

The poor OS/360 MVT storage management was further exacerbated by long running applications (like 2250 cad/cam) ... and Boeing Huntsville had tweaked MVT with minimal virtual memory support to (also) try and help address the storage managemeent problems (all before 370 and IBM's move to virtual storage for everything) ... i.e. didn't have the (CICS) luxury of rewriting the CAD/CAM applications to get large blocks of storage and doing their own management (making as little use of MVT as possible).

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

lock me up, was IBM Mainframe market

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: lock me up, was IBM Mainframe market
Newsgroups: comp.arch
Date: Thu, 14 Apr 2022 14:44:17 -1000
John Levine <johnl@taugh.com> writes:

People don't buy mainframes because their CPUs are fast. They buy them because they have 100 CPUs and 20TB of RAM with a coherent cache so when it needs to do something atomically, it can synchronize and do the atomic thing and get out of the way really fast. They also buy them because they have error checking and error recovery and spare CPUs and redundant data and control paths to the extent that they can upgrade every bit of the hardware and software without rebooting (not all at once, of course.) These systems literally run a decade between restarts.

re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#72 IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#71 IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#70 IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#69 IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#68 IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#67 IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#66 IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#65 IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#64 IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals

starting in the mid-90s, big banks and wallstreet spent billions of dollars redoing the mainframe financial softtware. Issue was much of it was batch from 60s&70s ... while real-time transactions had been added, settlement was still all being done in the overnight batch window ... globalization was increasing the workload and shortening the window ... and batch settlement was completing in the required time. They were implementing paralized "straight through" processing ... running on large number of "killer micros". Some of us advised them that the industry standard parallelization libraries had hundred times the overhead of batch cobol ... but fell on deaf ears ... so it wasn't until major pilots that everything went up in major disasters.

After turn century was brought into large financial datacenter to do some throughput optimization. They had accounts spread across more than forty max-configured IBM mainframes ... all running the same 450k statement cobol applications ... number of mainframe systems required to finish overnight batch settlement within the time limit.

trivia: in late 70s I had been involved original SQL/relational (System/R) implementation on ibm mainframe ... but late 80s was asked to do HA/6000, originally for NYTimes to move their newspaper system (ATEX) off vaxcluster to RS/6000. I renamed it HA/CMP when I start doing technical/scientific clusterr scaleup with national labs and commercial cluster scaleup with RDBMS vendors (oracle, ingres, informix, sybase).
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM_High_Availability_Cluster_Multiprocessing
I'm also asked to do a section for the corporate continuous availability strategy document ... but it is pulled when both Rochester (IBM AS/400) and POK (IBM mainframe) complain that they can't meet the objectives

All the RDBMS vendors have/cluster support in the same source base as unix ... so I do a distributed lock manager with vax/cluster api semantics ... but internal implementation has lots of input based on my mainframe experience and the four major RDBMS input on what could be improved in vax/cluster. Old post with meeting in Ellison (oracle ceo) conference room on cluster scaleup (16-way mid92, 128-way ye92)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/95.html#13
with a few weeks, cluster scaleup is transferred, announced as IBM supercomputer (for technical/scientific *ONLY*) and are told we can't work on anything with more than four processors (leave IBM a few months later). Suspect part of the issue was complaints about what we were doing by the commercial mainframe DB2 people.

ha/cmp posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#hacmp
availability posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#available

a few recent distributed lock manager posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#63 What's different, was Why did Dennis Ritchie write that UNIX was a modern implementation of CTSS?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#62 IBM DB2
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#112 GM C4 and IBM HA/CMP
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#27 PC Market
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#11 To Anne & Lynn Wheeler, if still observing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019c.html#23 DB2
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018d.html#69 tablets and desktops was Has Microsoft
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018d.html#4 MORGAN STANLEY: Tech giants are investing way more 'aggressively' in data centers than anyone thought, and it's driving double-digit growth
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018c.html#33 The Pentagon still uses computer software from 1958 to manage its contracts

Later in this century, I become involved with somebody that has spent their whole career in financial dataprocessing and has created a high-level financial language that compiles into fine-grain SQL statements. At the business level it is straight forward to re-implement existing applications (as well as much easier to maintain as requirements and regulations change). At the processing level it has extremely high availability and high throughput processing relying on extensive cluster work by the major RDBMS vendors (much higher availability and throughput than any of the mainframe implementations, in part the ease of parallelizing the fine-grain SQL statements). This saw very high acceptance at industry conferences and then hit a brick wall ... finally told that lots of executives still bore the scars of the failed efforts in the late 90s.

some recent posts mentioning "straight-through" processing and/or overnight batch window
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#11 IBM z16: Built to Build the Future of Your Business
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#56 Fujitsu confirms end date for mainframe and Unix systems
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#3 Final Rules of Thumb on How Computing Affects Organizations and People
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#23 Target Marketing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#123 Mainframe "Peak I/O" benchmark
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#58 Card Associations
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#30 VM370, 3081, and AT&T Long Lines
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#87 UPS & PDUs
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#10 A brief overview of IBM's new 7 nm Telum mainframe CPU
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021g.html#18 IBM email migration disaster
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021e.html#61 Performance Monitoring, Analysis, Simulation, etc
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021c.html#61 MAINFRAME (4341) History
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021b.html#4 Killer Micros
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#155 Book on monopoly (IBM)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019c.html#80 IBM: Buying While Apathetaic
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019c.html#11 mainframe hacking "success stories"?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019b.html#62 Cobol
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018f.html#85 Douglas Engelbart, the forgotten hero of modern computing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018d.html#43 How IBM Was Left Behind
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018c.html#33 The Pentagon still uses computer software from 1958 to manage its contracts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018c.html#30 Bottlenecks and Capacity planning

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals

Refed: **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
Newsgroups: comp.arch
Date: Thu, 14 Apr 2022 15:33:18 -1000
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#73 IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#72 IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#71 IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#70 IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#69 IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#68 IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#67 IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#66 IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#65 IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#64 IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals

some floating-head trivia ... I provided operating systems for disk engineering and product test (bldg14&15, across street from sj research, although I kept getting dragged in to play disk enginner) ... and we were able to turn one of the first engineering 3033s into our personal computer ... since testing required almost no processing power.

playing disk engineer posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#disk

there was somebody doing air bearing simulation as part of design for floating heads (1st used in 3370 fixed-block disks)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Disk_read-and-write_head#Thin-film_heads

they were getting a couple turns arounds a month on the SJR 370/195 ... even with high priority designation. we set him up on our 3033 ... and even tho 3033 had only about half the 370/195 processor power, he was still able to get several turn arounds a day.

DASD, ckd, fba, multi-track search, etc
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#dasd

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

lock me up, was IBM Mainframe market

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: lock me up, was IBM Mainframe market
Newsgroups: comp.arch
Date: Thu, 14 Apr 2022 16:58:32 -1000
John Levine <johnl@taugh.com> writes:

Amadeus has HQ in Spain, main data center in Germany, and airline and hotel clients all over the world. They have all sorts of cloudy API stuff but I'm reasonably sure there's some big iron at the core keeping the important data.

re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#74 IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#73 IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#72 IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#71 IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#70 IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#69 IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#68 IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#67 IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#66 IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#65 IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#64 IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals

my wife did short stint as chief architect for amadeus ... built off the old eastern airline "system one" ... however instead of agreeing with communication group for sna ... she agreed with the europeans for x.25. The communication group replacement didn't do much good because the europeans went with x.25 anyway.

some past posts mentioning amadeus
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021c.html#66 ACP/TPF 3083
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021b.html#0 Will The Cloud Take Down The Mainframe?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021.html#71 Airline Reservation System
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017k.html#67 SABRE after the 7090
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#0 IBM & SABRE
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016d.html#48 PL/I advertising
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016.html#58 Man Versus System
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015d.html#84 ACP/TPF
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014g.html#54 Has the last fighter pilot been born?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014e.html#7 Last Gasp for Hard Disk Drives
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014c.html#69 IBM layoffs strike first in India; workers describe cuts as 'slaughter' and 'massive'
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012o.html#13 Should you support or abandon the 3270 as a User Interface?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012n.html#41 System/360--50 years--the future?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012j.html#5 Interesting News Article
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#8 The PC industry is heading for collapse
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011i.html#77 program coding pads
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011d.html#43 Sabre; The First Online Reservation System
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011.html#17 Looking for a real Fortran-66 compatible PC compiler (CP/M or DOS or Windows, doesn't matter)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010n.html#16 Sabre Talk Information?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009r.html#59 "Portable" data centers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009l.html#55 IBM halves mainframe Linux engine prices
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009j.html#33 IBM touts encryption innovation
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008i.html#19 American Airlines
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008c.html#53 Migration from Mainframe to othre platforms - the othe bell?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007k.html#72 The top 10 dead (or dying) computer skills
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007d.html#19 Pennsylvania Railroad ticket fax service
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006o.html#4 How Many 360/195s and 370/195s were shipped?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005p.html#8 EBCDIC to 6-bit and back
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005f.html#22 System/360; Hardwired vs. Microcoded
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001h.html#76 Other oddball IBM System 360's ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001g.html#49 Did AT&T offer Unix to Digital Equipment in the 70s?

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

lock me up, was IBM Mainframe market

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: lock me up, was IBM Mainframe market
Newsgroups: comp.arch
Date: Fri, 15 Apr 2022 07:25:13 -1000
Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com> writes:

my wife did short stint as chief architect for amadeus ... built off the old eastern airline "system one" ... however instead of agreeing with communication group for sna ... she agreed with the europeans for x.25. The communication group replacement didn't do much good because the europeans went with x.25 anyway.

re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#75 lock me up, was IBM Mainframe market
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#74 IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#73 lock me up, was IBM Mainframe market
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#72 IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#71 IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#70 IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#69 IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#68 IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#67 IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#66 IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#65 IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#64 IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals

after leaving IBM, we were brought into the largest airline res. system ... and asked to look at the major things that they couldn't do. started with "routes" which represented 25% of the processing ... aka find flts from origin to destination. spent a day listening to details and then given a softcopy of OAG (all commercial scheduled flts in the world).

Two months later, came back with routes reimplemented in "C" from scratch, demo'ed on rs/6000 320 where they put it through paces ... different complex origin/destination combinations that the existing implementations couldn't handle. workload profiles showed that ten (rack mount) rs/6000 990s could handle all route requests for all airlines in the world.

Part of it was the TPF implementation was original design paradigm from the 60s based on technology trade-offs from the period ... while I just started from scratch with totally different technology and trade-off. Part of their issue was 60s required prebuilding database of the allowable origin/destination pairs ... and then do database search. In the 90s (with a little bit of compression), it was possible to load the complete OAG into memory and do a path finding of possible flts (with as many connections as needed, instead of database that only supported max of two connections, and if more were needed, a human was involved). Turns out the path finding ran 100 times faster than the TPF database lookup. Then adding the impossible things (and various other enhancements) reduced it to only ten times faster than the TPF implementation (and possible in part, because it eliminated all the manual operations that TPF required).

Then the hand-wringing started ... finally they said that they hadn't really expected me to do it ... they just wanted to be able to tell the parent company's board for the next five years I was working on it (apprently one of the board members knew me from prior years when he was an IBM executives). The major issue apparently was that automation no longer needed some 800 people that were required for the care&feeding of the TPF routes implementation (as well as all the associated executives).

A decade later cellphone processor had several times the memory and processing power of the rs/6000 990.

801/risc, iliad, romp, rios, pc/rt, rs/6000, power/pc, etc posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#801

topic drift: in the 80s, US corporations with large number of employees were starting to create multiple subsidiaries where profits were shifted to subsidiary with fewest employees. In this case, airline created operations subsidiary and shifted profits to electronic reservation and ticketing subsidiary. At the time, the airline operations subsidiary (with planes, pilots, flew the routes, etc) had been setup to break even, but was loosing money because spike in fuel prices ... while the parent company was still making huge profit ... because the majority of the profit was being booked in the electronic reservation & ticketing subsidiary (more than offset losses in actual operation of the airline).

sometime later one of the other airlines declared bankruptcy in the operations subsidiary and dumped all the employee pension plans on the gov. (pension benefit guaranty corporation) ... although the parent company apparently was still making profit (subsidiary where majority of profit was booked more than offset losses booked in operations).

some past posts mentioning airline/OAG routes
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#37 Why Sabre is betting against multi-cloud
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021f.html#8 Air Traffic System
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021.html#71 Airline Reservation System
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018b.html#48 OT: Farewell to 747 in U.S. service
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016f.html#109 Airlines Reservation Systems
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016.html#58 Man Versus System
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013n.html#0 'Free Unix!': The world-changing proclamation made 30yearsagotoday
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007h.html#41 Fast and Safe C Strings: User friendly C macros to Declare and use C Strings
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#136a checks (was S/390 on PowerPC?)

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
Newsgroups: comp.arch
Date: Sat, 16 Apr 2022 07:55:41 -1000
EricP <ThatWouldBeTelling@thevillage.com> writes:

In Apr-1988 IBM announced the IBM 7437 VM/SP Technical Workstation which later became the Personal/370, aka P/370, is a complete 32-bit 370 on a micro-channel adapter (MCA) card for PS/2 or RS/6000. It was only available to OEM's. That sounds like it might have been the Micro-370 chip.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PC-based_IBM_mainframe-compatible_systems#Personal/370


posts mainframe market thread:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#76 lock me up, was IBM Mainframe market
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#75 lock me up, was IBM Mainframe market
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#74 IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#73 lock me up, was IBM Mainframe market
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#72 IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#71 IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#70 IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#69 IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#68 IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#67 IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#66 IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#65 IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#64 IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals

upthread I posted doing some work for A74 (which gets announced as 7437 ... with email reference from '85 & '86) ... running at 350KIPS (better than the xt/370 100KIPS).
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015d.html#email850503
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000e.html#email880622

other XT/370 (AT/370) email
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015e.html#email850617

other a74 email
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015d.html#email850520
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015d.html#email850520b
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015d.html#email850520c
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015d.html#email850520d

mid-80s, IBM Boeblingen (Germany) also did ("ROMAN") 3-chip 370 running at 3MIPS ... I was looking at how many I could cram into a rack. trivia: There were monthly meetings at (Stanford) SLAC where would see a lot of people in Silicon valley ... including many of the Amdahl people. One of them on business trip to Nixdorf in Germany found they had a bootlegged copy of the ROMON specification. He confiscated it and mailed it to me for mailing back to Boeblingen.

'85 ROMAN email
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007c.html#email850712

'85 email mentioning HSDT & suppose to do interconnect for the NSF supercomputing centers, as well A74 and ROMAN work
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011c.html#email850425b
same archived post with email mentioning HSDT pitch for Berkeley, NSF, NCAR, etc
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011c.html#email850426

posts also reference was suppose to do pitch to NSF Director on NSF supercomputer interconnect at same time (IBM) yorktown wanting me for a week to talk about how many processor chips could be crammed into a rack (and in addition to all ROMAN 370 chips, how many Blue Iliad, 1st 32bit 801/risc chip) ... misc other
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021g.html#email850312
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021g.html#email850313
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021g.html#email850314
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007d.html#email850315

more HSDT/NSF topic drift: congress cuts the (NSF) budget, some other things happen, and eventually an RFP is released ... preliminary announce Preliminary announce (Mar1986)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002k.html#12
The OASC has initiated three programs: The Supercomputer Centers Program to provide Supercomputer cycles; the New Technologies Program to foster new supercomputer software and hardware developments; and the Networking Program to build a National Supercomputer Access Network - NSFnet.

... internal IBM politics prevent us from bidding on the RFP. the NSF director tries to help by writing the company a letter (with support from other agencies), but that just makes the internal politics worse (as did claims that what we already had running was at least 5yrs ahead of the winning bid). The winning bid doesn't even install T1 links called for ... they are 440kbit/sec links ... but apparently to make it look like its meeting the requirements, they install telco multiplexors with T1 trunks (running multiple links/trunk). We periodically ridicule them that why don't they call it a T5 network (because some of those T1 trunks would in turn be multiplexed over T3 or even T5 trunks). as regional networks connect in, it becomes the NSFNET backbone, precursor to modern internet
https://www.technologyreview.com/s/401444/grid-computing/

HSDT posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#hsdt
NSFNET posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#nsfnet
801/risc, iliad, romp, rios, pc/rt, rs/6000, power, power/pc posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#801
followon cramming 801/RIOS in rack
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#hacmp

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Future F-35 Upgrades Send Program into Tailspin

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Future F-35 Upgrades Send Program into Tailspin
Date: 16 Apr 2022
Blog: Facebook
Future F-35 Upgrades Send Program into Tailspin
https://www.pogo.org/analysis/2022/04/future-f-35-upgrades-send-program-into-tailspin/

That the F-35 went into production in the numbers seen so far is already a violation of federal law, even if only in spirit. The provisions allowing for limited production of a weapon system before development work is completed are a safeguard meant to protect both the troops and the taxpayers. Per federal law, the F-35 program can only produce a limited number of aircraft before it completes operational testing and is formally approved for full rate production. Were the services to request and receive the expected number of F-35s in 2023, the program would have exceeded the low rate initial production cap.

... snip ...

The F-35 is so too effective - Against Americans.
https://spoilsofwar.substack.com/p/the-f-35-is-so-too-effective-against

It is now generally acknowledged that the F-35 fighter stands tall in the pantheon of U.S. weapons-buying disasters, a mélange of waste, deceit, and mindless incompetence. According to the latest report from the Pentagon's Director of Test and Evaluation, itself a muted document, the plane has at least six design flaws serious enough to cause "death, severe injury, or severe occupational illness" and "may cause loss or major damage to a weapon system" along with 845 other unresolved deficiencies.

... snip ...

