List of Archived Posts

2022 Newsgroup Postings (04/02 - 06/12)

Programming By Committee
byte me, was What's different, was Why did Dennis Ritchie write that
The Bunker: Pentagon Hardware Hijinks
DHS watchdog says Trump's agency appears to have altered report on Russian interference in 2020 election
Alito's Plan to Repeal Roe--and Other 20th Century Civil Rights
Computer Server Market
Computer Server Market
Computer Server Market
Computer Server Market
Alito's Plan to Repeal Roe--and Other 20th Century Civil Rights
Computer Server Market
Computer Server Market
Computer Server Market
Computer Server Market
Wall Street's Biggest Secret Could Be Exposed
Russia's most advanced tank in service was obliterated by Ukraine just days after it was deployed, according to reports
My Story: How I Was "Groomed" by My Elementary School Teachers
Computer Server Market
Computer Server Market
COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology
COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology
COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology
COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology
COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology
COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology
COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology
How Private Equity Looted America
COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology
Remote Work
Network Congestion
COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology
COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology
COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology
COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology
Retrotechtacular: The IBM System/360 Remembered
IBM Business Conduct Guidelines
IBM Business Conduct Guidelines
IBM Business Conduct Guidelines
US Tops World Financial Secrecy Ranking, Enabling With Tax, Legal Systems
The Supreme Court's History of Protecting the Powerful
AMEX, First Data, & IBM
Your Money and Your Life: Private Equity Blasts Ethical Boundaries of American Medicine
Your Money and Your Life: Private Equity Blasts Ethical Boundaries of American Medicine
Iraq War
CMS Personal Computing Precursor
MGLRU Revved Once More For Promising Linux Performance Improvements
MGLRU Revved Once More For Promising Linux Performance Improvements
360&370 I/O Channels
360&370 I/O Channels
IBM Dug A Hole
IBM Dug A Hole
IBM Spooling
Another IBM Down Fall thread
Another IBM Down Fall thread
Another IBM Down Fall thread
CMS OS/360 Simulation
CMS OS/360 Simulation
CMS OS/360 Simulation
IBM 360/50 Simulation From Its Microcode
CMS OS/360 Simulation
VM/370 Turns 50 2Aug2022
IBM 360/50 Simulation From Its Microcode
IBM 360/50 Simulation From Its Microcode
VM/370 Turns 50 2Aug2022
For aficionados of the /360
High cost of cancer care in the U.S. doesn't reduce mortality rates
VM/370 Turns 50 2Aug2022
CMS OS/360 Simulation
CMS OS/360 Simulation
Mainframe History: How Mainframe Computers Evolved Over the Years
IBM Z16 - The Mainframe Is Dead, Long Live The Mainframe
IBM Z16 - The Mainframe Is Dead, Long Live The Mainframe
WAIS. Z39.50
WAIS. Z39.50
WAIS. Z39.50
"12 O'clock High" In IBM Management School
"12 O'clock High" In IBM Management School
"12 O'clock High" In IBM Management School
US Takes Supercomputer Top Spot With First True Exascale Machine
ROMP
ROMP
ROMP
ROMP
Short-term profits and long-term consequences -- did Jack Welch break capitalism?
Destruction Of The Middle Class
Destruction Of The Middle Class
IBM Z16 - The Mainframe Is Dead, Long Live The Mainframe
Punch Cards
Short-term profits and long-term consequences -- did Jack Welch break capitalism?
Short-term profits and long-term consequences -- did Jack Welch break capitalism?
Short-term profits and long-term consequences -- did Jack Welch break capitalism?
Short-term profits and long-term consequences -- did Jack Welch break capitalism?
Wage gap between CEOs and US workers jumped to 670-to-1 last year, study finds
Operating System File/Dataset I/O
Operating System File/Dataset I/O
Operating System File/Dataset I/O
Goldman Sachs predicts $140 oil as gas prices spike near $5 a gallon
MVS support
Datamation Archive
IBM Stretch (7030) -- Aggressive Uniprocessor Parallelism
IBM Stretch (7030) -- Aggressive Uniprocessor Parallelism
IBM Stretch (7030) -- Aggressive Uniprocessor Parallelism
IBM Stretch (7030) -- Aggressive Uniprocessor Parallelism
IBM'S MISSED OPPORTUNITY WITH THE INTERNET
IBM'S MISSED OPPORTUNITY WITH THE INTERNET
Transistors of the 68000
IBM Quota
Short-term profits and long-term consequences -- did Jack Welch break capitalism?
System Dumps & 7x24 operation
Short-term profits and long-term consequences -- did Jack Welch break capitalism?
Window Display Ground Floor Datacenters
A Trillion Here, a Trillion There

Programming By Committee

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Programming By Committee
Date: 02 May 2022
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#120 Programming By Committee
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#121 Programming By Committee

trivia: confluence of 23Jun1969 unbundling and Future System; company managed to make case that kernel software should still be free. then this mentions that major motivation for Future System project was countermeasure to clone controllers
https://www.ecole.org/en/session/49-the-rise-and-fall-of-ibm

make FS systems so complex that clone controller makers wouldn't be able to keep up. Note that during FS ... since FS was completely different than 370 and was going to completely replace 370 ... internal politics was shutting down 370 efforts. Then from the law of unintended consequences ... the lack of new 370 is credited with giving clone 370 makers their market foothold (FS was suppose to be countermeasure to clone controllers, but then responsible for clone 370 market foothold). Of course, FS was so complex even IBM wasn't able to pull it off ... some additional info
http://www.jfsowa.com/computer/memo125.htm

note: one of the final nails in the FS coffin was study by Houston Science Center that if 370/195 applications were redone for FS machine made out of the fastest available hardware ... it would have throughput of 370/145 (about 30 times slowdown).

with the failure of FS, there was then mad rush to get stuff back into the 370 product pipelines ... including kicking off the quick&dirty 3033&3081 projects in parallel. Also the rise of clone 370 systems seemed to reverse the decision not charging for kernel software ... and some of my enhanced production operating systems stuff (I had started doing after joining IBM) for internal datacenters was selected to be the initial guinea pig for charge-for kernel software

Future System posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#futuresys
some clone controller posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#360pcm
23jun1969 unbundling posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#unbundling
dynamic adaptive resource manager posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#fairshare

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

byte me, was What's different, was Why did Dennis Ritchie write that

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: byte me, was What's different, was Why did Dennis Ritchie write that
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Mon, 02 May 2022 14:50:36 -1000
Peter Flass <peter_flass@yahoo.com> writes:

This was my first experience with ASCII, and my reaction was"what a p** of sh*t." It was only later that I realized that this was an artifact of the comm controller and not an inherent property of ASCII.

re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#119 byte me, was What's different, was Why did Dennis Ritchie write that

other trivia: when the ASCII port scanner "upgrade" arrived to be installed in the IBM 360 telecommunication controller ... it came in a "Heathkit" box

some clone controller posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#360pcm

other posts in thread:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#63 What's different, was Why did Dennis Ritchie write that UNIX was a modern implementation of CTSS?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#60 What's different, was Why did Dennis Ritchie write that UNIX was a modern implementation of CTSS?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#55 What's different, was Why did Dennis Ritchie write that UNIX was a modern implementation of CTSS?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#51 Why did Dennis Ritchie write that UNIX was a modern implementation of CTSS?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#43 Why did Dennis Ritchie write that UNIX was a modern implementation of CTSS?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#42 Why did Dennis Ritchie write that UNIX was a modern implementation of CTSS?

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

The Bunker: Pentagon Hardware Hijinks

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: The Bunker: Pentagon Hardware Hijinks
Date: 03 May 2022
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#105 The Bunker: Pentagon Hardware Hijinks

Congressman to F-35 contractors: 'what in the hell are you doing?' Lawmakers find out that the DoD's premier fighter can't pass tests and will cost $1.3 trillion over its lifetime to sustain.
https://responsiblestatecraft.org/2022/04/29/congressman-to-f-35-contractors-what-in-the-hell-are-you-doing/

military-industrial(-congressional) complex
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#military.industrial.complex

misc. other
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#78 Future F-35 Upgrades Send Program into Tailspin
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#55 America's 'White Elephant': Why F-35 Stealth Jets Are USAF's 'Achilles Heel' Amid Growing Chinese Threats
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#48 The Kill Chain: Defending America in the Future of High-Tech Warfare
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021h.html#17 In Pursuit of Clarity: the Intellect and Intellectual Integrity of Pierre Sprey
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021h.html#16 In Pursuit of Clarity: the Intellect and Intellectual Integrity of Pierre Sprey
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021g.html#87 The Bunker: Follow All of the Money. F-35 Math 1.0 Another portent of problems
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021g.html#48 The F-35 Fighter Jet Program Must be Grounded to Protect Pilots and Tax Dollars
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021e.html#88 The Bunker: More Rot in the Ranks
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021e.html#46 SitRep: Is the F-35 officially a failure? Cost overruns, other issues prompt Air Force to look for "clean sheet" fighter
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021e.html#35 US Stealth Fighter Jets Like F-35, F-22 Raptors 'No Longer Stealth' In-Front Of New Russian, Chinese Radars?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021e.html#18 Did They Miss Yet Another F-35 Cost Overrun?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021d.html#77 Cancel the F-35, Fund Infrastructure Instead
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021d.html#0 THE PENTAGON'S FLYING FIASCO. Don't look now, but the F-35 is afterburnered toast
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021c.html#82 The F-35 and other Legacies of Failure
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021c.html#11 Air Force thinking of a new F-16ish fighter
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021c.html#8 Air Force thinking of a new F-16ish fighter
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021b.html#102 The U.S. Air Force Just Admitted The F-35 Stealth Fighter Has Failed
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021b.html#100 The U.S. Air Force Just Admitted The F-35 Stealth Fighter Has Failed

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

DHS watchdog says Trump's agency appears to have altered report on Russian interference in 2020 election

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: DHS watchdog says Trump's agency appears to have altered report on Russian interference in 2020 election
Date: 03 May 2022
Blog: Facebook
DHS watchdog says Trump's agency appears to have altered report on Russian interference in 2020 election in part because of politics
https://www.cnn.com/2022/05/03/politics/donald-trump-russian-interference-election-politics/index.html

Former President Donald Trump's Department of Homeland Security delayed and altered an intelligence report related to Russian interference in the 2020 election, making changes that "appear to be based in part on political considerations," according to a newly released watchdog report.

The April 26 Homeland Security inspector general's assessment provides a damning look at the way DHS' Office of Intelligence and Analysis dealt with intelligence related to Russia's efforts to interfere in the US, stating the department had deviated from its standard procedures in modifying assessments related to Moscow's targeting of the 2020 presidential election.


... snip ...

Homeland Security Secretary Altered Report on Russian Election Interference to Help Trump, Watchdog Says
https://www.rollingstone.com/politics/politics-news/chad-wolf-homeland-security-russian-interference-report-1347046/
DHS watchdog says Trump's acting DHS secretary changed intel report on Russian interference in 2020 election
https://www.cbsnews.com/news/trumps-dhs-secretary-chad-wolf-changed-intel-report-russian-interference-2020-election/
DHS Actions Related to an I&A Intelligence Product Deviated from Standard Procedures
https://www.oig.dhs.gov/sites/default/files/assets/2022-05/OIG-22-41-Apr22-Redacted.pdf

previous post reference
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021c.html#81 Russia, not China, tried to influence 2020 election, says US intel community

some earlier news

U.S. intel officials worry their latest findings about Russian election interference are being distorted
https://www.nbcnews.com/politics/national-security/u-s-intel-officials-worry-their-latest-findings-about-russian-n1142821
Trump dismisses reports of Russian interference in 2020 election as 'disinformation'
https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/video/2020/feb/21/trump-dismisses-reports-of-russian-interference-in-2020-election-as-disinformation-video
Trump casts doubt on Russian interference in 2020 election
https://www.nbcnews.com/politics/politics-news/trump-casts-doubt-russian-interference-2020-election-n1038636
'Steady drumbeat of misinformation': FBI chief warns of Russian interference in US elections
https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2020/sep/17/misinformation-us-elections-2020-russia
Russia, Iran tried to sway 2020 presidential election, US intel finds
https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/politics/elections/2021/03/16/us-intel-report-russia-iran-tried-sway-2020-presidential-election/4720051001/
US election 2020: China, Russia and Iran 'trying to influence' vote
https://www.bbc.com/news/election-us-2020-53702872
Foreign Election Interference In The 2020 Race: What You Need To Know
https://www.npr.org/2019/09/01/737978684/what-you-need-to-know-about-foreign-interference-and-the-2020-election
2020 election interference threat from Russia, China, Iran, U.S. says
https://www.axios.com/security-agencies-russia-china-iran-2020-election-7a404769-e952-449b-9588-3c464adcd4a9.html

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Alito's Plan to Repeal Roe--and Other 20th Century Civil Rights

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Alito's Plan to Repeal Roe--and Other 20th Century Civil Rights
Date: 03 May 2022
Blog: Facebook
Alito's Plan to Repeal Roe--and Other 20th Century Civil Rights
https://www.theatlantic.com/ideas/archive/2022/05/alito-leaked-roe-opinion-abortion-supreme-court-civil-rights/629748/
The new Supreme Court's iron fist
https://www.bostonglobe.com/2022/05/03/opinion/supreme-court-abortion-opinion-could-strip-other-rights/
An earth-shattering moment for a Supreme Court already on the brink
https://www.cnn.com/2022/05/03/politics/supreme-court-broken-analysis/index.html
A Supreme Court in Disarray After an Extraordinary Breach
https://www.nytimes.com/2022/05/03/us/politics/supreme-court-leak-roe-v-wade-abortion.html
Live Updates: Supreme Court Confirms Leak but Says Text Is Not Final
https://www.nytimes.com/live/2022/05/03/us/roe-wade-abortion-supreme-court/mcconnell-calls-for-criminal-investigation-and-charges-against-whoever-leaked-the-draft

Onward, Christian fascists. Trump's legacy will be the empowerment of Christian totalitarians
https://www.salon.com/2020/01/03/onward-christian-fascists_partner/

Trump has filled his own ideological void with Christian fascism. He has elevated members of the Christian right to prominent positions, including Mike Pence to the vice presidency, Mike Pompeo to secretary of state, Betsy DeVos to secretary of education, Ben Carson to secretary of housing and urban development, William Barr to attorney general, Neil Gorsuch and Brett Kavanaugh to the Supreme Court and the televangelist Paula White to his Faith and Opportunities Initiative. More importantly, Trump has handed the Christian right veto and appointment power over key positions in government, especially in the federal courts. He has installed 133 district court judges out of 677 total, 50 appeals court judges out of 179 total, and two U.S. Supreme Court justices out of nine. Almost all of these judges were, in effect, selected by the Federalist Society and the Christian right.

... snip ...

In the 1880s, Supreme Court were scammed (by the railroads) to give corporations "person rights" under the 14th amendment.
https://www.amazon.com/We-Corporations-American-Businesses-Rights-ebook/dp/B01M64LRDJ/
pgxiii/loc45-50:

IN DECEMBER 1882, ROSCOE CONKLING, A FORMER SENATOR and close confidant of President Chester Arthur, appeared before the justices of the Supreme Court of the United States to argue that corporations like his client, the Southern Pacific Railroad Company, were entitled to equal rights under the Fourteenth Amendment. Although that provision of the Constitution said that no state shall "deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law" or "deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws," Conkling insisted the amendment's drafters intended to cover business corporations too.

... snip ...

... testimony falsely claiming authors of 14th amendment intended to include corporations. pgxiv/loc74-78:

Between 1868, when the amendment was ratified, and 1912, when a scholar set out to identify every Fourteenth Amendment case heard by the Supreme Court, the justices decided 28 cases dealing with the rights of African Americans--and an astonishing 312 cases dealing with the rights of corporations.

pg36/loc726-28:

On this issue, Hamiltonians were corporationalists--proponents of corporate enterprise who advocated for expansive constitutional rights for business. Jeffersonians, meanwhile, were populists--opponents of corporate power who sought to limit corporate rights in the name of the people.

pg229/loc3667-68:

IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY, CORPORATIONS WON LIBERTY RIGHTS, SUCH AS FREEDOM OF SPEECH AND RELIGION, WITH THE HELP OF ORGANIZATIONS LIKE THE CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.

... snip ...

inequality posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#inequality
rascism posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#racism
capitalist posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#capitalism

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Computer Server Market

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Computer Server Market
Date: 04 May 2022
Blog: Facebook
..... from post this morning in another fora. This corresponds to EC12 era analysis that turn of century, mainframes had been few percent of IBM revenue and dropping, then EC12 period was couple percent (and still dropping) ... but mainframe group was 25% of revenue (nearly all software and services) and 40% of profit:

I did some digging. Apparently, IBM is selling around 2 billion dollar's worth of POWER systems per year, according to
https://www.itjungle.com/2022/03/07/the-low-down-on-ibms-power-systems-sales/
compared to a total server market of around 20 billion
https://www.idc.com/getdoc.jsp?containerId=prUS48221821
zSystems come to 1.6 Billion (ballpark) at
https://www.statista.com/statistics/799064/worldwide-revenue-ibm-system-z-mainframe/


... snip ...

... other posts in same thread, total "server" market is more like $100B ($23.6B/quarter):

Intel Data Center Division alone reported revenue of $25.8 billion. And that just Intel, which during this period was losing market share to AMD, and mostly, while not only, sells CPUs which constitute, may be, 1/3rd to 1/5th of the total server price.

IBM (Power+z+infrastructure) tends to be 5 to 6% of visible part of server market by value. So, probably 4% by value if we add invisible part.

But it does not mean that 4% of server cores are z+POWER, not even close.

#cores per dollar is far from equal for different vendors.

ARM cores* deliver max. # of cores per dollar, followed by AMD, followed by Intel, followed by IBM POWER sold with Linux, followed by IBM POWER sold with IBM OSes, followed, with very big gap, by IBM z.


... snip ...

megadatacenter posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#megadatacenter

post posts mentioning IBM mainframe revenue:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#111 Financial longevity that redhat gives IBM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#98 IBM Systems Revenue Put Into a Historical Context
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#63 Mainframes
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#56 Fujitsu confirms end date for mainframe and Unix systems
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#54 Automated Benchmarking
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#120 Computer Performance
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021g.html#24 Big Blue's big email blues signal terminal decline - unless it learns to migrate itself
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021g.html#18 IBM email migration disaster
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021b.html#3 Will The Cloud Take Down The Mainframe?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019c.html#80 IBM: Buying While Apathetaic
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019c.html#35 Transition to cloud computing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#19 IBM assembler over the ages
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018c.html#33 The Pentagon still uses computer software from 1958 to manage its contracts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018b.html#63 Major firms learning to adapt in fight against start-ups: IBM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018.html#98 Mainframe Use/History
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018.html#4 upgrade
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017i.html#73 When Working From Home Doesn't Work
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017i.html#33 learning Unix, was progress in e-mail, such as AOL
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017h.html#95 PDP-11 question
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017h.html#61 computer component reliability, 1951
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017g.html#103 SEX
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017g.html#86 IBM Train Wreck Continues Ahead of Earnings
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#23 IBM "Breakup"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#62 Big Shrink to "Hire" 25,000 in the US, as Layoffs Pile Up
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016h.html#56 Why Can't You Buy z Mainframe Services from Amazon Cloud Services?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016g.html#69 "I used a real computer at home...and so will you" (Popular Science May 1967)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016b.html#52 MVS Posix
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015h.html#20 the legacy of Seymour Cray
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015g.html#19 Linux Foundation Launches Open Mainframe Project
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015.html#85 a bit of hope? What was old is new again
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015.html#30 Why on Earth Is IBM Still Making Mainframes?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014m.html#170 IBM Continues To Crumble
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014m.html#155 IBM Continues To Crumble
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014m.html#71 Decimation of the valuation of IBM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014l.html#95 weird apple trivia
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014j.html#90 Demonstrating Moore's law
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014f.html#84 Is end of mainframe near ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014f.html#80 IBM Sales Fall Again, Pressuring Rometty's Profit Goal
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013n.html#61 Bet Cloud Computing to Win
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013g.html#7 SAS Deserting the MF?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013f.html#64 What Makes an Architecture Bizarre?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013f.html#37 Where Does the Cloud Cover the Mainframe?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013f.html#35 Reports: IBM may sell x86 server business to Lenovo
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013e.html#4 Oracle To IBM: Your 'Customers Are Being Wildly Overcharged'
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013b.html#24 New HD
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012n.html#25 System/360--50 years--the future?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012n.html#13 System/360--50 years--the future?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012m.html#67 How do you feel about the fact that today India has more IBM employees than any of the other countries in the world including the USA.?

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Computer Server Market

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Computer Server Market
Date: 04 May 2022
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#5 Computer Server Market

numbers use to be real (industry standard) benchmarks (number of iteration compared to 370/158 assumed to be 1MIP processor) ... but then started just seeing comparisons to previous machines.

z900, 16 processors, 2.5BIPS (156MIPS/proc), Dec2000
z990, 32 processors, 9BIPS, (281MIPS/proc), 2003
z9, 54 processors, 18BIPS (333MIPS/proc), July2005
z10, 64 processors, 30BIPS (469MIPS/proc), Feb2008
z196, 80 processors, 50BIPS (625MIPS/proc), Jul2010
EC12, 101 processors, 75BIPS (743MIPS/proc), Aug2012
z13, 140 processors, 100BIPS (710MIPS/proc), Jan2015
z14, 170 processors, 150BIPS (862MIPS/proc), Aug2017
nz15, 190 processors, 190BIPS* (1000MIPS/proc), Sep2019

• pubs say z15 1.25 times z14 (1.25*150BIPS or 190BIPS)
• z16, 200 processors, ???BIPS (???MIPS/proc),


...

I86 used to be at significant throughput disadvantage to RISC processors ... but around the turn of the century, they started doing chips with hardware layer that translated instructions into RISC micro-ops for execution ... largely negating the difference.

Note writeups had over half the per processor throughput improvement from z10->z196 ... was starting to add cache miss (memory latency) compensation features (that have been in other platforms, in some cases for decades) .... out of order execution, branch prediction, speculative exeecution, etc. Issue were claims that memory latency measured in count of processor cycles is similar to 60s disk latency when measured in 60s processor cycles (being able to do other stuff, aka higher throughput because of reduced idle time while something was waiting for memory)

max-configured z196 went for $30M ... or $600,000/BIPS ... in z196 era, common cloud megadatacenter (with half million or more) systems were E5-2600 blade with (industry standard, compared to 158 iterations) benchmark of 500BIPS (ten times max configured z196). IBM base list e5/2600 blade price was $1815 or $3.63/BIPS (IBM sold off the server business not long after chip makers were claiming that they were shipping half the product directly to cloud megadatacenters). Cloud megadatacenters have also been claiming they assemble their own systems at 1/3rd the cost of brand name systems ($1.21/BIPS ... compared to $600,000/BIPS mainframe).

Since cloud megadatacenters have so drastically reduced cost/system and cost/BIPS (z196 cost/BIPS was nearly 600,000 times that of E5-2600) ... power and cooling has increasingly became major expense ... resulting in them investigating moving to ARM RISC chips .... because they are significantly more processing power efficient (BIPS/core may not be as powerful, but BIPS per power/cooling and BIPS/$$$ is better). Also they have invested heavily in megadatacenter automation ... with staff of 80-120 people for megadatacenter with more than half million systems, avg upwards of 10,000 systems per person).

There was also "peak I/O" benchmark published for z196 ... getting 2M IOPS using 104 FICONS (running over 104 FCS). About the same time there was a FCS announced for e5-2600 that claimed over million IOPS (two such FCS have higher throughput than 104 FICONS running over 104 FCS).

FICON posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#ficon
cloud megadatacenter posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#megadatacenter

some recent posts mentioning z196, ficon, & e5-2600
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#111 Financial longevity that redhat gives IBM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#67 IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#54 IBM Z16 Mainframe
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#19 Telum & z16
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#7 Cloud Timesharing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#125 Google Cloud
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#77 Channel I/O
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#66 David Boggs, Co-Inventor of Ethernet, Dies at 71
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#57 Fujitsu confirms end date for mainframe and Unix systems
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#15 Channel I/O
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#95 Latency and Throughput
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#84 Mainframe Benchmark
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#76 165/168/3033 & 370 virtual memory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#69 IBM Bus&Tag Channels
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#13 Mainframe I/O
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#122 Mainframe "Peak I/O" benchmark
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#120 Computer Performance
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#115 Peer-Coupled Shared Data Architecture
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#109 Network Systems
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#53 IBM Mainframe
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#75 IBM 3278
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#3 IBM Lost Opportunities
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#30 What is the oldest computer that could be used today for real work?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#16 A brief overview of IBM's new 7 nm Telum mainframe CPU
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021h.html#44 OoO S/360 descendants
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021f.html#23 IBM Zcloud - is it just outsourcing ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021e.html#68 Amdahl
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021d.html#55 Cloud Computing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021c.html#71 What could cause a comeback for big-endianism very slowly?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021b.html#64 Early Computer Use
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021b.html#0 Will The Cloud Take Down The Mainframe?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021.html#55 IBM Quota
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021.html#4 3390 CKD Simulation
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2020.html#42 If Memory Had Been Cheaper

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Computer Server Market

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Computer Server Market
Date: 04 May 2022
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#5 Computer Server Market
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#6 Computer Server Market

FCS/FICON trivia: 1980, STL (since renamed SVL) was bursting at the seams and were moving 300 from the IMS group to offsite bldg, with dataprocessing service back to STL datacenter. They had tried remote "3270" but found the human factors totally unacceptable. I then get con'ed until doing channel-extender support, placing channel attached 3270 controllers at offsite bldg ... and no perceptible difference for offsite and onsite (STL) 3270 human factors. The hardware vendor then tries to get IBM to release my support ... but there is group in POK playing with some serial stuff and are afraid if my stuff was in the market, it would make it harder to justify releasing their stuff ... and get it veto'd.