Pentagon restricted known info about F-35 in controversial 'controlled' tester report. The Pentagon's independent weapons tester created a "controlled" version of its annual report not available to taxpayers. But with regards to the F-35, "it's the information all public DOT&E reports have provided until now," said Dan Grazier of the Project for Government Oversight.
https://breakingdefense.com/2022/03/pentagon-restricted-known-info-about-f-35-in-controversial-controlled-tester-report/

military-industrial(-congressional) complex
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#military.industrial.complex

various recent posts mentioning F-35
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#67 A Mini F-35?: Don't Go Crazy Over the Air Force's Stealth XQ-58A Valkyrie
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#88 IBM Downturn
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#55 America's 'White Elephant': Why F-35 Stealth Jets Are USAF's 'Achilles Heel' Amid Growing Chinese Threats
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#48 The Kill Chain: Defending America in the Future of High-Tech Warfare
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021h.html#17 In Pursuit of Clarity: the Intellect and Intellectual Integrity of Pierre Sprey
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021h.html#16 In Pursuit of Clarity: the Intellect and Intellectual Integrity of Pierre Sprey
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021g.html#87 The Bunker: Follow All of the Money. F-35 Math 1.0 Another portent of problems
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021g.html#48 The F-35 Fighter Jet Program Must be Grounded to Protect Pilots and Tax Dollars
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021e.html#88 The Bunker: More Rot in the Ranks
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021e.html#46 SitRep: Is the F-35 officially a failure? Cost overruns, other issues prompt Air Force to look for "clean sheet" fighter
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021e.html#35 US Stealth Fighter Jets Like F-35, F-22 Raptors 'No Longer Stealth' In-Front Of New Russian, Chinese Radars?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021e.html#18 Did They Miss Yet Another F-35 Cost Overrun?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021d.html#77 Cancel the F-35, Fund Infrastructure Instead
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021d.html#0 THE PENTAGON'S FLYING FIASCO. Don't look now, but the F-35 is afterburnered toast
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021c.html#82 The F-35 and other Legacies of Failure
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021c.html#11 Air Force thinking of a new F-16ish fighter
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021c.html#8 Air Force thinking of a new F-16ish fighter
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021b.html#102 The U.S. Air Force Just Admitted The F-35 Stealth Fighter Has Failed
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021b.html#100 The U.S. Air Force Just Admitted The F-35 Stealth Fighter Has Failed
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#118 Pentagon: The F-35 breaks down too often and takes too long to repair
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#53 Stealthy no more? A German radar vendor says it tracked the F-35 jet in 2018 -- from a pony farm
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019d.html#118 Armed with J-20 stealth fighters, China's future flattops could 'eventually fight US carriers'
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019d.html#104 F-35
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019c.html#49 IBM NUMBERS BIPOLAR'S DAYS WITH G5 CMOS MAINFRAMES
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019c.html#31 Supersonic speeds could cause big problems for the F-35's stealth coating
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#22 The American Military Sucks at Cybersecurity; A new report from US military watchdogs outlines hundreds of cybersecurity vulnerabilities

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Peer-Coupled Shared Data

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Peer-Coupled Shared Data
Date: 16 Apr 2022
Blog: Facebook
my wife was in JES group and one of the catchers for ASP/JES3 ... then was con'ed into going to POK to be in charge of loosely-coupled architecture ... where she did peer-coupled shared data architecture. She didn't remain long because of constant battles with communication group trying to force her into using VTAM for loosely-coupled operation and little uptake (except for IMS hot-standby) until much later with SYSPLEX and Parallel SYSPLEX. She has story about talking to Vern Watts after work and asking who he was going to ask for permission to do IMS hot-standby and he says "nobody", he was just going to do it and tell them when it was all done. Also she wanted trotter/3088 to look more like coupling facility ... but it came out looking more like CTCA but with connections for up to eight channels/systems.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coupling_Facility

peer-coupled shared data posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#shareddata

One of Vern's
http://vcwatts.org/ibm_story.html
http://vcwatts.org/
hardest problems with IMS hot-standby was VTAM ... VTAM had enormous heavy-weight session establishment ... and overhead increased non-linear as number of sessions went up. A system with 64k sessions could take over an hour on 3090 to re-establish all the sessions.

I got con'ed into trying to turn out a pu4/put5 (NCP/VTAM) emulation done on Series/1 by one of the Baby Bells, as IBM type-1 product. It would interact with real host VTAM with cross-domain protocol and all resources "owned" out in distributed Series/1 environment with no single-point-of failure (as well as significantly better price/performance and much higher throughput). Support included being able to define "shadow sessions" ... for IMS that met that all host VTAM sessions were already established & maintained for standby systems (and didn't have to wait an hour or more to get everything back up and fully operational). The other IBM players believed they had a counter to every political strategy that the communication group was known to use ... but what the communication group did next (to sink the effort) can only be described as truth is stranger than fiction.

aka the IMS standby was "hot" ... but (standard) VTAM was still frozen and needed to be thawed out and heated up.

part of presentation made to SNA ARB fall86 on S1 PU4/PU5 emulation
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#67
part of baby bell presentation at IBM Common (user group)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#70

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Peer-Coupled Shared Data

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Peer-Coupled Shared Data
Date: 17 Apr 2022
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#79 Peer-Coupled Shared Data

Channel-to-channel adapter ... back to 360
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Channel-to-channel_adapter

3088 article
https://www.ibm.com/docs/en/ztpf/2021?topic=facility-3088-address-pairing-by-mpif

for other drift: Virtual CTCA (VCTC) Support in VM/ESA
http://www.vm.ibm.com/devpages/mussel/vctc/vctc.html

for topic drift, in early 80s, I had started HSDT ... T1 and faster computer links ... while communication group up through the mid-80s was claiming customers wouldn't need T1 until sometime well into the 90s. They had done presentation to corporate executive committee of study of 37x5 "fat-pipes", customer configured multiple 56kbit links running in parallel treated as single logical link. They showed count of those installation for 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 parallel 56kbit links ... dropping to zero installations. What they didn't know (or purposefully not mentioning) was that telco tariff for T1 was typically the same as 5 or 6 56kbit links (i.e. nothing above 336kbit/sec aggregate, less than quarter of T1). A trivial study by HSDT found 200 customer T1 links ... aka at 5or6 56kbit/sec links, customers just switched to full T1 supported by non-IBM hardware ... i.e. the communication group had carefully cherry-picked the data, only presented data to the corporate executive committee, that supported their position.

related email
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018f.html#email840606
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018f.html#email840606b
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018f.html#email870725
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018f.html#email880715

hsdt posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#hsdt

Eventually communication group was forced to come out with 3737 ... box with boatload of memory and multiple 68k processors with a mini-VTAM implementation that emulated CTCA. The local 3737 would ACK local VTAM as soon as it got RU ... and then transmit it over a T1 link to the remote 3737 (not using the VTAM SNA windowing pacing algorithm) in the background. Issue was even short haul T1 terrestrial link was so fast that host VTAM had exhausted the window/pacing transmission limit, before it started receiving ACKs from the remote end (aka it stopped transmitting waiting for the ACKs that RUs were being recieved). The 3737 even impersonating a host VTAM and immediately acknowledging transmission with all its buffering and 68k processing still peaked out around 2mbit/sec (even short haul terrestrial). T1 link was 1.5mbit/sec full-duplex or 3mbit/sec aggregate and EU T1 was 2mbit/sec full-duplex or 4mbit/sec aggregate.

HSDT early on had gone to a dynamic adaptive rate-based pacing algorithm that could handle any speed link with any round-trip latency (short-haul terrestrial, single-hop satellite, double-hop satellite, etc).

some old email mentioning 3737
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011g.html#email880130
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011g.html#email880606
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011g.html#email881005

archived specific posts with some 3737 reference and/or email
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#14 IBM z16: Built to Build the Future of Your Business
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#32 IBM Downturn
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#31 IBM Downturn
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#16 IBM SNA ARB
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021h.html#49 Dynamic Adaptive Resource Management
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021d.html#14 The Rise of the Internet
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021c.html#97 What's Fortran?!?!
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021c.html#83 IBM SNA/VTAM (& HSDT)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019d.html#117 IBM HONE
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019c.html#35 Transition to cloud computing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019b.html#16 Tandem Memo
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018f.html#110 IBM Token-RIng
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018f.html#109 IBM Token-Ring
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018b.html#9 Important US technology companies sold to foreigners
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017i.html#35 IBM Shareholders Need Employee Enthusiasm, Engagemant And Passions
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017g.html#35 Eliminating the systems programmer was Re: IBM cuts contractor billing by 15 percent (our else)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#57 TV Show "Hill Street Blues"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016b.html#82 Qbasic - lies about Medicare
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015g.html#42 20 Things Incoming College Freshmen Will Never Understand
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015e.html#31 Western Union envisioned internet functionality
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015e.html#2 Western Union envisioned internet functionality
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015d.html#47 Western Union envisioned internet functionality
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014j.html#66 No Internet. No Microsoft Windows. No iPods. This Is What Tech Was Like In 1984
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014e.html#7 Last Gasp for Hard Disk Drives
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014b.html#46 Resistance to Java
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013n.html#16 z/OS is antique WAS: Aging Sysprogs = Aging Farmers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013j.html#66 OSI: The Internet That Wasn't
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012o.html#47 PC/mainframe browser(s) was Re: 360/20, was 1132 printerhistory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012m.html#24 Does the IBM System z Mainframe rely on Security by Obscurity or is it Secure by Design
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012j.html#89 Gordon Crovitz: Who Really Invented the Internet?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012j.html#87 Gordon Crovitz: Who Really Invented the Internet?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012i.html#4 A joke seen in an online discussion about moving a box of tape backups
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012g.html#57 VM Workshop 2012
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012g.html#23 VM Workshop 2012
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012f.html#92 How do you feel about the fact that India has more employees than US?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012e.html#19 Inventor of e-mail honored by Smithsonian
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#20 Writing article on telework/telecommuting
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#41 Where are all the old tech workers?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011p.html#103 Has anyone successfully migrated off mainframes?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011h.html#54 Did My Brother Invent E-Mail With Tom Van Vleck? (Part One)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011h.html#2 WHAT WAS THE PROJECT YOU WERE INVOLVED/PARTICIPATED AT IBM THAT YOU WILL ALWAYS REMEMBER?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011h.html#0 We list every company in the world that has a mainframe computer
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011g.html#77 Is the magic and romance killed by Windows (and Linux)?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011g.html#75 We list every company in the world that has a mainframe computer
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#14 IBM z16: Built to Build the Future of Your Business
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#32 IBM Downturn
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#31 IBM Downturn
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#16 IBM SNA ARB
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021h.html#49 Dynamic Adaptive Resource Management
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021d.html#14 The Rise of the Internet
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021c.html#97 What's Fortran?!?!
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021c.html#83 IBM SNA/VTAM (& HSDT)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019d.html#117 IBM HONE
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019c.html#35 Transition to cloud computing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019b.html#16 Tandem Memo
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018f.html#110 IBM Token-RIng
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018f.html#109 IBM Token-Ring
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018b.html#9 Important US technology companies sold to foreigners
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017i.html#35 IBM Shareholders Need Employee Enthusiasm, Engagemant And Passions
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017g.html#35 Eliminating the systems programmer was Re: IBM cuts contractor billing by 15 percent (our else)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#57 TV Show "Hill Street Blues"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016b.html#82 Qbasic - lies about Medicare
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015g.html#42 20 Things Incoming College Freshmen Will Never Understand
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015e.html#31 Western Union envisioned internet functionality
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015e.html#2 Western Union envisioned internet functionality
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015d.html#47 Western Union envisioned internet functionality
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014j.html#66 No Internet. No Microsoft Windows. No iPods. This Is What Tech Was Like In 1984
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014e.html#7 Last Gasp for Hard Disk Drives
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014b.html#46 Resistance to Java
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013n.html#16 z/OS is antique WAS: Aging Sysprogs = Aging Farmers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013j.html#66 OSI: The Internet That Wasn't
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012o.html#47 PC/mainframe browser(s) was Re: 360/20, was 1132 printerhistory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012m.html#24 Does the IBM System z Mainframe rely on Security by Obscurity or is it Secure by Design
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012j.html#89 Gordon Crovitz: Who Really Invented the Internet?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012j.html#87 Gordon Crovitz: Who Really Invented the Internet?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012i.html#4 A joke seen in an online discussion about moving a box of tape backups
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012g.html#57 VM Workshop 2012
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012g.html#23 VM Workshop 2012
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012f.html#92 How do you feel about the fact that India has more employees than US?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012e.html#19 Inventor of e-mail honored by Smithsonian
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#20 Writing article on telework/telecommuting
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#41 Where are all the old tech workers?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011p.html#103 Has anyone successfully migrated off mainframes?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011h.html#54 Did My Brother Invent E-Mail With Tom Van Vleck? (Part One)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011h.html#2 WHAT WAS THE PROJECT YOU WERE INVOLVED/PARTICIPATED AT IBM THAT YOU WILL ALWAYS REMEMBER?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011h.html#0 We list every company in the world that has a mainframe computer
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011g.html#77 Is the magic and romance killed by Windows (and Linux)?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011g.html#75 We list every company in the world that has a mainframe computer

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Peer-Coupled Shared Data

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Peer-Coupled Shared Data
Date: 17 Apr 2022
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#79 Peer-Coupled Shared Data
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#80 Peer-Coupled Shared Data

re: virtual CTCA & ICUV topic drift; IBM Pisa Scientific Center had done SPM for CP67 ... which was then ported to VM370 for internal IBM ... SPM was a superset of VMCF+IUCV+SMSG combined. Internal VNET/RSCS had SPM support ... and even shipped in the original VNET/RSCS product to customers ... even tho SPM never shipped to customers. The author of REXX did a multi-user client/server (3270 terminal) spacewars game in the late 70s using SPM (users could be on the same machine or over the network via VNET/RSCS support). As an aside, early on, spacewar bots began appearing beating all the human players ... because of faster reaction time. Server was modified to increase energy use inversely proportional to elapsed time between moves/commands (less than nominal human response times) as somewhat leveling the playing field. SPM was also used for automated operator and service virtual machines (now more commonly referred to as virtual appliance). Some old (archived) CMS SPMS utility description in this post

http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006w.html#16 old (archived) SPM email reference
http://www.garlc.com/~lynn/2006k.html#email851017

internal network posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#internalnet

some other past posts mentioning SPM &/or SPMS
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#33 CMSBACK & VMFPLC
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#29 IBM HONE
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021h.html#78 IBM Internal network
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021c.html#11 Air Force thinking of a new F-16ish fighter
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021b.html#62 Early Computer Use
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2020.html#46 Watch AI-controlled virtual fighters take on an Air Force pilot on August 18th
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#104 The (broken) economics of OSS
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017k.html#37 CMS style XMITMSG for Unix and other platforms
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016h.html#5 "I used a real computer at home...and so will you" (Popular Science May 1967)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016c.html#1 You count as an old-timer if (was Re: Origin of the phrase "XYZZY")
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016b.html#17 IBM Destination z - What the Heck Is JCL and Why Does It Look So Funny?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015g.html#99 PROFS & GML
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015d.html#9 PROFS
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014k.html#48 1950: Northrop's Digital Differential Analyzer
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014g.html#93 Costs of core
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014e.html#48 Before the Internet: The golden age of online service
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014.html#1 Application development paradigms [was: RE: Learning Rexx]
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013j.html#42 1969 networked word processor "Astrotype"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013j.html#38 1969 networked word processor "Astrotype"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013i.html#27 RBS Mainframe Meltdown: A year on, the fallout is still coming
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013b.html#77 Spacewar! on S/360
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012n.html#68 Should you support or abandon the 3270 as a User Interface?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012l.html#36 PDP-10 system calls, was 1132 printer history
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012j.html#7 Operating System, what is it?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012e.html#64 Typeface (font) and city identity
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#38 Invention of Email
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#24 Inventor of e-mail honored by Smithsonian
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011i.html#66 Wasn't instant messaging on IBM's VM/CMS in the early 1980s
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011g.html#56 VAXen on the Internet
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011g.html#49 My first mainframe experience
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011g.html#45 My first mainframe experience
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010m.html#28 CSC History
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010k.html#33 Was VM ever used as an exokernel?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010h.html#0 What is the protocal for GMT offset in SMTP (e-mail) header time-stamp?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009n.html#67 Status of Arpanet/Internet in 1976?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008o.html#73 Addressing Scheme with 64 vs 63 bits
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008g.html#41 Was CMS multi-tasking?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008g.html#22 Was CMS multi-tasking?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007o.html#68 CA to IBM TCP Conversion
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007k.html#25 IBM 360 Model 20 Questions
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007f.html#14 more shared segment archeology
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007.html#11 vm/sp1
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006w.html#8 Why these original FORTRAN quirks?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006t.html#47 To RISC or not to RISC
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004q.html#72 IUCV in VM/CMS
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001b.html#32 z900 and Virtual Machine Theory

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

We Have a Creativity Problem

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: We Have a Creativity Problem
Date: 18 Apr 2022
Blog: Facebook
We Have a Creativity Problem. Outwardly, we praise innovation. Inwardly, we harbor a visceral aversion to it, studies have found.
https://www.nytimes.com/2022/04/16/science/creativity-implicit-bias.html

Bullying has been standard technique in US education as part of enforcing conformity ... former coworker at IBM cambridge science center and IBM san jose research;
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edson_Hendricks
"It's Cool to Be Clever: The Story of Edson C. Hendricks, the Genius Who Invented the Design for the Internet"
https://www.amazon.com/Its-Cool-Be-Clever-Hendricks/dp/1897435630/

permeates nearly all levels of US education system ... even extending to military academies ... reference to study of German and US military academies the first half of 1900s ... including reference to George Marshall (WW2 chief of staff) was so badly injured in a bullying/hazing incident that he almost had to drop out
https://www.amazon.com/Command-Culture-Education-1901-1940-Consequences-ebook/dp/B009K7VYLI/
again lots tracing to "industrial age education" ... Industrial Age Education Is a Disservice to Students
https://www.huffpost.com/entry/industrial-age-education-_b_2974297

some recent psots mentioning industrial-age schools
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#100 What Industrial Societies Get Wrong About Childhood
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021f.html#99 IQ tests can't measure it, but 'cognitive flexibility' is key to learning and creativity
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021c.html#47 MAINFRAME (4341) History
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021b.html#103 IBM Innovation
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021b.html#87 IBM Innovation
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021b.html#86 Dail-up banking and the Internet
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021b.html#54 In the 1970s, Email Was Special
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2020.html#0 The modern education system was designed to teach future factory workers to be "punctual, docile, and sober"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#3 The One Type of Game That Kills Creativity and Innovation
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019c.html#67 Range
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018d.html#111 The story of the internet is all about layers; How the internet lost its decentralized innocence
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018d.html#106 Everyone is born creative, but it is educated out of us at school
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018b.html#45 More Guns Do Not Stop More Crimes, Evidence Shows
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017h.html#84 Bureaucracy

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

VMworkshop.og 2022

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: VMworkshop.og 2022
Date: 18 Apr 2022
Blog: Facebook
VMworkshop.og 2022
http://vmworkshop.org/2022.shtml

I had lots of the stuff backed up to redundant tapes ... but they were in the Almaden Research tape library; Almaden had operational problem with random tapes being mounted as scratch and I "lost" a dozen tapes ... including redundant tapes of stuff from science center.

Shortly before the Almaden problems, Melinda had asked me for copy of the original (CP67/CMS) implementation of multi-level source update (done in EXEC iterations) and I managed to at least pull that off and send to her.

posts with archived email about multi-level source & lost tapes
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006w.html#42 vmshare
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006w.html#email850906
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006w.html#email850908
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011c.html#3 If IBM Hadn't Bet the Company
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011c.html#email850908

other archived posts with old email and mentioning Melinda
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006e.html#31 MCTS
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006t.html#24 CMSBACK
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006w.html#48 vmshare
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007.html#25 The History of Computer Role-Playing Games
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007b.html#14 Just another example of mainframe costs
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008.html#59 old internal network references
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010l.html#22 Old EMAIL Index
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011b.html#23 A brief history of CMS/XA, part 1
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011b.html#25 Melinda Varian's history page move
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011b.html#29 A brief history of CMS/XA, part 1
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011b.html#33 A brief history of CMS/XA, part 1
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011b.html#61 VM13025 ... zombie/hung users
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011c.html#0 If IBM Hadn't Bet the Company
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011c.html#2 Other early NSFNET backbone
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011c.html#87 A History of VM Performance
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011c.html#90 A History of VM Performance
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014e.html#35 System/360 celebration set for ten cities; 1964 pricing for oneweek
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016c.html#72 Fridays
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#51 VM/SP crashing all over the place

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

VMworkshop.og 2022

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: VMworkshop.og 2022
Date: 18 Apr 2022
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#83 VMworkshop.og 2022

something similar but different. During FS in the 1st part of the 70s, internal politics was shutting down 370 activity (which is credited with giving 370 clone makers their market foothold). Then when FS imploded, there was mad rush to get stuff back into the 370 product pipelines, including kicking off quick&dirty 3033&3081 efforts in parallel. The head of POK also managed to convince corporate hdqtrs to kill VM370, shutdown the (burlington mall) development group and move all the people to POK to work on MVS/XA (or supposedly wouldn't be able to ship MVS/XA on time).

future system posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#futuresys

Endicott eventually manages to save the VM370 product mission, but had to reconstitute a development group from scratch ... but apparently everything from burlington mall was trashed. Wasn't too bad, since nearly all VM370 was shipped with source ... except for VMFPLC ... which they had to recreate by reverse engineering existing distribution tapes.

trivia: They were not planning to tell anybody in VM370 ... until the very last minute to minimize the number that might be able to escape. Somebody leaked the information early and several managed to escape to other places in Boston area (joke was head of POK was one of the biggest contributors to the infant DEC VMS effort). There was also a witch hunt for the leak ... fortunately for me, nobody told.

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

VMworkshop.og 2022

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: VMworkshop.og 2022
Date: 18 Apr 2022
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#90 VMworkshop.og 2022
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#91 VMworkshop.og 2022

Two weeks ago I got email ask if I could help reverse engineer tape they found ... appended was dump of several tape records. Note CMS tape had been modified for vmfplc ... increasing max tape record size but leave cms FST (file descriptor as separate physical tape record ... lots of small files could be mostly inter-record gap). Tape records had four byte x'02'CMS prefix.

re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#41 CMSBACK & VMFPLC
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#33 CMSBACK & VMFPLC
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#32 CMSBACK & VMFPLC

I had done cmsback in late 70s for internal datacenters (later morphs into workstation datasave, then adsm, then tsm, etc) and had further modified vmfplc for even larger max tape record and merged FST into 1st file tape record (cutting inter-record gaps)

The tape dump records had some with 02CMS prefix, but most were 4byte x'03'BLT prefix. Examination looked like it was followed with fixed length expanded file descriptor, followed by actual file data.

I suggested could write tape load in rexx ..

my guess format change was some later generation wdsf/adsm/tsm

IBM Tivoli Storage Manager
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM_Tivoli_Storage_Manager

backup/archive posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#backup

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

APL & IBM 5100

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: APL & IBM 5100
Date: 18 Apr 2022
Blog: Facebook
Cambridge Science Center had ported APL\360 to CMS for CMS\APL (for CP67/CMS) ... expanded (swapped, typically) 16kbyte workspace to (demand paged virtual memory, up to) 16mbyte workspaces ... required redoing storage management ... also added support for system services (like file i/o) API ... in total, enabling real-world applications.

Palo Alto Science Center then did APL\CMS (for VM370/CMS) as well as the 370/145 APL microcode assist (APL programs on 145 with mcode-assist could run as fast as on 168 ... nearly ten times speedup). PASC also did SCAMP
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM_5100

The APL purists were scathing about the implementation of CSC's systems services API ... and eventually responded with the APLSV (shared variable) implementation.

CSC posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech
HONE &/or APL posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#hone

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

The IRS misses billions in uncollected tax each year

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: The IRS misses billions in uncollected tax each year
Date: 19 Apr 2022
Blog: Facebook
The IRS misses billions in uncollected tax each year. Here's why
https://www.npr.org/2022/04/18/1093380881/on-tax-day-the-treasury-department-urges-for-more-funding-to-the-irs

The IRS is woefully understaffed and will miss about $600 billion in uncollected taxes this year as it grapples with technology built before humans landed on the moon, according to Deputy Treasury Department Secretary Wally Adeyemo.

... snip ...

2002 congress lets the financial responsibility act lapse (spending can't exceed revenue, on its way to eliminating all federal debt). By 2005, comptroller general was including in speeches that nobody in congress was capable of middle school arithmetic (for how badly they were savaging the budget). 2010 CBO report 2003-2009 tax revenue cut by $6T and spending increased by $6T for $12T gap compared to fiscal responsible budget (first time taxes were cut to not pay for two wars). Sort of confluence of FEDRES and TBTF (too big to fail) needed huge federal debt, special interests wanting huge tax cut and military-industrial complex wanting huge spending increase.

spring 2009, IRS announced that it was going after $400B in taxes on money illegally stashed overseas by 52,000 wealthy americans (over and above the new tax loopholes that allowed trillions to be "legally" stashed overseas) since the start of the century ... then little or nothing in the news.

spring 2011 the new speaker of the house has press conference where he says he is cutting the budget for the IRS department responsible for recovering the $400B. Since then there has been periodic news about the banks and financial advisers have been fined a few billion for their part in facilitating tax evasion, illegally stashing trillions overseas (again, over and above the trillions that congressional tax loopholes allowed to be stashed overseas "legally") ... but almost nothing about recovering the $400B in taxes owed on the money illegally stashed overseas.

tax evasion, tax avoidance, tax havens, tax fraud posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#tax.evasion
fiscal responsibility posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#fiscal.responsibility.act
comptroller general posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#comptroller.general

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

How the Ukraine War - and COVID-19 - is Affecting Inflation and Supply Chains

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: How the Ukraine War - and COVID-19 - is Affecting Inflation and Supply Chains
Date: 20 Apr 2022
Blog: Facebook
How the Ukraine War - and COVID-19 - is Affecting Inflation and Supply Chains. Dr. David Simchi-Levi, director of the MIT Data Science Lab, joins the podcast to discuss how recent events have shocked the global system.
https://www.govexec.com/technology/2022/04/govexec-daily-how-ukraine-war-and-covid-19-affecting-inflation-and-supply-chains/363966/

Executives looting systems for every penny they can manage, cutting corners, eliminating resiliency, robustness, maintenance, contingency, etc. In the 50s, railroad executives pocketing bonuses from track maintenance budgets (after several years, big reduction in train speed because of unsafe tracks and upswing in accidents with cars leaving tracks), in the 90s power company executives pocketing bonuses from tree&brush trimming budgets (resulting in fires). Executives assuming on being long gone by the time the diverting robustness/resiliency budgets starting to show.

Every possible form of financial engineering ... after turn of the century lobbying congress to outsource functions to for-profit-companies ... and apparently using war gaming technology to find that a series of failures resulted in more money ... the rise of the success of failure and "perpetual war" (never actual winning) cultures:
http://www.govexec.com/excellence/management-matters/2007/04/the-success-of-failure/24107/
http://www.motherjones.com/politics/2007/10/barbarians-capitol-private-equity-public-enemy/
just gov. intelligence, 70% of the budget and half the people
http://www.investingdaily.com/17693/spies-like-us
and
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perpetual_war

capitalism kleptocracy
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#capitalism
success of failure culture
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#success.of.failure
private equity posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#private.equity
perpetual war posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#perpetual.war
military industrial(/congressional) complex posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#military.industrial.complex
economic mess
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#economic.mess

then there is
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/War_Is_a_Racket
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Business_Plot
and
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Confessions_of_an_Economic_Hit_Man

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Why did Linux Succeed while Hurd Failed?

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Why did Linux Succeed while Hurd Failed?
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Wed, 20 Apr 2022 11:08:01 -1000
Ahem A Rivet's Shot <steveo@eircom.net> writes:

The GNU project had pretty much finished reproducing all the tools in the normal unix userland and were thrashing around looking for a kernel (an attempt at writing one had stalled - kernels are *hard* that's why there aren't many of them) with Mach in the frame but licensing was an issue, when Linus Torvalds and friends finished stretching his clever task switcher into a full blown unix kernel clone and some people had blended it with the GNU and MIT offerings to make the first complete Linux (based unix) systems.

Timing more than anything I think, by the time the Hurd project sorted out their kernel difficulties Linux was well established and distros were popping up like weeds so developer "mindshare" was getting strongly Linux flavoured.

In the same time frame the port of CSRGs BSD to the PC was happening and splitting into three projects, but they got tarnished with uncertainty when AT&T launched their lawsuit. Again by the time the dust settled Linux was established and the BSDs were playing catchup in many ways.

None of these projects have gone away, and indeed as far as I can tell most of them are larger (more developers) and better funded (more equipment anyway) than they were before Linux appeared to become the unix world. The thing is that while their slice of the pie has become small the pie has become *much much* bigger.


... also cheap massive clusters were starting to explode for "supercomputers" and what becomes cloud megadatacenters ... and needed full unencumbered source for adapting to their computing paradigm.

Google was multiplying their backend servers and rewritting code in their internet facing routers to track backend server loads and do dynamic transaction load balancing routing to backend servers.

megadatacenter posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#megadatacenter

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Rags-to-Riches Stories Are Actually Kind of Disturbing

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Rags-to-Riches Stories Are Actually Kind of Disturbing
Date: 20 Apr 2022
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#61 Rags-to-Riches Stories Are Actually Kind of Disturbing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#59 Rags-to-Riches Stories Are Actually Kind of Disturbing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#58 Rags-to-Riches Stories Are Actually Kind of Disturbing

Why the Hell Isn't Jared Kushner's $2 Billion Saudi Payment a Big Scandal?
https://www.motherjones.com/politics/2022/04/why-the-hell-isnt-jared-kushners-2-billion-saudi-payment-a-big-scandal/

Mohammed bin Salman--often referred to as MBS--does owe Kushner a big thank-you. As the Times notes, "Kushner played a leading role inside the Trump administration defending Crown Prince Mohammed after US intelligence agencies concluded that he had approved the 2018 killing and dismemberment of Jamal Khashoggi."

... snip ...

capitalism kleptocracy
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#capitalism

Posts mentioning Khashoggi:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021c.html#27 US intelligence report finds Saudi Crown Prince responsible for approving operation that killed Khashoggi
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021c.html#24 US intelligence report finds Saudi Crown Prince responsible for approving operation that killed Khashoggi
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2020.html#21 Saudi ruler aimed to 'silence' Washington Post
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#58 Homeland Security Dept. Affirms Threat of White Supremacy After Years of Prodding

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

How the Ukraine War - and COVID-19 - is Affecting Inflation and Supply Chains

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: How the Ukraine War - and COVID-19 - is Affecting Inflation and Supply Chains
Date: 21 Apr 2022
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#88 How the Ukraine War - and COVID-19 - is Affecting Inflation and Supply Chains

... not only looting maintenance of corporate infrastructure but also looting of public infrastructures:

... quote attributable to Volcker from Confidence Men: Wall Street, Washington, and the Education of a President
https://www.amazon.com/Confidence-Men-Washington-Education-ebook/dp/B0089LOKKS/
pg290:

Well, I said, 'The trouble with the United States recently is we spent several decades not producing many civil engineers and producing a huge number of financial engineers. And the result is s**tty bridges and a s**tty financial system!'

... snip ...

... the discussion sort of started out chicken&egg ... no infrastructure projects results in not hiring civil engineers, no jobs, no students, which contributes to the disappearing civil engineering univ programs. From the law of unintended consequences, Obama stimulus "shovel ready" infrastructure projects resorted to hiring Chinese civil engineering companies.

then there is looting of corporate infrastructures in other ways, stock buybacks use to be illegal (because it was too easy for executives to manipulate the market ... aka banned in wake of '29crash)
https://corpgov.law.harvard.edu/2020/10/23/the-dangers-of-buybacks-mitigating-common-pitfalls/

Buybacks are a fairly new phenomenon and have been gaining in popularity relative to dividends recently. All but banned in the US during the 1930s, buybacks were seen as a form of market manipulation. Buybacks were largely illegal until 1982, when the SEC adopted Rule 10B-18 (the safe-harbor provision) under the Reagan administration to combat corporate raiders. This change reintroduced buybacks in the US, leading to wider adoption around the world over the next 20 years. Figure 1 (below) shows that the use of buybacks in non-US companies grew from 14 percent in 1999 to 43 percent in 2018.

... snip ...

Note after its troubles of the early 90s, IBM was increasingly becoming a financial engineering company ... Stockman, "The Great Deformation: The Corruption of Capitalism in America"
https://www.amazon.com/Great-Deformation-Corruption-Capitalism-America-ebook/dp/B00B3M3UK6/
pg464/loc9995-10000:

IBM was not the born-again growth machine trumpeted by the mob of Wall Street momo traders. It was actually a stock buyback contraption on steroids. During the five years ending in fiscal 2011, the company spent a staggering $67 billion repurchasing its own shares, a figure that was equal to 100 percent of its net income.

pg465/loc10014-17:

Total shareholder distributions, including dividends, amounted to $82 billion, or 122 percent, of net income over this five-year period. Likewise, during the last five years IBM spent less on capital investment than its depreciation and amortization charges, and also shrank its constant dollar spending for research and development by nearly 2 percent annually.

... snip ...

(2013) New IBM Buyback Plan Is For Over 10 Percent Of Its Stock
http://247wallst.com/technology-3/2013/10/29/new-ibm-buyback-plan-is-for-over-10-percent-of-its-stock/

(2014) IBM Asian Revenues Crash, Adjusted Earnings Beat On Tax Rate Fudge; Debt Rises 20% To Fund Stock Buybacks
http://www.zerohedge.com/news/2014-01-21/ibm-asian-revenues-crash-adjusted-earnings-beat-tax-rate-fudge-debt-rises-20-fund-st

The company has represented that its dividends and share repurchases have come to a total of over $159 billion since 2000.

... snip ...

capitalism kleptocracy
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#capitalism
stock buyback posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#economic.mess

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Growing US chip output an 'expensive exercise in futility', warns TSMC Founder

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Growing US chip output an 'expensive exercise in futility', warns TSMC Founder
Date: 21 Apr 2022
Blog: Facebook
Growing US chip output an 'expensive exercise in futility', warns TSMC founder. Production talent isn't here, costs are high ... so how's that multi-billion-dollar Arizona plant coming, eh?
https://www.theregister.com/2022/04/20/us_chips_tsmc/

Taiwan, Chang said, has a large population that was integral to TSMC's manufacturing success. While the US and other countries saw professionals moving away from manufacturing, Taiwan was ripe with talent and made it an ideal location for a "pure play" chip foundry that only produced components for other companies, he proclaimed.

... snip ...

... i.e. another form of infrastructure "looting", recent thread
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#88 How the Ukraine War - and COVID-19 - is Affecting Inflation and Supply Chains
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#91 How the Ukraine War - and COVID-19 - is Affecting Inflation and Supply Chains

capitalism kleptocracy
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#capitalism

False Profits: Reviving the Corporation's Public Purpose
https://www.uclalawreview.org/false-profits-reviving-the-corporations-public-purpose/

I Origins of the Corporation. Although the corporate structure dates back as far as the Greek and Roman Empires, characteristics of the modern corporation began to appear in England in the mid-thirteenth century.[4] "Merchant guilds" were loose organizations of merchants "governed through a council somewhat akin to a board of directors," and organized to "achieve a common purpose"[5] that was public in nature. Indeed, merchant guilds registered with the state and were approved only if they were "serving national purposes."[6]

... snip ...

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Crypto millionaires are pouring money into Central America to build their own cities

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Crypto millionaires are pouring money into Central America to build their own cities
Date: 21 Apr 2022
Blog: Facebook
Crypto millionaires are pouring money into Central America to build their own cities. A new class of crypto investors have bold plans to rebuild society from scratch. But their pet projects risk repeating the region's long history of corporate colonialism.
https://www.technologyreview.com/2022/04/20/1049384/crypto-cities-central-america/

But in Central America, foreign investors have parachuted in with promises of prosperity before, only to grab land and extract value for themselves. The region has a long history of economic exploitation--the most glaring example being the "banana republics" of the first half of the 20th century, when the United Fruit Company controlled vast swaths of land and seized political power in Honduras, Guatemala, and Costa Rica. More recently, "export processing zones" carved out for international garment-making companies have become home to sweatshop-style factories that have abused workers' rights.