Later in 1988, the branch asks if I can help LLNL (national lab) get some serial stuff they are playing with, standardized. It quickly becomes FCS (including some stuff I had done in 1980), starting at 1gbit full-duplex, 2gbit/sec aggregate, i.e. 200mbyte/sec. Then in 1990, the POK people get their stuff released wtih ES/9000 as ESCON (when it is already obsolete, 17mbytes/sec).

Later some POK engineers become involved in FCS and define a heavy-weight protocol (that drastically reduces the standard throughput), which eventually ships as FICON ... z196 2M IOPS needing 104 FICONS compared to two native FCS having over 2M IOPS. Other trivia: mainframe CKD DASD haven't been made for decades, being simulated on industry standard fixed-block disks ... aka, mainframe IOPS benchmarks not only the FICON overhead, but also CKD simulation overhead.

channel-extender posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#channel.extender
FICON posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#ficon
DASD, CKD, FBA, multi-track search posss
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#dasd

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Computer Server Market

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Computer Server Market
Date: 04 May 2022
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#5 Computer Server Market
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#6 Computer Server Market
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#7 Computer Server Market

CICS trivia: after taking 2 credit hr to intro computers/fortran, I was hired to rewrite 1401 MPIO for 360/30. The univ was sold 360/67 for tss/360 to replace 709/1401. They got 360/30 replacing 1401 (which could run 1401 emulation) pending the arrival of 360/67. Then within year of taking intro class, was hired fulltime responsible for the mainframe system (tss/360 never came to production fruition, so ran as 360/65 with os/360). Then library gets ONR grant to implement library catalog ... and use part of the money to get 2321 datacell. It was also selected as betatest for original CICS product and debugging CICS was added to my tasks. First "bug" was CICS had some undocumented, hardcoded BDAM options and library had created BDAM datasets with different options and CICS wouldn't start.

some from Yelavich pages (gone 404, but lives on at wayback machine):
https://web.archive.org/web/20050409124902/http://www.yelavich.com/cicshist.htm
https://web.archive.org/web/20071124013919/http://www.yelavich.com/history/toc.htm

Bob Yelavich also in mainframe hall of fame
https://www.enterprisesystemsmedia.com/mainframehalloffame
... I'm just above him.

CICS &/or BDAM posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#cics

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Alito's Plan to Repeal Roe--and Other 20th Century Civil Rights

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Alito's Plan to Repeal Roe--and Other 20th Century Civil Rights
Date: 04 May 2022
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#4 Alito's Plan to Repeal Roe--and Other 20th Century Civil Rights

some posts mentioning federalists
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#106 The Cult of Trump is actually comprised of MANY other Christian cults
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#72 In U.S., Far More Support Than Oppose Separation of Church and State
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#59 The Uproar Ovear the "Ultimate American Bible"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021f.html#98 No, the Vikings Did Not Discover America
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021f.html#46 Under God
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2020.html#4 Bots Are Destroying Political Discourse As We Know It
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#161 Fascists
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#158 Goliath
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#150 How Trump Lost an Evangelical Stalwart
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#127 The Barr Presidency
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#10 The 16919 Project
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#44 People are Happier in Social Democracies Because There's Less Capitalism
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018f.html#15 A Tea Party Movement to Overhaul the Constitution Is Quietly Gaining
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018f.html#9 A Tea Party Movement to Overhaul the Constitution Is Quietly Gaining
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017k.html#31 The U.S. was not founded as a Christian nation
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017i.html#40 Equality: The Impossible Quest
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#4 Separation church and state

inequality posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#inequality
capitalist posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#capitalism

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Computer Server Market

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Computer Server Market
Date: 04 May 2022
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#5 Computer Server Market
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#6 Computer Server Market
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#7 Computer Server Market
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#8 Computer Server Market

The univ. shutdown datacenter from sat 8am to mon 8am ... and for re-implementing 1401 MPIO on 360/30, they let me have the datacenter all to myself for 48hrs straight (although 48hrs w/o sleep could make monday morning classes difficult). They gave me a bunch of manuals and I got to design and implement my own monitor, device drivers, interrupt handlers. error recovery, dispatching, storage management, etc. Within a few weeks, I had 2000 card assembler program.

Note: student fortran jobs ran less then second on 709 ibsys tape->tape. Initially on os/360 (360/67 as 360/65) they ran over a minute. I installed HASP and that cut it in half. I then started doing highly optimized SYSGENs, tear stage2 apart & reorder to optimize datasets (for arm seek) and optimize PDS members (for arm seek and PDS directory multi-track search) that cut it by another 2/3rds to 12.9 seconds. Never got it to better than 709 until installation of UofWaterloo WATFOR (single step monitor).

Before I graduate, I'm hired fulltime into a small group in Boeing CFO's office to help with the formation of Boeing Computer Services ... consolidate all dataprocessing into an independent business unit to better monetize the investment ... including offering services to non-Boeing entities. I thot Renton datacenter was possibly largest in the world, couple hundred million in computers, 360/65s arriving faster than they could be installed, boxes constantly staged in the hallways around the machine room (must have been former aircraft assembly line). Lots of politics between renton datacenter manager and CFO ... who only had a 360/30 up at boeing field for payroll ... although they enlarged it to install a 360/67 for me to play with virtual machine cp67/cms (when I wasn't doing other stuff).

posts mentioning boeing computer services
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#72 IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#42 Why did Dennis Ritchie write that UNIX was a modern implementation of CTSS?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#8 Cloud Timesharing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#2 IBM 2250 Graphics Display
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#0 System Response
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#126 Google Cloud
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#117 Downfall: The Case Against Boeing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#73 IBM Disks
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#35 Dataprocessing Career
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#27 Dataprocessing Career
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#10 Seattle Dataprocessing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#120 Series/1 VTAM/NCP
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#109 Not counting dividends IBM delivered an annualized yearly loss of 2.27%
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#73 MVT storage management issues
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#48 Mainframe Career
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#30 CP67 and BPS Loader
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#22 IBM IBU (Independent Business Unit)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#12 Programming Skills
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#70 'Flying Blind' Review: Downward Trajectory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#55 System Availability
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#64 addressing and protection, was Paper about ISO C
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#63 IBM 360s
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#89 IBM Downturn
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#6 The Kill Chain: Defending America in the Future of High-Tech Warfare
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021h.html#64 WWII Pilot Barrel Rolls Boeing 707
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021h.html#46 Dynamic Adaptive Resource Management
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021h.html#35 IBM/PC 12Aug1981
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021g.html#39 iBM System/3 FORTRAN for engineering/science work?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021g.html#6 IBM 370
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021f.html#78 The Long-Forgotten Flight That Sent Boeing Off Course
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021f.html#57 "Hollywood model" for dealing with engineers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021f.html#20 1401 MPIO
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021f.html#16 IBM Zcloud - is it just outsourcing ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021e.html#80 Amdahl
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021e.html#55 SHARE (& GUIDE)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021e.html#54 Learning PDP-11 in 2021
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021d.html#51 IBM Hardest Problem(s)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021d.html#34 April 7, 1964: IBM Bets Big on System/360
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021d.html#25 Field Support and PSRs
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021c.html#2 Colours on screen (mainframe history question)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021b.html#62 Early Computer Use
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021b.html#40 IBM & Boeing run by Financiers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021b.html#5 Availability
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021.html#78 Interactive Computing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021.html#48 IBM Quota
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021.html#41 CADAM & Catia
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2020.html#45 Watch AI-controlled virtual fighters take on an Air Force pilot on August 18th
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2020.html#32 IBM TSS
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2020.html#29 Online Computer Conferencing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2020.html#10 "This Plane Was Designed By Clowns, Who Are Supervised By Monkeys"

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Computer Server Market

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Computer Server Market
Date: 04 May 2022
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#5 Computer Server Market
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#6 Computer Server Market
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#7 Computer Server Market
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#8 Computer Server Market
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#10 Computer Server Market

trivia: I had gotten involved with an effort to do a 16-processor 370 and we had con'ed the 3033 processor engineers to work on it in their spare time (a lot more interesting than remapping 168 logic to 20% faster chips). It was going great guns, everybody thought it was great, until somebody told the head of POK that it could be decades before the POK favorite son operating system (MVS) had (effective) 16-way support. Then the head of POK invited some of us to never visit POK again, and directed the 3033 processor engineers to stop being distracted. Once 3033 is out the door, the engineers start on trout/3090. Note IBM doesn't ship 16-way machine until z900 at turn of century (over 20yrs later).

I had transferred out to SJR in silicon valley ... and get to wander around IBM and non-IBM locations ... including bldg14 (disk engineering) and bldg15 (disk product test) across the street. Bldg14 was running 7x24, prescheduled stand-alone mainframe disk testing ... they mentioned they had recently tried MVS, but it had 15min mean-time-between-failure (requiring manual re-ipl) in that environment. I offer to rewrite I/O supervisor making it bullet proof and never fail so they can do any amount of on-demand concurrent testing, greatly improving productivity. I then write up research report and happen to mention the MVS 15min MTBF, bringing down the wrath of the MVS group on my head (even trying to have me separated from the company). I then start delivering "SJR/VM" (in place of CSC/VM), including the I/O rewrite. Later when 3380s were about to ship, FE had 57 simulated regression tests that they felt were likely to occur ... MVS was still failing in all 57 cases (requiring manual re-ipl) ... and in 2/3rds no indication of what caused the failure (given how they treated me, I didn't feel sorry).

bldg15 also gets 3rd or 4th 3033 engineering machine for doing disk channel testing ... which only takes a percent or two of the processor ... we scrounge up 3830 disk controller and a couple 3330 strings and put up our own online service ... and run 3270 coax under the street to 3270 switch box in my office. There was also somebody running air bearing simulation (for floating head design, initially used with 3370 FBA) on SJR MVT 370/195 ... but even with priority designation was only getting couple turn arounds a month. We get him setup on the bldg15 3033 and he gets multiple turn arounds a day (even tho 3033 is only about half the processing power of 195).

SMP, multiprocessor, tightly-coupled and/or compare&swap posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#smp
getting to play disk engineer posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#disk

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Computer Server Market

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Computer Server Market
Date: 04 May 2022
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#5 Computer Server Market
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#6 Computer Server Market
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#7 Computer Server Market
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#8 Computer Server Market
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#10 Computer Server Market
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#11 Computer Server Market

195 trivia: shortly after joining IBM ... the 195 group wanted me to help with 370/195 multithreading ... 64 instruction pipeline, out-of-order execution, but w/o speculative execution and/or branch prediction so conditional branches drained the pipeline. 195 was capable of 10mips, but most codes ran at half that (because of pipeline drain). Two simulated instruction streams (@5MIPS) would keep the system busy. However, once 370 virtual memory decision was made ... decided it wasn't worth trying to retrofit virtual memory to 370/195 (even doing it for 370/165 was difficult, little infighting where 165 asked for lots of the architecture be dropped ... or otherwise schedule would have to slip at least six months, they won and all the other machines with the full architecture and software using the full architecture had to be redone).

multithreading trivia: this has reference to killing acs/360 ... executives were afraid that it would advance state-of-the-art too fast and IBM would loose control of the market ... Amdahl leaves IBM afterwards. Towards bottom references the multithreading patent ... also at bottom ACS/360 features showing up more than 20yrs later with ES/9000.
https://people.cs.clemson.edu/~mark/acs_end.html

SMP, multiprocessor, tightly-coupled and/or compare&swap posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#smp

some recent posts mentioning acs/360
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#107 TCMs & IBM Mainframe
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#99 CDC6000
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#88 Computer BUNCH
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#51 IBM History
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#77 165/168/3033 & 370 virtual memory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#74 165/168/3033 & 370 virtual memory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#60 370/195
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#31 370/195

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Computer Server Market

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Computer Server Market
Date: 05 May 2022
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#5 Computer Server Market
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#6 Computer Server Market
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#7 Computer Server Market
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#8 Computer Server Market
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#10 Computer Server Market
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#11 Computer Server Market
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#12 Computer Server Market

1990, there was the "C4 taskforce" in the auto industry to look at significantly remaking themselves (finally; i.e, in the 70s, congress had put import quotas on foreign makers, supposedly to cut competition to give US industry enormous profits that would be used to completely remake themselves, but they just pocketed the money and continued business as usual). C4 taskforce was planning on heavily leveraging IT technology as part of the remake and invited major IT vendors to send representatives to participate; I was selected as one of the reps from IBM. The taskforce could accurately describe what the foreign makers were doing (well) and how US needed to change to compete. Offline, I would chide the reps from IBM POK mainframe, how did they figure on contributing, since they suffered from many of the same (auto industry) problems described by the taskforce.

C4 taskforce posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#auto.c4.taskforce

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Wall Street's Biggest Secret Could Be Exposed

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Wall Street's Biggest Secret Could Be Exposed
Date: 05 May 2022
Blog: Facebook
Wall Street's Biggest Secret Could Be Exposed
https://www.levernews.com/wall-streets-biggest-secret-could-be-exposed/

... note there were articles in the 90s about secret deals between wallstreet and congress for personal pension funds (like 401k) ... the claimed issue was large corporate pension funds was cutting wallstreet fees to the bone ... it was figured that wallstreet would have much better luck with personal pension funds.

A New York law to end to Wall Street's pension ripoff
https://pluralistic.net/2022/05/05/mego/

pension fund posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#pensions

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Russia's most advanced tank in service was obliterated by Ukraine just days after it was deployed, according to reports

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Russia's most advanced tank in service was obliterated by Ukraine just days after it was deployed, according to reports
Date: 06 May 2022
Blog: Facebook
Russia's most advanced tank in service was obliterated by Ukraine just days after it was deployed, according to reports
https://www.businessinsider.com/russias-most-advanced-tank-in-service-destroyed-after-days-reports-2022-5

Note, this claims A10s were so very effective killing tanks (mentions Iraqi crews felt their tanks were such "sitting duck" targets, that they were walking away), vehicles, targets with million 30mm shells, "Desert Storm, Evaluation of the Air Campaign".
http://www.gao.gov/products/NSIAD-97-134
Desert Storm, only the last 100hrs was "land" conflict/war.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gulf_War

Note, the stories about fierce tank battles with coalition forces taking no damage, don't mention if the Iraqi tanks had anybody home. Burton talked about getting the cost for the shells reduced from nearly $100 to $13 ($13M compared to the A10 5000 Maverick missiles @$144K, $72M). Burton also talked about proposing a mini-A10 ... with 5-barrel gun, simple enough to be forward deployed ... however, these days it would be a drone. Claims are that the Iraqis learned from Desert Storm to minimize/avoid being targets for US air power (learning to fight with things like IEDs).

Boyd is credited with the "left hook" strategy ... and all sorts of explanations why the Abram M1s weren't in position to cut off the retreating Republican Guard ... another possibility is Boyd didn't realize the disparity between the M1 rated speed and their effective speed (over distance) being so tightly tethered to supply & maintenance.
https://thestrategybridge.org/the-bridge/2015/12/14/historys-last-left-hook

In the meantime, Secretary of Defense Dick Cheney consulted one of his favorite military strategists, retired Air Force Colonel John Boyd. During the run up to Desert Storm, Cheney regularly met with Boyd, where Boyd developed "a version of the von Schlieffen plan" [5]. Boyd was intimately familiar with the Battle of Cannae, the Schlieffen plan, as well as the concept of strategic envelopment; he used his vast knowledge of history to inform his strategic advice to the DOD

... snip ...

Iraq2, from the law of unintended consequences, the invaders were told to bypass ammo dumps looking for WMDs, when they got around to going back, over a million metric tons had evaporated (showing up later in IEDs)
https://www.amazon.com/Prophets-War-Lockheed-Military-Industrial-ebook/dp/B0047T86BA/

this has the Abram M1s so vulnerable to IEDs (flat, relatively unprotected bottoms) that they took to running the routes before taking M1s out for a drive.
https://www.amazon.com/Battle-Baqubah-1SG-Robert-Colella/dp/1469791064/

Boyd posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subboyd.html
military-industrial(-congressional) complex posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#military.industrial.complex
perpetual war posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#perpetual.war

posts mentioning baqubah
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021g.html#8 Donald Rumsfeld, The Controversial Architect Of The Iraq War, Has Died
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018f.html#89 Is LINUX the inheritor of the Earth?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018f.html#82 Is LINUX the inheritor of the Earth?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018d.html#96 tablets and desktops was Has Microsoft
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018b.html#81 What the Gulf War Teaches About the Future of War
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018.html#12 Predicting the future in five years as seen from 1983
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017j.html#73 A-10
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017j.html#2 WW II cryptography
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017i.html#68 Ghost Riders of Baghdad: Soldiers, Civilians, and the Myth of the Surge
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017i.html#10 The General Who Lost 2 Wars, Leaked Classified Information to His Lover--and Retired With a $220,000 Pension
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017h.html#115 When It Comes to the War in the Greater Middle East, Maybe We're the Bad Guys
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017h.html#103 Iraq, Longest War
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017h.html#20 Military Contractors
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#42 Profitable Companies, No Taxes: Here's How They Did It
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#40 Stop Believing in the Many Myths of the Iraq Surge
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016g.html#86 "I used a real computer at home...and so will you" (Popular Science May 1967)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016f.html#102 Chain of Title: How Three Ordinary Americans Uncovered Wall Street's Great Foreclosure Fraud
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016f.html#81 The baby boomers' monumental quagmire in Iraq
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016e.html#11 "Computer & Automation" later issues--anti-establishment thrust
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016b.html#50 A National Infrastructure Program Is a Smart Idea We Won't Do Because We Are Dysfunctional
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016.html#88 The Pentagon's Pricey Culture of Mediocrity
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016.html#50 Thanks Obama
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015h.html#33 The wars in Vietnam, Iraq, and Afghanistan were lost before they began, not on the battlefields
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015g.html#78 New hard drive
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015f.html#43 No, the F-35 Can't Fight at Long Range, Either
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015d.html#76 Greedy Banks Nailed With $5 BILLION+ Fine For Fraud And Corruption
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015b.html#37 C.I.A. Is Said to Have Bought and Destroyed Iraqi Chemical Weapons
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015b.html#16 Keydriven bit permutations
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014m.html#48 LEO
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014h.html#36 The Designer Of The F-15 Explains Just How Stupid The F-35 Is
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014g.html#69 Revamped PDP-11 in Brooklyn
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014g.html#68 Revamped PDP-11 in Brooklyn
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014c.html#36 Royal Pardon For Turing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014b.html#38 Can America Win Wars
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014.html#79 Army Modernization Is Melting Down
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014.html#61 Royal Pardon For Turing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014.html#47 McCain: Send Petraeus back to Iraq
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014.html#42 Royal Pardon For Turing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014.html#13 Al-Qaeda-linked force captures Fallujah amid rise in violence in Iraq
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013n.html#10 Why the Death of the Tank Is Greatly Exaggerated
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013k.html#48 John Boyd's Art of War
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013h.html#10 The cloud is killing traditional hardware and software
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013g.html#60 What Makes collecting sales taxes Bizarre?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013g.html#52 What Makes collecting sales taxes Bizarre?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013e.html#79 As an IBM'er just like the Marines only a few good men and women make the cut,
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013e.html#5 Lessons Learned from the Iraq War
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013d.html#38 What Makes an Architecture Bizarre?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013d.html#30 A Matter of Mindset: Iraq
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013c.html#86 A Matter of Mindset: Iraq, Sequestration and the U.S. Army
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012m.html#49 Cultural attitudes towards failure
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012l.html#54 Singer Cartons of Punch Cards
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012i.html#64 Early use of the word "computer"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012i.html#8 Interesting News Article
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012i.html#2 Interesting News Article
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012h.html#21 The Age of Unsatisfying Wars

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

My Story: How I Was "Groomed" by My Elementary School Teachers

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: My Story: How I Was "Groomed" by My Elementary School Teachers
Date: 06 May 2022
Blog: Facebook
My Story: How I Was "Groomed" by My Elementary School Teachers. From encouraging me to read and write, to nudging me to think for myself, their pernicious influence burdens me to this day.
https://theintercept.com/2022/05/06/teacher-appreciation-school-grooming/

in contrast to:

We Have a Creativity Problem. Outwardly, we praise innovation. Inwardly, we harbor a visceral aversion to it, studies have found.
https://www.nytimes.com/2022/04/16/science/creativity-implicit-bias.html
AETC Focused on Breaking Away From Industrial-Age Thinking
https://www.airforcemag.com/AETC-Focused-on-Breaking-Away-From-Industrial-Age-Thinking/
Lessons in learning
https://news.harvard.edu/gazette/story/2019/09/study-shows-that-students-learn-more-when-taking-part-in-classrooms-that-employ-active-learning-strategies/
The modern education system was designed to teach future factory workers to be "punctual, docile, and sober"
https://qz.com/1314814/universal-education-was-first-promoted-by-industrialists-who-wanted-docile-factory-workers/
Industrial Age education, from late 1800s, early 1900s (time & motion studies, etc), teaching memorization, not thinking, strict conformity, stamping out factory workers for the capitalists and robber barons
https://www.azquotes.com/quote/1212588
How to Break Free of Our 19th-Century Factory-Model Education System. A technology and education entrepreneur gazes into the future of the classroom
https://www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2012/05/how-to-break-free-of-our-19th-century-factory-model-education-system/256881/
Why Our Industrial-Age Schools Are Failing Our Information-Age Kids
https://www.qualitydigest.com/inside/quality-insider-column/why-our-industrial-age-schools-are-failing-our-information-age-kids
The One Type of Game That Kills Creativity and Innovation. There are two types of games. One kills creativity and the other is for kids...
https://www.inc.com/stephen-shapiro/why-your-business-needs-more-kid-games-fewer-adult-games.html
Everyone is born creative, but it is educated out of us at school
https://www.theguardian.com/media-network/2016/may/18/born-creative-educated-out-of-us-school-business
US education system in general focused on stamping out creativity and enforcing conformity. Teachers Don't Like Creative Students
http://marginalrevolution.com/marginalrevolution/2011/12/teachers-dont-like-creative-students.html
IQ tests can't measure it, but 'cognitive flexibility' is key to learning and creativity
https://theconversation.com/iq-tests-cant-measure-it-but-cognitive-flexibility-is-key-to-learning-and-creativity-163284

... and

Bullying has been standard technique in US education as part of enforcing conformity ... former coworker at IBM cambridge science center and IBM san jose research;
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edson_Hendricks
"It's Cool to Be Clever: The Story of Edson C. Hendricks, the Genius Who Invented the Design for the Internet"
https://www.amazon.com/Its-Cool-Be-Clever-Hendricks/dp/1897435630/

permeates nearly all levels of US education system ... even extending to military academies ... reference to study of German and US military academies the first half of 1900s ... including reference to George Marshall (WW2 chief of staff) was so badly injured in a bullying/hazing incident that he almost had to drop out
https://www.amazon.com/Command-Culture-Education-1901-1940-Consequences-ebook/dp/B009K7VYLI/
again lots tracing to "industrial age education" ... Industrial Age Education Is a Disservice to Students
https://www.huffpost.com/entry/industrial-age-education-_b_2974297

some recent posts mentioning conformity:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#82 We Have a Creativity Problem
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#100 What Industrial Societies Get Wrong About Childhood
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021f.html#99 IQ tests can't measure it, but 'cognitive flexibility' is key to learning and creativity
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021c.html#78 Air Force opens first Montessori Officer Training School
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021c.html#47 MAINFRAME (4341) History
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021b.html#103 IBM Innovation
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021b.html#87 IBM Innovation
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021b.html#86 Dail-up banking and the Internet
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021b.html#54 In the 1970s, Email Was Special
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2020.html#0 The modern education system was designed to teach future factory workers to be "punctual, docile, and sober"

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Computer Server Market

Refed: **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Computer Server Market
Date: 06 May 2022
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#5 Computer Server Market
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#6 Computer Server Market
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#7 Computer Server Market
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#8 Computer Server Market
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#10 Computer Server Market
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#11 Computer Server Market
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#12 Computer Server Market
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#13 Computer Server Market

Some of the CTSS people
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Compatible_Time-Sharing_System
went to the 5th flr, project mac, and MULTICS.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multics

Others went to the 4th flr, IBM Cambridge Science Center, did virtual machine CP40/CMS (on 360/40 with hardware mods for virtual memory, morphs into CP67/C MS when 360/67 standard with virtual memory becomes available), online and performance apps, CTSS RUNOFF redid for CMS as SCRIPT, GML invented at science center in 1969 (and GML tag processing added to SCRIPT, a decade later GML morphs into ISO SGML and after another decade morphs into HTML at CERN), networking, etc.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CP/CMS
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conversational_Monitor_System