... snip ...

capitalism kleptocracy
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#capitalism

recent capitalism kleptocracy
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#88 How the Ukraine War - and COVID-19 - is Affecting Inflation and Supply Chains
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#91 How the Ukraine War - and COVID-19 - is Affecting Inflation and Supply Chains
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#92 Growing US chip output an 'expensive exercise in futility', warns TSMC Founder

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Does Wall Street Need New Storytelling? If all you offer is money, all you get are mercenaries

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Does Wall Street Need New Storytelling? If all you offer is money, all you get are mercenaries.
Date: 21 Apr 2022
Blog: Facebook
Does Wall Street Need New Storytelling? If all you offer is money, all you get are mercenaries.
https://neckar.substack.com/p/does-wall-street-need-new-storytelling

"mercenaries" ... once was told "amoral sociopaths"

capitalism kleptocracy
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#capitalism

past posts mentioning amoral sociopaths
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019d.html#97 David Koch Was the Ultimate Climate Change Denier
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018d.html#90 Study Confirms Most Psychopaths Live in Washington D.C
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018d.html#55 Should Bankers Be Forced to Put Some Skin in the Game?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017i.html#22 Dotcom Bubble
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#74 Trump delay of the 'fiduciary rule' will cost retirement savers $3.7 billion
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016d.html#19 Banking; The Book That Will Save Banking From Itself
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016d.html#7 Study: Cost of U.S. Regulations Larger Than Germany's Economy
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015.html#15 Banking Culture Encourages Dishonesty
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014m.html#37 Income Inequality
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014i.html#1 IBM Sales Fall Again, Pressuring Rometty's Profit Goal
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014d.html#76 Crowdsourcing Diplomacy
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012g.html#16 Psychology Of Fraud: Why Good People Do Bad Things
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012f.html#91 Psychology Of Fraud: Why Good People Do Bad Things

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Why Companies Are Becoming B Corporations

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Why Companies Are Becoming B Corporations
Date: 22 Apr 2022
Blog: Facebook
recent capitalist kleptocracy
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#88 How the Ukraine War - and COVID-19 - is Affecting Inflation and Supply Chains
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#91 How the Ukraine War - and COVID-19 - is Affecting Inflation and Supply Chains
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#92 Growing US chip output an 'expensive exercise in futility', warns TSMC Founder
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#93 Crypto millionaires are pouring money into Central America to build their own cities
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#94 Does Wall Street Need New Storytelling? If all you offer is money, all you get are mercenaries

Why Companies Are Becoming B Corporations
https://hbr.org/2016/06/why-companies-are-becoming-b-corporations

The landscape of American corporations is changing. Since the financialization of the economy in the late 1970s, corporate governance practices have tightly linked the purpose of business with maximizing shareholder value. However, as the 21st century pushes on, there has been an increased emphasis on other stakeholder values, particularly social and environmental concerns. This trend in corporate governance - which has led to the growth in "triple-bottom line" thinking - has fueled the emergence of a new organizational form: the Certified B Corporation.

... snip ...

Some Thoughts On the Business Roundtable's Statement of Corporate Purpose
https://www.realclearmarkets.com/articles/2020/02/05/some_thoughts_on_the_business_roundtables_statement_of_corporate_purpose_104069.html

The BRT has scrapped its longstanding view (since 1997) that "the paramount duty of management and of boards of directors is to the corporation's stockholders...The interests of other stakeholders are relevant as a derivative of the duty to stockholders." In its place, the BRT stipulates that U.S. companies should consider the interests of numerous stakeholders - including employees, customers, and communities in which the company operates, along with shareholders when making corporate decisions. Underlying the Roundtable's new view is its belief that companies have a social responsibility that transcends their role as producers of goods and services in a freely competitive economy.

... snip ...

Elizabeth Warren: Business Roundtable declaration 'was just an empty publicity stunt'. America's top CEOs promised a more inclusive economy, then carried on business as usual. Enough with the press releases--it's time for real reform.
https://www.fastcompany.com/90557370/elizabeth-warren-business-roundtable-declaration-was-just-an-empty-publicity-stunt

Another study finds the Business Roundtable's revolutionary pledge didn't translate to action. The endless crisis of 2020 were a perfect time to test whether companies were really ready to end shareholder primacy. They haven't done great.
https://www.fastcompany.com/90553830/another-study-finds-the-business-roundtables-revolutionary-pledge-didnt-translate-to-action

The Business Roundtable's August 2019 pledge to redefine the purpose of a corporation as one that "promote[s] an economy that serves all Americans" was seen as a historic step for corporate responsibility--and nothing has put that commitment to the test like the COVID-19 pandemic, the subsequent economic fallout, and the heightened attention on racial inequality over the past few months.

... snip ...

Business Roundtable Redefines the Purpose of a Corporation to Promote 'An Economy That Serves All Americans'
https://www.businessroundtable.org/business-roundtable-redefines-the-purpose-of-a-corporation-to-promote-an-economy-that-serves-all-americans

"The American dream is alive, but fraying," said Jamie Dimon, Chairman and CEO of JPMorgan Chase & Co. and Chairman of Business Roundtable. "Major employers are investing in their workers and communities because they know it is the only way to be successful over the long term. These modernized principles reflect the business community's unwavering commitment to continue to push for an economy that serves all Americans."

... snip ....

capitalist kleptocracy posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#capitalism
inequality posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#inequality

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Why Companies Are Becoming B Corporations

Refed: **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Why Companies Are Becoming B Corporations
Date: 22 Apr 2022
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#95 Why Companies Are Becoming B Corporations

there has been lots written about effects of milton friedman, deregulation and corporate governance (and pension plans) in the 80s ... that have since turned out to have been disastrous.
https://www.amazon.com/Economists-Powerful-Convenient-Distorted-Economics-ebook/dp/B01B4X4KOS/
loc1193-95:

According to economists' estimates, such collusion between asset management firms and companies is robbing a large proportion of the retirees of the company of a noticeable share of their retirement benefits. Losses for investors in small fund families with large 401(k) plans can reach more than 13 percent (Cohen and Schmidt 2009).

loc1200-1206:

There are plenty of examples from other countries to copy: the US individual retirement account system is based on the Chilean pension reform of 1980/81 that in turn was based heavily on proposals made in the book Capitalism and Freedom by Milton Friedman. In response to the Chilean system facing a likely collapse in a few decades time, it was substantially overhauled in 2008 to require mandatory participation of all citizens in exchange for universal pension coverage.

... snip ...

The Dumbest Business Idea Ever. The Myth of Maximizing Shareholder Value. The dominant business philosophy debunked
https://evonomics.com/maximizing-shareholder-value-dumbest-idea/

How Economists Turned Corporations into Predators
https://www.ineteconomics.org/perspectives/blog/how-economists-turned-corporations-into-predators

Why the "Maximizing Shareholder Value" Theory of Corporate Governance is Bogus
https://www.nakedcapitalism.com/2013/10/why-the-maximizing-shareholder-value-theory-of-corporate-governance-is-bogus.html

One mantra you see regularly in the business and popular press goes something along the lines of "the CEO and board have a fiduciary duty to maximize shareholder value." That is untrue. Moreover, the widespread acceptance of that false notion has done considerable harm.

If you review any of the numerous guides prepared for directors of corporations prepared by law firms and other experts, you won't find a stipulation for them to maximize shareholder value on the list of things they are supposed to do. It's not a legal requirement. And there is a good reason for that.

Directors and officers, broadly speaking, have a duty of care and duty of loyalty to the corporation. From that flow more specific obligations under Federal and state law. But notice: those responsibilities are to the corporation, not to shareholders in particular.


... snip ...

How Economists Turned Corporations into Predators
https://www.nakedcapitalism.com/2017/10/economists-turned-corporations-predators.html

Since the 1980s, business schools have touted "agency theory," a controversial set of ideas meant to explain how corporations best operate. Proponents say that you run a business with the goal of channeling money to shareholders instead of, say, creating great products or making any efforts at socially responsible actions such as taking account of climate change. Many now take this view as gospel, even though no less a business titan than Jack Welch, former CEO of GE, called the notion that a company should be run to maximize shareholder value "the dumbest idea in the world." Why did Welch say

... snip ...

Economists and the Powerful: Convenient Theories, Distorted Facts, Ample Rewards
https://www.amazon.com/Economists-Powerful-Convenient-Distorted-Economics-ebook/dp/B01B4X4KOS/
pg127/loc2480-82:

On the face of it, shareholder value is the dumbest idea in the world. Shareholder value is a result, not a strategy... Your main constituencies are your employees, your customers and your products. --Jack Welch, 2009

... snip ...

capitalist kleptocracy posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#capitalism
inequality posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#inequality
stock buyback posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#stock.buyback
economic mess posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#economic.mess
pension posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#pension

other recent posts specifically mentioning milton friednman
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#30 Why Mislead Readers about Milton Friedman and Segregation?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#34 Chicago Boys' 100% Private Pension System in Chile Is in Big Trouble
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#36 We've Structured Our Economy to Redistribute a Massive Amount of Income Upward
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021h.html#22 Neoliberalism: America Has Arrived at One of History's Great Crossroads
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021f.html#17 Jamie Dimon: Some Americans 'don't feel like going back to work'
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021.html#21 ESG Drives a Stake Through Friedman's Legacy
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2020.html#25 Huawei 5G networks
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2020.html#15 The Other 1 Percent": Morgan Stanley Spots A Market Ratio That Is "Unprecedented Even During The Tech Bubble"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#158 Goliath
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#149 Why big business can count on courts to keep its deadly secrets
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#64 Capitalism as we know it is dead
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#51 Big Pharma CEO: 'We're in Business of Shareholder Profit, Not Helping The Sick
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#50 Economic Mess and Regulations
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#34 The U.S. Forgot What Antitrust Is For
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#32 Milton Friedman's "Shareholder" Theory Was Wrong
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#31 Milton Friedman's "Shareholder" Theory Was Wrong
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#14 Chicago Theory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019d.html#48 Here's what Nobel Prize-winning research says will make you more influential
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019c.html#73 Wage Stagnation
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019c.html#68 Wage Stagnation
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018f.html#117 What Minimum-Wage Foes Got Wrong About Seattle
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018f.html#107 Politicians have caused a pay 'collapse' for the bottom 90 percent of workers, researchers say
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#115 Economists Should Stop Defending Milton Friedman's Pseudo-science
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018c.html#83 Economists and the Powerful: Convenient Theories, Distorted Facts, Ample Rewards
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018c.html#81 What Lies Beyond Capitalism And Socialism?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018b.html#87 Where Is Everyone???
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018b.html#82 The Real Reason the Investor Class Hates Pensions
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018.html#25 Trump's Infrastructure Plan Is Actually Pence's--And It's All About Privatization

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Why Companies Are Becoming B Corporations

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Why Companies Are Becoming B Corporations
Date: 22 Apr 2022
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#95 Why Companies Are Becoming B Corporations
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#96 Why Companies Are Becoming B Corporations

How McKinsey Destroyed the Middle Class. Technocratic management, no matter how brilliant, cannot unwind structural inequalities.
https://www.theatlantic.com/ideas/archive/2020/02/how-mckinsey-destroyed-middle-class/605878/

A new ideal of shareholder primacy, powerfully championed by Milton Friedman in a 1970 New York Times Magazine article entitled "The Social Responsibility of Business is to Increase its Profits," gave the newly ambitious management consultants a guiding purpose. According to this ideal, in language eventually adopted by the Business Roundtable, "the paramount duty of management and of boards of directors is to the corporation's stockholders." During the 1970s, and accelerating into the '80s and '90s, the upgraded management consultants pursued this duty by expressly and relentlessly taking aim at the middle managers who had dominated mid-century firms, and whose wages weighed down the bottom line.

... snip ...

Does capitalism need a radical redesign to become more inclusive? Designer Nina Montgomery offers up three innovation challenges for leaders who say they want to broaden the purpose of business.
https://www.fastcompany.com/90448178/does-capitalism-need-a-radical-redesign-to-become-more-inclusive

At the beginning of the month, leadership of the World Economic Forum declared that Milton Friedman was wrong. The purpose of business, they said, is no longer to maximize shareholder profits above all else, but to consider multiple stakeholders and society more broadly.

... snip ...

How the Billionaires Corporate News Media Have Been Used to Brainwash Us
https://johnhively.wordpress.com/2021/05/01/how-the-billionaires-corporate-news-media-have-been-used-to-brainwash-us/

Corporations used to be for organizations that did things in the public interest. Almost from the start there has been efforts to allow corporations to operate in self-interest and then to give corporations "rights" (as people).

False Profits: Reviving the Corporation's Public Purpose
https://www.uclalawreview.org/false-profits-reviving-the-corporations-public-purpose/

I Origins of the Corporation. Although the corporate structure dates back as far as the Greek and Roman Empires, characteristics of the modern corporation began to appear in England in the mid-thirteenth century.[4] "Merchant guilds" were loose organizations of merchants "governed through a council somewhat akin to a board of directors," and organized to "achieve a common purpose"[5] that was public in nature. Indeed, merchant guilds registered with the state and were approved only if they were "serving national purposes."[6]

... snip ...

In the 1880s, Supreme Court were scammed (by the railroads) to give corporations "person rights" under the 14th amendment.
https://www.amazon.com/We-Corporations-American-Businesses-Rights-ebook/dp/B01M64LRDJ/
pgxiii/loc45-50:

IN DECEMBER 1882, ROSCOE CONKLING, A FORMER SENATOR and close confidant of President Chester Arthur, appeared before the justices of the Supreme Court of the United States to argue that corporations like his client, the Southern Pacific Railroad Company, were entitled to equal rights under the Fourteenth Amendment. Although that provision of the Constitution said that no state shall "deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law" or "deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws," Conkling insisted the amendment's drafters intended to cover business corporations too.

... snip ...

... testimony falsely claiming authors of 14th amendment intended to include corporations pgxiv/loc74-78:

Between 1868, when the amendment was ratified, and 1912, when a scholar set out to identify every Fourteenth Amendment case heard by the Supreme Court, the justices decided 28 cases dealing with the rights of African Americans--and an astonishing 312 cases dealing with the rights of corporations.

pg36/loc726-28:

On this issue, Hamiltonians were corporationalists--proponents of corporate enterprise who advocated for expansive constitutional rights for business. Jeffersonians, meanwhile, were populists--opponents of corporate power who sought to limit corporate rights in the name of the people.

pg229/loc3667-68:

IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY, CORPORATIONS WON LIBERTY RIGHTS, SUCH AS FREEDOM OF SPEECH AND RELIGION, WITH THE HELP OF ORGANIZATIONS LIKE THE CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.

... snip ...

Railroaded
http://phys.org/news/2012-01-railroad-hyperbole-echoes-dot-com-frenzy.html
and
https://www.amazon.com/Railroaded-Transcontinentals-Making-America-ebook/dp/B0051GST1U
pg77/pg1984-86:

By the end of the summer of 1873 the western railroads had, within the span of two years, ended the Indian treaty system in the United States, brought down a Canadian government, and nearly paralyzed the U.S. Congress. The greatest blow remained to be delivered. The railroads were about to bring down the North American economy.

pg510/loc10030-33:

The result was not only unneeded railroads whose effects were as often bad as beneficial but also corruption of the markets and the government. The men who directed this capital were frequently not themselves capitalists. They were entrepreneurs who borrowed money or collected subsidies. These entrepreneurs did not invent the railroad, but they were inventing corporations, railroad systems, and new forms of competition. Those things yielded both personal wealth and social disasters

pg515/loc10118-22:

The need to invest capital and labor in large amounts to maintain and upgrade what had already been built was one debt owed to the past, but the second one was what Charles Francis Adams in his days as a reformer referred to as a tax on trade. All of the watered stock, money siphoned off into private pockets, waste, and fraud that characterized the building of the railroads created a corporate debt that had to be paid through higher rates and scrimping on service. A shipper in 1885 was still paying for the frauds of the 1860s.

... snip ...

capitalist kleptocracy posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#capitalism
inequality posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#inequality

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

IBM Systems Revenue Put Into a Historical Context

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: IBM Systems Revenue Put Into a Historical Context
Date: 23 Apr 2022
Blog: Facebook
IBM Systems Revenue Put Into a Historical Context
https://futurumresearch.com/research-notes/ibm-systems-revenue-put-into-a-historical-context/

Mainframe hardware used to be mainstay of IBM revenue ... after the troubles&losses in the early 90s that was all changing. Around turn of century, mainframe hardware was only a few percent of revenue and dropping. Decade ago, analysis was mainframe hardware was couple percent of revenue (and still dropping). However mainframe group was 25% of revenue and 40% of profit ... software & services ...that is mainframe group (almost all software and services ) at 25% of IBM revenue and 40% of IBM profit (don't know if there is non-mainframe group software/services "drag" not accounted for)

... then there is this ... "IBM deliberately misclassified mainframe sales to enrich execs, lawsuit claims Lawsuit accuses Big Blue of cheating investors by shifting systems revenue to trendy cloud, mobile tech"
https://www.theregister.com/2022/04/07/ibm_securities_lawsuit/

recent posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#47 IBM deliberately misclassified mainframe sales to enrich execs, lawsuit claims
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#46 IBM deliberately misclassified mainframe sales to enrich execs, lawsuit claims
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#45 IBM deliberately misclassified mainframe sales to enrich execs, lawsuit claims

... have seen references and been told a number of times #1 IBM software was VTAM ... although in mid-90s the HA/CMP product administrator told us that 2nd highest software was our HA/CMP product (this was after cluster scaleup had been transferred, announced as IBM supercomputer for technical/scientific *ONLY*, and we were told we couldn't work on anything with more than 4 processors ... we leave IBM a few months later) ... aka 4 processors or less (and not hardware "drag" ... just software).

IBM High Availability Cluster Multiprocessing
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM_High_Availability_Cluster_Multiprocessing
HA/CMP posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#hacmp

early 90s IBM troubles ... had gone into the red and was being reorganized into the 13 "baby blues" in preparation for breaking up the company ... gone 404, but lives on at wayback machine.
http://web.archive.org/web/20101120231857/http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,977353,00.html
may also work
http://content.time.com/time/subscriber/article/0,33009,977353-1,00.html

had already left IBM, but get a call from the bowels of Armonk asking if could help with breakup of the company. Lots of business units were using supplier contracts in other units via MOUs. After the breakup, all of these contracts would be in different companies ... all of those MOUs would have to be cataloged and turned into their own contracts (however, before getting started, the board brings in a new CEO and reverses the breakup).

Also was hearing from former co-workers that top IBM executives weren't paying attention to business and spending all their time shifting expenses from the following year to the current year. Ask contact from the bowels of Armonk what was going on. He said that the current year had gone into the red and the executives wouldn't get a bonus. However, if they can shift enough expenses from the following year to the current year, even putting following year just slightly into the black ... the way the executive bonus plan was written, they would get a bonus more than twice as large as any previous bonus (rewarded for taking the company into the red)

past posts mentioning 40% of profit
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#63 Mainframes
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#54 Automated Benchmarking
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#120 Computer Performance
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021g.html#18 IBM email migration disaster
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021b.html#3 Will The Cloud Take Down The Mainframe?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019c.html#80 IBM: Buying While Apathetaic
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019c.html#35 Transition to cloud computing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#19 IBM assembler over the ages
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018c.html#33 The Pentagon still uses computer software from 1958 to manage its contracts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018b.html#63 Major firms learning to adapt in fight against start-ups: IBM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018.html#98 Mainframe Use/History
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017i.html#73 When Working From Home Doesn't Work
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017i.html#33 learning Unix, was progress in e-mail, such as AOL
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017h.html#61 computer component reliability, 1951
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017g.html#103 SEX
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017g.html#86 IBM Train Wreck Continues Ahead of Earnings
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#23 IBM "Breakup"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#62 Big Shrink to "Hire" 25,000 in the US, as Layoffs Pile Up
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016g.html#69 "I used a real computer at home...and so will you" (Popular Science May 1967)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015h.html#20 the legacy of Seymour Cray
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015g.html#19 Linux Foundation Launches Open Mainframe Project
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015.html#85 a bit of hope? What was old is new again
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015.html#30 Why on Earth Is IBM Still Making Mainframes?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014m.html#170 IBM Continues To Crumble
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014m.html#155 IBM Continues To Crumble
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014f.html#84 Is end of mainframe near ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014f.html#80 IBM Sales Fall Again, Pressuring Rometty's Profit Goal
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013g.html#7 SAS Deserting the MF?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013f.html#64 What Makes an Architecture Bizarre?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013f.html#37 Where Does the Cloud Cover the Mainframe?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013f.html#35 Reports: IBM may sell x86 server business to Lenovo
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013e.html#4 Oracle To IBM: Your 'Customers Are Being Wildly Overcharged'
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013b.html#24 New HD
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012n.html#13 System/360--50 years--the future?

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

IBM Bookmaster, GML, SGML, HTML

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: IBM Bookmaster, GML, SGML, HTML
Date: 24 Apr 2022
Blog: Facebook
IBM Bookmaster
https://www.ibm.com/docs/en/cmofz/9.5.0?topic=SSQHWE_9.5.0/com.ibm.ondemand.clientmp.doc/arsc0041.htm

A powerful text-processing program that uses DCF's Generalized Markup Language (GML) tags, the SCRIPT/VS text formatter, plus additional tags, attributes, and predesigned style files, all designed to create complex documents.

... snip ...

IBM GML
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM_Generalized_Markup_Language#Related_programs

In the early 1980s, IBM developed a dedicated publishing tool called Information Structure Identification Language (ISIL) based on GML. ISIL was used to generate much of IBM documentation for the IBM PC and other products at this time. In the late 1980s, a commercial product called BookMaster was developed, based mostly on ISIL.

During the early 1980s, Don Williams at IBM developed DWScript to use the SCRIPT/VS on the IBM PC.[2] In 1986, he developed a PC version of ISIL called DWISIL. These products were used only internally at IBM.


... snip ...

Some of the CTSS people
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Compatible_Time-Sharing_System
went to the 5th flr, project mac, and MULTICS.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multics
Others went to the 4th flr, IBM Cambridge Science Center, did virtual machine CP40/CMS (on 360/40 with hardware mods for virtual memory, morphs into CP67/CMS when 360/67 standard with virtual memory becomes available), online and performance apps, CTSS RUNOFF redid for CMS as SCRIPT, GML invented at science center in 1969 (and GML tag processing added to SCRIPT), a decade later GML morphs into ISO SGML and after another decade morphs into HTML at CERN), networking, etc.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CP/CMS
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conversational_Monitor_System

science center posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech
GML, SGML, HTML, etc poss
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#sgml

One of the first IBM mainstream publications done in CMS SCRIPT was the 370 architecture "redbook" (for being distributed in red 3-ring binders), CMS SCRIPT command line option would either print the full architecture "redbook" (with engineering notes, justification, alternative implementations, etc) or the "Principle of Operations" subset.

CTSS RUNOFF (redid for CMS as SCRIPT)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TYPSET_and_RUNOFF

GML, "G", "M", & "L" chosen for the first letters of the three inventors last names.
http://www.sgmlsource.com/history/sgmlhist.htm
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Standard_Generalized_Markup_Language

BOOKMASTER about the same time as HTML (at CERN). Other trivia: 1st webserver in US was on SLAC's VM370/CMS system.
http://www.slac.stanford.edu/history/earlyweb/history.shtml
http://www.slac.stanford.edu/history/earlyweb/firstpages.shtml

Note in the late 70s (well before IBM/PC), an IBM SE in LA re-implements CMS SCRIPT (document formatter "dot" commands and GML) as "NewScript" (and then "Allwrite") for Radio Shack TRS80 ... and does it w/o the significant program size bloat and disk intensive file I/O that was increasing characteristic of mainframe software, "NewScript Version 7, 1982" at wayback machine
https://archive.org/details/NewScript_v7.0_1982_Tesler_Software_Corporation

some "NewScript" posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#113 On the origin of the /text section/ for code
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#136 Half an operating system: The triumph and tragedy of OS/2
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018b.html#94 Old word processors
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015e.html#8 New Line vs. Line Feed
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012l.html#24 "execs" or "scripts"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011n.html#58 "Geek" t-shirts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004l.html#74 Specifying all biz rules in relational data

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

IBM Bookmaster, GML, SGML, HTML

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: IBM Bookmaster, GML, SGML, HTML
Date: 24 Apr 2022
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#99 IBM Bookmaster, GML, SGML, HTML

other CSC trivia: CMS was precursor to personal computing; before msdos
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MS-DOS
there was Seattle computer
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seattle_Computer_Products
before Seattle computer, there was cp/m
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CP/M
before developing cp/m, kildall worked on cp/67-cms at npg (gone 404, but lives on at the wayback machine)
http://web.archive.org/web/20071011100440/http://www.khet.net/gmc/docs/museum/en_cpmName.html
npg
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Naval_Postgraduate_School

science center posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech

some posts mentiong msdos, seattle computer, cp/m, kildall:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#42 Why did Dennis Ritchie write that UNIX was a modern implementation of CTSS?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#29 Unix work-alike
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#8 Cloud Timesharing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#111 The Rise of DOS: How Microsoft Got the IBM PC OS Contract
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#22 MS/DOS for IBM/PC
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#101 IBM Lost Opportunities
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021h.html#81 Why the IBM PC Used an Intel 8088
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021f.html#76 IBM OS/2
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021c.html#89 Silicon Valley
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021c.html#57 MAINFRAME (4341) History
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021.html#69 OS/2
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#136 Half an operating system: The triumph and tragedy of OS/2
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019d.html#71 Decline of IBM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019c.html#41 The Forgotten Operating System That Keeps the NYC Subway System Alive
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018f.html#102 Netscape: The Fire That Filled Silicon Valley's First Bubble
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#103 The (broken) economics of OSS
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#85 History of Virtualization
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#23 Manned Orbiting Laboratory Declassified: Inside a US Military Space Station
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018d.html#23 8088 and 68k, where it went wrong
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018d.html#5 DOS & OS2
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018c.html#32 Old word processors
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018b.html#99 IBM 5100
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018b.html#20 How to open a new console in Concurrent CP/M?

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

IBM 4300, VS1, VM370

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: IBM 4300, VS1, VM370
Date: 25 Apr 2022
Blog: Facebook
Jan1979, I get con'ed into doing benchmarks on engineering 4341 (before first customer ship) for national lab looking at getting 70 for compute farm (sort of leading edge of the coming cluster scaleup supercomputer tsunami). CDC66000 benchmark (from late 60s) that ran 35.77secs and 4341 was 36.13secs (158 was 43.90secs).

Earlier, Spring 1975, Endicott had con'ed me into help with ECPS microcode assist for the 138&148. I was told there was 6kbytes of microcode space (6kbytes 370 instructions approx map into 6kbytes microcode instructions with approx. 10times performance improvement) and I was suppose to identify the highest executed kernel paths. Old archived post with analysis ...
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/94.html#21
6kbytes of highest executed kernel execution accounted for 79.55% of kernel cpu time (and would run 10times faster in microcode).

Then Endicott cons me into running around the world to present business case justification to business planners at various world trade locations. Endicott also had plan to ship VM370 preinstalled in every 138/148 machine (sort of like LPAR currently available on all machines) ... but POK high-end mainframe was in the process of convincing corporate to kill the VM370 product (shutdown the group and transfer everybody to POK or otherwise MVS/XA wouldn't ship on time) ... and corporate kills the idea of VM370 pre-installed on every machine (Endicott eventually manages to save the VM370 product mission, but had to reconstitute a VM370 development group from scratch).

Also Endicott had done VS1/VM370 "handshaking" features ... where VS1 could run faster under VM370 than on the bare machine (lots of VM370 stuff ran faster than VS1 on native machine ... all of which carry forward to 4300s ... also I had previously done better pathlengths, scheduling, dispatching, and paging algorithms for VM370 than in VS1, even before ECPS).

some trivia: IBM San Jose Research (bldg28, main plant site, before moving up the hill to almaden) had 370/195 running MVT ... which was replaced with a 370/168 running MVS and 370/158 running VM370 ... 3330 configurations all had controllers with channel connections to both the MVS and VM370 systems ... but rigid rules that there were MVS controllers&strings and VM370 controllers&strings ... and never should MVS 3330s be mount on VM370 strings. One morning operations mount a MVS 3330 on VM370 string and within 5mins nearly every CMS user in the bldg was calling datacenter complaining about something had happened to response.

MVS & TSO had terrible interactive human factors and response ... which was further aggravated by OS360 (and descendants) extensive use of multi-track searches (tying up channels, controllers and drives) ... worse case was full-cylinder multi-track search with 19tracks at 60revs/sec or .317sec elapsed (the MVS pack on vm370 string was constantly hanging the vm370 controller, lock out all its other drives) ... and there were lots of these searches (horribly degrading interactive response, wasn't noticed on MVS/TSO systems because they were already so horribly bad).

Demand that operators immediately move the MVS 3330 to a MVS string, response was they would wait until 2nd shift. There was a super optimized one pack VS1 system highly tailored to running under VM370 ... that was put up on the MVS string ... and started up .... and even though it was VS1 running under VM370 on heavily loaded 370/158 (w/o ECPS) ... it immediately brought the 168 MVS system to its knees, alleviating some amount of the CMS interactive degradation and throughput. Operations then immediately agreed to move the MVS 3330 off the VM370 string (if the VS1 3330 was moved off the MVS string).

Other trivia: CERN had done a detailed VM370/CMS-MVS/TSO comparison report that was presented at (mainframe user group) SHARE
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SHARE_(computing)
although the report was freely available, copies of the report inside IBM were stamped "IBM Confidential - Restricted" (only available on need-to-know basis) ... minimizing the exposure of IBM sales&marketing and internal employees to the information.

DASD, CKD, FBA, multi-track search, etc posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#dasd

some past posts mentioning CERN vm370/MVS "bake-off"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015.html#87 a bit of hope? What was old is new again
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014l.html#13 Do we really need 64-bit addresses or is 48-bit enough?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014e.html#12 The IBM Strategy
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012p.html#39 UBS Faces Potential LIBOR Fine Of $1 Billion -- Twice What Barclays Paid
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010q.html#34 VMSHARE Archives
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010i.html#10 25 reasons why hardware is still hot at IBM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008j.html#85 recent mentions of 40+ yr old technology
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007t.html#40 Why isn't OMVS command integrated with ISPF?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007h.html#28 sizeof() was: The Perfect Computer - 36 bits?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007d.html#40 old tapes
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007d.html#29 old tapes
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006t.html#42 The Future of CPUs: What's After Multi-Core?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006k.html#34 PDP-1
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006f.html#20 Old PCs--environmental hazard
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006d.html#35 Fw: Tax chooses dead language - Austalia
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005s.html#26 IEH/IEB/... names?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004n.html#17 RISCs too close to hardware?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004d.html#39 System/360 40th Anniversary
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004c.html#27 Moribund TSO/E
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004c.html#26 Moribund TSO/E
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004c.html#10 XDS Sigma vs IBM 370 was Re: I/O Selectric on eBay: How to use?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003o.html#21 TSO alternative
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003o.html#16 When nerds were nerds
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003m.html#56 model 91/CRJE and IKJLEW
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003k.html#13 What is timesharing, anyway?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003g.html#22 303x, idals, dat, disk head settle, and other rambling folklore
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003c.html#69 OT: One for the historians - 360/91
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003c.html#53 HASP assembly: What the heck is an MVT ABEND 422?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002o.html#54 XML, AI, Cyc, psych, and literature
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002n.html#73 Home mainframes
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002n.html#54 SHARE MVT Project anniversary
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002j.html#64 vm marketing (cross post)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002h.html#73 Where did text file line ending characters begin?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002h.html#51 Why did OSI fail compared with TCP-IP?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002h.html#14 Why did OSI fail compared with TCP-IP?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002g.html#67 Coulda, Woulda, Shoudda moments?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001f.html#49 any 70's era supercomputers that ran as slow as today's supercompu
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000f.html#61 360 Architecture, Multics, ... was (Re: X86 ultimate CISC? No.)

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

IBM Bookmaster, GML, SGML, HTML

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: IBM Bookmaster, GML, SGML, HTML
Date: 25 Apr 2022
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#99 IBM Bookmaster, GML, SGML, HTML
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#100 IBM Bookmaster, GML, SGML, HTML

online & language use topic drift ... I was blamed for online computer conferencing on the internal network in the late 70s and early 80s ... it really took off spring 1981 when I distributed trip report of visit to Jim Gray at Tandem ... while only about 300 participated, claims were that upwards of 25,000 were reading. We printed six copies of about 300 pages, and along with executive summary and summary of summary ... packaged in Tandem 3-ring binders and set to the executive committee (claim was 5of6 wanted to fire me).

One of the results was a researcher sat in the back of my office for nine months studying how I communicated, face-to-face, telephone, went with me to meetings, got copies of all my incoming&outgoing emails, logs of all instant messages, etc. Results were research reports, conference talks, papers and Stanford Phd (joint with language & computer AI; Winograd was advisor on computer side). Person had been ESL instructor in prior life and observed that I had all the characteristics of English as 2nd lagnuage (not even American English) ... even tho I had no other natural language ... but there have been claims I'm proficient in "computer languages" ... analogous to natural language proficiency (think & dream). There were also claims that some months I would account for upwards of half of all traffic on the internal network (the hundreds of thousands of other employees accounting for the other half), part of the volume was I had started the collecting internal phone books, reformating for online access and redistributing.

online computer conferencing posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#cmc

trivia: co-worker at the science center (and we transfer to IBM SJR later in 70s, before he moves to FSD San Diego) was responsible for the internal network ... which was larger than arpanet/internet from just about the beginning until sometime mid/late 80s (he passes Aug2020). arpanet/internet converts from IMP/host protocol to internetworking protocol on 1jan1983 when it was 100 nodes and 255 connected hosts ... at a time when the internal network was rapidly approaching 1000 nodes. Old archived post with list of world-wide IBM locations that added one or more nodes during 1983 (in process of internal network passing 1000)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006k.html#8

internal network posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#internalnet

old SJMN article about IBM stonewalling internet (gone behind paywall, but lives free at wayback machine)
http://web.archive.org/web/20000124004147/http://www1.sjmercury.com/svtech/columns/gillmor/docs/dg092499.htm
Also from wayback machine, some references off Ed's website
http://web.archive.org/web/20000115185349/http://www.edh.net/bungle.htm

internet posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#internet
and NSFNET posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#nsfnet

... re: SNA reference; then there is my oft repeated tale of the talk given at internal communication group conference by senior disk engineer claiming that the communication group was going to be responsible for the demise of the disk divisions (with its corporate strategic ownership of everything that crosses datacenter walls "stranglehold" and fiercely trying to fight off distributed computing and client/server, trying to protect SNA and its dumb terminal paradigm).