CSC thot they would have the official online, time-sharing mission ... but it (& 360/67) officially went to the TSS/360 group ... which never really came to production fruition ... at one point there was 1200 people involved in TSS/360 when CSC had 12 people doing CP67/CMS (included secretary). Melinda has a lot more about that history with some amount of the internal politics.
http://www.leeandmelindavarian.com/Melinda#VMHist

science center posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech
GML, SGML, HTML, etc posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#sgml

lot of posts mentioning Melinda .. before retired (maint@pucc) and after
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#111 The Rise of DOS: How Microsoft Got the IBM PC OS Contract
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#54 IBM History
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#22 IBM Cloud to offer Z-series mainframes for first time - albeit for test and dev
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#20 CP-67
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#105 IBM PLI
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#89 165/168/3033 & 370 virtual memory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#71 165/168/3033 & 370 virtual memory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#66 HSDT, EARN, BITNET, Internet
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#65 CMSBACK
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#51 VM/SP crashing all over the place
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#49 VM/SP crashing all over the place
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#77 IBM 370 and Future System
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#68 MTS, 360/67, FS, Internet, SNA
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#0 IBM Lost Opportunities
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#62 Virtual Machine Debugging
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021h.html#70 IBM Research, Adtech, Science Center
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#121 Virtualization
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019d.html#67 Facebook Knows More About You Than the CIA
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019d.html#59 IBM 360/67
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019d.html#3 A crashing disappointment!
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019c.html#86 IBM: Buying While Apathetaic
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019b.html#28 Science Center
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#45 DEC introduces PDP-6 [was Re: IBM introduces System/360]
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017j.html#71 A Computer That Never Was: the IBM 7095
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017h.html#44 VM/370 45th Birthday
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017f.html#50 MVS vs HASP vs JES (was 2821)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#87 The ICL 2900
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#22 History of Mainframe Cloud
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016b.html#112 You count as an old-timer if (was Re: Origin of the phrase "XYZZY")
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016b.html#30 Qbasic
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016.html#78 Mainframe Virtual Memory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016.html#15 Dilbert ... oh, you must work for IBM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015g.html#90 IBM Embraces Virtual Memory -- Finally
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015c.html#57 The Stack Depth
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015c.html#52 The Stack Depth
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015c.html#47 The Stack Depth
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015c.html#39 Virtual Memory Management
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015b.html#40 OS/360
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014l.html#20 Do we really need 64-bit addresses or is 48-bit enough?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014j.html#33 Univac 90 series info posted on bitsavers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014h.html#108 PDP-11 architecture, was There Is Still Hope
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014g.html#99 IBM architecture, was Fifty Years of nitpicking definitions, was BASIC,theProgrammingLanguageT
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014d.html#23 [OT ] Mainframe memories
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014.html#19 the suckage of MS-DOS, was Re: 'Free Unix!
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013l.html#18 A Brief History of Cloud Computing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013h.html#45 Storage paradigm [was: RE: Data volumes]
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013h.html#16 How about the old mainframe error messages that actually give you a clue about what's broken
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013h.html#9 IBM ad for Basic Operating System
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013f.html#73 The cloud is killing traditional hardware and software
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013e.html#61 32760?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013c.html#8 OT: CPL on LCM systems [was Re: COBOL will outlive us all]
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012j.html#21 A bit of IBM System 360 nostalgia
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012h.html#73 Interesting News Article
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012f.html#16 Word Length
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012e.html#48 Word Length
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#16 5 Byte Device Addresses?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012b.html#98 5 Byte Device Addresses?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#2 IBM manual formats
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011p.html#48 Hello?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011o.html#14 John R. Opel, RIP
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011k.html#39 50th anniversary of BASIC, COBOL?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011k.html#32 50th anniversary of BASIC, COBOL?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011i.html#63 Before the PC: IBM invents virtualisation (Cambridge skunkworks)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011h.html#69 IBM Mainframe (1980's) on You tube
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011g.html#8 Is the magic and romance killed by Windows (and Linux)?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011f.html#80 TSO Profile NUM and PACK
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011d.html#81 Multiple Virtual Memory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011b.html#39 1971PerformanceStudies - Typical OS/MFT 40/50/65s analysed
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011b.html#35 Colossal Cave Adventure in PL/I
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011b.html#18 Melinda Varian's history page move
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011b.html#13 Rare Apple I computer sells for $216,000 in London
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011b.html#4 Rare Apple I computer sells for $216,000 in London
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011.html#98 History of copy on write
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011.html#76 Speed of Old Hard Disks - adcons
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011.html#73 Speed of Old Hard Disks - adcons
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011.html#72 Speed of Old Hard Disks
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011.html#64 Two terrific writers .. are going to write a book
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011.html#44 CKD DASD
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010q.html#63 VMSHARE Archives
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010p.html#34 TCM's Moguls documentary series
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010l.html#18 Old EMAIL Index
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010l.html#2 TSS (Transaction Security System)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010j.html#76 What is the protocal for GMT offset in SMTP (e-mail) header
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010j.html#67 Article says mainframe most cost-efficient platform
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010j.html#51 Information on obscure text editors wanted
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010g.html#57 An Interview with Watts Humphrey, Part 6: The IBM 360
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010g.html#13 An Interview with Watts Humphrey, Part 6: The IBM 360
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010e.html#31 What was old is new again (water chilled)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010d.html#60 LPARs: More or Less?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010b.html#51 Source code for s/360
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009l.html#8 August 7, 1944: today is the 65th Anniversary of the Birth of the Computer
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009k.html#55 Hercules; more information requested
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009k.html#19 Timeline: The evolution of online communities
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009f.html#13 System/360 Announcement (7apr64)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009e.html#32 Gone but not forgotten: 10 operating systems the world left behind
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009e.html#14 Future System
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009c.html#41 Why do IBMers think disks are 'Direct Access'?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009c.html#35 Why do IBMers think disks are 'Direct Access'?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009b.html#67 IBM tried to kill VM?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009.html#28 the Z/10 and timers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009.html#8 Is SUN going to become x86'ed ??
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008s.html#71 Is SUN going to become x86'ed ??
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008s.html#48 New machine code
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008r.html#16 What if the computers went back to the '70s too?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008r.html#14 What if the computers went back to the '70s too?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008q.html#62 Virtualization: What is it exactly?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008q.html#52 TOPS-10
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008h.html#78 Microsoft versus Digital Equipment Corporation
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008d.html#15 more on (the new 40+ yr old) virtualization
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008.html#59 old internal network references
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007v.html#96 source for VAX programmers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007u.html#84 IBM Floating-point myths
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007u.html#79 IBM Floating-point myths
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007u.html#77 IBM Floating-point myths
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007u.html#23 T3 Sues IBM To Break its Mainframe Monopoly
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007u.html#18 Folklore references to CP67 at Lincoln Labs
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007t.html#54 new 40+ yr old, disruptive technology
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007s.html#50 Running REXX program in a batch job
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007s.html#29 Intel Ships Power-Efficient Penryn CPUs
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007r.html#64 CSA 'above the bar'
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007r.html#51 Translation of IBM Basic Assembler to C?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007o.html#41 Virtual Storage implementation
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007m.html#60 Scholars needed to build a computer history bibliography
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007l.html#55 Scholars needed to build a computer history bibliography
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007k.html#47 John W. Backus, 82, Fortran developer, dies
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007k.html#43 John W. Backus, 82, Fortran developer, dies
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007j.html#43 z/VM usability
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007i.html#14 when was MMU virtualization first considered practical?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007g.html#36 Wylbur and Paging
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007f.html#7 IBM S/360 series operating systems history
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007d.html#52 CMS (PC Operating Systems)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007d.html#48 IBM S/360 series operating systems history
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006w.html#42 vmshare
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006w.html#22 Are hypervisors the new foundation for system software?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006w.html#16 intersection between autolog command and cmsback (more history)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006t.html#49 The Future of CPUs: What's After Multi-Core?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006t.html#44 1960s railroad data processing on L&N
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006t.html#24 CMSBACK
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006t.html#23 threads versus task
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006t.html#20 Why these original FORTRAN quirks?; Now : Programming practices
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006s.html#18 IDC: Virtual machines taking over the world
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006q.html#45 Was FORTRAN buggy?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006m.html#54 DCSS
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006m.html#42 Why Didn't The Cent Sign or the Exclamation Mark Print?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006m.html#26 Mainframe Limericks
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006m.html#25 Mainframe Limericks
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006m.html#21 The very first text editor
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006k.html#41 PDP-1
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006k.html#32 PDP-1
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006k.html#30 PDP-1
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006k.html#29 PDP-1
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006k.html#27 PDP-1
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006k.html#9 Arpa address
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006i.html#30 virtual memory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006i.html#22 virtual memory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006h.html#55 History of first use of all-computerized typesetting?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006e.html#31 MCTS
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006e.html#25 About TLB in lower-level caches
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006e.html#12 About TLB in lower-level caches
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006e.html#7 About TLB in lower-level caches
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006e.html#6 About TLB in lower-level caches
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006c.html#18 Change in computers as a hobbiest
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005u.html#47 The rise of the virtual machines
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005s.html#21 MVCIN instruction
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005o.html#4 Robert Creasy, RIP
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005n.html#47 Anyone know whether VM/370 EDGAR is still available anywhere?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005n.html#45 Anyone know whether VM/370 EDGAR is still available anywhere?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005m.html#9 IBM's mini computers--lack thereof
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005k.html#49 Determining processor status without IPIs
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005k.html#44 Book on computer architecture for beginners
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005k.html#18 Question about Dungeon game on the PDP
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005k.html#8 virtual 360/67 support in cp67
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005k.html#5 IBM/Watson autobiography--thoughts on?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005j.html#41 TSO replacement?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005j.html#39 A second look at memory access alignment
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005j.html#25 IBM Plugs Big Iron to the College Crowd
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005i.html#30 Status of Software Reuse?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005e.html#57 System/360; Hardwired vs. Microcoded
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005.html#5 [Lit.] Buffer overruns
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004q.html#58 CAS and LL/SC (was Re: High Level Assembler for MVS & VM & VSE)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004p.html#16 Mainframe Virus ????
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004o.html#45 Integer types for 128-bit addressing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004n.html#4 RISCs too close to hardware?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004m.html#30 Shipwrecks
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004l.html#26 CTSS source online
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004k.html#51 Xah Lee's Unixism
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004k.html#49 Xah Lee's Unixism
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004d.html#33 someone looking to donate IBM magazines and stuff
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004d.html#9 IBM 360 memory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004c.html#61 IBM 360 memory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004c.html#11 40yrs, science center, feb. 1964
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004c.html#9 TSS/370 binary distribution now available
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003m.html#34 SR 15,15 was: IEFBR14 Problems
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003m.html#31 SR 15,15 was: IEFBR14 Problems
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003m.html#4 IBM Manuals from the 1940's and 1950's
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003l.html#41 Secure OS Thoughts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003l.html#30 Secure OS Thoughts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003k.html#48 Who said DAT?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003j.html#45 Hand cranking telephones
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003j.html#14 A Dark Day
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003g.html#58 40th Anniversary of IBM System/360
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003g.html#31 Lisp Machines
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003e.html#66 History of project maintenance tools -- what and when?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003b.html#2 Disk drives as commodities. Was Re: Yamhill
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003b.html#0 Disk drives as commodities. Was Re: Yamhill
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002q.html#47 myths about Multics
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002o.html#78 Newsgroup cliques?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002n.html#27 why does wait state exist?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002n.html#0 additional pictures of the 6180
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002k.html#20 Vnet : Unbelievable
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002h.html#29 Computers in Science Fiction
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002g.html#73 Coulda, Woulda, Shoudda moments?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002f.html#36 Blade architectures
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002e.html#48 flags, procedure calls, opinions
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002e.html#43 Hardest Mistake in Comp Arch to Fix
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002d.html#4 IBM Mainframe at home
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002c.html#44 cp/67 (coss-post warning)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002c.html#39 VAX, M68K complex instructions (was Re: Did Intel Bite Off More Than It Can Chew?)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002b.html#46 ... the need for a Museum of Computer Software
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002b.html#45 IBM 5100 [Was: First DESKTOP Unix Box?]
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002b.html#6 Microcode?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001n.html#67 Hercules etc. IBM not just missing a great opportunity...
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001m.html#47 TSS/360
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001m.html#44 Call for folklore - was Re: So it's cyclical.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001l.html#24 mainframe question
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001i.html#39 IBM OS Timeline?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001i.html#34 IBM OS Timeline?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001i.html#32 IBM OS Timeline?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001h.html#57 Whom Do Programmers Admire Now???
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001h.html#46 Whom Do Programmers Admire Now???
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001h.html#10 VM: checking some myths.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001h.html#9 VM: checking some myths.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001e.html#69 line length (was Re: Babble from "JD" <dyson@jdyson.com>)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001b.html#21 First OS?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000g.html#2 TSS ancient history, was X86 ultimate CISC? designs)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000f.html#78 TSS ancient history, was X86 ultimate CISC? designs)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000f.html#59 360 Architecture, Multics, ... was (Re: X86 ultimate CISC? No.)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000f.html#53 360 Architecture, Multics, ... was (Re: X86 ultimate CISC? No.)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000f.html#30 OT?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000d.html#47 Charging for time-share CPU time
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000b.html#61 VM (not VMS or Virtual Machine, the IBM sort)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000.html#89 Ux's good points.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000.html#82 Ux's good points.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000.html#81 Ux's good points.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000.html#52 Correct usage of "Image" ???
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000.html#43 Historically important UNIX or computer things.....
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000.html#1 Computer of the century
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#237 I can't believe this newsgroup still exists
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#177 S/360 history
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#142 OS/360 (and descendants) VM system?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#126 Dispute about Internet's origins
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/98.html#13 S/360 operating systems geneaology
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/98.html#10 OS with no distinction between RAM a

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Computer Server Market

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Computer Server Market
Date: 06 May 2022
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#5 Computer Server Market
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#6 Computer Server Market
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#7 Computer Server Market
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#8 Computer Server Market
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#10 Computer Server Market
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#11 Computer Server Market
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#12 Computer Server Market
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#13 Computer Server Market
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#17 Computer Server Market

A decade ago, I was asked to see if I could track down decision to make all 370s "virtual memory" ... basically it turned out that MVT storage management was so bad, that regions had to be defined four times larger than normally used ... a typical 1mbyte 370/165 would only have four regions ... not sufficient to really keep the machine busy and justified. Going to virtual memory would allow number of regions to be increased by four times with little or no paging. Old archive post with pieces of that email exchange.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011d.html#73

The decision then was to do VM370 and the resulting effort greatly simplified and/or dropped a lot of stuff from CP67/CMS ... including a lot of CP67/CMS rewrite I had done as undergraduate ... when I graduated, instead of staying at Boeing, I joined IBM at the science center ... and one of my hobbies was enhanced production operating systems for internal datacenters.

Then there was the rise of the "Future System" project (in large part motivated as countermeasure to clone controllers ... so complex that it would be nearly impossible to reverse engineer to make clone) ... which was completely different from 370 and was going to completely replace 370 ... also internal politics during FS was shutting down 370 efforts (and the lack of new 370 products during the period is credited with giving clone 370 system makers their market foothold). When FS finally implodes (too complex even for IBM), there was mad rush to get stuff back into 370 product pipeline, kicking off quick&dirty 3033&3081 in parallel. I continue to work on 360/370 stuff all during FS period ... even periodically ridiculing FS activities ... which wasn't exactly career enhancing activity. more on FS
http://www.jfsowa.com/computer/memo125.htm

future system posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#futuresys
clone controller posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#360pcm

370 virtual memory trivia: For 370 virtual memory there were special CP67 modifications that simulated 370 virtual machines ("CP67H", in addition to 360/67 virtual machines), then there was CP67 modifications, "CP67I" that would run on 370 virtual memory architecture (rather than 360/67 virtual memory). CP67I was in general use (in 370 virtual machines running on 360/67 real machines) a year before 370 virtual memory hardware was operations ... and was used to validate the early hardware implementations. CP67I was used in production on large percentage of early 370 virtual memory machines ... even after 370 virtual memory started shipping to customers. Then for various reason internal datacenters started shifting to the official "product" and the number of my internal customer started dropping off ,,, and it was time to start redoing a lot of VM370.

For CP67, had done an automated benchmarking system that could ran hundreds of benchmarks with different kinds of workload and stress testing, etc. ... which were the earliest things moved to VM370. However, VM370 would frequently crash during the benchmarks ... so the next set of changes were the CP67 integrity and kernel serialization which eliminated the VM370 zombie users cases and system crashes. Then it was time to start on the performance and function enhancements. Some old email about having enhanced production "CSC/VM" available for internal datacenters.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006w.html#email750102
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006w.html#email750430

science center posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech
dynamic adaptive scheduling posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#fairshare
paging & working set algorithm posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#wsclock

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology
Date: 07 May 2022
Blog: Facebook
COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology (IRS, NASA)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=npgvV_-Nh60

Note: killing acs/360 ... some claim executives were afraid that it would advance state-of-the-art too fast and IBM would loose control of the market ... Amdahl leaves IBM afterwards. Towards bottom references the hyper/multi-threading patent ... then at bottom ACS/360 features showing up more than 20yrs later with ES/9000. also some 1968 stats
https://people.cs.clemson.edu/~mark/acs_end.html

In his book, Data Processing Technology and Economics, Montgomery Phister, Jr., reports that as of 1968:

Of the 26,000 IBM computer systems in use, 16,000 were S/360 models (that is, over 60%). [Fig. 1.311.2]

Of the general-purpose systems having the largest fraction of total installed value, the IBM S/360 Model 30 was ranked first with 12% (rising to 17% in 1969). The S/360 Model 40 was ranked second with 11% (rising to almost 15% in 1970). [Figs. 2.10.4 and 2.10.5]

Of the number of operations per second in use, the IBM S/360 Model 65 ranked first with 23%. The Univac 1108 ranked second with slightly over 14%, and the CDC 6600 ranked third with 10%. [Figs. 2.10.6 and 2.10.7]


... snip ...

... other ACS
https://people.cs.clemson.edu/~mark/acs_legacy.html

trivia: I had taken 2 credit hour intro to fortran/computers ... at the end of semester got a student programming job to rewrite 1401 MPIO for 360/30. The univ had been sold 360/67 for TSS/360 to replace 709/1401 (709 tape->tape w/1401 front end doing tape<->unit record).

Pending delivery of 360/67, the 1401 was temporarily replaced by 360/30 (that had 1401 simulation mode). Univ. shutdown datacenter from sat8am until mon 8am and I would have the whole place to myself (although 48hrs w/o sleep could have trouble with Mon. morning classes). They gave me a bunch of manuals and I got to design and implement my own monitor, device drivers, interrupt handlers, error recovery, storage management, etc. and within a few weeks had 2000 card assembler program.

Within a year of taking intro class, I was hired fulltime responsible for OS/360 (TSS/360 never came to production fruition and 360/67 was used as 360/65 w/OS360). Then before I graduate I was hired fulltime into a small group in the Boeing CFO office to help with the formation of Boeing Computer Services (consolidate all dataprocessing into an independent business unit, including offering services to non-Boeing entities). I thot Renton datacenter was possibly largest in the world, 360/65s were arriving faster than they could be installed, boxes constantly staged in hallways around machine room. Lots of politics between Renton datacenter director and CFO ... who just had a 360/30 up at Boeing field for payroll ... although they enlarged the room to install 360/67 for me to play with CP67/CMS ... when I wasn't busy with other stuff.

science center posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech

some recent posts mentioning end of ACS/360:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#12 Computer Server Market
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#107 TCMs & IBM Mainframe
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#99 CDC6000
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#88 Computer BUNCH
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#51 IBM History
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#77 165/168/3033 & 370 virtual memory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#74 165/168/3033 & 370 virtual memory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#60 370/195
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#31 370/195
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#119 70s & 80s mainframes
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#116 Building the System/360 Mainframe Nearly Destroyed IBM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#105 IBM Future System
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#46 Transaction Memory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#113 IBM Downturn
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#93 IBM 3278
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#76 IBM 370 and Future System
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#70 IBM Wild Ducks
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#68 MTS, 360/67, FS, Internet, SNA
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#66 IBM ACP/TPF
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#3 IBM Lost Opportunities
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#79 IBM Downturn
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#77 IBM ACP/TPF
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#75 IBM ITPS
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021h.html#51 OoO S/360 descendants
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021g.html#51 Intel rumored to be in talks to buy chip manufacturer GlobalFoundries for $30B
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021g.html#5 IBM's 18-month company-wide email system migration has been a disaster, sources say
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021e.html#67 Amdahl
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021e.html#66 Amdahl
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021d.html#35 April 7, 1964: IBM Bets Big on System/360
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021d.html#33 April 7, 1964: IBM Bets Big on System/360
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021d.html#28 IBM 370/195
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021d.html#9 IBM 360/85
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021b.html#23 IBM Recruiting
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021.html#57 ES/9000 as POK was being scaled way back
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021.html#39 IBM Tech

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology
Date: 07 May 2022
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#19 COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology

Note that student fortran jobs ran less than second on 709 (tape->tape). Initially on OS/360 (360/67 as 360/65), they ran over a minute. One of my 1st tasks responsible for os/360 was installing HASP ... which cut time in half. Then I started doing highly customized OS/360 sysgens ... I would take the STAGE2 deck apart and reorganize the statements of careful placement of datasets and members within PDS datasets to optimize arm seek and (PDS directory multi-trask search lookup). The cut another 2/3rds to 12.9secs/job ... never got less than 709 until installing UofWaterloo WATFOR. Issue was OS/360 services were extremely disk intensive ... like each file open/close involved the loading of a long sequence of 2kbyte SVCLIB members.

This shows up with later decision to add "virtual memory" to all 370s. A decade ago I was asked if I could track down that decision. It turns out that OS/360 MVT storage management was so horrible that (application program) "regions" had to be specified four times larger than normally used ... as a result a typical 1mbyte, 370/165 could only have four regions (because of intensive disk activity, not sufficient concurrently executing regions overlapping with enormous disk access latency, to keep 165 busy and justifying the machine). Going to virtual memory would allow increasing number of regions by a factor of four times with little or no resulting paging (increasing 370/165 busy, throughput and justifying machine). Pieces of the email exchange in this old archived post
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011d.html#73

Later 370/168 memory increased to 4mbytes that is nearly five times faster (reducing cache miss, memory access latency). Note that the 16x machines were horizontal microcode ... that allowed some overlap in processing. The 370/165 microcode completing a 370 instruction on the avg. of one per 2.1 machine cycles. That microcode was improved for 370/168 and it was completing a 370 instruction on avg of one every 1.6 machine cycles.

While all this was going on in the early 70s, IBM was doing the Future System project, completely different than 370 and was going to completely replace all 370s (major motivation was countermeasure to clone controllers and so complex that would be very difficult to reverse engineer and clone), and internal politics was shutting down 370 efforts ... the lack of new 370 products during this period is credited with giving the clone 370 processor makers (like Amdahl) their market foothold. Turns out it was so complex that even IBM couldn't do it ... and when FS "imploded" there was mad rush to get stuff back into the 370 product pipelines ... kicking off the quick&dirty 3033&3081 efforts in parallel. some more information
http://www.jfsowa.com/computer/memo125.htm

3033 started out mapping 168 logic to 20% faster chips ... they also were able to further optimize the horizontal microcode so that 370 instruction was completing on the avg of one every machine cycle.

future system posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#futuresys
360/370 microcode posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#mcode

recent posts mentioning MVT storage management
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#72 IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#50 IBM 3033 Personal Computing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#2 IBM 2250 Graphics Display
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#92 Computer BUNCH
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#76 Link FEC and Encryption
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#73 MVT storage management issues
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#70 165/168/3033 & 370 virtual memory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#31 370/195
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#10 360/65, 360/67, 360/75
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#106 IBM Future System
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#77 IBM 370 and Future System
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#23 fast sort/merge, OoO S/360 descendants
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021h.html#70 IBM Research, Adtech, Science Center
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021h.html#48 Dynamic Adaptive Resource Management
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021g.html#39 iBM System/3 FORTRAN for engineering/science work?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021g.html#25 Execute and IBM history, not Sequencer vs microcode
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021g.html#6 IBM 370
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021e.html#32 Univac 90/30 DIAG instruction
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021d.html#39 IBM 370/155
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021c.html#2 Colours on screen (mainframe history question)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021b.html#63 Early Computer Use

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology
Date: 07 May 2022
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#19 COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#20 COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology

trivia: science center came out to install CP67/CMS at the univ (3rd after CSC itself and MIT Lincoln Labs) ... and I could play with it on the weekends. I rewrite lots of the code pathlengths, new algorithms, disk ordered seek queuing, drum page request chaining (multiple transfers per revolution, improved 2301 from 80/sec to 270/sec), etc. Initially installed it had 1052 & 2741 support with automagic terminal identification and switching terminal controller port scanner type. Univ. had some TTY ASCII terminals and I added ASCII terminal support (extending automagic terminal id and switching port scanning type ... trivia, when ascii port scanner for terminal controller arrived for install, it came in RadioShack box). I then wanted to have a single dialup number for all terminal
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Line_hunting

didn't quite work since while could switch port scanner type ... they took short cut and hardwired line speed. This was major Univ motivation to start clone controller effort ... build a channel interface board for Interdata/3 programmed to emulate 360 terminal controller ... with the addition of being able to do dynamic line speed. Later it is expanded to Interdata/4 for the channel interface and cluster of Interdata/3s for port scanner. Interdata (and later Perkin Elmer)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interdata
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perkin-Elmer

start selling it as a clone controller and four of us get written up as responsible for (some portion of) clone controller business.

IBM's FS effort then is supposedly countermeasure for the clone controller business ... but then is responsible for (lack of new IBM 370 products) for clone 370 systems gaining market foothold.

After joining IBM ... one of my hobbies is enhanced production operating system for internal datacenters ... but also allowed to attend user group meetings and visiting customers. The director of one of the largest financial datacenters liked me to come by and talk technology. At some point the IBM branch manager horribly offends the customer ... and retaliation they order an Amdahl system ... lonely Amdahl in large sea of IBM systems (up until then Amdahl had been selling into technical/scientific and univ. market, but had yet to break into the true blue commercial IBM market ... and this would be the 1st). I was then asked to go spend a year on-site at the customer (to help obfuscate reason for ordering the Amdahl). I talk it over with the customer and then declined the offer. I was then told the branch manager is good sailing buddy of IBM CEO ... and if I don't do this, I can forget having a career, promotions, raises, etc.

science center posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech
360 plug-compatible controller posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#360pcm
future system posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#futuresys

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology
Date: 07 May 2022
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#19 COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#20 COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#21 COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology

After graduating, leaving Boeing and joining IBM science center ... the IBM 370/195 group cons me into helping them hyper/multithreading the machine (see patent in the end of acs/360 url/reference) ... 370/195 had 64 instruction pipeline, out-of-order execution ... but conditional branches drained the pipeline ... so many codes ran at only half the 10MIPS throughput. Two instruction streams at 5MIPs each would keep the execution units busy. However, with the decision to make all 370s virtual memory ... it was determined it wasn't worth the effort to try and retrofit virtual memory to 195 ... and all further 195 work was stopped.

In the mid-70s, I started pontificating about the increasing mismatch between processor speed and disk access latency. In the early 80s, I was writing that the disk relative system throughput had declined by an order of magnitude since the s/360s were announced ... i.e. systems got 40-50 times faster but disks only got 3-5 times faster. A disk division executive took exception and assigned the dividion performance group to refute the claim. After a few weeks, they came back and said I had slightly understated the issue. The analysis was then respun and turned into presentation at user group meetings on how to configure disks to improve system throughput (16Aug1984, SHARE 63, B874).

Roll forward to the current century and there are claims that memory is the new disk ... current memory latency when measured in count of current processor cycles is comparable to 60s disk access latency when measured in count of 60s processor cycles. As a result, concurrent execution, multithreading, out-of-order execution, branch prediction, speculative execution, etc ... are comparable to 60s concurrent MVT regions and multitasking for system throughput.

science center posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech
getting to play disk engineer posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#disk
SMP, multiprocessor, tightly-coupled and/or compare&swap posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#smp

some posts mentioning b874 presentation
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#77 Channel I/O
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#92 Processor, DASD, VTAM & TCP/IP performance
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#70 165/168/3033 & 370 virtual memory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#131 Multitrack Search Performance
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#108 IBM Disks
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#105 IBM CKD DASD and multi-track search
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#78 IBM 370 and Future System
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#23 fast sort/merge, OoO S/360 descendants
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021g.html#44 iBM System/3 FORTRAN for engineering/science work?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021f.html#53 3380 disk capacity
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021e.html#33 Univac 90/30 DIAG instruction
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021.html#79 IBM Disk Division
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021.html#59 San Jose bldg 50 and 3380 manufacturing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021.html#17 Performance History, 5-10Oct1986, SEAS

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology
Date: 07 May 2022
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#19 COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#20 COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#21 COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#22 COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology

nope, didn't spend a year onsite at customer datacenter ... and it wasn't the first time I would be told I didn't have a career, promotions or raises. In the late 70s and early 80s I would be blamed for online computer conferencing on the internal network (larger than arpanet/internet from just about beginning until sometime mid/late 80s). It really took off spring of 1981 when I distributed trip report of visit to Jim Gray at Tandem ... only about 300 active, but claims upwards of 25,000 reading ... we printed six copies, approx. 300 pages from conferencing along with executive summary and summary of summary packaged in six tandem 3-ring binders and mailed to the executive committee (claim was 5of6 wanted to fire me); from summary of the summary:

• The perception of many technical people in IBM is that the company is rapidly heading for disaster. Furthermore, people fear that this movement will not be appreciated until it begins more directly to affect revenue, at which point recovery may be impossible

• Many technical people are extremely frustrated with their management and with the way things are going in IBM. To an increasing extent, people are reacting to this by leaving IBM Most of the contributors to the present discussion would prefer to stay with IBM and see the problems rectified. However, there is increasing skepticism that correction is possible or likely, given the apparent lack of commitment by management to take action

• There is a widespread perception that IBM management has failed to understand how to manage technical people and high-technology development in an extremely competitive environment.

... took another decade (1981-1992) ... one of the largest losses in US corporate history and was being reorged into the 13 "baby blues" in preparation for breaking up the company.
http://web.archive.org/web/20101120231857/http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,977353,00.html
may also work
http://content.time.com/time/subscriber/article/0,33009,977353-1,00.html

by that time, had already left IBM ... do get a call from the bowels of Armonk asking if could help with breakup of the company. Lots of business units were using supplier contracts in other units via MOUs. After the breakup, all of these contracts would be in different companies ... all of those MOUs would have to be cataloged and turned into their own contracts (however, before getting started, the board brings in a new CEO and reverses the breakup).

trivia: in my executive exit interview I was told they could have forgiven me for being wrong, but they were never going to forgive me for being right.

online computer conferencing posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#cmc
internal network posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#internalnet

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology
Date: 08 May 2022
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#19 COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#20 COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#21 COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#22 COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#23 COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology

doesn't mention 360s were suppose to be ascii machines ... other 360 history ... the biggest computer goof ever ... by IBMer responsible for ASCII (gone 404, but lives on at wayback machine)
https://web.archive.org/web/20180513184025/http://www.bobbemer.com/P-BIT.HTM

The culprit was T. Vincent Learson. The only thing for his defense is that he had no idea of what he had done. It was when he was an IBM Vice President, prior to tenure as Chairman of the Board, those lofty positions where you believe that, if you order it done, it actually will be done. I've mentioned this fiasco elsewhere.

... snip ...

... aka the ascii unit record gear wouldn't be ready for the 360 announcement ... so they adapted the BCD gear (supposedly just temporarily). More ASCII history
https://web.archive.org/web/20180402200104/http://www.bobbemer.com/ASCII.HTM
https://web.archive.org/web/20180402195951/http://www.bobbemer.com/BACSLASH.HTM
https://web.archive.org/web/20180402194530/http://www.bobbemer.com/FATHEROF.HTM
https://web.archive.org/web/20180402200149/http://www.bobbemer.com/HISTORY.HTM
8-bit standard
https://web.archive.org/web/20180402195956/http://www.bobbemer.com/BYTE.HTM

Bemer refs:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bob_Bemer
https://history.computer.org/pioneers/bemer.html

Bemer is the inventor of the words "Cobol," and "CODASYL," six ASCII characters, and the concepts of registry and escape sequences in character codes. He also invented the term and defined the nature of the "software factory." At IBM he developed the first load-and-go system (PRINT I) and also was responsible for the implementation of the programming system FORTRANSIT, which provided a quick first compiler for the IBM 650 computer, and was the first programming language to run both decimal (IBM 650) and binary (IBM 704) computers. For the support of commercial programming Bemer developed PRINT I; in the late 1950s he developed XTRAN, a step towards Algol, and "Commercial Translator," which became a significant input to Cobol. His major Cobol innovations were the IDENTIFICATION and ENVIRONMENT divisions, and the PICTURE clause.

... snip ...

other recent refs:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#116 What's different, was Why did Dennis Ritchie write that UNIX was a modern implementation of CTSS?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#56 ASCI White
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#51 Why did Dennis Ritchie write that UNIX was a modern implementation of CTSS?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#91 Computer BUNCH
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#58 Interdata Computers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#13 360 Performance
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#126 On the origin of the /text section/ for code

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology
Date: 09 May 2022
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#19 COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#20 COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#21 COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#22 COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#23 COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#24 COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology

more "Tandem Memos" from IBM JARGON:
https://comlay.net/ibmjarg.pdf

Tandem Memos - n. Something constructive but hard to control; a fresh of breath air (sic). That's another Tandem Memos. A phrase to worry middle management. It refers to the computer-based conference (widely distributed in 1981) in which many technical personnel expressed dissatisfaction with the tools available to them at that time, and also constructively criticized the way products were [are] developed. The memos are required reading for anyone with a serious interest in quality products. If you have not seen the memos, try reading the November 1981 Datamation summary.

... snip ...

Note Jim had left san jose research for Tandem fall of 1980, palming some number of things on me. Jim celebration (after he disappears)
http://web.archive.org/web/20080616153833/http://www.eecs.berkeley.edu/IPRO/JimGrayTribute/pressrelease.html

"Gray is known for his groundbreaking work as a programmer, database expert and Microsoft engineer. Gray's work helped make possible such technologies as the cash machine, ecommerce, online ticketing, and deep databases like Google. In 1998, he received the ACM A.M. Turing Award, the most prestigious honor in computer science. He was appointed an IEEE Fellow in 1982, and also received IEEE Charles Babbage Award"

... snip ...

podcast of the tribute:
http://web.archive.org/web/20080604010939/http://webcast.berkeley.edu/event_details.php?webcastid=23082
http://web.archive.org/web/20080604072804/http://webcast.berkeley.edu/event_details.php?webcastid=23083
http://web.archive.org/web/20080604072809/http://webcast.berkeley.edu/event_details.php?webcastid=23087
http://web.archive.org/web/20080604072815/http://webcast.berkeley.edu/event_details.php?webcastid=23088

online computer conferencing posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#cmc

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

How Private Equity Looted America

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: How Private Equity Looted America
Date: 09 May 2022
Blog: Facebook
How Private Equity Looted America. Inside the industry that has ransacked the US economy--and upended the lives of working people everywhere.
https://www.motherjones.com/politics/2022/05/private-equity-apollo-blackstone-kkr-carlyle-carried-interest-loophole/

Over the past four decades, private equity has become a powerful, and malignant, force in our daily lives. In our May/June 2022 issue, Mother Jones investigates the vulture capitalists chewing up and spitting out American businesses, the politicians enabling them, and the everyday people fighting back.

... snip ...

The Smash-and-Grab Economy. Private equity billionaires are looting the country, leaving everyday Americans to clean up the mess--and fight for the scraps.
https://www.motherjones.com/politics/2022/05/private-equity-buyout-kkr-houdaille/
Real Estate Predators Tried to Cash In on the Pandemic. Then Tenants Fought Back. "I feel sometimes that we're up against this faceless money monster."
https://www.motherjones.com/politics/2022/05/private-equity-brooklyn-park-slope-greenbrook-nw1-mcnam-schumer/
Everything Everywhere All at Once: How Private Equity Rules Your World. From your favorite burger joint to your local dentist, PE titans are invested in almost everything you do.
https://www.motherjones.com/politics/2022/05/private-equity-city-pensions-burger-king-roark-liverpool-yale/
Biden and Trump Both Trashed Private Equity's Favorite Tax Dodge. Surprise! It's Still Here. A brief and enraging history of the unkillable carried-interest loophole.
https://www.motherjones.com/politics/2022/05/carried-interest-loophole-biden-trump-private-equity-tax-break/
These Are Congress' Biggest Private Equity Investors. Featuring some of DC's wealthiest politicians.
https://www.motherjones.com/politics/2022/05/congress-private-equity-scott-warner-delbene-blumenthal-romney/
The Fight to Keep Their "Poor People's Paradise" out of Private Equity's Hands. Private equity buys up mobile home parks across the country and raises rent. Sans Souci residents banded together to try something different.
https://www.motherjones.com/politics/2022/05/private-equity-sans-souci-colorado-mobile-homes/
I Work at a Furniture Store That Went to Hell Once Bain Capital Bought It. "You're just a number and totally replaceable--just used and tortured in a weird way."
https://www.motherjones.com/politics/2022/05/bain-capital-mitt-romney-bobs-discount-furniture-private-equity/
It Was Hard Enough to Get Treatment for Eating Disorders. Then Private Equity Took Over. About half of the people with eating disorders having public
https://www.motherjones.com/politics/2022/05/eating-disorder-treatment-centers-private-equity-aca/
Elizabeth Warren's Long, Thankless Fight Against Our Private Equity Overlords. She sponsored a bill to fight what she calls "legalized looting." Too bad her colleagues don't seem all that interested.
https://www.motherjones.com/politics/2022/05/elizabeth-warren-private-equity-stop-wall-street-looting/

private equity posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#private.equity
capitalism posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#capitalism
economic mess posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#economic.mess

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology
Date: 10 May 2022
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#19 COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#20 COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#21 COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#22 COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#23 COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#24 COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#25 COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology

I was 24+hrs into 48hr session and the 360/67 stopped and rang bell. I tried everything I could think of ... finally banged the 1052-7 operator's console with my fist and the last bit of fan-fold paper fell out. The end of paper and gone past the paper finger sensor ... indicating unit check, intervention required ... but there was sufficient friction for it not to drop off ... so it looked like it still had paper.

Later working for IBM at the science center ... found that the CE had spare 1052-7s ... because some at the center were in the habit of slamming the console with their fist and breaking the machine. CP67 was first to have designated 2741s as alternate consoles. Then as part of 7x24 operation and dark room, system could automatic ipl and come up operational with no human present.

science center posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech

some past 1052-7 hanging os/360 posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#5 360 IPL
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010n.html#43 Paper tape
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006f.html#23 Old PCs--environmental hazard
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005c.html#12 The mid-seventies SHARE survey
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001.html#3 First video terminal?

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Remote Work

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Remote Work
Date: 10 May 2022
Blog: Facebook
I had home 2741 from Mar1970 until July1977 when it was replaced with CDI miniterm (looked a lot like 700) @300baud, then 1979 replaces with IBM 3101 glass teletype & 1200baud. There was enhanced 3101 ROM that had psuedo "block mode" (not quite 3270) and modified PVM that would simulate 3270 to mainframe.

Then got personal PC ... and internal encrypting 2400baud modem card ... and PCTERM (and PVM on host) ... not just compression ... but kept synchronized cache ... transmission could index references in caches.

... from "real programmers" ...

Real Programmers never work 9 to 5. If any real programmers are around at 9am, it's because they were up all night.

... aka much more productive working w/o interruptions.

pcterm posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021h.html#33 IBM/PC 12Aug1981
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016b.html#101 You count as an old-timer if (was Re: Origin of the phrase "XYZZY")
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014j.html#60 No Internet. No Microsoft Windows. No iPods. This Is What Tech Was Like In 1984
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014j.html#25 another question about TSO edit command
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014i.html#11 The Tragedy of Rapid Evolution?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014h.html#71 The Tragedy of Rapid Evolution?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014e.html#49 Before the Internet: The golden age of online service
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#20 Writing article on telework/telecommuting
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011d.html#6 If IBM Hadn't Bet the Company
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008n.html#51 Baudot code direct to computers?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007t.html#74 What do YOU call the # sign?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007o.html#66 The use of "script" for program
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006y.html#0 Why so little parallelism?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003p.html#44 Mainframe Emulation Solutions
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003n.html#7 3270 terminal keyboard??

"real programmers" posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021d.html#49 Real Programmers and interruptions
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#6 Fwd: It's Official: Open-Plan Offices Are Now the Dumbest Management Fad of All Time | Inc.com
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018b.html#56 Computer science hot major in college (article)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017i.html#53 When Working From Home Doesn't Work
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017h.html#27 OFF TOPIC: University of California, Irvine, revokes 500 admissions
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016f.html#19 And it's gone --The true cost of interruptions
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016d.html#72 Five Outdated Leadership Ideas That Need To Die
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014.html#24 Scary Sysprogs and educating those 'kids'
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014.html#23 Scary Sysprogs and educating those 'kids'
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013m.html#16 Work long hours (Was Re: Pissing contest(s))
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002e.html#39 Why Use *-* ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001e.html#31 High Level Language Systems was Re: computer books/authors (Re: FA:

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Network Congestion

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Network Congestion
Date: 10 May 2022
Blog: Facebook
Interop 88 at santa clara ... weekend packet floods were bringing down floor nets & led to requirement in RFC1122 that machines must default to "ip-forwarding off", I had PC/RT in non-IBM booth at immediate right angles to SUN booth where Case was doing SNMP and got him to come over and install on the PC/RT.

88 ACM SIGCOMM had analysis on why window based congestion control was non-stable in bursty, multi-hop internet environment (returning ACKs frequently bunched up and then all arrived in burst, opening transmission for multiple back-to-back packets). Van Jacobson presented slow-start at 88 IETF.

co-worker at the cambridge science center was responsible for the internal network (larger than arpanet/internet from just about the beginning until sometime mid/late 80s). At the 1jan1983 migration to internetworking protocol, there were approx. 100 IMP network nodes and 255 hosts ... at the same time the internal network was rapidly approaxing 1000. Old archive posts with list of worldwide corporate locations that added one or more nodes during 1983:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006k.html#8

in 1977, we had transferred out to san jose research. old SJMN interview about IBM stonewalling internet (gone behind paywall, but lives free at wayback machine)
http://web.archive.org/web/20000124004147/http://www1.sjmercury.com/svtech/columns/gillmor/docs/dg092499.htm
Also from wayback machine, some additional references from Ed's website (Ed passes aug2020)
http://web.archive.org/web/20000115185349/http://www.edh.net/bungle.htm

I started HSDT project in early 80s (T1 and faster computer links, both terrestrial and satellite), was also working with NSF director and was supposed to get $20M to interconnect the NSF supercomputer centers. Then congress cuts the budget, some other things happen, and finally an RFP is release. Preliminary announce (Mar1986)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002k.html#12

The OASC has initiated three programs: The Supercomputer Centers Program to provide Supercomputer cycles; the New Technologies Program to foster new supercomputer software and hardware developments; and the Networking Program to build a National Supercomputer Access Network - NSFnet.

... snip ...

... internal IBM politics prevent us from bidding on the RFP. the NSF director tries to help by writing the company a letter (with support from other agencies), but that just makes the internal politics worse (as did claims that what we already had running was at least 5yrs ahead of the winning bid), as regional networks connect in, it becomes the NSFNET backbone, precursor to modern internet
https://www.technologyreview.com/s/401444/grid-computing/

A very early HSDT T1 link was between the IBM Los Gatos lab and Clementi's
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enrico_Clementi
E&S lab in Kingston ... T1 channel on T3 Collins digital radio from LSG to roof of bldg 12 on main plant sie, bldg 12 to the San Jose T3 C-band satellite earth station to Kingston, from Kingston T3 earth station to Clementi's lab, which eventually had a whole boatload of Floating Point Systems boxes.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Floating_Point_Systems
In part because of satellite round trip latency ... from nearly the first, did dynamic adaptive rate-based pacing as part of congestion control. In the 2nd half of the 80s, was on the XTP (Greg Chesson at SGI) technical advisory board and wrote rate-based into the XTP specification.

one of the harder HSDT problems was all internal corporate links had to be encrypted (also lots of gov. politics, especially when links cross national boundaries) ... I really hated what I had to pay for T1 link encryptors and faster encryptors were very hard to find. I got involved in doing link encryptors that could handle at least 3mbyte/sec (not mbits) and cost less than $100 to build. At first corporate crypto group claimed it couldn't be used because it seriously weakened crypto standard. Took me 3months to figure out how to explain to them what was going on ... it was hollow victory ... they then said there was only one organization in the world that could use such crypto ... I could make as many as I wanted, but they all had to be delivered to that organization. It was when I realized that there were three kinds of crypto in the world, 1) the kind they don't care about, 2) the kind you can't do, and 3) the kind you can only do for them.

science center posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech
internal nework posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#internalnet
HSDT posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#hsdt
NSFNET posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#nsfnet
internet posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#internet
interop 88 posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#interop88
xtp posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#xtphsp

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology
Date: 11 May 2022
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#19 COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#20 COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#21 COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#22 COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#23 COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#24 COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#25 COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#27 COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology

agency trivia at 7:11 has two 360/65, two 360/67.

three people came out to install CP67 (3rd after CSC & MIT Lincoln Labs), never replaced OS/360 ... but I got to play with it a lot on my 48hr weekend time. Initially I rewrote a lot of the pathlengths trying to improve OS/360 in virtual machine. Part of SHARE presentation detailing some of the CP67 (also references some of the OS/360 work)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/94.html#18
OS/360 run on bare machine 322sec, originally under CP67 856sec (534sec CP67 cpu overhead). A few months playing with CP67 and rewriting code, OS/360 under CP67 435 secs ... CP67 CPU overhead 113secs ... CP67 processing reduced from 534secs to 113secs.

Local IBM would also suggest changes I might work on, in retrospect some of the suggestions may have originated from gov. agencies ... although I didn't know about it until after graduating and joining IBM. Other work during the period was making multiple CMS running faster, new scheduling and paging algorithms, disk ordered seek queuing to improve disk throughput, page I/O request chaining (from single requests FIFO to chained requests optimized for transfers per revolution, improved 2301 fixed head drum page transfer throughput from 80/sec to around 270/sec under heavy load), etc.

After I graduate and join science center, told about gov. agencies ... in part because they want me to come down and teach (computer & security) classes. One extended class (full large class room in the basement), middle of the afternoon, half the class quietly gets up and walks out. I look quizzically and guy in front row says I can look at it one of two ways, 1) half the class got up to go hear the VP talk in the auditorium or 2) half the class stayed to listen to me (offline he also bragged that they knew where I was every day of my life back to birth, even challenged me to name any date ... strange since I never work for the gov. or had clearance ... I guess they justified because they ran so much of my code ... and it was before the Church Commission). Recently I was reading some books about Lansdale and for some reason there was reference to the VP going across the river to give a talk in the agency auditorium.

other trivia (gone 404, but lives on at wayback machine)
http://web.archive.org/web/20090117083033/http://www.nsa.gov/research/selinux/list-archive/0409/8362.shtml
referencing some of Melinda's early history
http://www.leeandmelindavarian.com/Melinda#VMHist

science center posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech

some recent posts mentioning Melinda's virtual machine history
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#17 Computer Server Market
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#111 The Rise of DOS: How Microsoft Got the IBM PC OS Contract
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#54 IBM History
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#22 IBM Cloud to offer Z-series mainframes for first time - albeit for test and dev
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#20 CP-67
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#105 IBM PLI
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#89 165/168/3033 & 370 virtual memory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#71 165/168/3033 & 370 virtual memory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#66 HSDT, EARN, BITNET, Internet
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#65 CMSBACK
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#49 VM/SP crashing all over the place
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#77 IBM 370 and Future System
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#68 MTS, 360/67, FS, Internet, SNA
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#0 IBM Lost Opportunities
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#62 Virtual Machine Debugging
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021h.html#70 IBM Research, Adtech, Science Center

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology

Refed: **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology
Date: 11 May 2022
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#19 COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#20 COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#21 COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#22 COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#23 COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#24 COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#25 COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#27 COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#30 COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology

about decade later ... first half 80s ... I was asked to help with problem they were having. Agency had large VM3081 systems and was having significant performance problems. The latest VM/SP had exteme unnatural modifications to the multiprocessor support to improve ACP/TPF throughput running on VM/3081 (TPF didn't have multiprocessor support, originally 3081 was going to be multiprocessor only and IBM was afraid that the whole TPF market would migrate to Amdahl ... the latest Amdahl single processor had about same processing as two processor 3081K, eventually IBM ships 3083 for the ACP/TPF market, a 3081 with one of the processors removed) ... but changes for ACP/TPF had degraded throughput for almost all other VM/SP customers running multiprocessor systems. As part of trying to mask the degradation for multiprocessor customers they had fiddled the 3270 terminal support ... which didn't help this customer, since all their terminals were fast glass ascii/teletypes.

Note in the morph of CP67->VM370, a lot of CP67 function/features were dropped and/or greatly simplified. I had spent several years getting CP67 stuff integrated into vm370 (hobby was enhanced production operating systems for internal datacenters). So one of my tweaks was to CMS to chain (simulated 3215) terminal writes in single I/O ... gave about the same results as the 3270 fiddle, but for all kinds of terminals. The other was a "bug" introduced in the CP67->VM370 change. CP67 (& VM37) would make certain scheduling decisions based on device I/O operations (slow speed versus high speed). In CP67 this was based on real device type. In the VM370 morph they changed it to the "virtual" device type. Things were not too bad (as long virtual==real) until 3270 terminals, where the virtual device type was still 3215 simulated on real device type 3270 (and they had significantly different I/O characteristics).

some old email refs:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007.html#email801006b
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007.html#email801008b
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#email810126
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001f.html#email830420
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006y.html#email860121

multiprocessor, smp, tightly-coupled, and/or compare&swap posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#smp

some recent posts mentioning concern whole acp/tpf market could migrate to amdhal
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#80 165/168/3033 & 370 virtual memory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021g.html#90 Was E-mail a Mistake? The mathematics of distributed systems suggests that meetings might be better
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021.html#72 Airline Reservation System

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology

Refed: **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology
Date: 12 May 2022
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#19 COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#20 COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#21 COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#22 COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#23 COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#24 COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#25 COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#27 COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#30 COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#31 COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology

... from a recent post in another fora ... Mainframe History: How Mainframe Computers Have Changed Over the Years
https://www.precisely.com/blog/mainframe/mainframe-history

... note a former co-worker told of his (economist) father testified in the gov/ibm trial. He said that all the other computer makers testified that by the late 50s, they all realized that compatibility across the product line was single most important criteria. Customers were starting rapid increase in computer uses ... requiring periodic upgrades to more powerful computers ... big inhibitor was having to redo software for each upgrade. For whatever reason, IBM executives were the only ones that managed to force all the different plant managers to toe the compatibility requirement.

misc past posts mentioning compatibility reqirement
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017j.html#66 A Computer That Never Was: the IBM 7095
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017f.html#40 MVS vs HASP vs JES (was 2821)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016d.html#66 PL/I advertising
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012e.html#105 Burroughs B5000, B5500, B6500 videos
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011j.html#69 Who was the Greatest IBM President and CEO of the last century?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010k.html#21 Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007t.html#63 Remembering the CDC 6600
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007f.html#77 John W. Backus, 82, Fortran developer, dies
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002c.html#0 Did Intel Bite Off More Than It Can Chew?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001j.html#33 Big black helicopters
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#231 Why couldn't others compete against IBM?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/96.html#20 1401 series emulation still running?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/94.html#44 bloat

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology
Date: 12 May 2022
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#19 COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#20 COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#21 COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#22 COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#23 COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#24 COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#25 COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#27 COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#30 COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#31 COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#32 COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology

Univ had 709/1401, 709 IBSYS tape->tape ... 1401 unit record front-end ... manually move tapes between 709 & 1401 ... 1401<->unit record. 709 had a bunch of administrative cobol applications that had to be converted to 360 cobol (ibsys not just 7090/7094 but also 709)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM_7090

IBSYS is a "heavy duty" production operating system with numerous subsystem and language support options, among them FORTRAN, COBOL, SORT/MERGE, the MAP assembler, and others.