This was only shortly before communication group contributing to nearly taking down the whole company ... reference gone behind paywall but mostly lives free at wayback machine, gone behind paywall, but (mostly) free at wayback machine.
http://web.archive.org/web/20101120231857/http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,977353,00.html
may also work
http://content.time.com/time/subscriber/article/0,33009,977353-1,00.html

some recent posts mentioning "demise of disk division" conference talk
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#23 Telum & z16
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#19 Telum & z16
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#18 IBM Left Behind
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#16 Channel I/O
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#7 USENET still around
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#88 Virtual Machine SIE instruction
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#117 Building the System/360 Mainframe Nearly Destroyed IBM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#1 IBM Lost Opportunities
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#69 IBM MYTE
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021g.html#42 IBM Token-Ring
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021f.html#24 IBM Remains Big Tech's Disaster
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021d.html#15 The Rise of the Internet
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021c.html#85 IBM SNA/VTAM (& HSDT)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021c.html#84 IBM SNA/VTAM (& HSDT)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021c.html#63 Distributed Computing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021b.html#9 IBM Kneecapping products
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021b.html#0 Will The Cloud Take Down The Mainframe?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021.html#79 IBM Disk Division
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#27 PC Market
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019d.html#2 Rise and Fall of IBM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019c.html#35 Transition to cloud computing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019c.html#29 Dumb Terminal Paradigm
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019b.html#75 IBM downturn
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#53 IBM/PC Uptake
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018f.html#49 PC Personal Computing Market
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018f.html#34 The rise and fall of IBM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018f.html#13 IBM today
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#96 The (broken) economics of OSS
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#28 These Are the Best Companies to Work For in the U.S
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018d.html#39 IBM downturn
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018d.html#13 Workplace Advice I Wish I Had Known
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018c.html#33 The Pentagon still uses computer software from 1958 to manage its contracts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018b.html#109 Old word processors
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018b.html#63 Major firms learning to adapt in fight against start-ups: IBM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018.html#98 Mainframe Use/History

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

The Private Equity Giant KKR Bought Hundreds Of Homes For People With Disabilities

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: The Private Equity Giant KKR Bought Hundreds Of Homes For People With Disabilities
Date: 26 Apr 2022
Blog: Facebook
The Private Equity Giant KKR Bought Hundreds Of Homes For People With Disabilities. Some Vulnerable Residents Suffered Abuse And Neglect. BrightSpring Health Services, which KKR bought in 2019, says it helps thousands of people with disabilities "live their best lives." But a BuzzFeed News investigation found conditions that were often dire, and in some cases fatal.
https://www.buzzfeednews.com/article/kendalltaggart/kkr-brightspring-disability-private-equity-abuse

private equity posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#private.equity

some specific posts mentioning KKR, health care, and medical practices
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#82 Is Private Equity Overrated?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021f.html#7 The Rise of Private Equity
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#35 book "Glass House"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#21 Private Equity and Surprise Medical Billing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#1 As a grocery chain is dismantled, investors recover their money. Worker pensions are short millions
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018c.html#69 Has Microsoft commuted suicide
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018b.html#29 free, huh, was Bitcoin confusion?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016c.html#65 A call for revolution

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Scientists have established a link between brain damage and religious fundamentalism

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Scientists have established a link between brain damage and religious fundamentalism
Date: 27 Apr 2022
Blog: Facebook
Scientists have established a link between brain damage and religious fundamentalism
https://www.rawstory.com/2018/03/scientists-established-link-brain-damage-religious-fundamentalism/

previous posted
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018b.html#90 Scientists have established a link between brain damage and religious fundamentalism

Many articles from mid-2017 on the subject.
https://www.sciencealert.com/damage-to-a-specific-part-of-the-brain-could-result-in-religious-fundamentalism
http://www.independent.co.uk/news/science/suffering-brain-injury-lesion-ventromedial-prefrontal-cortex-religious-beliefs-northwestern-a7722946.html
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28392301

and earlier in 2017: Brain Tumor Triggers Woman's Sudden 'Hyper-Religious' Behavior
https://www.livescience.com/57901-brain-tumor-religious-behavior.html

Go back to May2011 ... nearly inverse .... seems to work both ways (what is cause and what is effect) "Religious Experiences Shrink Part of the Brain"
https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/religious-experiences-shrink-part-of-brain/

From 2010: Selective brain damage modulates human spirituality, research reveals
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/02/100210124757.htm

other posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021e.html#72 Politically polarized brains share an intolerance of uncertainty
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021b.html#98 Extremist Brains Perform Poorly at Complex Mental Tasks, Study Reveals
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019b.html#31 How corporate America invented 'Christian America' to fight the New Deal
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017e.html#88 I quit this NG
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017e.html#68 I quit this NG

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

The Bunker: Pentagon Hardware Hijinks

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: The Bunker: Pentagon Hardware Hijinks
Date: 27 Apr 2022
Blog: Facebook
The Bunker: Pentagon Hardware Hijinks
https://www.pogo.org/analysis/2022/04/the-bunker-pentagon-hardware-hijinks/

Such a layered system would give the Pentagon "far more bang for its missile-defense buck," the article added.

Yea, right. There are only two problems with this scheme: it costs too much, and it won't work. Lockheed's F-35 program is eight years late and $165 billion over its original cost estimate.


... snip ...

The F-35 and other Legacies of Failure
https://www.pogo.org/analysis/2021/03/the-f-35-and-other-legacies-of-failure/

and then there is: F22 hangar empress (2009)
http://nypost.com/2009/07/17/cant-fly-wont-die/

Pilots call high-maintenance aircraft "hangar queens." Well, the F-22's a hangar empress. After three expensive decades in development, the plane meets fewer than one-third of its specified requirements. Anyway, an enemy wouldn't have to down a single F-22 to defeat it. Just strike the hi-tech maintenance sites, and it's game over. (In WWII, we didn't shoot down every Japanese Zero; we just sank their carriers.) The F-22 isn't going to operate off a dirt strip with a repair tent.

But this is all about lobbying, not about lobbing bombs. Cynically, Lockheed Martin distributed the F-22 workload to nearly every state, employing under-qualified sub-contractors to create local financial stakes in the program. Great politics -- but the result has been a quality collapse.


... snip ...

military-industrial(-congressional) complex posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#military.industrial.complex
success of failure posts (more money from series of failures)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#success.of.failure
perpetual war posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#perpetual.war

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

TCMs & IBM Mainframe

Refed: **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: TCMs & IBM Mainframe
Date: 27 Apr 2022
Blog: Facebook
somewhere there was claim that TCMs were invented for 3081 in order to cram the enormous number of extra circuits into smaller space
http://www.jfsowa.com/computer/memo125.htm

The 370 emulator minus the FS microcode was eventually sold in 1980 as the IBM 3081. The ratio of the amount of circuitry in the 3081 to its performance was significantly worse than other IBM systems of the time; its price/performance ratio wasn't quite so bad because IBM had to cut the price to be competitive. The major competition at the time was from Amdahl Systems -- a company founded by Gene Amdahl, who left IBM shortly before the FS project began, when his plans for the Advanced Computer System (ACS) were killed. The Amdahl machine was indeed superior to the 3081 in price/performance and spectaculary superior in terms of performance compared to the amount of circuitry.]

... snip ...

... i.e. during "Future System", internal politics was killing off 370 projects (FS was supposed to completely replace 370), when FS imploded, there was mad rush to get stuff back into 370 product pipeline, including kicking off the quick&dirty 3033&3081 projects in parallel. 3033 started out remapping 168 logic to 20% faster chips.

future system posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#futuresys

when 3033 was out the door, the 3033 processor engineers start work on trout (aka 3090). They had configured number of 3090 channels to achieve target throughput ... assuming that 3880 disk controller was similar to 3830 disk controller but being able to support 3mbyte/sec transfer (data streaming, multiple byes transferred per end-to-end handshake). However, while 3880 supported (3380) 3mbyte/sec transfer, its processor was significantly slower than 3830 and the channel protocol chatter significantly drove up channel busy. As a result they had to significantly increase the number of 3090 channels (in order to achieve target throughput, offsetting the significant increase in channel busy). The increase in number of channels required an additional TCM ... and they semi-facetiously claimed that they were going to bill the 3880 group for the manufacturing cost increase. Eventually marketing respins the increase in channels as a wonderful I/O machine (when it was actually necessary to meet the original throughput targets because of the significant channel busy increase with 3880 controllers).

DASD, CKD, multi-track search, etc. posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#dasd
channel-extender posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#channel.extender
posts mentioning getting to play disk enginner in bldgs 14&15
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#disk

trivia: I had gotten involved with an effort to do a 16-processor 370 and we had con'ed the 3033 processor engineers to work on it in their spare time (a lot more interesting than remapping 168 logic to 20% faster chips). It was going great guns, everybody thought it was great, until somebody told the head of POK that it could be decades before the POK favorite son operating system (MVS) had (effective) 16-way support. Then the head of POK invited some of us to never visit POK again, and directed the 3033 processor engineers to stop being distracted. Note IBM doesn't ship 16-way machine until z900 at turn of century (over 20yrs later). I would continue to sneak into POK to meet with 3033 (and then 3090) processor engineers.

Multiprocessor, SMP, tightly-coupled and/or compare&swap posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#smp

some other recent posts mentioning 3090 & 3880
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#66 IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#77 Channel I/O
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#15 Channel I/O
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#14 Mainframe I/O
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#13 Mainframe I/O
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#122 Mainframe "Peak I/O" benchmark
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#92 IBM 3278
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#30 What is the oldest computer that could be used today for real work?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021f.html#23 IBM Zcloud - is it just outsourcing ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021c.html#66 ACP/TPF 3083
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021.html#60 San Jose bldg 50 and 3380 manufacturing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021.html#6 3880 & 3380
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2020.html#42 If Memory Had Been Cheaper
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019c.html#70 2301, 2303, 2305-1, 2305-2, paging, etc
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019b.html#80 TCM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#79 How many years ago?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#58 Bureaucracy and Agile
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#51 3090/3880 trivia
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#38 long-winded post thread, 3033, 3081, Future System
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#71 PDP 11/40 system manual
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018c.html#30 Bottlenecks and Capacity planning
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018.html#0 Intrigued by IBM

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

TCMs & IBM Mainframe

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: TCMs & IBM Mainframe
Date: 27 Apr 2022
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#106 TCMs & IBM Mainframe

other 3081/3090 TCM trivia: FE had bootstrap diagnostic process that started with scoping circuits. With TCM, circuits were buried inside TCM and no longer could be scoped. Thus was born service processor ... 3081 was (very slow) UC microprocessor with significant amount of RYO software that monitored lots of probes buried in TCMs. For 3090, then started with 4331 running a highly modified version of VM370 release 6 and all service screens done in CMS IOS3270 ... which evolves into a pair of 4361s w/FBA3370s (even MVS 3090 installations required a pair of 3370s ... even though MVS never had FBA support).
https://www.ibm.com/ibm/history/exhibits/mainframe/mainframe_PP3090.html

Thermal Conduction Module
https://www.ibm.com/ibm/history/exhibits/vintage/vintage_4506VV2137.html
Thermal Conduction Module
https://www.ibm.com/ibm/history/exhibits/attic2/attic2_015.html
308x
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM_308X

Amdahl & ACS/360 trivia:
https://people.cs.clemson.edu/~mark/acs.html
end of ACS/360, shutdown because IBM execs were afraid it would advance the state-of-the-art too fast and IBM would loose control of the market. Note bottom of web page discusses some of ACS/360 showing up more than 20yrs later with ES/9000.
https://people.cs.clemson.edu/~mark/acs_end.html

3092 trivia: When REX 1st appeared, I wanted to demonstrate it wasn't just another pretty scripting language ... so I chose to redo large application implemented in assembler, problem/dump analysis IPCS ... objective was to implement it in REX taking less than half-time over 3months with 10 times function and 10 times performance (some slight of hand making interpreted REX running faster than assembler). It took less than 3months half-time and so started doing library of automated scripts that looked for various kinds of failure signatures. I had thought that it would replace the IPCS product ... but never did, even tho most PSRs and internal datacenters was using it. I eventually got permission to give talks on how I had implemented it at various IBM user group meetings, and within a few months similar implementations started appearing. Old email from 3092 group wanting to ship it with 3092:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010e.html#email861031
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010e.html#email861223

DUMPX posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#dumprx
DASD, CKD, FBA, multi-track search posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#dasd

recent posts mentioning TCM, service processor, 3081, etc
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#77 Channel I/O
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#20 Service Processor
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#66 Virtual Machine Debugging
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021f.html#23 IBM Zcloud - is it just outsourcing ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021c.html#66 ACP/TPF 3083
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021c.html#58 MAINFRAME (4341) History
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021.html#52 Amdahl Computers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#146 Water-cooled 360s?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019c.html#44 IBM 9020
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019b.html#80 TCM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#38 long-winded post thread, 3033, 3081, Future System
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018d.html#48 IPCS, DUMPRX, 3092, EREP

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

TCMs & IBM Mainframe

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: TCMs & IBM Mainframe
Date: 27 Apr 2022
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#106 TCMs & IBM Mainframe
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#107 TCMs & IBM Mainframe

PR/SM LPAR trivia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PR/SM

After the implosion of FS and the mad rush to get stuff back into product pipelines, including kicking off 3033&3081 efforts in parallel ... the head of POK also managed to convince corporate to kill the vm370 product, shutdown the development group, and transfer all the people to POK (claiming otherwise wouldn't be able to ship MVS/XA on time). Eventually Endicott managed to save the vm370 product mission, but had to reconstitute a development group from scratch.

Endicott had con'ed me into doing analysis and helping with microcode assist (ECPS) for 138/148 (follow-on to 135/145, ECPS also used for 4331&4341). In the 80s, management approved me giving presentations on ECPS at user group meetings ... including the monthly "BAYBUNCH" meetings hosted at SLAC. After meetings, Amdahl people would grill me about ECPS additional information. They said that they were using MACROCODE (370 like instructions running in microcode mode, originally done to quickly respond to the plethora of microcode tweaking that IBM was doing for 3033 and then 3081) to implement "HYPERVISOR" ... hardware being able to run multiple systems concurrently on the same hardware (w/o VM software).

Note that POK did do a software virtual machine (VMTOOL) facility as part of MVS/XA development, but was never intended to be released to customers. However, customers weren't converting to MVS/XA as planned ... and Amdahl had "HYPERVISOR" that was able to run MVS & MVS/XA concurrently as part of easing conversion. Eventually POK releases VMTOOL as VM/MA (migration aid) and VM/SF (system facility) ... allowing customers to run MVS & MVS/XA concurrently. Microcode programming for high-end processors was quite complex and it was nearly a decade before IBM as able to respond to Amdahl's HYPERVISOR with PR/SM & LPAR for the 3090.

recent posts mentioning (IBM) PRSM/LPAR, and/or (AMDAHL) MACROCODE/HYPERVISOR
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#101 IBM 4300, VS1, VM370
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#83 165/168/3033 & 370 virtual memory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#82 Virtual Machine SIE instruction
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#55 Precursor to current virtual machines and containers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#33 138/148
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#20 Service Processor
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#119 70s & 80s mainframes
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#106 IBM Future System
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#4 IBM 370 and Future System
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#4 IBM Lost Opportunities
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#31 What is the oldest computer that could be used today for real work?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021h.html#91 IBM XT/370
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021e.html#67 Amdahl
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021e.html#66 Amdahl
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021e.html#25 rather far from Univac 90/30 DIAG instruction
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021c.html#56 MAINFRAME (4341) History
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021.html#54 IBM Quota
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021.html#52 Amdahl Computers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2020.html#39 If Memory Had Been Cheaper

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

TCMs & IBM Mainframe

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: TCMs & IBM Mainframe
Date: 28 Apr 2022
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#106 TCMs & IBM Mainframe
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#107 TCMs & IBM Mainframe
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#108 TCMs & IBM Mainframe

more 3090
http://www.bitsavers.org/pdf/ibm/3090/G580-1005-0_The_IBM_3090_Processor_Family_Jul87.pdf
http://vtda.org/docs/computing/IBM/Mainframe/Hardware/System/GG66-3090-01_3090ProcComplexPlanningInstallationRef_Nov87.pdf

IBM Stretch (7030) -- Aggressive Uniprocessor Parallelism
https://people.cs.clemson.edu/~mark/stretch.html

As a result, the high-performance System/360 Model 91 would be designed in the mid-1960s with imprecise interrupts and with branch target path instruction prefetch but no speculative execution. It wasn't until the 3090 design in the mid-1980s that some of the more aggressive Stretch lookahead features reappeared. (See the table below.)

... snip ...

misc old email from trout/3090 engineers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006j.html#email810630
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003j.html#email831118

random email about POK forcing Endicott to kneecap 4300s to reduce competition with 3033&3081
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014f.html#email820826

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Financial longevity that redhat gives IBM

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Financial longevity that redhat gives IBM
Date: 28 Apr 2022
Blog: Facebook
Financial longevity that redhat gives IBM
https://www.nextplatform.com/2022/04/25/the-financial-longevity-that-red-hat-gives-ibm/

oft prepeated account, late 80s, a senior disk engineer got a talk scheduled at an annual, internal, world-wide communication group conference supposedly on 3174 performance ... but opened his talk with statement that the communication group was going to be responsible for the demise of the disk division ... that was seeing drop in disk sales with customers migrating data to more distributed computing friendly platforms. The communication group had stranglehold on mainframe datacenters with corporate strategic responsibility for everything that crossed the datacenter walls and were fiercely fighting off client/server and distributed computing, trying to preserve their dumb terminal install base. The disk division had come up with number of solutions ... but they were all being vetoed by the communication group. The GPD VP of software semi-work around to corporate politics was investing in distributed computing startups that would use mainframe disks ... and would periodically ask us to stop by them and see if we could offer any help.

dumb terminal stanglehold posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#terminal

The communication group didn't just have their death grip on the disk division, but the whole mainframe business, a few years later gone into red (one of the largest losses in US history) and IBM was being reorganized into the 13 "baby blues" in preparation for breaking up the company ... gone 404, but lives on at wayback machine.
http://web.archive.org/web/20101120231857/http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,977353,00.html
may also work
http://content.time.com/time/subscriber/article/0,33009,977353-1,00.html

had already left IBM, but get a call from the bowels of Armonk asking if could help with breakup of the company. Lots of business units were using supplier contracts in other units via MOUs. After the breakup, all of these contracts would be in different companies ... all of those MOUs would have to be cataloged and turned into their own contracts (however, before getting started, the board brings in a new CEO and reverses the breakup).