... snip ...

recent posts mentioning 709 & 1401
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#19 COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#8 Computer Server Market
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#70 IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#0 System Response
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#89 Computer BUNCH
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#73 IBM Disks
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#72 Link FEC and Encryption
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#58 Interdata Computers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#54 IBM History
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#35 Dataprocessing Career
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#27 Dataprocessing Career
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#13 360 Performance
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#1 On why it's CR+LF and not LF+CR [ASR33]
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#126 On the origin of the /text section/ for code
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#72 165/168/3033 & 370 virtual memory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#48 Mainframe Career
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#35 Error Handling
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#26 Is this group only about older computers?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#12 Programming Skills
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#124 IBM Clone Controllers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#108 IBM Disks
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#1 PCP, MFT, MVT OS/360, VS1, & VS2
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#105 IBM CKD DASD and multi-track search
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#77 IBM 370 and Future System
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#68 MTS, 360/67, FS, Internet, SNA
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#64 addressing and protection, was Paper about ISO C
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#63 IBM 360s
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#61 Virtual Machine Debugging
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021h.html#71 IBM Research, Adtech, Science Center
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021h.html#65 CSC, Virtual Machines, Internet
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021g.html#17 iBM System/3 FORTRAN for engineering/science work?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021g.html#6 IBM 370
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021f.html#79 Where Would We Be Without the Paper Punch Card?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021f.html#43 IBM Mainframe
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021f.html#19 1401 MPIO
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021e.html#47 Recode 1401 MPIO for 360/30
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021e.html#43 Blank 80-column punch cards up for grabs
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021e.html#38 Blank 80-column punch cards up for grabs
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021e.html#27 Learning EBCDIC
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021e.html#19 Univac 90/30 DIAG instruction
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021d.html#49 Real Programmers and interruptions
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021d.html#37 April 7, 1964: IBM Bets Big on System/360
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021d.html#34 April 7, 1964: IBM Bets Big on System/360
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021d.html#25 Field Support and PSRs
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021c.html#40 Teaching IBM class
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021b.html#27 DEBE?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021.html#81 Keypunch
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021.html#61 Mainframe IPL
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021.html#41 CADAM & Catia
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2020.html#32 IBM TSS
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2020.html#30 Main memory as an I/O device
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2020.html#8 IBM timesharing terminal--offline preparation?

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Retrotechtacular: The IBM System/360 Remembered

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Retrotechtacular: The IBM System/360 Remembered
Date: 14 May 2022
Blog: Facebook
Retrotechtacular: The IBM System/360 Remembered
https://hackaday.com/2022/05/13/retrotechtacular-the-ibm-system-360-remembered/

"You could even join some of them together to get more power, although memory bus contention made that less effective than you might think. Some of the higher-end models used 64-bit memory, parallel execution, and virtual memory"

... snip ...

... note: 360/65 Multiprocessor was less effective ... not so much because memory bus contention ... but much more because of global kernel locks which serialized much of the operating system execution. Now the 360/67 single processor was basically 360/65 with associative array for virtual memory addressing. However the 360/67 multiprocessor had multi-ported memory so there could possibly have the processors and channel controller accessing memory simultaneously. Also the channel controller allowed all processors to access all channels. The 360/65 (and 370) multiprocessors required each processor to have its own set of channels ... and it somewhat simulated multprocessor I/O with controllers being connected to multiple channels.

... as an aside, Charlie invented the compare&swap instruction ("CAS" mnemonic chosen for Charlie's initials) when he was working on fine grain multiprocessor locking for CP/67 at the science center. Then the initial attempt to get it added to 370 was rebuffed ... the 370 architecture owners (Padegs & Smith) say that the POK favorite son operating system people (OS/360) claimed that the 360 test&set was sufficient for multiprocessor operation (global operating system lock). Advice was to get "CAS" justified for 370, additional uses (other than multiprocessor operation) were needed. Thus was born use for multithreaded applications (like large DBMS implementation) regardless of whether running single processor or multiprocesor (that still appear in principles of operation appendix).

SMP, multiprocessor, tightly-coupled and/or compare&swap posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#smp

"Usually, the computers were leased not bought, so price comparison is hard. But a very large System/360 Model 195 was quite fast, could multiprocess, and had a whopping 4 MB of memory. The cost? Somewhere between $7 and $25 million in 1971 dollars!"

... snip ...

... 360/195 was single processor only machine ... there weren't 195 multiprocessor, tightly-coupled systems (although 195 MVT supported multiprogramming). I've periodically mentioned that not long after joining IBM (at IBM Science Center), the 195 wanted me to help them "hyper/multi-threading" the 370/195 (aka a 360/195 that added a few of the new 370 instructions). The end of ACS/360 (IBM executives were afraid it would advance the state of the art too fast, and IBM would loose control of the market, Amdahl leaves shortly after ACS/360 was killed)
https://people.cs.clemson.edu/~mark/acs_end.html

has reference to dual i-stream patents (aka "Sidebar: Multithreading"). At the end of the article also has ACS/360 features that show up more than 20yrs later with ES/9000. The 195 had 64 instruction pipeline and supported out-of-order execution ... but no branch prediction or speculative execution ... as a result conditional branches drained the pipeline and most codes ran at only half 195 rated processing ... going to hyperthreading with two i-streams simulating two processor machine ... each running at half processor rate might keep machine fully utilized (ignoring the fact that 360/65MP MVT was rarely able to run at twice throughput because of the operating system serialized locking, frequently only 1.2 times throughput, NOT two times).

... note that after deciding to add virtual memory to all 370s, it was decided to stop any new work on 195 ... since it would be too hard to retrofit virtual memory to 195 (halting 195 multithreaded work)

trivia: a decade ago, I was asked to try and track down the justification for adding virtual memory to all 370s. Turns out that (basically) MVT storage management was so bad that MVT (concurrently executing) regions had to be specified four times larger than typically used. As a result a normal 1mbyte 370/165 would only have four regions ... not enough to keep 165 processor sufficiently utilized to be justified. Going to virtual memory would allow increasing number of regions by a factor of four times with little or no paging.

some recent 370/195 hyper/multi-threading posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#12 Computer Server Market
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#60 370/195
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#46 Transaction Memory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021d.html#28 IBM 370/195
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019d.html#62 IBM 370/195
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#73 Backwards compatibility
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#62 instruction clock speed

other recent posts mentioning acs/360
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#19 COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#107 TCMs & IBM Mainframe
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#99 CDC6000
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#88 Computer BUNCH
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#51 IBM History
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#77 165/168/3033 & 370 virtual memory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#74 165/168/3033 & 370 virtual memory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#119 70s & 80s mainframes
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#116 Building the System/360 Mainframe Nearly Destroyed IBM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#105 IBM Future System
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#113 IBM Downturn
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#93 IBM 3278
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#76 IBM 370 and Future System
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#70 IBM Wild Ducks
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#68 MTS, 360/67, FS, Internet, SNA
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#66 IBM ACP/TPF
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#3 IBM Lost Opportunities
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#79 IBM Downturn
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#77 IBM ACP/TPF
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#75 IBM ITPS
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021h.html#51 OoO S/360 descendants
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021g.html#51 Intel rumored to be in talks to buy chip manufacturer GlobalFoundries for $30B
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021g.html#5 IBM's 18-month company-wide email system migration has been a disaster, sources say
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021e.html#67 Amdahl
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021e.html#66 Amdahl
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021d.html#35 April 7, 1964: IBM Bets Big on System/360
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021d.html#33 April 7, 1964: IBM Bets Big on System/360
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021d.html#28 IBM 370/195
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021d.html#9 IBM 360/85
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021b.html#23 IBM Recruiting
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021.html#57 ES/9000 as POK was being scaled way back
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021.html#39 IBM Tech

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

IBM Business Conduct Guidelines

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: IBM Business Conduct Guidelines
Date: 16 May 2022
Blog: Facebook
found BCG online from 9/93
https://www.oocities.org/~keithgibby/business_conduct_guidelines.htm

Good part of my career was spent being told I didn't have a career, promotions, or raises. After joining IBM, I continued to talk to customers and attend user group meetings ... mid-70s, director of one of the largest financial datacenters (vast sea of true blue computers) liked me to stop by and talk technology. Then the branch manager did something to horribly offended the customer and in retaliation they ordered an Amdahl computer (lonely Amdahl in the vast sea of blue). This was back when Amdahl was selling into technical/scientific/univ. market, but had yet to break into the IBM true-blue commercial market ... and this would be the first. I was then asked to go onsite at the customer for a year (to help obfuscate why they were ordering Amdahl). I talk it over with the customer and then decline the offer. I was then told that the branch manager was good sailing buddy of IBM CEO and if I didn't do this, I could forget having a career, promotion, or raises (wasn't the first, also wasn't the 1st time I would be reminded that in IBM, "business ethics" were an oxymoron).

This was towards the end of the "Future System" effort, from Ferguson & Morris, "Computer Wars: The Post-IBM World", Time Books, 1993 .... reference to the "Future System" ...

and perhaps most damaging, the old culture under Watson Snr and Jr of free and vigorous debate was replaced with *SYNCOPHANCY* and *MAKE NO WAVES* under Opel and Akers. It's claimed that thereafter, IBM lived in the shadow of defeat ... But because of the heavy investment of face by the top management, F/S took years to kill, although its wrong headedness was obvious from the very outset. "For the first time, during F/S, outspoken criticism became politically dangerous," recalls a former top executive.

... snip ...

more FS info
http://www.jfsowa.com/computer/memo125.htm

In the early 80s, I submitted speakup that I was vastly under paid with various supporting documentation. I got a written reply from the head of HR saying after careful review of my complete career, I was being paid just what I was suppose to. I then resubmitted the original, the reply from head of HR, and pointed out I was asked to interview new univ. graduates for a new group that would be working under my technical direction and they were being offered 30% more than I was currently making. I never got a reply, but within a few weeks got a 30% raise, putting me on level with the new hires I was interviewing. Co-workers again reminded me that in IBM, "business ethics" was oxymoron.

I then submitted addition to the "Business Conduct Guidelines" that would upgrade the ethics, but it wasn't accepted. About the same time I was asked to interview for TA to the president of US marketing subsidiary handling clone 370s made on the other side of the pacific. I figured it wouldn't hurt to interview (especially having no career, promotions, or raises at IBM). During the interview there was veiled reference made to documents ("811" nov1978 publication date, had a whole filing cabinet drawer under double lock & key, highest IBM classification, candy stripe, "registered confidential") for next generation 370 (xa/370, 3081). I respond with a reference to my recent submitting ethics upgrade to the IBM "Business Conduct Guidelines" ... and that was the end of the interview. However that wasn't the end of it. A couple years later, the US gov. was suing the parent company for industrial espionage and since I was on the visitor list, I had a 3hr interview with FBI agent. I replayed the interchange ... and suggested somebody in plant site security might have been providing names to recruiter (since security had list of all employees with registered documents for periodic audits).

... also reference to the increasing prevalence of "careerists" and "bureaucrats" among IBM management:

Management Briefing
Number 1-72: January 18,1972
ZZ04-1312

TO ALL IBM MANAGERS:

Once again, I'm writing you a Management Briefing on the subject of bureaucracy. Evidently the earlier ones haven't worked. So this time I'm taking a further step: I'm going directly to the individual employees in the company. You will be reading this poster and my comment on it in the forthcoming issue of THINK magazine. But I wanted each one of you to have an advance copy because rooting out bureaucracy rests principally with the way each of us runs his own shop.

We've got to make a dent in this problem. By the time the THINK piece comes out, I want the correction process already to have begun. And that job starts with you and with me.

Vin Learson


... and ...


+-----------------------------------------+
|           "BUSINESS ECOLOGY"            |
|                                         |
|                                         |
|            +---------------+            |
|            |  BUREAUCRACY  |            |
|            +---------------+            |
|                                         |
|           is your worst enemy           |
|              because it -               |
|                                         |
|      POISONS      the mind              |
|      STIFLES      the spirit            |
|      POLLUTES     self-motivation       |
|             and finally                 |
|      KILLS        the individual.       |
+-----------------------------------------+
"I'M Going To Do All I Can to Fight This Problem . . ."
by T. Vincent Learson, Chairman

... snip ...

futute system posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#futuresys

past references to IBM "business ethics" is oxymoron
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#95 IBM Salary
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#27 Dataprocessing Career
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#125 IBM Clone Controllers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#39 IBM Registered Confidential
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#82 IBM Downturn
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021h.html#61 IBM Starting Salary
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021g.html#42 IBM Token-Ring
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021e.html#15 IBM Internal Network
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021d.html#86 Bizarre Career Events
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021c.html#42 IBM Suggestion Program
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021c.html#41 Teaching IBM Class
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021c.html#40 Teaching IBM class
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021b.html#12 IBM "811", 370/xa architecture
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021.html#83 Kinder/Gentler IBM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021.html#82 Kinder/Gentler IBM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018f.html#96 IBM Career
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018d.html#13 Workplace Advice I Wish I Had Known
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017e.html#9 Terminology - Datasets
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#49 IBM Career
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#78 IBM Disk Engineering
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014i.html#47 IBM Programmer Aptitude Test
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014c.html#65 IBM layoffs strike first in India; workers describe cuts as 'slaughter' and 'massive'
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012k.html#42 The IBM "Open Door" policy
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012k.html#28 How to Stuff a Wild Duck
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011b.html#59 Productivity And Bubbles
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010g.html#44 16:32 far pointers in OpenWatcom C/C++
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010g.html#0 16:32 far pointers in OpenWatcom C/C++
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010f.html#20 Would you fight?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010b.html#38 Happy DEC-10 Day
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009r.html#50 "Portable" data centers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009o.html#57 U.S. begins inquiry of IBM in mainframe market
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009o.html#52 Revisiting CHARACTER and BUSINESS ETHICS
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009o.html#36 U.S. students behind in math, science, analysis says
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009e.html#37 How do you see ethics playing a role in your organizations current or past?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009.html#53 CROOKS and NANNIES: what would Boyd do?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007o.html#0 The Unexpected Fact about the First Computer Programmer
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007j.html#72 IBM Unionization

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

IBM Business Conduct Guidelines

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: IBM Business Conduct Guidelines
Date: 16 May 2022
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#35 IBM Business Conduct Guidelines

... other trivia: also in the early 80s, I was introduced to John Boyd and would sponsor his briefings at IBM. First time, I tried to do it through plant site employee education ... at first they agreed, but as I provided more information including about prevailing in competitive situations, they changed their mind. They said that IBM spends a large amount of money training managers on how to handle employees ... and exposing regular employees to John Boyd wouldn't be in the best interest of IBM. I should restrict the audience to senior members of competitive analysis departments. First briefing was in bldg28 auditorium open to all (also learned that conference refreshments left for breaks, required guards, because bldg occupants would make them disappear, signs about for conference attendees *ONLY* were ignored).

About the same time I was blamed for the "Tandem Memo" online computer conferencing, six copies of about 300 pages along with "executive summary" and "summary of the summary" were printed and packaged in Tandem 3ring binders and mailed to the IBM executive committee (folklore is 5of6 wanted to fire me). Prominent in the "summary of the summary" were reference to the careerists and bureaucrats were taking down the company.

Note: in 89/90 the commandant of the Marine Corps leverages Boyd for a "make-over" of the corps ... at a time when IBM was desperately in need of make-over. It took another decade ("Tandem Memos" to 1992) ... IBM has one of the largest losses in US corporate history and was being reorganized into the 13 "baby blues" in preparation for breaking up the company (gone behind paywall, mostly free at wayback machine)
http://web.archive.org/web/20101120231857/http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,977353,00.html
may also work
http://content.time.com/time/subscriber/article/0,33009,977353-1,00.html

John Boyd posts and web URLs:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subboyd.html

"Tandem Memos" and/or online computer conferencing posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#cmc

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

IBM Business Conduct Guidelines

Refed: **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: IBM Business Conduct Guidelines
Date: 17 May 2022
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#35 IBM Business Conduct Guidelines
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#36 IBM Business Conduct Guidelines

somewhat sanitized "Tandem Memos" ref, from IBM JARGON:
https://comlay.net/ibmjarg.pdf

Tandem Memos - n. Something constructive but hard to control; a fresh of breath air (sic). That's another Tandem Memos. A phrase to worry middle management. It refers to the computer-based conference (widely distributed in 1981) in which many technical personnel expressed dissatisfaction with the tools available to them at that time, and also constructively criticized the way products were [are] developed. The memos are required reading for anyone with a serious interest in quality products. If you have not seen the memos, try reading the November 1981 Datamation summary.

... snip ...

Note Jim had left san jose research for Tandem fall of 1980, palming some number of things on me. Jim celebration (after he disappears)
http://web.archive.org/web/20080616153833/http://www.eecs.berkeley.edu/IPRO/JimGrayTribute/pressrelease.html

"Gray is known for his groundbreaking work as a programmer, database expert and Microsoft engineer. Gray's work helped make possible such technologies as the cash machine, ecommerce, online ticketing, and deep databases like Google. In 1998, he received the ACM A.M. Turing Award, the most prestigious honor in computer science. He was appointed an IEEE Fellow in 1982, and also received IEEE Charles Babbage Award"

... snip ...

podcast of the tribute:
http://web.archive.org/web/20080604010939/http://webcast.berkeley.edu/event_details.php?webcastid=23082
http://web.archive.org/web/20080604072804/http://webcast.berkeley.edu/event_details.php?webcastid=23083
http://web.archive.org/web/20080604072809/http://webcast.berkeley.edu/event_details.php?webcastid=23087
http://web.archive.org/web/20080604072815/http://webcast.berkeley.edu/event_details.php?webcastid=23088

from "Tandem Memos" "Summary of the Summary":

• The perception of many technical people in IBM is that the company is rapidly heading for disaster. Furthermore, people fear that this movement will not be appreciated until it begins more directly to affect revenue, at which point recovery may be impossible

• Many technical people are extremely frustrated with their management and with the way things are going in IBM. To an increasing extent, people are reacting to this by leaving. IBM Most of the contributors to the present discussion would prefer to stay with IBM and see the problems rectified. However, there is increasing skepticism that correction is possible or likely, given the apparent lack of commitment by management to take action

• There is a widespread perception that IBM management has failed to understand how to manage technical people and high-technology development in an extremely competitive environment.


... snip ...

online computer conferencing &/or "Tandem Memo" posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#cmc

related long-winded post-thread ("IBM Downturn"):
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#79 IBM Downturn
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#80 IBM Downturn
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#81 IBM Downturn
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#82 IBM Downturn
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#83 IBM Downturn
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#84 IBM Downturn
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#88 IBM Downturn
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#89 IBM Downturn
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#31 IBM Downturn
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#32 IBM Downturn
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#45 IBM Downturn
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#49 IBM Downturn
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#50 IBM Downturn
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#113 IBM Downturn
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#3 IBM Downturn

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

US Tops World Financial Secrecy Ranking, Enabling With Tax, Legal Systems

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: US Tops World Financial Secrecy Ranking, Enabling With Tax, Legal Systems
Date: 17 May 2022
Blog: Facebook
US Tops World Financial Secrecy Ranking, Enabling With Tax, Legal Systems
https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2022-05-16/world-s-top-enabler-of-financial-secrecy-is-the-united-states
US lands top spot as world's biggest enabler of financial secrecy in new index
https://www.icij.org/investigations/pandora-papers/us-lands-top-spot-as-worlds-biggest-enabler-of-financial-secrecy-in-new-index/

... and just think about all the bad things US use to write about the Swiss financial secrecy (maybe it is only bad when others do it).

tax fraud, tax evasion, tax avoidance, tax haven, tax loophole posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#tax.evasion
capitalism posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#capitalism

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

The Supreme Court's History of Protecting the Powerful

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: The Supreme Court's History of Protecting the Powerful
Date: 17 May 2022
Blog: Facebook
The Supreme Court's History of Protecting the Powerful. Laurence Tribe discusses the leaked Alito draft, the inherent politics of the judicial branch, and how to behave on Twitter.
https://www.newyorker.com/news/q-and-a/the-supreme-courts-history-of-protecting-the-powerful

Laurence Tribe, who turned eighty last year, has been one of the most prominent liberal legal scholars of the last half century. A professor to John Roberts, a mentor to Barack Obama, and an advocate who has appeared dozens of times before the Supreme Court, Tribe has also published numerous books about the Constitution and the Court's history. More recently, Tribe--despite the reverence with which he initially wrote about the Court--has been highly critical of what he sees as its increasing rightward tilt and politicization by Republican-nominated Justices.

... snip ...

The Supreme Court Has Never Been Apolitical. Many today fear the court is becoming just another partisan institution. But, in the past, justices sought elective office and counseled partisan allies. Some even coveted the White House themselves.
https://www.politico.com/news/magazine/2022/04/03/the-supreme-court-has-never-been-apolitical-00022482

But maybe that's not a bad thing. You can't address a problem until you acknowledge it exists. We have pretended over the past 50 years that the Supreme Court is an apolitical institution. It never really was, and it isn't today.

In the 1880s, Supreme Court were scammed (by the railroads) to give corporations "person rights" under the 14th amendment.
https://www.amazon.com/We-Corporations-American-Businesses-Rights-ebook/dp/B01M64LRDJ/
pgxiii/loc45-50:

IN DECEMBER 1882, ROSCOE CONKLING, A FORMER SENATOR and close confidant of President Chester Arthur, appeared before the justices of the Supreme Court of the United States to argue that corporations like his client, the Southern Pacific Railroad Company, were entitled to equal rights under the Fourteenth Amendment. Although that provision of the Constitution said that no state shall "deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law" or "deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws," Conkling insisted the amendment's drafters intended to cover business corporations too.

... testimony falsely claiming authors of 14th amendment intended to include corporations pgxiv/loc74-78:

Between 1868, when the amendment was ratified, and 1912, when a scholar set out to identify every Fourteenth Amendment case heard by the Supreme Court, the justices decided 28 cases dealing with the rights of African Americans--and an astonishing 312 cases dealing with the rights of corporations.

pg36/loc726-28:

On this issue, Hamiltonians were corporationalists--proponents of corporate enterprise who advocated for expansive constitutional rights for business. Jeffersonians, meanwhile, were populists--opponents of corporate power who sought to limit corporate rights in the name of the people.

pg229/loc3667-68:

IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY, CORPORATIONS WON LIBERTY RIGHTS, SUCH AS FREEDOM OF SPEECH AND RELIGION, WITH THE HELP OF ORGANIZATIONS LIKE THE CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.

... snip ...

capitalism posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#capitalism
inequality posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#inequality

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

AMEX, First Data, & IBM

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: AMEX, First Data, & IBM
Date: 18 May 2022
Blog: Facebook
related recent thread
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#35 IBM Business Conduct Guidelines
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#36 IBM Business Conduct Guidelines
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#37 IBM Business Conduct Guidelines

Trivia: In 1992, AMEX spins off much of its (mainframe) dataprocessing and financial outsourcing (mostly credit card, half of all credit cards in the US, embossing plastic, statements, POS transactions, call centers, as they said "soup to nuts") in the largest IPO up until that time (many of the execs had reported to Gerstner when he was president of AMEX) as "First Data" (after leaving IBM, I do stint as FDC "Chief Scientist"). After the spinoff they acquire significant additional outsourcing (some claim that the spinoff was because some financial institutions viewed AMEX ownership as unfair competition). In 2000, just one datacenter had over 40 max-configured IBM mainframes, constantly being upgraded as new models became available.

15 yrs after being spun off in the largest IPO, KKR does a LBO, reverse IPO of First Data (in the largest LBO up until that time) ... since then KKR sold off First Data to Fiserv.

Trivia: AMEX and KKR were in competition for LBO, reverse IPO of RJR and KKR wins, KKR ran into problems and hires away AMEX president to help. Then in 1992, IBM has one of the largest losses in US corporate history and was being re-org'ed into 13 "baby blues" in preparation for breaking up the company.
http://web.archive.org/web/20101120231857/http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,977353,00.html
may also work
http://content.time.com/time/subscriber/article/0,33009,977353-1,00.html

Then the IBM board hires the former president of AMEX as new IBM CEO, who reverses the breakup and uses some of the same techniques used at RJR ... gone 404 but lives on at wayback machine
https://web.archive.org/web/20181019074906/http://www.ibmemployee.com/RetirementHeist.shtml

private equity posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#private.equity
gerstner posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#gerstner

past posts referencing doing stint as First Data chief scientist
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017f.html#96 IBM downfall
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015e.html#78 Fed agency blames giant hack on 'neglected' security system
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015d.html#27 Western Union envisioned internet functionality
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014c.html#55 Maximizing shareholder value: The goal that changed corporate America
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014b.html#93 Maximizing shareholder value: The Goal that changed corporate America
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014.html#47 McCain: Send Petraeus back to Iraq
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013l.html#60 Retirement Heist
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013f.html#61 The cloud is killing traditional hardware and software
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013f.html#49 As an IBM'er just like the Marines only a few good men and women make the cut,
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013e.html#79 As an IBM'er just like the Marines only a few good men and women make the cut,
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012p.html#60 Today in TIME Tech History: Piston-less Power (1959), IBM's Decline (1992), TiVo (1998) and More
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012o.html#32 Does the IBM System z Mainframe rely on Obscurity or is it Security by Design?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012m.html#24 Does the IBM System z Mainframe rely on Security by Obscurity or is it Secure by Design
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012l.html#63 Singer Cartons of Punch Cards
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012k.html#34 History--punched card transmission over telegraph lines
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012g.html#87 Monopoly/ Cartons of Punch Cards
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012g.html#82 How do you feel about the fact that today India has more IBM employees than US?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#57 The Myth of Work-Life Balance

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Your Money and Your Life: Private Equity Blasts Ethical Boundaries of American Medicine

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Your Money and Your Life: Private Equity Blasts Ethical Boundaries of American Medicine
Date: 19 May 2022
Blog: Facebook
Your Money and Your Life: Private Equity Blasts Ethical Boundaries of American Medicine
https://www.nakedcapitalism.com/2022/05/your-money-and-your-life-private-equity-blasts-ethical-boundaries-of-american-medicine.html

In her harrowing new book, Ethically Challenged: Private Equity Storms US Health Care, political scientist Laura Katz Olson documents how private equity firms are reshaping health care in the U.S., circling in to buy dentist offices, mental health facilities, autism treatment centers, rehab facilities, physician staffing services, and myriad other providers, forcing them into bare-bones, bottom-lined focused "care".