Also was hearing from former co-workers that top IBM executives weren't paying attention to business and spending all their time shifting expenses from the following year to the current year. Ask contact from the bowels of Armonk what was going on. He said that the current year had gone into the red and the executives wouldn't get a bonus. However, if they can shift enough expenses from the following year to the current year, even putting following year just slightly into the black ... the way the executive bonus plan was written, they would get a bonus more than twice as large as any previous bonus (rewarded for taking the company into the red)

recent posts mentioning "baby blue" reorg
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#98 IBM Systems Revenue Put Into a Historical Context
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#64 IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#47 IBM deliberately misclassified mainframe sales to enrich execs, lawsuit claims
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#40 After IBM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#38 After IBM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#23 Telum & z16
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#13 IBM z16: Built to Build the Future of Your Business
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#11 IBM z16: Built to Build the Future of Your Business
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#107 15 Examples of How Different Life Was Before The Internet
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#90 Computer BUNCH
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#78 Channel I/O
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#75 Frameworks Quagmire
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#73 IBM Disks
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#63 Mainframes
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#56 Fujitsu confirms end date for mainframe and Unix systems
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#52 IBM History
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#51 IBM History
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#6 On why it's CR+LF and not LF+CR [ASR33]
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#123 SHARE LSRAD Report
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#110 Not counting dividends IBM delivered an annualized yearly loss of 2.27%
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#102 Online Computer Conferencing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#88 Virtual Machine SIE instruction
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#54 Automated Benchmarking
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#53 Automated Benchmarking
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#47 IBM Conduct
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#126 The Network Nation
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#123 Mainframe "Peak I/O" benchmark
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#117 Building the System/360 Mainframe Nearly Destroyed IBM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#79 IBM Fridays
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#76 'Flying Blind' Review: Downward Trajectory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#18 IBM's social media policy
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#113 IBM Downturn
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#96 IBM 3278
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#76 IBM 370 and Future System
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#74 IBM 3278
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#70 IBM Wild Ducks
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#68 MTS, 360/67, FS, Internet, SNA
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#79 IBM Downturn
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#64 Virtual Machine Debugging
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#47 vs/pascal
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021h.html#93 CMSBACK, ADSM, TSM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021h.html#1 Cloud computing's destiny
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021g.html#51 Intel rumored to be in talks to buy chip manufacturer GlobalFoundries for $30B
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021g.html#45 Cloud computing's destiny
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021g.html#33 Big Blue's big email blues signal terminal decline - unless it learns to migrate itself
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021g.html#31 IBM Programming Projects
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021g.html#20 Big Blue's big email blues signal terminal decline - unless it learns to migrate itself
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021g.html#18 IBM email migration disaster
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021f.html#61 Private Inequity: How a Powerful Industry Conquered the Tax System
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021f.html#55 3380 disk capacity
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021f.html#47 Martial Arts "OODA-loop"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021f.html#32 IBM HSDT & HA/CMP
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021f.html#24 IBM Remains Big Tech's Disaster
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021f.html#7 The Rise of Private Equity
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021f.html#6 Financial Engineering
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021f.html#4 Study: Are You Too Nice to be Financially Successful?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021e.html#16 IBM Internal Network
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021d.html#68 How Gerstner Rebuilt IBM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021d.html#15 The Rise of the Internet
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021c.html#95 What's Fortran?!?!
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021c.html#84 IBM SNA/VTAM (& HSDT)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021c.html#63 Distributed Computing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021c.html#61 MAINFRAME (4341) History
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021c.html#49 IBM CEO
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021c.html#48 MAINFRAME (4341) History
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021b.html#97 IBM Glory days
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021b.html#9 IBM Kneecapping products
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021b.html#7 IBM & Apple
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021b.html#4 Killer Micros
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021b.html#0 Will The Cloud Take Down The Mainframe?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021.html#79 IBM Disk Division
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021.html#39 IBM Tech
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021.html#26 CMSBACK, ADSM, TSM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021.html#7 IBM CEOs

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Financial longevity that redhat gives IBM

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Financial longevity that redhat gives IBM
Date: 28 Apr 2022
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#110 Financial longevity that redhat gives IBM

other trivia: 1980, STL (since renamed SVL) was bursting at the seams and was moving 300 people from the IMS DBMS group to offsite bldg with dataprocessing service back to STL datacenter. They had tried "remote" 3270, but had found human factors totally unacceptable. I get con'ed into doing channel-extender support, allowing channel attached 3270 controllers at the offsite bldg with no perceptible difference in response and human factors between offiste and inside STL. The hardware vendor then tries to get IBM to release my support, but there is a group in POK playing with some fiber stuff that were afraid that if it was in the field, it would make it harder to release their stuff and get it veto'ed. In 1988, the branch wants me to help LLNL (national lab) gets some serial stuff they are playing with, standardized ... which quickly becomes fibre channel standard (including some stuff I had done in 1980) ... initially gbit, full-duplex, 2gbit aggregate, 200mbyte/sec. Then in 1990 (after more than decade), the POK guys get their fiber stuff released with ES/9000 as ESCON, when it is already obsolete (17mbytes/sec).

channel-extender posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#channel.extender

Later some POK engineers start playing with fibre channel standard and define a heavy weight protocol that radically reduces the native throughput that eventually ships as FICON. The most recent published benchmark (I've found) is "peak I/O" for z196 getting 2million IOPS with 104 FICON (running over 104 FCS). About the same time, a FCS was announced for E5-2600 blades claiming over million IOPS (two FCS getting higher throughput than 104 FICON). Note also, no CKD disks have been manufactured for decades, all being simulated on industry standard fixed block disks ... while non-mainframe I/O benchmarks can run directly to native disks (w/o the simulation overhead).

FICON posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#ficon

Mainframe hardware had been the mainstay of IBM revenue ... but analysis turn of the century had it just a few percent of total revenue and dropping. EC12 time-frame, mainframe hardware was a couple percent of revenue ... but the mainframe group was 25% of revenue (nearly all software and services) and 40% of profit.

mainframes since turn of century, initially standard benchmark, number of iterations compared to iterations on 370/158, assumed to be 1MIP machine. Later great deal of obfuscation just quoting change since previous generation.

z900, 16 processors, 2.5BIPS (156MIPS/proc), Dec2000
z990, 32 processors, 9BIPS, (281MIPS/proc), 2003
z9, 54 processors, 18BIPS (333MIPS/proc), July2005
z10, 64 processors, 30BIPS (469MIPS/proc), Feb2008
z196, 80 processors, 50BIPS (625MIPS/proc), Jul2010
EC12, 101 processors, 75BIPS (743MIPS/proc), Aug2012
z13, 140 processors, 100BIPS (710MIPS/proc), Jan2015
z14, 170 processors, 150BIPS (862MIPS/proc), Aug2017
z15, 190 processors, 190BIPS* (1000MIPS/proc), Sep2019

• pubs say z15 1.25 times z14 (1.25*150BIPS or 190BIPS)
• z16, 200 processors, ???BIPS (???MIPS/proc),


Note: z196 era standard e5-2600 commodity blade (also common in large cloud megadatacenters, each with half million or more such blades) benchmarked (same industry standard benchmark) at 500BIPS (ten times max configured z196).

megadatacenter posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#megadatacenter

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Why are gas prices so high? These obscure traders are partly to blame

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Why are gas prices so high? These obscure traders are partly to blame
Date: 28 Apr 2022
Blog: Facebook
Why are gas prices so high? These obscure traders are partly to blame
https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2022/apr/28/gas-prices-why-are-they-so-high-traders

"My instinct tells me that a very careful analysis of this market would show that the price is not reflective of supply chain problems, that there's just too much leeway for the big banks and the big producers to manipulate if no one is looking and watching what they're doing," says Greenberger, the former division director of the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC), the main regulator of US energy markets.

... snip ...

CFTC used to require that commodity players had significant position because speculators were causing wild irrational price fluctuation (i.e. they profited by manipulating price, buy low sell high, then short sale on the way day ... including manipulating news to push price in the direction they wanted. But then CFTC sent (secret) letters to selected speculators allowing them play ... responsible for the huge oil&gas price hike summer of 2008. Later a member of congress published the transactions for 2008 showing the speculators that were responsible for the huge price spike summer of 2008. Instead of vilifying the speculators responsible, somehow the press vilified the member of congress for violating corporation privacy (as if corporations were people, disinformation to distract from those responsible). (summer 2008) Oil settles at record high above $140
https://money.cnn.com/2008/06/27/markets/oil/

griftopia posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#griftopia

posts mentioning oil spikes summer 2008
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#24 Someone needs to take responsibility for the cost of a tank of gas
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#119 Are Prices "Engines of Chaos"?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#96 Oil and gas lobbyists are using Ukraine to push for a drilling free-for-all in the US
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#99 Bank Of America Sees $120 Oil By June 2022
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#58 U.S. Oil Hub Emptying to Levels Last Seen When Crude Cost $100
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021g.html#12 The fracking boom is over. Where did all the jobs go?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#157 American Cities Are Becoming Shell Companies for the Rich
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#82 Prying Open The Overton Window
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019b.html#12 For The Average Investor, The Next Bear Market Will Likely Be The Last
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#23 A Deep Dive Inside The Market's Toxic "Liquidity-Volatility-Flows" Feedback Loop
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018c.html#93 Barb
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018b.html#108 The Iraq War continues to divide the U.S. public, 15 years after it began
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018b.html#102 Hidden History of How US Corporations Gained Legal Personhood and Civil Rights
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017k.html#5 The 1970s engineering recession
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017f.html#26 [CM] What was your first home computer?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016h.html#54 CFTC Reproposes Position Limits Rule
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016d.html#0 Why Is the Obama Administration Trying to Keep 11,000 Documents Sealed?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016b.html#58 Wall Street strikes back against Bernie Sanders
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016.html#97 Thanks Obama
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016.html#45 Thanks Obama
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015h.html#56 rationality
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015e.html#66 prices, was Western Union envisioned internet functionality
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015e.html#34 43rd President
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014e.html#62 Before the Internet: The golden age of online services
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014c.html#102 Royal Pardon For Turing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014c.html#101 How the Fed Let the World Blow Up in 2008; High oil prices blinded the Fed to the growing danger before the crash
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014c.html#16 Precious Metals Manipulation Worse Than Libor Scandal, German Regulator Says
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014.html#87 Royal Pardon For Turing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014.html#78 Fed may restrict bank ownership of commodities
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013h.html#37 "Highway Patrol" back on TV
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013h.html#30 'Big four' accountants 'use knowledge of Treasury to help rich avoid tax'
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013b.html#41 Adair Turner: A New Debt-Free Money Advocate
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012n.html#20 General Mills computer
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012i.html#92 Naked emperors, holy cows and Libor
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012g.html#79 Monopoly/ Cartons of Punch Cards
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012e.html#57 speculation
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#61 Why Republicans Aren't Mentioning the Real Cause of Rising Prices at the Gas Pump
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011o.html#61 Civilization, doomed?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011m.html#18 computer bootlaces
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011k.html#76 FIA shocked and outraged after Senator leaks oil trading data

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

The New New Right Was Forged in Greed and White Backlash

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: The New New Right Was Forged in Greed and White Backlash
Date: 29 Apr 2022
Blog: Facebook
The New New Right Was Forged in Greed and White Backlash. While disaffection with liberal progress myths certainly propels the New Right, there's much more to it.
https://theintercept.com/2022/04/29/new-right-movement-peter-thiel/

Since the mid-20th century, the U.S. has seen no fewer than three political movements broadly described as the "New Right." There was the first New Right of William F. Buckley, Barry Goldwater, and conservative student groups, with their right-libertarianism, anti-communism, and emphasis on social values. The second generation to earn the moniker -- the New Right of Ronald Reagan, Jerry Falwell, and both George Bushes -- leaned harder into conservative Christianity, populism, and free markets.

... snip ...

June1940, Germany had a victory celebration at the NYC Waldorf-Astoria with major industrialists. Lots of them were there to hear how to do business with the Nazis
https://www.amazon.com/Man-Called-Intrepid-Incredible-Narrative-ebook/dp/B00V9QVE5O/

somewhat replay of the Nazi celebration, after the war, 5000 industrialists and corporations from across the US had conference (also) at the Waldorf-Astoria, and in part because they had gotten such a bad reputation for the depression and supporting Nazis, as part of attempting to refurbish their horribly corrupt and venal image, they approved a major propaganda campaign to equate Capitalism with Christianity.
https://www.amazon.com/One-Nation-Under-God-Corporate-ebook/dp/B00PWX7R56/

part of the result by the 50s was adding "under god" to the pledge of allegiance (and the US motto, "In God We Trust"). slightly cleaned up version
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pledge_of_Allegiance

Even though the movement behind inserting "under God" into the pledge might have been initiated by a private religious fraternity and even though references to God appear in previous versions of the pledge, historian Kevin M. Kruse asserts that this movement was an effort by corporate America to instill in the minds of the people that capitalism and free enterprise were heavenly blessed. Kruse acknowledges the insertion of the phrase was influenced by the push-back against Russian atheistic communism during the Cold War, but argues the longer arc of history shows the conflation of Christianity and capitalism as a challenge to the New Deal played the larger role.[28]

... snip ...

earlier, John Foster Dulles played major role rebuilding Germany economy, industry, military from the 20s up through the early 40s
https://www.amazon.com/Brothers-Foster-Dulles-Allen-Secret-ebook/dp/B00BY5QX1K/
loc905-7:

Foster was stunned by his brother's suggestion that Sullivan & Cromwell quit Germany. Many of his clients with interests there, including not just banks but corporations like Standard Oil and General Electric, wished Sullivan & Cromwell to remain active regardless of political conditions.

loc938-40:

At least one other senior partner at Sullivan & Cromwell, Eustace Seligman, was equally disturbed. In October 1939, six weeks after the Nazi invasion of Poland, he took the extraordinary step of sending Foster a formal memorandum disavowing what his old friend was saying about Nazism

... snip ...

capitalism posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#capitalism
racism posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#racism

some recent far right posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#39 Climate denial is waning on the right
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021c.html#23 When Nazis Took Manhattan
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021.html#66 Democracy is a threat to white supremacy--and that is the cause of America's crisis
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021.html#51 Sacking the Capital and Honor
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021.html#44 American Fascism
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#57 Homeland Security Dept. Affirms Threat of White Supremacy After Years of Prodding
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#37 Democracy in Chains

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

The New New Right Was Forged in Greed and White Backlash

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: The New New Right Was Forged in Greed and White Backlash
Date: 30 Apr 2022
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#113 The New New Right Was Forged in Greed and White Backlash

The New New Right Was Forged in Greed and White Backlash
https://theintercept.com/2022/04/29/new-right-movement-peter-thiel/

Every version of the New Right has been propelled by more or less explicit white supremacist backlash and robust funding.

Now, in our era of Trumpian reaction, we are seeing reports about a new New Right. Like the New Rights that came before it, it's a loose constellation of self-identifying anti-establishment, allegedly heterodox reactionaries.


... snip ...

... Retiring GOP operative Mac Stipanovich says Trump 'sensed the rot' in Republican party and took control of it
https://www.orlandosentinel.com/politics/os-ne-mac-stipanovich-republican-20191224-tz7bjps56jazbcwb3ficlnacqa-story.html

As for the party, Trump hasn't transformed the party, in my judgment, as much as he has unmasked it. There was always a minority in the Republican party -- 25, 30 percent -- that, how shall we say this, that hailed extreme views, aberrant views. They've always been there, from the John Birchers in the '50s, who thought Dwight Eisenhower was a communist, to the Trump folks today who think John McCain's a traitor. They had different names -- the religious right, tea partiers -- but they've always been there. They were a fairly consistent, fairly manageable minority who we, the establishment, enabled and exploited.

... snip ...

racism posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#racism

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

The New New Right Was Forged in Greed and White Backlash

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: The New New Right Was Forged in Greed and White Backlash
Date: 30 Apr 2022
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#113 The New New Right Was Forged in Greed and White Backlash
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#114 The New New Right Was Forged in Greed and White Backlash

... and the "George Bushes" ,,, CIA Director Colby wouldn't approve the "Team B" analysis (exaggerated USSR military capability) and Rumsfeld got Colby replaced with Bush, who would approve "Team B" analysis (justifying huge DOD spending increase), after Rumsfeld replaces Colby, he resigns as white house chief of staff to become SECDEF (and is replaced by his assistant Cheney)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Team_B
Then in the 80s, former CIA director H.W. is VP, he and Rumsfeld are involved in supporting Iraq in the Iran/Iraq war
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iran%E2%80%93Iraq_War
including WMDs (note picture of Rumsfeld with Saddam)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_support_for_Iraq_during_the_Iran%E2%80%93Iraq_war

VP and former CIA director repeatedly claims no knowledge of
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iran%E2%80%93Contra_affair
because he was fulltime administration point person deregulating financial industry ... creating S&L crisis
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Savings_and_loan_crisis along with other
including members of his family
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Savings_and_loan_crisis#Silverado_Savings_and_Loan
and another
http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9D0CE0D81E3BF937A25753C1A966958260

In the early 90s, H.W. is president and Cheney is SECDEF. Sat. photo recon analyst told white house that Saddam was marshaling forces to invade Kuwait. White house said that Saddam would do no such thing and proceeded to discredit the analyst. Later the analyst informed the white house that Saddam was marshaling forces to invade Saudi Arabia, now the white house has to choose between Saddam and the Saudis.
https://www.amazon.com/Long-Strange-Journey-Intelligence-ebook/dp/B004NNV5H2/

... roll forward ... Bush2 is president and presides over the huge cut in taxes, huge increase in spending, explosion in debt, the economic mess (70 times larger than his father's S&L crisis) and the forever wars, Cheney is VP, Rumsfeld is SECDEF and one of the Team B members is deputy SECDEF (and major architect of Iraq policy).
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul_Wolfowitz

Before the Iraq invasion, the cousin of white house chief of staff Card ... was dealing with the Iraqis at the UN and was given evidence that WMDs (tracing back to US in the Iran/Iraq war) had been decommissioned. the cousin shared it with (cousin, white house chief of staff) Card and others ... then is locked up in military hospital, book was published in 2010 (4yrs before decommissioned WMDs were declassified)
https://www.amazon.com/EXTREME-PREJUDICE-Terrifying-Story-Patriot-ebook/dp/B004HYHBK2/

NY Times series from 2014, the decommission WMDs (tracing back to US from Iran/Iraq war), had been found early in the invasion, but the information was classified for a decade
http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2014/10/14/world/middleeast/us-casualties-of-iraq-chemical-weapons.html

note the military-industrial complex had wanted a war so badly that corporate reps were telling former eastern block countries that if they voted for IRAQ2 invasion in the UN, they would get membership in NATO and (directed appropriation) USAID (can *ONLY* be used for purchase of modern US arms, aka additional congressional gifts to MIC complex not in DOD budget). From the law of unintended consequences, the invaders were told to bypass ammo dumps looking for WMDs, when they got around to going back, over a million metric tons had evaporated (showing up later in IEDs)
https://www.amazon.com/Prophets-War-Lockheed-Military-Industrial-ebook/dp/B0047T86BA/

... from truth is stranger than fiction and law of unintended consequences that come back to bite you, much of the radical Islam & ISIS can be considered our own fault, VP Bush in the 80s
https://www.amazon.com/Family-Secrets-Americas-Invisible-Government-ebook/dp/B003NSBMNA/
pg292/loc6057-59:

There was also a calculated decision to use the Saudis as surrogates in the cold war. The United States actually encouraged Saudi efforts to spread the extremist Wahhabi form of Islam as a way of stirring up large Muslim communities in Soviet-controlled countries. (It didn't hurt that Muslim Soviet Asia contained what were believed to be the world's largest undeveloped reserves of oil.)