... snip ...

Ethically Challenged: Private Equity Storms US Health Care
https://www.amazon.com/Ethically-Challenged-Private-Equity-Storms-ebook-dp-B099NXGNB1/dp/B099NXGNB1/

Private equity (PE) firms pervade all aspects of our modern lives. Unlike other corporations, which generally manufacture products or provide services, they leverage considerable debt and other people's money to buy and sell businesses with the sole aim of earning supersized profits in the shortest time possible. With a voracious appetite and trillions of dollars at its disposal, the private equity industry is now buying everything from your opioid treatment center to that helicopter that helps swoop you up from a car crash site.

... snip ...

private equity posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#private.equity
capitalist posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#capitalism

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Your Money and Your Life: Private Equity Blasts Ethical Boundaries of American Medicine

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Your Money and Your Life: Private Equity Blasts Ethical Boundaries of American Medicine
Date: 20 May 2022
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#41 Your Money and Your Life: Private Equity Blasts Ethical Boundaries of American Medicine

AHIP advocates for transparency for healthcare private equity firms. Raising prices has been a common strategy after a private equity acquisition, and patient outcomes have suffered as well, the group said.
https://www.healthcarefinancenews.com/news/ahip-advocates-transparency-healthcare-private-equity-firms
Private equity's newest target: Your pension fund
https://www.fnlondon.com/articles/private-equitys-newest-target-your-pension-fund-20220517
U.S. antitrust regulators eye private equity
https://www.axios.com/2022/05/19/us-antitrust-regulators-eye-private-equity

private equity posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#private.equity
capitalist posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#capitalism

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Iraq War

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Iraq War
Date: 20 May 2022
Blog: Facebook
George W Bush accidentally admits Iraq war was 'unjustified and brutal' in gaffe
https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2022/may/19/george-bush-iraq-ukraine-speech
George W. Bush calls Iraq invasion 'unjustified and brutal' before correcting gaffe
https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/2022/05/19/george-bush-iraq-ukraine-war-speech/

Before the Iraq invasion, the cousin of white house chief of staff Card ... was dealing with the Iraqis at the UN and was given evidence that WMDs (tracing back to US in the Iran/Iraq war) had been decommissioned. the cousin shared it with (cousin, white house chief of staff) Card and others ... then is locked up in military hospital, book was published in 2010 (4yrs before decommissioned WMDs were declassified)
https://www.amazon.com/EXTREME-PREJUDICE-Terrifying-Story-Patriot-ebook/dp/B004HYHBK2/

NY Times series from 2014, the decommission WMDs (tracing back to US from Iran/Iraq war), had been found early in the invasion, but the information was classified for a decade
http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2014/10/14/world/middleeast/us-casualties-of-iraq-chemical-weapons.html

note the military-industrial complex had wanted a war so badly that corporate reps were telling former eastern block countries that if they voted for IRAQ2 invasion in the UN, they would get membership in NATO and (directed appropriation) USAID (can *ONLY* be used for purchase of modern US arms, aka additional congressional gifts to MIC complex not in DOD budget). From the law of unintended consequences, the invaders were told to bypass ammo dumps looking for WMDs, when they got around to going back, over a million metric tons had evaporated (showing up later in IEDs)
https://www.amazon.com/Prophets-War-Lockheed-Military-Industrial-ebook/dp/B0047T86BA/

... from truth is stranger than fiction and law of unintended consequences that come back to bite you, much of the radical Islam & ISIS can be considered our own fault, VP Bush in the 80s
https://www.amazon.com/Family-Secrets-Americas-Invisible-Government-ebook/dp/B003NSBMNA/
pg292/loc6057-59:

There was also a calculated decision to use the Saudis as surrogates in the cold war. The United States actually encouraged Saudi efforts to spread the extremist Wahhabi form of Islam as a way of stirring up large Muslim communities in Soviet-controlled countries. (It didn't hurt that Muslim Soviet Asia contained what were believed to be the world's largest undeveloped reserves of oil.)

... snip ...

Saudi radical extremist Islam/Wahhabi loosened on the world ... bin Laden & 15of16 9/11 were Saudis (some claims that 95% of extreme Islam world terrorism is Wahhabi related)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wahhabism

Mattis somewhat more PC (political correct)
https://www.amazon.com/Call-Sign-Chaos-Learning-Lead-ebook/dp/B07SBRFVNH/
pg21/loc349-51:

Ayatollah Khomeini's revolutionary regime took hold in Iran by ousting the Shah and swearing hostility against the United States. That same year, the Soviet Union was pouring troops into Afghanistan to prop up a pro-Russian government that was opposed by Sunni Islamist fundamentalists and tribal factions. The United States was supporting Saudi Arabia's involvement in forming a counterweight to Soviet influence.

... snip ...

and internal CIA
https://www.amazon.com/Permanent-Record-Edward-Snowden-ebook/dp/B07STQPGH6/
pg133/loc1916-17:

But al-Qaeda did maintain unusually close ties with our allies the Saudis, a fact that the Bush White House worked suspiciously hard to suppress as we went to war with two other countries.

... snip ...

The Danger of Fibbing Our Way into War. Falsehoods and fat military budgets can make conflict more likely
https://www.pogo.org/analysis/2020/01/the-danger-of-fibbing-our-way-into-war/
The Day I Realized I Would Never Find Weapons of Mass Destruction in Iraq
https://www.nytimes.com/2020/01/29/magazine/iraq-weapons-mass-destruction.html

The Deep State (US administration behind formation of ISIS)
https://www.amazon.com/Deep-State-Constitution-Shadow-Government-ebook/dp/B00W2ZKIQM/
pg190/loc3054-55:

In early 2001, just before George W. Bush's inauguration, the Heritage Foundation produced a policy document designed to help the incoming administration choose personnel

pg191/loc3057-58:

In this document the authors stated the following: "The Office of Presidential Personnel (OPP) must make appointment decisions based on loyalty first and expertise second,

pg191/loc3060-62:

Americans have paid a high price for our Leninist personnel policies, and not only in domestic matters. In important national security concerns such as staffing the Coalition Provisional Authority, a sort of viceroyalty to administer Iraq until a real Iraqi government could be formed, the same guiding principle of loyalty before competence applied.

... snip ...

... including kicked hundreds of thousands of soldiers out on the streets creating ISIS ... and bypassing the ammo dumps (looking for fictitious/fabricated WMDs) gave them over a million metric tons (for IEDs).

... roll back to father: CIA Director Colby wouldn't approve the "Team B" analysis (exaggerated USSR military capability) and Rumsfeld got Colby replaced with Bush, who would approve "Team B" analysis (justifying huge DOD spending increase), after Rumsfeld replaces Colby, he resigns as white house chief of staff to become SECDEF (and is replaced by his assistant Cheney)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Team_B
Then in the 80s, former CIA director H.W. is VP, he and Rumsfeld are involved in supporting Iraq in the Iran/Iraq war
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iran%E2%80%93Iraq_War
including WMDs (note picture of Rumsfeld with Saddam)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_support_for_Iraq_during_the_Iran%E2%80%93Iraq_war

VP and former CIA director repeatedly claims no knowledge of
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iran%E2%80%93Contra_affair
because he was fulltime administration point person deregulating financial industry ... creating S&L crisis
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Savings_and_loan_crisis
along with other members of his family
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Savings_and_loan_crisis#Silverado_Savings_and_Loan
and another
http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9D0CE0D81E3BF937A25753C1A966958260

In the early 90s, H.W. is president and Cheney is SECDEF. Sat. photo recon analyst told white house that Saddam was marshaling forces to invade Kuwait. White house said that Saddam would do no such thing and proceeded to discredit the analyst. Later the analyst informed the white house that Saddam was marshaling forces to invade Saudi Arabia, now the white house has to choose between Saddam and the Saudis.
https://www.amazon.com/Long-Strange-Journey-Intelligence-ebook/dp/B004NNV5H2/

... roll forward ... Bush2 is president and presides over the huge cut in taxes, huge increase in spending, explosion in debt, the economic mess (70 times larger than his father's S&L crisis) and the forever wars, Cheney is VP, Rumsfeld is SECDEF and one of the Team B members is deputy SECDEF (and major architect of Iraq policy).
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul_Wolfowitz

Team B posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#team.b
S&L Crisis posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#s&l.crisis
economic mess posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#economic.mess
fiscal responsibility act posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#fiscal.responsibility.act
military-industrial(-congressional) complex posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#military.industrial.complex
WMD posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#wmd
perpetual war posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#perpetual.war

recent posts mentioning Wahhabi
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#115 The New New Right Was Forged in Greed and White Backlash
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#113 The United States Of America: Victims Of Its Own Disinformation
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#97 9/11 and the Road to War
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#112 Who Knew ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#90 Afghanistan Proved Eisenhower Correct
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#57 After 9/11, the U.S. Got Almost Everything Wrong
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#53 The Kill Chain
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#52 By Letting Saudi Arabia Off the Hook Over 9/11, the US Encouraged Violent Jihadism
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#50 FBI releases first secret 9/11 file
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#49 The Counterinsurgency Myth
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#46 FBI releases first secret 9/11 file
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#38 The Accumulated Evil of the Whole: That time Bush and Co. made the September 11 Attacks a Pretext for War on Iraq
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#37 9/11 and the Saudi Connection. Mounting evidence supports allegations that Saudi Arabia helped fund the 9/11 attacks
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#18 A War's Epitaph. For Two Decades, Americans Told One Lie After Another About What They Were Doing in Afghanistan
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021h.html#62 An Un-American Way of War: Why the United States Fails at Irregular Warfare
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021h.html#57 Generation of Vipers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021h.html#42 Afghanistan Down the Drain
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021h.html#11 Democratic senators increase pressure to declassify 9/11 documents related to Saudi role in attacks
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021g.html#102 Democratic senators increase pressure to declassify 9/11 documents related to Saudi role in attacks
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021g.html#4 Donald Rumsfeld, The Controversial Architect Of The Iraq War, Has Died
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021f.html#95 Geopolitics, Profit, and Poppies: How the CIA Turned Afghanistan into a Failed Narco-State
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021f.html#71 Inflating China Threat to Balloon Pentagon Budget
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021f.html#65 Biden takes steps to rein in 'forever wars' in Afghanistan and Iraq
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021f.html#59 White House backs bill to end Iraq war military authorization
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021e.html#42 The Blind Strategist: John Boyd and the American Art of War
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021c.html#22 Fighting to Go Home: Operation Desert Storm, 30 Years Later
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2020.html#22 The Saudi Connection: Inside the 9/11 Case That Divided the F.B.I

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

CMS Personal Computing Precursor

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: CMS Personal Computing Precursor
Date: 20 May 2022
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#33 COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#32 COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#31 COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#30 COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#27 COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#25 COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#24 COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#23 COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#22 COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#21 COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#20 COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#19 COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology

Opel's obit ...
https://www.pcworld.com/article/243311/former_ibm_ceo_john_opel_dies.html

According to the New York Times, it was Opel who met with Bill Gates, CEO of the then-small software firm Microsoft, to discuss the possibility of using Microsoft PC-DOS OS for IBM's about-to-be-released PC. Opel set up the meeting at the request of Gates' mother, Mary Maxwell Gates. The two had both served on the National United Way's executive committee.

... snip ...

trivia: (CP67)/CMS Personal Computing Precursor; Some of the MIT/7094 CTSS people
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Compatible_Time-Sharing_System
went to the 5th flr, project mac, and MULTICS.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multics
Others went to the 4th flr, IBM Cambridge Science Center, did virtual machine CP40/CMS (on 360/40 with hardware mods for virtual memory, morphs into CP67/CMS when 360/67 standard with virtual memory becomes available, precursor to vm370), online and performance apps, CTSS RUNOFF redid for CMS as SCRIPT, GML invented at science center in 1969 (and GML tag processing added to SCRIPT, a decade later GML morphs into ISO SGML and after another decade morphs into HTML at CERN), networking, etc.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CP/CMS
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conversational_Monitor_System

before msdos
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MS-DOS
there was Seattle computer
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seattle_Computer_Products
before Seattle computer, there was cp/m
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CP/M

before developing cp/m, kildall worked on cp/67-cms at npg (gone 404, but lives on at the wayback machine)
http://web.archive.org/web/20071011100440/http://www.khet.net/gmc/docs/museum/en_cpmName.html
npg
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Naval_Postgraduate_School

science center posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech
GML, SGML, HTML, etc posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#sgml

some more history from Melinda:
http://www.leeandmelindavarian.com/Melinda#VMHist

other recent posts mentioning Kildall worked on CP67/CMS at NPG
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#100 IBM Bookmaster, GML, SGML, HTML
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#42 Why did Dennis Ritchie write that UNIX was a modern implementation of CTSS?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#29 Unix work-alike
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#8 Cloud Timesharing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#111 The Rise of DOS: How Microsoft Got the IBM PC OS Contract
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#22 MS/DOS for IBM/PC
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#101 IBM Lost Opportunities
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021h.html#81 Why the IBM PC Used an Intel 8088
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021f.html#76 IBM OS/2
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021c.html#89 Silicon Valley
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021c.html#57 MAINFRAME (4341) History
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021.html#69 OS/2

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

MGLRU Revved Once More For Promising Linux Performance Improvements

Refed: **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: MGLRU Revved Once More For Promising Linux Performance Improvements
Date: 21 May 2022
Blog: Facebook
MGLRU Revved Once More For Promising Linux Performance Improvements
https://www.phoronix.com/scan.php?page=news_item&px=MGLRU-v11-Linux-Perf

There are wins reported for Cassandra, Hadooop, MySQL/MariaDB, Memcached, MongoDB, PostgreSQL, Redis, and improving the behavior in general for systems with limited RAM capacities or a lot of memory intense activities.

... snip ...

After taking two credit hour intro to fortran/computers, univ. hires me to re-implemented 1401 MPIO on 360/30, I got to design & implement my own monitor, device drivers, interrupt handlers, error recovery, dispatching, storage management, etc. Univ. shutdown datacenter from sat8am to mon8am and I would have the place all to myself for 48hrs straight (although 48hrs w/o sleep made mon morning classes difficult). The univ. had been sold 360/67 for tss/360 to replace 709/1401 (709 tape->tape and 1401 handling tape<->unit record for 709). 360/30 temporarily replaces 1401 ... pending arrival of 360/67. Within year of taking intro class, univ hires me fulltime responsible of os/360 running on 360/67 (tss/360 never came to production fruition and 360/67 was run as 360/65 with os/360).

Three people then from IBM science center to install cp67/cms (3rd installation after cambridge itself and Lincoln Labs). I get to play with it in my 48hr weekend dedicated window. I initially rewrite a lot of pathlengths for OS/360 running in CP67 virtual machine. Part of presentation I made at share after a few months of rewriting CP67
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/94.html#18
OS/360 (benchmark) run on bare machine 322sec, originally under CP67 856sec (534sec CP67 cpu overhead). A few months playing with CP67 and rewriting code, OS/360 under CP67 435 secs ... CP67 CPU overhead 113secs ... CP67 processing reduced from 534secs to 113secs.

I then start doing dynamic adaptive resource management, (global LRU) page replacement algorithms, page I/O optimization, dynamic working set, ordered arm seek queuing, etc. This was about the same time there were some academic papers in the ACM on "local lru" page replacement algorithm and working set page thrashing controls.

IBM (cambridge science center) picks most of my stuff and ships in CP67. Later in the early 70s, the IBM Grenoble Science Center implements the ACM academic "local LRU" and working set stuff in CP67. Cambridge at the time was running 80 CMS users on 768kbyte (104 pageable pages after fixed memory requirements). Grenoble was running 35 CMS users on 1mbyte (156 pagealbe pages after fixed memory requirements). The two systems had similar CMS workloads, throughput and response ... but my implementation was doing it with twice the users and 2/3rds paging space.

At 14-16Dec81 ACM SIGOPS ... Jim Gray asks me if I can help a co-worker of his at Tandem with his Stanford PHD ... involving global LRU page replacement algorithms. The "local LRU" forces from the 60s were heavily lobbying Stanford to not award a PHD in global LRU ... and Jim knew of my work in the 60s and I had apples-to-apples comparisons with Cambridge CP67 (running global LRU) and Grenoble CP67 (running local LRU). I pull out the information, but when I go to send it, IBM management says that I can't (even though it involved work I had done before joining IBM). It takes almost a year (19Oct1982) before I'm allowed to send the information.

Note in the late 70s & early 80s, I had been blamed for online computer communication on the internal network ... and spring of 1981, it really took off after I distributed a trip report visiting Jim at Tandem ... only about 300 participated, but claims that upwards of 25,000 were reading (folklore is when corporate executive committee was told, 5of6 wanted to fire me). In any case, I hoped that IBM management figuring that they it was part of punishing me for online stuff ... and not taking part in the academic global/local dispute and Stanford awarding a global LRU PHD.

old archive post with 19oct1982 cover letter to Jim's co-worker at tandem
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006w.html#email821019

science center posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech
dynamic adaptive resource management posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#fairshare
page replacement and working set algorithm posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#clock
achived posts mentioning online computer conferencing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#cmc

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

MGLRU Revved Once More For Promising Linux Performance Improvements

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: MGLRU Revved Once More For Promising Linux Performance Improvements
Date: 21 May 2022
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#45 MGLRU Revved Once More For Promising Linux Performance Improvements

trivia: under certain pathological conditions, LRU has tendency to degenerating to FIFO ... where the page selected for replacement was approx. the next page to be used (i.e. exactly the wrong page for selection). In the early 70s, I discovered a coding trick/hack ... that would degenerate to random instead of FIFO ... which had the results of always beating standard LRU (it was same as LRU except in the pathological conditions that instead of degenerating to FIFO, degenerated to random).

trivia: under certain pathological conditions, LRU has tendency to degenerating to FIFO ... where the page selected for replacement was approx. the next page to be used (i.e. exactly the wrong page for selection). In the early 70s, I discovered a coding trick/hack ... that would degenerate to random instead of FIFO ... which had the results of always beating standard LRU (it was same as LRU except in the pathological conditions that instead of degenerating to FIFO, degenerated to random).

... I also accumulated several papers ready for publication ... but IBM management was constantly saying that they weren't ready to be sent off (analogous to not being send off description of work I had done as undergraduate before joining IBM, couldn't be sent to stanford in the global/local LRU dispute). The senior local plant site tech editor attempted to tweak them to IBM management satisfaction ... but never happened. Several years later when he was about to retire and cleaning out his files, he forwarded his copies to me with note about having never encountered such IBM management behavior

... other trivia: also in the early 80s, we had done a system modification that could efficiently capture the record number for every disk I/O (paging, file, etc) and used it for a number of different systems doing wide variety of different computing work. One of the things it was used for was a I/O cache simulator ... which I claimed validated global LRU beating local LRU. Given a fixed amount of electronic memory ... a global system cache always beat splitting the electronic memory into channel level caches, disk controller level caches, and/or disk level caches (the caveat was where technology restricted the total amount of memory that could be addressed ... so that the total amount of memory in disk level caches could greatly exceed the amount of memory in a global system cache).

... in the 60s, IBM had 2301 & 2303 fixed head (per track) "drums" that could be used for paging &/or files ... so that there was no head movement access, just rotational delay. The followon was 2305 in the 70s, which was fixed head "disk" ... again no head movement delay, just rotational delay. By 1980, there was no followon product. IBM then contracted with vendor for what they called "1655", electronic disks that would emulate a 2305 ... but had no rotational delay. One of the issue was that while IBM had fixed-block disks, the company favorite son batch operating system never supported anything other than CKD DASD ... so for their use it had to simulate an existing CKD 2305 running over 1.5mbyte I/O channels. However for other IBM systems that supported FBA ... 1655s could be configured as fixed-block disk running on 3mbyte/sec I/O channels ... similar to SSD ... but had standard electronic memory that wasn't persistent w/o power.

page replacement and working set algorithm posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#clock
DASD, CKD, FBA, multi-track search, etc posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#dasd

archived posts specific mentioning 1.5bit, LRU that regresses to random (rather than FIFO)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/94.html#10 lru, clock, random & dynamic adaptive
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000f.html#9 Optimal replacement Algorithm
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000f.html#10 Optimal replacement Algorithm
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000f.html#32 Optimal replacement Algorithm
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000f.html#33 Optimal replacement Algorithm
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000f.html#34 Optimal replacement Algorithm
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001c.html#10 Memory management - Page replacement
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001f.html#54 any 70's era supercomputers that ran as slow as today's supercomputers?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001f.html#55 any 70's era supercomputers that ran as slow as today's supercomputers?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006q.html#19 virtual memory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007r.html#75 Real storage usage - a quick question
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008r.html#38 "True" story of the birth of the IBM PC
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011f.html#67 Old email from spring 1985
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014m.html#138 How hyper threading works? (Intel)

archived posts mentioning 1655 (electronic disks)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#65 IBM DASD
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021f.html#75 Mainframe disks
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019c.html#70 2301, 2303, 2305-1, 2305-2, paging, etc
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018.html#82 DEC and HVAC
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018.html#81 CKD details
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017k.html#44 Can anyone remember "drum" storage?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017k.html#14 India's British Army: the Honorable East India Company's Lasting Military Impact
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017e.html#36 National Telephone Day
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#65 Paging subsystems in the era of bigass memory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#63 Paging subsystems in the era of bigass memory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#26 Multitasking, together with OS operations
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#69 The ICL 2900
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#68 The ICL 2900
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016f.html#23 Frieden calculator
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016d.html#24 What was a 3314?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015b.html#35 Deny the British empire's crimes? No, we ignore them
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014b.html#64 Mac at 30: A love/hate relationship from the support front
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013d.html#0 Query for Destination z article -- mainframes back to the future
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012n.html#43 history of Programming language and CPU in relation to each
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011j.html#9 program coding pads
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011e.html#75 I'd forgotten what a 2305 looked like
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010h.html#78 Software that breaks computer hardware( was:IBM 029 service manual )
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010g.html#55 Mainframe Executive article on the death of tape
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010g.html#22 Mainframe Executive article on the death of tape
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010g.html#11 Mainframe Executive article on the death of tape
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009m.html#54 August 7, 1944: today is the 65th Anniversary of the Birth of the Computer
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008b.html#15 Flash memory arrays
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007u.html#4 Remembering the CDC 6600
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007s.html#9 Poster of computer hardware events?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007o.html#26 Tom's Hdw review of SSDs
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007e.html#59 FBA rant
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006s.html#30 Why magnetic drums was/are worse than disks ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006r.html#36 REAL memory column in SDSF
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006k.html#57 virtual memory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006e.html#46 using 3390 mod-9s
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006c.html#1 Multiple address spaces
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006.html#38 Is VIO mandatory?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005r.html#51 winscape?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005e.html#5 He Who Thought He Knew Something About DASD
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004e.html#3 Expanded Storage
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004d.html#73 DASD Architecture of the future
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003m.html#39 S/360 undocumented instructions?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003c.html#55 HASP assembly: What the heck is an MVT ABEND 422?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003b.html#17 Disk drives as commodities. Was Re: Yamhill
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003b.html#15 Disk drives as commodities. Was Re: Yamhill
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002l.html#40 Do any architectures use instruction count instead of timer
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002.html#31 index searching
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001l.html#53 mainframe question
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001c.html#17 database (or b-tree) page sizes

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

360&370 I/O Channels

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: 360&370 I/O Channels
Date: 21 May 2022
Blog: Facebook
up through m50, 360s had integrated channels ... i.e. processor unit had (at least) two sets of microcode ... one that implemented 360 instruction set and the other implemented channels. 360/60 & 360/70 originally announced with 1mic memory ... replaced with 360/65 and 360/75 than had 750ns memory. Also had 2860 (selector) and 2670 (multiplexor) external channels. 2880 block mux channels came along with "set sector" channel command ... 3330 & 2305 dasd could specify disconnect from channel until disks rotated around to specified position (to request channel reconnect, that would involve data transfer).

370 up through 158 also had integrated channels ... i.e. 158-3 processor unit had two sets of microcode ... while 370/165 & 370/168 had external channels.

In the 1st half of the 70s, IBM had the "Future System" project that was going to completely replace 370 (and completely different) ... during FS, internal politics was shutting down 370 efforts (lack of new 370 during FS is credited with giving clone 370 makers their market foothold). FS was suppose to be so complex as a countermeasure to clone controller makers ... they wouldn't be able to keep up ... but turns out it was also too complex for IBM to do (one of the last nails in FS coffin was study by the IBM Houston Science Center that 370/195 applications redone for FS machine made out of the fastest available hardware, would have throughput of 370/145 ... about 30 times slowdown). All during FS, I continued to work on 360&370 and would periodically ridicule what they were doing (which was exactly career enhancing activity). After FS implodes, there was mad rush to get stuff back into the 370 product pipelines, including kicking off quick&dirty 303x and 3081 in parallel. some FS details
http://www.jfsowa.com/computer/memo125.htm

3033 started out remapping 168-3 logic to 20% faster chips. For the external channels (303x "channel director"), they took an 158-3 engine with just the integrated channel microcode. A 3031 was a 158-3 engine with just the 370 instruction microcode and a 2nd 158-3 engine with just the integrated channel microcode (for 303x "channel director"). A 3032 was a 168-3 redone to use 303x "channel director" (158-3 engines with just the integrated channel microcode).

When I first transferred from IBM cambridge science center to IBM San Jose Research, I got to wander around local IBM and customer datacenters including bldg14 (disk engineering) and bldg15 (disk product test) across the street. They were doing preschedule, around the clock, stand-alone mainframe testing. They said they had recently tried to use MVS, but it had 15min mean-time-between-failure (requiring manual re-ipl) in that environment. I offered to rewrite I/O supervisor to make it bullet-proof and never fail so that they could do any amount of on-demand, concurrent testing ... greatly improving productivity.

Bldg15 tended to get very early engineering processing models for DASD testing ... including 3033 (with three channel directors, i.e. 158-3 integrated channel microcode supported up to six channels, so needed three for 16 channels) and 4341. The DASD testing only used a percent or two of 3033 processing ... so we found spare 3830 controller an couple strings of 3330s and put up our own online service (including running 3270 coax under the street to my bldg28 office). The 303x channel directors were still having some teething problems ... and would periodically require opening the doors and restarting the box. However, we discovered if you executed HCH (halt channel) for all six channels ... the box would automagically re-IMPL (w/o requiring somebody to manually do it). Later when we got some early 3274 controllers (which had similar problems requiring manual restart) ... we found if we quickly executed HDV/CLRIO instruction sequence for every 3274 subchannel address, it would also automagically re-IMPL.

Not without downsides; engineers would kneejerk complain that I was responsible for problems and I would have to spend increasing amount of time playing disk engineer and diagnosing hardware problems ... including getting into arguments that some of the stuff they were trying to do with development 3880 controllers were violating channel architecture (after escalating to conference call with POK channel engineers, disk engineers were demanding that I participate on future meetings and conference calls involve channel architecture). Another problem was I wrote internal IBM paper on the work ... and happened to mention the MVS 15min MTBF ... which brings down the wrath of the MVS group on my head (including claims of unsuccessful effort to separate me from IBM).

posts about getting to play disk engineer
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#disk
posts about DASD, CKD, FBA, multi-track search, etc
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#dasd
Future System posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#futuresys

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

360&370 I/O Channels

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: 360&370 I/O Channels
Date: 21 May 2022
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#47 360&370 I/O Channels

trivia: in the mid-70s, I started pontificating that DASD throughput wasn't keeping up with system performance. In the early 80s, wrote a tome that relative DASD throughput had declined by order of magnitude since the start of 360s (disks got 3-5 times faster, systems got 40-50 times faster). Some disk division executive took exception to my claims and assigned the division performance group to refute the claims. After a few weeks, they came back and said that I had slightly understated the problem. The performance group then respun the analysis for a (customer user group) SHARE presentation (16Aug1984, SHARE 63, B874) about configuring DASD for improved system throughput.

more trivia: 1980, STL (since renamed SVL) was bursting at the seams and were moving 300 from the IMS group to offsite bldg, with dataprocessing service back to STL datacenter. They had tried remote "3270" but found the human factors totally unacceptable. I then get con'ed until doing channel-extender support, placing channel attached 3270 controllers at offsite bldg ... and no perceptible difference for offsite and onsite (STL) 3270 human factors. The hardware vendor then tries to get IBM to release my support ... but there is group in POK playing with some serial stuff and are afraid if my stuff was in the market, it would make it harder to justify releasing their stuff ... and get it veto'd. Later in 1988, the branch asks if I can help LLNL (national lab) get some serial stuff they are playing with, standardized. It quickly becomes FCS (including some stuff I had done in 1980), starting at 1gbit full-duplex, 2gbit/sec aggregate, i.e. 200mbyte/sec. Then in 1990, the POK people get their stuff released wtih ES/9000 as ESCON (when it is already obsolete, 17mbytes/sec). Later some POK engineers become involved in FCS and define a heavy-weight protocol (that drastically reduces the standard throughput), which eventually ships as FICON.

Most recent published benchmark I can find, z196 "peak I/O" getting 2M IOPS needing 104 FICONS (running over 104 FCS). About the same time FCS announced for E5-2600 blades claiming over million IOPS (two such FCS having higher throughput than 104 FICONS running over 104 FCS). Other trivia: mainframe CKD DASD haven't been made for decades, being simulated on industry standard fixed-block disks ... aka, mainframe IOPS benchmarks not only the FICON overhead, but also CKD simulation overhead.

posts getting to disk engineer
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#disk
channel-extender posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#channel.extender
FICON posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#ficon

some recent posts mentioning SHARE B874 presentation
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#92 Processor, DASD, VTAM & TCP/IP performance
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#70 165/168/3033 & 370 virtual memory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#131 Multitrack Search Performance
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#108 IBM Disks
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#78 IBM 370 and Future System
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021g.html#44 iBM System/3 FORTRAN for engineering/science work?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021f.html#53 3380 disk capacity
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021.html#79 IBM Disk Division
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021.html#59 San Jose bldg 50 and 3380 manufacturing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019b.html#94 MVS Boney Fingers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#78 370 virtual memory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#93 It's 1983: What computer would you buy?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018c.html#30 Bottlenecks and Capacity planning

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

IBM Dug A Hole

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: IBM Dug A Hole
Date: 22 May 2022
Blog: Facebook
IBM had dug itself into a deep hole ... one of the largest losses in US corporate history and was being re-orged into the 13 "baby blues" in preparation for breaking up the company ... gone behind paywall, mostly free at wayback machine
http://web.archive.org/web/20101120231857/http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,977353,00.html
may also work
http://content.time.com/time/subscriber/article/0,33009,977353-1,00.html

In the late 70s and early 80s, I was blamed for online computer conferencing on the IBM internal network ... it really took off spring of 1981 when I distributed a trip report of visit to Jim Gray at Tandem ... only about 300 participated, but claims that upwards of 25,000 were reading. eventually printed six copies of about 300 pages from online computer conferencing, along with an executive summary and summary of the summary ... packaged in six Tandem 3ring binders and sent to the corporate executive committee ... folklore is that 5of6 wanted to fire me ... from summary of the summary:

• The perception of many technical people in IBM is that the company is rapidly heading for disaster. Furthermore, people fear that this movement will not be appreciated until it begins more directly to affect revenue, at which point recovery may be impossible

• Many technical people are extremely frustrated with their management and with the way things are going in IBM. To an increasing extent, people are reacting to this by leaving IBM Most of the contributors to the present discussion would prefer to stay with IBM and see the problems rectified. However, there is increasing skepticism that correction is possible or likely, given the apparent lack of commitment by management to take action

• There is a widespread perception that IBM management has failed to understand how to manage technical people and high-technology development in an extremely competitive environment.


... snip ...

... took another decade (1981 to 1992) ... had already left IBM, but get a call from the bowels of Armonk asking if could help with breakup of the company. Lots of business units were using supplier contracts in other units via MOUs. After the breakup, all of these contracts would be in different companies ... all of those MOUs would have to be cataloged and turned into their own contracts. However, before getting started, the board brings in a new CEO (former president of AMEX) and reverses the breakup ... new CEO also used some of the same techniques at RJR ... gone 404, but lives on at wayback machine
https://web.archive.org/web/20181019074906/http://www.ibmemployee.com/RetirementHeist.shtml

aka ... "Barbarians at the Gate"; AMEX was in competition with KKR for (private equity) LBO (reverse IPO) of RJR and KKR wins. KKR runs into trouble and hires away AMEX president to help with RJR (later goes on to be CEO of IBM)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barbarians_at_the_Gate:_The_Fall_of_RJR_Nabisco

... could claim downturn and destruction of IBM culture started with the FS project in the 1st half of the 70s, Ferguson & Morris, "Computer Wars: The Post-IBM World", Time Books, 1993 .... reference to the "Future System" project:

and perhaps most damaging, the old culture under Watson Snr and Jr of free and vigorous debate was replaced with *SYNCOPHANCY* and *MAKE NO WAVES* under Opel and Akers. It's claimed that thereafter, IBM lived in the shadow of defeat ... But because of the heavy investment of face by the top management, F/S took years to kill, although its wrong headedness was obvious from the very outset. "For the first time, during F/S, outspoken criticism became politically dangerous," recalls a former top executive.

... snip ...

related past threads:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#113 IBM Downturn
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#50 IBM Downturn
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#49 IBM Downturn
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#45 IBM Downturn
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#32 IBM Downturn
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#31 IBM Downturn
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#89 IBM Downturn
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#88 IBM Downturn
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#84 IBM Downturn
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#83 IBM Downturn
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#82 IBM Downturn
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#81 IBM Downturn
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#80 IBM Downturn
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#79 IBM Downturn
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019b.html#79 IBM downturn
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019b.html#77 IBM downturn
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019b.html#76 IBM downturn
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019b.html#75 IBM downturn
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018d.html#39 IBM downturn

other recent posts mentioning re-org for 13 "baby blues in preparation for breaking up the company
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#40 AMEX, First Data, & IBM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#36 IBM Business Conduct Guidelines
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#23 COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#110 Financial longevity that redhat gives IBM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#98 IBM Systems Revenue Put Into a Historical Context
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#64 IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#47 IBM deliberately misclassified mainframe sales to enrich execs, lawsuit claims
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#40 After IBM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#38 After IBM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#23 Telum & z16
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#13 IBM z16: Built to Build the Future of Your Business
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#11 IBM z16: Built to Build the Future of Your Business
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#107 15 Examples of How Different Life Was Before The Internet
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#90 Computer BUNCH
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#78 Channel I/O
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#75 Frameworks Quagmire
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#73 IBM Disks
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#63 Mainframes
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#56 Fujitsu confirms end date for mainframe and Unix systems
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#52 IBM History
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#51 IBM History
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#6 On why it's CR+LF and not LF+CR [ASR33]
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#123 SHARE LSRAD Report
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#110 Not counting dividends IBM delivered an annualized yearly loss of 2.27%
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#102 Online Computer Conferencing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#88 Virtual Machine SIE instruction
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#54 Automated Benchmarking
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#53 Automated Benchmarking
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#47 IBM Conduct

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

IBM Dug A Hole

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: IBM Dug A Hole
Date: 22 May 2022
Blog: Facebook
re;
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#49 IBM Dug A Hole

... and IBM mainframe hardware use to be the mainstay of IBM revenue ... but that was quickly dropping with the death grip stranglehold that the communication group had on mainframe datacenters from their corporate strategic ownership of everything that crossed datacenter walls ... and fiercely fighting off client/server and distributed computing (trying to preserve their dumb terminal paradigm).

Late 80s a GPD/Adstar senior disk engineer got a talk scheduled at internal, annual, world-wide, communication group conference ... supposedly on 3174 performance, but opens the talk with statement that the communication group was going to be responsible for the demise of the disk division. They were seeing a drop in disk sales with customer data fleeing datacenters to more distributed computing friendly platforms. They had come up with number of solutions ... but they were constantly being vetoed by the communication group (with their corporate strategic ownership of everything that crossed datacenter walls).

As partial work around to corporate politics, the GPD/ADSTAR software VP was investing in distributed computing startups that would use IBM disks ... and he would ask us to drop by his investments and provide any help we could. He also funded the original MVS posix, open system support.

past posts mentioning "dumb terminal" paradigm and/or (communication group) datacenter stranglehold
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#terminal

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

IBM Spooling

Refed: **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: IBM Spooling
Date: 22 May 2022
Blog: Facebook
my wife was in gburg JES group and one of the catchers for JES3. She also co-author of JESUS (JES unified system) specifications ... all the features of JES2 & JES3 that the respective customers couldn't live w/o ... for whatever reason, never got off the ground.

She was then con'ed into going to POK to be responsible for loosely-coupled architecture where she did peer-coupled shared data architecture. She didn't remain long because of 1) little uptake except for IMS hot-standby (until much later with sysplex and parallel sysplex) and 2) frequent battles with communication group trying to force her into using SNA/VTAM for loosely-coupled operation.

She has story about asking Vern Watts after work, who he was going to get permission from to do IMS hot-standy and he tells her nobody, he would just do it and tell them when it was all done

peer-coupled shared data posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#shareddata

a little topic drift: a decade ago, a customer asked me if I could track down decision to make all 370s "virtual memory" (basically MVT storage management was so bad that regions had to be four times larger than used, i.e. typical 1mbyte 370/165 would only have four regions, insufficient throughput to justify machine, virtual memory would allow increasing number of regions by factor of four times with little or no paging) ... old archived post
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011d.html#73
includes history discussion of ASP/JES3, HASP/JES2, and spooling going back to IBM 7070.

HASP, JES, spooling, NJE posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#hasp

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Another IBM Down Fall thread

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Another IBM Down Fall thread
Date: 23 May 2022
Blog: Facebook
... periodic reference to the increasing prevalence of "careerists" and "bureaucrats" among IBM management

Management Briefing
Number 1-72: January 18,1972
ZZ04-1312

TO ALL IBM MANAGERS:

Once again, I'm writing you a Management Briefing on the subject of bureaucracy. Evidently the earlier ones haven't worked. So this time I'm taking a further step: I'm going directly to the individual employees in the company. You will be reading this poster and my comment on it in the forthcoming issue of THINK magazine. But I wanted each one of you to have an advance copy because rooting out bureaucracy rests principally with the way each of us runs his own shop.

We've got to make a dent in this problem. By the time the THINK piece comes out, I want the correction process already to have begun. And that job starts with you and with me.

Vin Learson


... and ...

+-----------------------------------------+
|           "BUSINESS ECOLOGY"            |
|                                         |
|                                         |
|            +---------------+            |
|            |  BUREAUCRACY  |            |
|            +---------------+            |
|                                         |
|           is your worst enemy           |
|              because it -               |
|                                         |
|      POISONS      the mind              |
|      STIFLES      the spirit            |
|      POLLUTES     self-motivation       |
|             and finally                 |
|      KILLS        the individual.       |
+-----------------------------------------+
"I'M Going To Do All I Can to Fight This Problem . . ."
by T. Vincent Learson, Chairman

... snip ...

shortly followed by the Future System disaster, from Ferguson & Morris, "Computer Wars: The Post-IBM World", Time Books, 1993 .... reference to the "Future System" ...

"and perhaps most damaging, the old culture under Watson Snr and Jr of free and vigorous debate was replaced with *SYNCOPHANCY* and *MAKE NO WAVES* under Opel and Akers. It's claimed that thereafter, IBM lived in the shadow of defeat ... But because of the heavy investment of face by the top management, F/S took years to kill, although its wrong headedness was obvious from the very outset. "For the first time, during F/S, outspoken criticism became politically dangerous," recalls a former top executive."

... snip ...

more FS info
http://www.jfsowa.com/computer/memo125.htm
futute system posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#futuresys

some past careerists, "bureaucrats" posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#35 IBM Business Conduct Guidelines
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021g.html#51 Intel rumored to be in talks to buy chip manufacturer GlobalFoundries for $30B
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021g.html#32 Big Blue's big email blues signal terminal decline - unless it learns to migrate itself
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021e.html#62 IBM / How To Stuff A Wild Duck
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021d.html#51 IBM Hardest Problem(s)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021.html#0 IBM "Wild Ducks"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017j.html#23 How to Stuff a Wild Duck
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017f.html#109 IBM downfall
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#56 Wild Ducks
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015d.html#19 Where to Flatten the Officer Corps
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013.html#11 How do we fight bureaucracy and bureaucrats in IBM?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012f.html#92 How do you feel about the fact that India has more employees than US?

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Another IBM Down Fall thread

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Another IBM Down Fall thread
Date: 23 May 2022
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#51 Another IBM Down Fall thread

trivia: I continued to work on 360&370 stuff all during FS (was completely different from 370 and was suppose to completely replace 370; during FS, internal politics was shutting down 370 activity, which was credited with giving the clone 370 makers their market foothold) and would periodically ridicule what they were doing (which wasn't particularly career enhancing activity). I was also blamed for online computer conferencing (precursor to modern social media) in the late 70s and early 80s ... it really took off spring of 1981 after I distributed trip report of visit to Jim Gray at Tandem. Only about 300 participated, but claims of upwards of 25,000 were reading. Eventually printed six copies of 300 conference pages along with executive summary and summary of the summary, packaged in Tandem 3-ring binders and set to the corporate executive committee (folklore is 5of6 wanted to fire me). From summary of the summary:

• The perception of many technical people in IBM is that the company is rapidly heading for disaster. Furthermore, people fear that this movement will not be appreciated until it begins more directly to affect revenue, at which point recovery may be impossible

• Many technical people are extremely frustrated with their management and with the way things are going in IBM. To an increasing extent, people are reacting to this by leaving IBM Most of the contributors to the present discussion would prefer to stay with IBM and see the problems rectified. However, there is increasing skepticism that correction is possible or likely, given the apparent lack of commitment by management to take action

• There is a widespread perception that IBM management has failed to understand how to manage technical people and high-technology development in an extremely competitive environment.


... snip ...

... but it takes another decade (1981-1992) ... IBM has one of the worst losses in US company history and was being re-orged into the 13 "baby blues" in preparation for breaking up the company. gone behind paywall, but mostly lives free at wayback machine.
http://web.archive.org/web/20101120231857/http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,977353,00.html
may also work
http://content.time.com/time/subscriber/article/0,33009,977353-1,00.html
had already left IBM, but get a call from the bowels of Armonk asking if could help with breakup of the company. Lots of business units were using supplier contracts in other units via MOUs. After the breakup, all of these contracts would be in different companies ... all of those MOUs would have to be cataloged and turned into their own contracts. However, before getting started, the board brings in a new CEO and reverses the breakup ... new CEO also used some of the same techniques at RJR (gone 404, but lives on at wayback machine).
https://web.archive.org/web/20181019074906/http://www.ibmemployee.com/RetirementHeist.shtml

online computer conferencing posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#cmc
gerstner posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#gerstner

more trivia: in the executive exit interview, I was told they could have forgiven me for being wrong, but they were NEVER going to forgive me for being right.

other trivia, from IBM Jargon:
https://comlay.net/ibmjarg.pdf

Tandem Memos - n. Something constructive but hard to control; a fresh of breath air (sic). That's another Tandem Memos. A phrase to worry middle management. It refers to the computer-based conference (widely distributed in 1981) in which many technical personnel expressed dissatisfaction with the tools available to them at that time, and also constructively criticized the way products were [are] developed. The memos are required reading for anyone with a serious interest in quality products. If you have not seen the memos, try reading the November 1981 Datamation summary.

... snip ...

lots of recent IBM down turn/fall threads
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#50 IBM Dug A Hole
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#49 IBM Dug A Hole
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#40 AMEX, First Data, & IBM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#37 IBM Business Conduct Guidelines
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#36 IBM Business Conduct Guidelines
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#35 IBM Business Conduct Guidelines
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#23 COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#110 Financial longevity that redhat gives IBM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#98 IBM Systems Revenue Put Into a Historical Context
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#64 IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#47 IBM deliberately misclassified mainframe sales to enrich execs, lawsuit claims
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#40 After IBM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#38 After IBM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#23 Telum & z16
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#13 IBM z16: Built to Build the Future of Your Business
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#11 IBM z16: Built to Build the Future of Your Business
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#4 Industrial Espionage
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#107 15 Examples of How Different Life Was Before The Internet
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#90 Computer BUNCH
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#78 Channel I/O
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#75 Frameworks Quagmire
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#73 IBM Disks
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#63 Mainframes
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#56 Fujitsu confirms end date for mainframe and Unix systems
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#52 IBM History
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#51 IBM History
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#6 On why it's CR+LF and not LF+CR [ASR33]
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#123 SHARE LSRAD Report
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#110 Not counting dividends IBM delivered an annualized yearly loss of 2.27%
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#102 Online Computer Conferencing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#88 Virtual Machine SIE instruction
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#54 Automated Benchmarking
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#53 Automated Benchmarking
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#48 Mainframe Career
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#47 IBM Conduct
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#126 The Network Nation
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#125 IBM Clone Controllers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#123 Mainframe "Peak I/O" benchmark
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#117 Building the System/360 Mainframe Nearly Destroyed IBM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#79 IBM Fridays
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#76 'Flying Blind' Review: Downward Trajectory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#25 Twelve O'clock High at IBM Training
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#18 IBM's social media policy
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#3 IBM Downturn
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#113 IBM Downturn
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#110 IBM & MasterCard
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#100 Who Says Elephants Can't Dance?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#96 IBM 3278
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#95 This chemist is reimagining the discovery of materials using AI and automation
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#76 IBM 370 and Future System
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#74 IBM 3278
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#70 IBM Wild Ducks
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#68 MTS, 360/67, FS, Internet, SNA
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#59 Order of Knights VM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#56 IBM and Cloud Computing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#50 IBM Downturn
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#49 IBM Downturn
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#45 IBM Downturn
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#38 IBM Registered Confidential
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#32 IBM Downturn
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#31 IBM Downturn
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#92 How IBM lost the cloud
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#89 IBM Downturn
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#88 IBM Downturn
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#84 IBM Downturn
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#83 IBM Downturn
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#82 IBM Downturn
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#81 IBM Downturn
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#80 IBM Downturn
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#79 IBM Downturn
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#64 Virtual Machine Debugging
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#47 vs/pascal
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021h.html#93 CMSBACK, ADSM, TSM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021h.html#1 Cloud computing's destiny
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021g.html#51 Intel rumored to be in talks to buy chip manufacturer GlobalFoundries for $30B
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021g.html#45 Cloud computing's destiny
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021g.html#33 Big Blue's big email blues signal terminal decline - unless it learns to migrate itself
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021g.html#31 IBM Programming Projects
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021g.html#20 Big Blue's big email blues signal terminal decline - unless it learns to migrate itself
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021g.html#18 IBM email migration disaster
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021f.html#61 Private Inequity: How a Powerful Industry Conquered the Tax System
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021f.html#55 3380 disk capacity
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021f.html#47 Martial Arts "OODA-loop"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021f.html#32 IBM HSDT & HA/CMP
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021f.html#24 IBM Remains Big Tech's Disaster
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021f.html#7 The Rise of Private Equity
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021f.html#6 Financial Engineering
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021f.html#4 Study: Are You Too Nice to be Financially Successful?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021e.html#16 IBM Internal Network
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021d.html#86 Bizarre Career Events
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021d.html#68 How Gerstner Rebuilt IBM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021d.html#15 The Rise of the Internet
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021c.html#95 What's Fortran?!?!
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021c.html#84 IBM SNA/VTAM (& HSDT)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021c.html#63 Distributed Computing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021c.html#61 MAINFRAME (4341) History
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021c.html#49 IBM CEO
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021c.html#48 MAINFRAME (4341) History
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021b.html#97 IBM Glory days
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021b.html#12 IBM "811", 370/xa architecture
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021b.html#9 IBM Kneecapping products
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021b.html#7 IBM & Apple
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021b.html#4 Killer Micros
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021b.html#0 Will The Cloud Take Down The Mainframe?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021.html#79 IBM Disk Division
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021.html#39 IBM Tech
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021.html#26 CMSBACK, ADSM, TSM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021.html#7 IBM CEOs

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Another IBM Down Fall thread

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Another IBM Down Fall thread
Date: 24 May 2022
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#51 Another IBM Down Fall thread
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#52 Another IBM Down Fall thread

... some more on careerists and bureaucrats (from my comments upthread) ... I had been introduced to John Boyd in the early 80s and would sponsor his briefings at IBM. In one of his briefings, he noted that former military officers were starting to destroy US corporate culture with their ingrained, rigid, top-down, command&control (theoretically only those at the very top were qualified to make decisions). However, that was about the same time that articles were starting to appear that MBAs were destroying US corporations with their myopic focus on quarterly results (some amount of that was discussed in "Tandem Memos" ... part of the internal online computer conferencing that I was blamed for in the late 70s and early 80s). The Price of Inequality: How Today's Divided Society Endangers Our Future
https://www.amazon.com/Price-Inequality-Divided-Society-Endangers-ebook/dp/B007MKCQ30/
pg35/loc1169-73:

In business school we teach students how to recognize, and create, barriers to competition -- including barriers to entry -- that help ensure that profits won't be eroded. Indeed, as we shall shortly see, some of the most important innovations in business in the last three decades have centered not on making the economy more efficient but on how better to ensure monopoly power or how better to circumvent government regulations intended to align social returns and private rewards

... snip ...

John Boyd posts & web references
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subboyd.html
online comuter conferencing posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#cmc
capitalism posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#capitalism
inequality posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#inequality

In 89/90, the commandant of the marine corps leverages Boyd for a make-over of the corps (at a time when IBM was desperately in need of a make-over ... as mentioned upthread, in 92, IBM has one of the largest losses in US corporate history and was being reorganized into the 13 "baby blues" in preparation for breakup of the company). We had already left IBM, but were contacted from the bowels of Armonk about helping with the breakup of the company (new CEO was brought in and reversed the breakup before we got started). Along the way we were getting email from former IBM colleagues about top executives weren't running the business but myopically focused on moving expenses from the following year to the current year. We ask our contact from the bowels of Armonk about it. He says that the current year was in the red and they won't get a bonus ... but if they could move sufficient expenses from the following year into the current year, even nudging it slightly into the black ... the way the executive bonus plan was written, they would get a bonus more than twice as large as any previous bonus (aka effectively reward for taking the company into the red).