... snip ...

Saudi radical extremist Islam/Wahhabi loosened on the world ... bin Laden & 15of16 9/11 were Saudis (some claims that 95% of extreme Islam world terrorism is Wahhabi related)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wahhabism

Mattis somewhat more PC (political correct)
https://www.amazon.com/Call-Sign-Chaos-Learning-Lead-ebook/dp/B07SBRFVNH/
pg21/loc349-51:

Ayatollah Khomeini's revolutionary regime took hold in Iran by ousting the Shah and swearing hostility against the United States. That same year, the Soviet Union was pouring troops into Afghanistan to prop up a pro-Russian government that was opposed by Sunni Islamist fundamentalists and tribal factions. The United States was supporting Saudi Arabia's involvement in forming a counterweight to Soviet influence.

... snip ...

and internal CIA
https://www.amazon.com/Permanent-Record-Edward-Snowden-ebook/dp/B07STQPGH6/
pg133/loc1916-17:

But al-Qaeda did maintain unusually close ties with our allies the Saudis, a fact that the Bush White House worked suspiciously hard to suppress as we went to war with two other countries.

... snip ...

The Danger of Fibbing Our Way into War. Falsehoods and fat military budgets can make conflict more likely
https://www.pogo.org/analysis/2020/01/the-danger-of-fibbing-our-way-into-war/
The Day I Realized I Would Never Find Weapons of Mass Destruction in Iraq
https://www.nytimes.com/2020/01/29/magazine/iraq-weapons-mass-destruction.html

"team b" posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#team.b
"S&L crisis" posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#s&l.crisis
economic mess posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#economic.mess
fiscal responsibility act posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#fiscal.responsibility.act
military-industrial(-congressional) complex posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#military.industrial.complex
WMD posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#wmd
perpetual war posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#perpetual.war

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

What's different, was Why did Dennis Ritchie write that UNIX was a modern implementation of CTSS?

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: What's different, was Why did Dennis Ritchie write that UNIX was a modern implementation of CTSS?
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Sat, 30 Apr 2022 12:47:19 -1000
Peter Flass <peter_flass@yahoo.com> writes:

OTOH, there's a lot to be said for maintaining compatibility with others. If nothing else, there are fewer things to be surprised by when moving to a new system. Everyone once had there own version of BCD because there may have been an unexpected advantage in having a particular character or arrangement. ASCII and EBCDIC were developed to standardize on one good choice over many other possibilities.

re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#51 Why did Dennis Ritchie write that UNIX was a modern implementation of CTSS?
other posts in thread:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#63 What's different, was Why did Dennis Ritchie write that UNIX was a modern implementation of CTSS?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#60 What's different, was Why did Dennis Ritchie write that UNIX was a modern implementation of CTSS?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#55 What's different, was Why did Dennis Ritchie write that UNIX was a modern implementation of CTSS?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#43 Why did Dennis Ritchie write that UNIX was a modern implementation of CTSS?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#42 Why did Dennis Ritchie write that UNIX was a modern implementation of CTSS?

from post in thread couple weeks ago ... biggest computer goof, 360 was supposed to be ASCII, by the (IBM) father of ASCII, gone 404 from wayback machine:
https://web.archive.org/web/20180513184025/http://www.bobbemer.com/P-BIT.HTM

I mention this because it is a classic software mistake. IBM was going to announce the 360 in 1964 April as an ASCII machine, but their printers and punches were not ready to handle ASCII, and IBM just HAD to announce. So T.V. Learson (my boss's boss) decided to do both, as IBM had a store of spendable money. They put in the P-bit. Set one way, it ran in EBCDIC. Set the other way, it ran in ASCII.

... snip ...

other Bemer computer history
https://web.archive.org/web/20180402200149/http://www.bobbemer.com/HISTORY.HTM

Bemer refs:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bob_Bemer
https://history.computer.org/pioneers/bemer.html

Bemer is the inventor of the words "Cobol," and "CODASYL," six ASCII characters, and the concepts of registry and escape sequences in character codes. He also invented the term and defined the nature of the "software factory." At IBM he developed the first load-and-go system (PRINT I) and also was responsible for the implementation of the programming system FORTRANSIT, which provided a quick first compiler for the IBM 650 computer, and was the first programming language to run both decimal (IBM 650) and binary (IBM 704) computers. For the support of commercial programming Bemer developed PRINT I; in the late 1950s he developed XTRAN, a step towards Algol, and "Commercial Translator," which became a significant input to Cobol. His major Cobol innovations were the IDENTIFICATION and ENVIRONMENT divisions, and the PICTURE clause.

... snip ...

other recent threads mentioning Bob Bemer
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#56 ASCI White
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#91 Computer BUNCH
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#58 Interdata Computers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#13 360 Performance
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#126 On the origin of the /text section/ for code
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021e.html#44 Blank 80-column punch cards up for grabs
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021d.html#92 EBCDIC Trivia
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2020.html#7 IBM timesharing terminal--offline preparation?

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Documentary Explores How Big Oil Stalled Climate Action for Decades

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Documentary Explores How Big Oil Stalled Climate Action for Decades
Date: 01 May 2022
Blog: Facebook
Documentary Explores How Big Oil Stalled Climate Action for Decades
https://news.slashdot.org/story/22/04/30/1632201/documentary-explores-how-big-oil-stalled-climate-action-for-decades
The Power of Big Oil
https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/frontline/film/the-power-of-big-oil/

FRONTLINE examines the fossil fuel industry's history of casting doubt and delaying action on climate change. This three-part series traces decades of missed opportunities and the ongoing attempts to hold Big Oil to account.

... snip ...

merchants.of.doubt
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#merchants.of.doubt
capitalism posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#capitalism

recent "big oil" &/or "climate change" posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#96 Why Companies Are Becoming B Corporations
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#39 Climate denial is waning on the right
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#95 This chemist is reimagining the discovery of materials using AI and automation
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#28 Big oil's 'wokewashing' is the new climate science denialism
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#12 Climate change deniers are as slippery as those who justified the slave trade
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021h.html#94 Hurricane Ida slammed into Louisiana and then didn't really weaken. Why?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021h.html#9 'Climate change is going to cost us': How the US military is preparing for harsher environments
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021h.html#8 'Climate change is going to cost us': How the US military is preparing for harsher environments
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021h.html#7 A terrifying new theory: Fake news and conspiracy theories as an evolutionary strategy
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021h.html#6 Remarks by President Biden Laying Out the Next Steps in Our Effort to Get More Americans Vaccinated and Combat the Spread of the Delta Variant
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021h.html#2 The Disturbing Rise of the Corporate Mercenaries
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021g.html#98 Heatwave causes massive melt of Greenland ice sheet
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021g.html#93 A top spreader of coronavirus misinformation says he will delete his posts after 48 hours
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021g.html#79 Want Quick Progress on Climate Change? Clean Up 'Hyper-Polluting' Coal Plants
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021g.html#78 Fox Hosts Hit Peak Bizarro World: Tucker Lies, Says Fauci 'Created' Covid
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021g.html#72 It's Time to Call Out Big Oil for What It Really Is
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021g.html#58 The Storm Is Upon Us
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021g.html#16 Big oil and gas kept a dirty secret for decades
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021g.html#13 NYT Ignores Two-Year House Arrest of Lawyer Who Took on Big Oil
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021g.html#3 Big oil and gas kept a dirty secret for decades
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021f.html#25 POGO Testimony on Holding the Oil and Gas Industry Accountable
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021f.html#15 POGO Testimony on Holding the Oil and Gas Industry Accountable
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021e.html#89 How climate change skepticism held a government captive
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021e.html#77 How climate change skepticism held a government captive
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021e.html#59 How climate change skepticism held a government captive
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021c.html#77 Meet the "New Koch Brothers"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021b.html#83 Capital in the Twenty-First Century
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021b.html#60 The Dumbest Business Idea Ever. The Myth of Maximizing Shareholder Value. The dominant business philosophy debunked
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2020.html#24 Promtheus' Fire: Climate Change in the Time of Willful Ignorance
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2020.html#5 Book: Kochland : the secret history of Koch Industries and corporate power in America

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virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

The Death of Neoliberalism Has Been Greatly Exaggerated

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: The Death of Neoliberalism Has Been Greatly Exaggerated
Date: 01 May 2022
Blog: Facebook
The Death of Neoliberalism Has Been Greatly Exaggerated
https://www.jacobinmag.com/2022/04/end-of-neoliberalism-think-tanks-lobby-groups

The fourth and final definition of neoliberalism consists of the most tangible manifestation of a set of thinkers and activists, associated with the Mont Pelerin Society (MPS) from 1947 onward. In the United States, a constellation of think tanks (Cato Institute, Manhattan Institute, Heritage Foundation, Competitive Enterprise Institute), academic units (Hoover Institution, Mercatus), shadow networks (Council for National Policy, Americans for Prosperity, American Legislative Exchange Council [ALEC], Federalist Society), and funding sources (the Kochs, the Bradleys, the Volker Fund, Liberty Fund, Rockbridge) took shape. There have been comparable structures in other nations.

... snip ...

capitalist posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#capitalism
inequality posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#inequality
merchants of doubt posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#merchant.of.doubt

recent posts specifically mentioning ALEC, CATO, Koch, and/or Mercatus
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#59 Rags-to-Riches Stories Are Actually Kind of Disturbing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#58 Rags-to-Riches Stories Are Actually Kind of Disturbing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#35 40 Years of the Reagan Revolution's Libertarian Experiment Have Brought Us Crisis & Chaos
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#20 Koch Funding for Campuses Comes With Dangerous Strings Attached
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#43 Koch Empire
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#98 The Koch Empire Goes All Out to Sink Joe Biden's Agenda -- and His Presidency, Too
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021g.html#40 Why do people hate universal health care? It turns out -- they don't
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021f.html#13 Elizabeth Warren hammers JPMorgan Chase CEO Jamie Dimon on pandemic overdraft fees
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021d.html#65 Apple, Amazon and Google slam 'discriminatory' voting restriction laws
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021d.html#7 The GOP's Fake Controversy Over Colin Kahl Is Just the Beginning
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021c.html#77 Meet the "New Koch Brothers"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021c.html#51 In Biden's recovery plan, an overdue rebuke of trickle-down economics
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021.html#27 We must stop calling Trump's enablers 'conservative.' They are the radical right
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021.html#20 Trickle Down Economics Started it All
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2020.html#5 Book: Kochland : the secret history of Koch Industries and corporate power in America
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2020.html#4 Bots Are Destroying Political Discourse As We Know It
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2020.html#3 Meet the Economist Behind the One Percent's Stealth Takeover of America
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#134 12 EU states reject move to expose companies' tax avoidance
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019d.html#116 David Koch Was the Ultimate Climate Change Denier
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019d.html#103 David Koch Was the Ultimate Climate Change Denier
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019d.html#97 David Koch Was the Ultimate Climate Change Denier
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019d.html#64 How the Supreme Court Is Rebranding Corruption
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019c.html#47 Day of Reckoning for KPMG-Failures in Ethics
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019b.html#45 What is ALEC? 'The most effective organization' for conservatives, says Newt Gingrich
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#45 Jeffrey Skilling, Former Enron Chief, Released After 12 Years in Prison
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#37 Democracy in Chains

other recent posts specifically mentioning Federalist
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#107 The Cult of Trump is actually comprised of MANY other Christian cults
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#106 The Cult of Trump is actually comprised of MANY other Christian cults
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#72 In U.S., Far More Support Than Oppose Separation of Church and State
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#59 The Uproar Ovear the "Ultimate American Bible"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021f.html#98 No, the Vikings Did Not Discover America
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021f.html#46 Under God
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2020.html#6 Onward, Christian fascists
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#161 Fascists
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#158 Goliath
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#150 How Trump Lost an Evangelical Stalwart
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#127 The Barr Presidency
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#10 The 16919 Project
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019b.html#43 Actually, the Electoral College Was a Pro-Slavery Ploy
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#44 People are Happier in Social Democracies Because There's Less Capitalism

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virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

byte me, was What's different, was Why did Dennis Ritchie write that

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: byte me, was What's different, was Why did Dennis Ritchie write that
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Sun, 01 May 2022 19:20:54 -1000
John Levine <johnl@taugh.com> writes:

Oh, OK. All of the data structures in Internet protocols like TCP, IP, and NFS are big-endian, and obviously every computer used in this argument is on the Internet.

So big-endian wins. Glad we sorted that out.


IBM had different (interesting?) "bit" order issue ... its telecommunication controllers stored arriving bits starting in the low order bit position in a byte (and started transmitting bits from low order position).

re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#119 byte me, was What's different, was Why did Dennis Ritchie write that
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#116 What's different, was Why did Dennis Ritchie write that UNIX was a modern implementation of CTSS?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#63 What's different, was Why did Dennis Ritchie write that UNIX was a modern implementation of CTSS?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#60 What's different, was Why did Dennis Ritchie write that UNIX was a modern implementation of CTSS?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#55 What's different, was Why did Dennis Ritchie write that UNIX was a modern implementation of CTSS?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#51 Why did Dennis Ritchie write that UNIX was a modern implementation of CTSS?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#43 Why did Dennis Ritchie write that UNIX was a modern implementation of CTSS?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#42 Why did Dennis Ritchie write that UNIX was a modern implementation of CTSS?

Ran into the problem (late 60s) when we were building a clone telecommunication controller (built 360 mainframe channel attached card for an Interdata/3 programmed to emulate the ibm controller). Initial tests had garbage because simple assumption the initial arrived bit went into the higher order bit position and then going left to right as they arrived and then moved to the next byte ... basically "translate" tables had to convert from storage order to bit (within byte) reversing order ... to compensate. For ibm selectric terminals ... things were being translated from ebcdic to tilt/rotate addressing of the selectric ball anyway ... so the same translate tables is fiddled to compensate for the bit reversal ... and then ebcdic to ascii translate ... but bit-reversed so that when transmitted to terminal control unit which would reverse for transmitting down the line.

Things got more interesting for ASCII TCP ... which came in via non-terminal controller so didn't have the bit-within-byte reversal ... two different sets of EBCDIC<->ASCII translate tables ... one set for terminals where data went through terminal controller and different set for any ascii moved thru non-terminal controllers (w/o the bit-within-byte reversal).

clone controller posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#360pcm

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virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Programming By Committee

Refed: **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Programming By Committee
Date: 02 May 2022
Blog: Facebook
Brooks comment about "programming by committee" ...
https://howdo.com/book-summaries/the-mythical-man-month-essays-on-software-engineering/

The added chapters contain (1) a crisp condensation of all the propositions asserted in the original book, including Brooks' central argument in The Mythical Man-Month: that large programming projects suffer management problems different from small ones due to the division of labor; that the conceptual integrity of the product is therefore critical; and that it is difficult but possible to achieve this unity; (2) Brooks' view of these propositions a generation later; (3) a reprint of his classic 1986 paper "No Silver Bullet"; and (4) today's thoughts on the 1986 assertion, "There will be no silver bullet within ten years."

... snip ...

after implosion of (failed) FS in the mid-70s, did a tome about POK and analogy to "black hole" (I continued to work on 370 stuff all during FS and periodically ridiculing their activities, which wasn't exactly a career enhancing activity) ... constantly adding people reaches critical mass and unable to ship anything ... from the more trouble a project has, the more people that have to be added, and executives' compensation proportional to empire size. After turn of the century ran into the later version ... rapidly spreading success of failure culture (more money from series of failures)
http://www.govexec.com/excellence/management-matters/2007/04/the-success-of-failure/24107/

Failure is not an option!" But many times, it's a fabulous option. Success might be preferable, but using Trailblazer as an example, consider who benefits from failure.

... snip ...

future system
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#futuresys

increasingly role played by private equity company headed up by former IBM CEO, buy up gov. contractors and hire prominent politicians to lobby congress to outsource gov. to them.
http://www.motherjones.com/politics/2007/10/barbarians-capitol-private-equity-public-enemy/

"Lou Gerstner, former ceo of ibm, now heads the Carlyle Group, a Washington-based global private equity firm whose 2006 revenues of $87 billion were just a few billion below ibm's. Carlyle has boasted George H.W. Bush, George W. Bush, and former Secretary of State James Baker III on its employee roster."

... snip ...

one example, just "intelligence", 70% of budget and half the people
http://www.investingdaily.com/17693/spies-like-us

Over its 99-year history, Booz Allen has transitioned from a partnership to an independent corporation and now, finally, a private-equity subsidiary following its 2008 buyout by the Carlyle Group.

... snip ...

trivia: we were tangentially involved earlier ... summer of 2002 got a call asking us to respond to an IC-ARDA (since renamed IARPA) unclassified BAA that was about to close ... basically said that none of the agency tools did the job. We got in response, had some (unclassified) meetings ... and then dead silence, didn't know what happened until success of failure articles appeared.

success of failure posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#success.of.failure
private equity posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#private.equity
gerstner posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#gerstner

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Programming By Committee

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Programming By Committee
Date: 02 May 2022
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#120 Programming By Committee

IBM large team culture also ran into something of problem after the 23Jun1969 unbundling announcement and starting to charge for (non-kernel) software. Requirement that revenue had to cover original development and ongoing expenses. IBM would typically do forecast a low, medium, and high price ... and number of licenses times price had to cover revenue requirements. A poster child was JES2 NJE ... which had no price & licenses that met revenue requirement (even tho original code from HASP had "TUCC" in source cards ... from where it was originally developed).

They found loophole, a group of products could meet the requirement in aggregate. There was RSCS/VNET ... even though dominant on the internal network ... wasn't going to be ever announced ... head of POK was in the process of convincing corporate to kiill VM370, shutdown the development group and transfer all the people to POK (or supposedly MVS/XA wouldn't ship on time). It had mostly been done by co-worker at science center and forecast easily met revenue requirement at $30/monthly (while NJE didn't make it at $300, $600, or $1200). JES2 cut deal that they would make "joint" announcement of NJE plus RSCS/VNET at $600 ... meeting the revenue requirement (with VNET/RSCS revenue covering NJE).

23jun1969 unbundling posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#unbundle
internal network posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#internalnet
science center posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech
hasp, jes, nje, etc posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#hasp

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virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

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