... another contributing factor that I periodically mention is IBM mainframe hardware use to be the mainstay of IBM revenue ... but that was quickly dropping with the death grip stranglehold that the communication group had on mainframe datacenters with their corporate strategic ownership of everything that crossed datacenter walls ... and fiercely fighting off client/server and distributed computing (trying to preserve their dumb terminal paradigm). Late 80s a GPD/Adstar senior disk engineer got a talk scheduled at internal, annual, world-wide, communication group conference ... supposedly on 3174 performance, but opens the talk with statement that the communication group was going to be responsible for the demise of the disk division. They were seeing a drop in disk sales with customer data fleeing datacenters to more distributed computing friendly platforms. They had come up with number of solutions ... but they were constantly being vetoed by the communication group (with their corporate strategic ownership of everything that crossed datacenter walls). Trying to work around the corporate politics, the senior GPD/Adstar executive of software is investing in distributed computing startups that would use IBM disks ... he also asks us to visit his investments and provide any help we could.

past posts mentioning "dumb terminal" paradigm and/or (communication group) datacenter stranglehold
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#terminal

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

CMS OS/360 Simulation

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: CMS OS/360 Simulation
Date: 24 May 2022
Blog: Facebook
Note CMS OS simulation was only 64kbytes of code. During Future System in the 1st part of 70s (was completely different than 370 and was going to completely replace 370) internal politics during the period was shutting down 370 efforts, and the lack of new 370 is credited with giving 370 clone makers their market foothold. When FS implodes there was a mad rush to get stuff back into the 370 product pipeline ... including kicking off quick&dirty 3033&3081 in parrallel. some more info
http://www.jfsowa.com/computer/memo125.htm

future system posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#futuresys

The head of POK was also convinced corporate to kill vm370 product, shutdown the development group and transfer all the people to POK (for MVS/XA) or otherwise (claimed that) MVS/XA wouldn't be able to ship on time. Part of the shutdown was trashing ongoing new vm370 stuff ... including significantly extensions to CMS OS/simulation. Endicott eventually managed to acquire the VM370 product mission, but had to reconstitute development group from scratch.

A decade ago, a customer asked me if I could track down why all 370s were made virtual memory. I eventually found somebody that worked for the executive. Basically MVT storage management was so bad that regions had to be four times larger than normally used ... so a typical 1mbyte 370/165 would only have four regions ... insufficient workload throughput to justify 165. Going to virtual memory allowed to increase the number of MVT regions by a factor of four ... with little or no paging. Old archive post with some of the email exchange:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011d.html#73

includes mentioning dropping in on Ludlow doing the original VS2 prototype (aka VS2/SVS) on 360/67 ... very analogous to running MVT in a CP67 16mbyte virtual machine ... except a little code was moved into MVT that built 16mbyte virtual address space tables and some simple paging. Biggest code was EXCP/SVC0 taking channel programs from applications and executing them. Now all (application) channel programs had virtual address and channels required real addresses. Basically CP67 CCWTRANS (that created copy/shadow channel programs with real addresses, for execution) crafted into EXCP/SVC0.

other posts mentioning Ludlow doing vs2 prototype
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#70 165/168/3033 & 370 virtual memory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#58 Computer Security
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#10 360/65, 360/67, 360/75
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021g.html#6 IBM 370
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011o.html#92 Question regarding PSW correction after translation exceptions on old IBM hardware
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005s.html#25 MVCIN instruction
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005p.html#45 HASP/ASP JES/JES2/JES3

Later for VS2/MVS, each "region" was given its own 16mbyte address space, however because OS/360 was heavily pointer-passing API, an 8mbyte image of the MVS kernel was mapped into each address space (so each MVS image could directly access calling application's adresses) ... reducing application space to 8mbyte. However, OS/360 subsystems were also put in their own 16mbyte address space. To allow subsystems to address calling application addresses, the 1mbyte "common segment" was created in every address space for application to pass parameters (reducing application available space by another mebyte to 7mbytes). However that requirement was somewhat proportional to number of subsystems and concurrently executing application ... by 3033 it had become "CSA" (common system area) and was typically 5-6mbytes (leaving only 2-3mbytes available for applications) and threatening to becomes 8mbytes (leaving zero bytes for applications).

IBM Burlington had a major chip design program implemented in Fortran that was 7mbytes .... which was run on several carefully crafted dedicated MVS systems that only had a single mbyte CSA ... and they were also constrantly fighting the 7mbyte limit any time changes and/or enhancements were made. About the same time there were an explosion in internal VM/4341s being installed out in departmental area (so many departmental conference rooms were being used for 4341, that conference rooms were becoming scarce resource).

At the same time many machine rooms had reached physical capacity and lots of IBM was looking at how to move applications off the big mainframe to the departmental machines. Los Gatos VLSI lab found that many applications on the main plant site required MVS features not supported by CMS. They did some work and found that 12k bytes of additional OS Simulation ... they were able to move most major applications. Then OS Simulation enhancements was even offered to IBM Burlington, that they could move all the large dedicated mainframe off MVS to VM370/CMS and eliminate their 7mbyte limit problem for the major chip design program (that with a few additional tweaks, CMS OS simulation was doing everything they needed from MVS ... and CMS would only take a couple hundred k-bytes, rather than 9mbytes).

other posts mentioning "common system area"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#69 IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#49 IBM 3033 Personal Computing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#19 Channel I/O
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#113 IBM Future System
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#17 Versatile Cache from IBM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021h.html#70 IBM Research, Adtech, Science Center
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021b.html#63 Early Computer Use
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2020.html#36 IBM S/360 - 370

trivia: POK was planning on not telling the VM370 group until the very last minute, that VM370 was being killed and they were all being moved to POK (to minimize the number that might escape). However, the information managed to leak early and numerous managed to escape (DEC VMS was in its infancy and there was joke that head of POK was major contributor to VAX/VMS). There was then a witch hunt to track down the leak ... fortunately nobody gave me up.

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

CMS OS/360 Simulation

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: CMS OS/360 Simulation
Date: 24 May 2022
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#55 CMS OS/360 Simulation

a little topic drift ... Endicott (may1975) had con'ed into working with them on ECPS microcode assist (for virgil/tully aka 138/148) ... including the initial analysis of what would be dropped into microcode. I was told that 370->microcode would drop in on about byte-for-byte basis and there was 6kbytes available ... and I needed to identify the 6kbytes highest executed VM370 code. Old archived post with initial analysis (6kbytes vm370 kernel accounted for 79.55% of vm370 kernel cpu and would run ten times faster in microcode)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/94.html#21

Endicott then tried to get corporate approval to ship vm370 in every 138/148 made (sort of like later PR/SM-LPARS) ... but since POK was in the process of convincing corporate to kill vm370 product ... they couldn't get approval.

Early 80s, I get approval to give presentation on how ECPS was done, at local monthly BAYBUNCH user group meetings. After meetings, we usually adjorned to local silicon valley watering holes ... and the Amdahl people grilled me for more on ECPS. They said that they were in process of implementing HYPERVISOR in Amdahl "MACROCODE" ... a 370-like instruction set that ran in microcode mode. MACROCODE was originally developed to greatly simplify and cut the time to respond to the plethora of trivial microcode changes that IBM had started doing for 3033 (which were required by IBM operating systems). For high-end machines, microcode was "horizontal" which was very complex and time-consuming to program. While Amdahl was able to ship "HYPERVISOR" in the early 80s ... it took until 1988 for IBM to respond with PR/SM & LPAR for 3090.

Other trivia: comment mentioned upthread, POK had killed the VM370 development group and moved the people to POK ... there was an "internal only" virtual machine facility (VMTOOL) done supporting MVS/XA development with SIE microcode assist (similar to ECPS) ... it was never intended for performance and/or production use. Later when customers weren't converting to MVS/XA as planned ... and Amdahl customers were enjoying HYPERVISOR being able to run both MVS and MVS/XA as converstion aid ... SIE microcode and VMTOOL (as VM/MA & VM/SF) were made available on 3081. One of the SIE performance issues (never intended for production use) was 3081 didn't have the microcode space ... and SIE microcode had to be "paged" in and out.

Old archived email from trout (ie. 3090) processor engineer ... was that they were at least doing 3090 SIE for production performance (and didn't have to be paged in&out).
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006j.html#email810630
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003j.html#email831118

trivia: about same time as ECPS ... got involved in a project to do 16-processor SMP system ... and we sucked the 3033 processor engineers into working on it in their spare time (lot more interesting that Q&D remapping 168-3 logic to 20% faster chips). Everybody thought it was really great until somebody told the head of POK that it could be decades before the POK favorite son operating system (MVS) had (effective) 16-way support. He then invites some of us to never visit POK again and directs the 3033 processor engineers to solely focus on the 3033 (once the 3033 is out the door, they start on trout, i.e. 3090 ... I would periodically sneak back into POK). Pure aside, 1st 16-processor to ship is z900 after turn of the century, over 20yrs later. also see FS about Q&D 3033&3081
http://www.jfsowa.com/computer/memo125.htm

3090
https://www.ibm.com/ibm/history/exhibits/mainframe/mainframe_PP3090.html
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM_3090
PR/SM & LPAR (1988)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PR/SM

future system post
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#futuresys
SMP posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#smp
microcode posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#mcode

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

CMS OS/360 Simulation

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: CMS OS/360 Simulation
Date: 24 May 2022
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#55 CMS OS/360 Simulation
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#56 CMS OS/360 Simulation

trivia: I had taken 2 credit hour intro to FORTRAN/computers ... at the end of semester got a student programming job to rewrite 1401 MPIO for 360/30. The univ had been sold 360/67 for TSS/360 to replace 709/1401 (709 tape->tape w/1401 front end doing tape<->unit record). Pending delivery of 360/67, the 1401 was temporarily replaced by 360/30 (that had 1401 simulation mode). Univ. shutdown datacenter from sat8am until mon 8am and I would have the whole place to myself (although 48hrs w/o sleep could have trouble with Mon. morning classes). They gave me a bunch of manuals and I got to design and implement my own monitor, device drivers, interrupt handlers, error recovery, storage management, etc. and within a few weeks had 2000 card assembler program. 360/30 ran PCP release 6 (OS/360 assembler option generated BPS or OS/360 mode, took 30mins elapsed time to assemble BPS mode, 60mins to assemble OS/360 mode ... about 5mins/DCB macro).

Within a year of taking intro class, I was hired fulltime responsible for OS/360 (TSS/360 never came to production fruition and 360/67 was used as 360/65 w/OS360) and I continue to have my dedicated 48hr weekend time. My first 360 SYSGEN was MFT release 9.5. Student FORTRAN ran under second with 709 IBSYS tape->tape. Initially in 360/65 (mode) they ran over a minute. I install HASP cutting run time in half. Then for Release 11 SYSGEN ... I start reorder the SYSGEN cards for careful ordering of datasets and PDS members (to optimize arm seek and pds directory multi-track search). By the time I do Release 14 SYSGEN, I've gotten the elapsed time down to 12.9sec (approx three times faster than standard SYSGENed system w/HASP). My first MVT SYSGEN is release 15/16 (15 slips and released as combined 15&16) and then release 18. Note student jobs never beat 709 time until I installed Univ. of Waterloo WATFOR.

posts mentioning hasp, asp, jes2, jes3, &/or nge/nji
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#hasp

Some people from science center had come out to the univ to install (virtual machine) CP67/CMS (3rd installation after science center and MIT Lincoln Labs). I get to fiddle with it on weekends, rewriting a lot of the code. Tests running MFT14 student benchmark, 322sec bare machine, 856sec in virtual machine (534sec CP67 CPU). After a few months of rewriting CP67 code in my spare time, 435sec (CP67 CPU reduced 421secs from 534secs to 113secs). Part of old SHARE presentation:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/94.html#18

science center posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech

Then before I graduate I was hired fulltime into a small group in the Boeing CFO office to help with the formation of Boeing Computer Services (consolidate all dataprocessing into an independent business unit, including offering services to non-Boeing entities). I thot Renton datacenter was possibly largest in the world (couple hundred million in 360s), 360/65s were arriving faster than they could be installed, boxes constantly staged in hallways around machine room. Lots of politics between Renton datacenter director and CFO ... who just had a 360/30 up at Boeing field for payroll ... although they enlarged the room to install 360/67 for me to play with CP67/CMS ... when I wasn't busy with other stuff.

some posts mentioning boeing computer services
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#19 COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#10 Computer Server Market
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#72 IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#42 Why did Dennis Ritchie write that UNIX was a modern implementation of CTSS?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#8 Cloud Timesharing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#2 IBM 2250 Graphics Display
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#0 System Response
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#126 Google Cloud
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#117 Downfall: The Case Against Boeing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#73 IBM Disks
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#35 Dataprocessing Career
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#27 Dataprocessing Career
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#10 Seattle Dataprocessing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#120 Series/1 VTAM/NCP
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#109 Not counting dividends IBM delivered an annualized yearly loss of 2.27%
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#73 MVT storage management issues
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#48 Mainframe Career
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#30 CP67 and BPS Loader
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#22 IBM IBU (Independent Business Unit)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#12 Programming Skills
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#70 'Flying Blind' Review: Downward Trajectory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#55 System Availability
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#64 addressing and protection, was Paper about ISO C
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#63 IBM 360s
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#89 IBM Downturn
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#6 The Kill Chain: Defending America in the Future of High-Tech Warfare
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021h.html#64 WWII Pilot Barrel Rolls Boeing 707
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021h.html#46 Dynamic Adaptive Resource Management
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021h.html#35 IBM/PC 12Aug1981
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021g.html#39 iBM System/3 FORTRAN for engineering/science work?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021g.html#6 IBM 370
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021f.html#78 The Long-Forgotten Flight That Sent Boeing Off Course
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021f.html#57 "Hollywood model" for dealing with engineers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021f.html#20 1401 MPIO
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021f.html#16 IBM Zcloud - is it just outsourcing ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021e.html#80 Amdahl
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021e.html#55 SHARE (& GUIDE)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021e.html#54 Learning PDP-11 in 2021
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021d.html#51 IBM Hardest Problem(s)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021d.html#34 April 7, 1964: IBM Bets Big on System/360
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021d.html#25 Field Support and PSRs
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021c.html#2 Colours on screen (mainframe history question)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021b.html#62 Early Computer Use
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021b.html#40 IBM & Boeing run by Financiers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021b.html#5 Availability
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021.html#78 Interactive Computing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021.html#48 IBM Quota
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021.html#41 CADAM & Catia
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2020.html#45 Watch AI-controlled virtual fighters take on an Air Force pilot on August 18th
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2020.html#32 IBM TSS
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2020.html#29 Online Computer Conferencing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2020.html#10 "This Plane Was Designed By Clowns, Who Are Supervised By Monkeys"

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

IBM 360/50 Simulation From Its Microcode

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: IBM 360/50 Simulation From Its Microcode
Date: 24 May 2022
Blog: Facebook
Simulating the IBM 360/50 mainframe from its microcode
http://www.righto.com/2022/01/ibm360model50.html

360/50 Functional Characteristics at bitsavers
http://www.bitsavers.org/pdf/ibm/360/functional_characteristics/A22-6898-1_360-50_funcChar_1967.pdf

Some of the MIT/7094 CTSS people
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Compatible_Time-Sharing_System
went to the 5th flr, project mac, and MULTICS.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multics

Others went to the 4th flr, IBM Cambridge Science Center, did virtual machine CP40/CMS (on 360/40 with hardware mods for virtual memory, morphs into CP67/CMS when 360/67 standard with virtual memory becomes available, precursor to vm370), online and performance apps, CTSS RUNOFF redid for CMS as SCRIPT, GML invented at science center in 1969 (and GML tag processing added to SCRIPT, a decade later GML morphs into ISO SGML and after another decade morphs into HTML at CERN), networking, etc.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CP/CMS
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conversational_Monitor_System

The science center had wanted a 360/50 to add virtual memory hardware for their virtual machine project ... but all the spare 360/50s were going to FAA ATC, The Brawl in IBM 1964
https://www.amazon.com/Brawl-IBM-1964-Joseph-Fox/dp/1456525514
and the science center had to settle for 360/40
http://www.leeandmelindavarian.com/Melinda#VMHist

The IBM Boston Programming Center was on the 3rd floor and had done CPS
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conversational_Programming_System
and CPS microcode assist for 360/50 ... although lots was subcontracted out to Allen-Babcock
http://www.bitsavers.org/pdf/allen-babcock/cps/
http://www.bitsavers.org/pdf/allen-babcock/cps/CPS_Progress_Report_may66.pdf

Some of the CP67/CMS people split off from the science center and take over IBM/BPC on the 3rd floor to do VM370 (along the way CPS is ported to CMS). When they outgrow the 3rd flr, they move out to empty IBM SBC building at burlington mall (before being shutdown and moved to POK to work on MVS/XA).

recent thread
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#55 CMS OS/360 Simulation
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#56 CMS OS/360 Simulation
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#57 CMS OS/360 Simulation

microcode posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#mcode
IBM science center posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

CMS OS/360 Simulation

Refed: **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: CMS OS/360 Simulation
Date: 25 May 2022
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#55 CMS OS/360 Simulation
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#56 CMS OS/360 Simulation
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#57 CMS OS/360 Simulation

One of the first was also distributed development project between the cambridge science center (utilizing the genesis of the IBM internal network done by one of the other people at the science center) and endicott to implement 370 virtual memory architecture virtual machines running under CP67 running on 360/67. My enhanced CP67L actually ran on the real 360/67, CP67H ran in a 360/67 virtual machine and provided both 360 and 370 virtual machines. Then a modified CP67I (modified for 370 virtual memory architecture) ran in a 370 virtual machine (under CP67H). This was regularly running production a year before the first engineering 370 with virtual memory support was operational (370/145).

Note the extra level was for security because there were professors, staff and students from Boston area univ. also using the science center CP67/CMS ... and wanted to make sure there was no exposure to 370 virtual memory ... which hadn't been announced. CP67I was also used as initial test case for the first virtual memory 370(/145) in Endicott. Some engineers from San Jose then came out and added 3330 and 2305 device support to CP67I for CP67SJ ... for a long time CP67SJ was the primary operating system running internal on virtual memory 370 processors.

Part of the issue was in the morph from CP67->VM370 a lot of feature, function, and performance was dropped and/or greatly simplified. When I first started moving from CP67 to VM370, my automated benchmarking consistently would crash VM370 ... and some of the first CP67 changes migrated to VM370 was the CP67 kernel integrity and serialization (in order to get VM370 to consistently get through the benchmarks w/o crashing).

science center posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech

some posts mentioning CP67L, CP67H, CP67I, and/or CP6SJ
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#18 Computer Server Market
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#55 Precursor to current virtual machines and containers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#12 Programming Skills
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021h.html#53 PROFS
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021g.html#34 IBM Fan-fold cards
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021g.html#6 IBM 370
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021c.html#5 Z/VM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019b.html#28 Science Center
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018f.html#75 CP67 & EMAIL history
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#49 DEC introduces PDP-6 [was Re: IBM introduces System/360]
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#45 DEC introduces PDP-6 [was Re: IBM introduces System/360]
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018.html#18 IBM Profs
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017e.html#19 MVT doesn't boot in 16mbytes
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#87 The ICL 2900
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016h.html#86 Computer/IBM Career
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014d.html#57 Difference between MVS and z / OS systems
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014d.html#22 [OT ] Mainframe memories
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013.html#71 New HD
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012k.html#62 Any cool anecdotes IBM 40yrs of VM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011o.html#34 Data Areas?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011l.html#27 computer bootlaces
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011f.html#80 TSO Profile NUM and PACK
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011b.html#72 IBM Future System
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011b.html#69 Boeing Plant 2 ... End of an Era
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010g.html#31 Mainframe Executive article on the death of tape
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010e.html#23 Item on TPF
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010d.html#60 LPARs: More or Less?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010b.html#63 Source code for s/360 [PUBLIC]
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010b.html#51 Source code for s/360
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009s.html#17 old email
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009s.html#3 "Portable" data centers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009s.html#1 PDP-10s and Unix
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009r.html#49 "Portable" data centers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007q.html#23 GETMAIN/FREEMAIN and virtual storage backing up
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007p.html#74 GETMAIN/FREEMAIN and virtual storage backing up
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007i.html#16 when was MMU virtualization first considered practical?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007b.html#20 How many 36-bit Unix ports in the old days?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006w.html#3 IBM sues maker of Intel-based Mainframe clones
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006q.html#49 Was FORTRAN buggy?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006q.html#45 Was FORTRAN buggy?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006q.html#1 Materiel and graft
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006o.html#19 Source maintenance was Re: SEQUENCE NUMBERS
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006l.html#21 Virtual Virtualizers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006f.html#5 3380-3390 Conversion - DISAPPOINTMENT
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006e.html#7 About TLB in lower-level caches
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006.html#38 Is VIO mandatory?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005j.html#50 virtual 360/67 support in cp67
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005g.html#17 DOS/360: Forty years
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004p.html#50 IBM 3614 and 3624 ATM's
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004b.html#31 determining memory size
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002j.html#0 HONE was .. Hercules and System/390 - do we need it?

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

VM/370 Turns 50 2Aug2022

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: VM/370 Turns 50 2Aug2022
Date: 25 May 2022
Blog: Facebook
One of the early "cloud" similarities was the early work done on CP67 (precursor to VM370, by the science center and then the two commercial CP67 spin-offs from the science center). Back in the 60s, machines were leased/rented and charges were based on the "system meter" that ran whenever (any) processor and/or channel was "busy". Moving to 7x24 operation there was lots of work to allow dark room, unattended operation (including things like automatic re-ipl after any sort of problem) as well as letting the "system meter" stop whenever the system was idle. This included special terminal channel programs that would allow the channel to stop, but immediately wake up whenever characters were arriving. Trivia: everything (processors & channels) had to be quiet for at least 400ms before the "system meter" stopped.

Note: long after IBM had switched from system leased/rental to purchase, MVS still had a 400ms timer-event guaranteeing that the system meter never stopped. Also 1974, CERN presented at SHARE a report on comparison of VM370/CMS with MVS/TSO ... copies of the report was freely available at SHARE ... but inside IBM they were classified "IBM Confidential Restricted" (2nd highest security classification) available on a need to know basis only (after FS implodes and mad rush to get stuff back into 370 product pipelines, contributing to head of POK getting corporate to kill VM370 product, shutdown the development group and transfer all the people to POK to work on MVS/XA ... Endicott eventually manages to acquire the VM370 product mission, but had to reconstitute development group from scratch).

Equivalent in modern cloud megadatacenters is power&cooling costs ... in part because system and manual operating costs have so drastically been reduced. A large cloud operations will have a dozen or more megadatacenters around the world, each staffed with 80-120 people and having half million or more systems (upwards of 10,000 systems/staff member). More recent system cost comparison is max configured z196 rated at 50BIPS processing (based on industry benchmark where number of iterations compared to 370/158 assumed to be one MIPS processor) at $30M (or $600,000/BIPS). The equivalent megadatacenter system is E5-2600 blade rated at 500BIPS (same industry benchmark with no. iterations compared to 370/158) and IBM base list price of $1815 ($3.63/BIPS). However, for a couple decades large cloud operations have been claiming they assemble their own systems at 1/3rd the cost of brand name systems ($1.21/BIPS). Note: IBM unloaded their blade/server business not long after press by server chip makers were claiming they were shipping half their product directly to cloud operations.

In any case, cloud operations have increasingly pressured chip makers to improve computing power efficiency, as well as power dropping to zero when systems are idle (but immediately available ondemand).

science center posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech
commercial spinoffs of science center and other (virtual machine based) commerical online services
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#timeshare
cloud megadatacenter posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#megadatacenter
future system posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#futuresys

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

IBM 360/50 Simulation From Its Microcode

Refed: **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: IBM 360/50 Simulation From Its Microcode
Date: 25 May 2022
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#58 IBM 360/50 Simulation From Its Microcode

virtual memory provided analogy fetch protect ... programs/instructions couldn't access storage they weren't authorized for ... slight drift
http://web.archive.org/web/20090117083033/http://www.nsa.gov/research/selinux/list-archive/0409/8362.shtml

Lots of CMS was read-only code&data ... so it was possible to have "shared pages" ... i.e. a single copy of the page in real storage ... instead of a unique copy for each user virtual address space. In theory, within a virtual address space, a CMS user could do anything it wanted to ... including fiddling the storage keys. CP67 had a hack for shared/protected pages ... that prevented a CMS user for changing keys on protected pages as well (simulating virtual address space had shared protected pages), prevented from changing the PSW key protect field (they could "execute" the instructions ... but the CP67 privileged instruction simulation would restrict emulation of those operations for address spaces that had shared, protected pages). The downside of the storage protect hack was standard 360 had non-zero 1-15 unique "protected" ids and the PSW key was either zero (which provided access to everything) or a non-zero key that provided access to just storage with matching key ... so CP67 had to give all shared/protected pages a (common) non-zero key and guarantee real PSW had both a non-zero key and a non-matching key.

A decade ago, customer asked if I could track down IBM decision to make all 370s "virtual memory" (after initially having been no virtual memory). Basically MVT storage management was so bad, that execution regions had to be four times larger than actually used, so a regular 1mbyte 370/165 system would only have four regions ... insufficient multiprogramming throughput/utilization to justify the machine. Virtual memory would allow the number of regions to be increased by a factor of four times, with little or no paging ... old archive post with some of the email exchange
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011d.html#73

Part of the full 370 virtual memory architecture included "segment protect" (a bit in the segment table entry that wouldn't allow storage alteration for virtual pages in protected segment) ... a whole segment could be the shared in multiple address spaces ... with some allowed to alter the protected storage and others prevented from altering protected storage. However, 370/165 engineers escalated that unless they were allowed to drop parts of the full 370 virtual memory architecture (including segment protection) ... the 370 virtual memory announce would have to slip by six months. Eventually it was decided to go with the 370/165 architecture subset ... and all the other models would have to drop what they had already implemented (and any software that would use the dropped features would have to be redone). This "hurt" VM370/CMS because they couldn't use "segment protect" for CMS shared pages ... and would have to drop back to the CP67 storage key shared page hack. This eventual hurt CMS performance because the VM370 microcode assist (numerous privileged instructions directly supporting VM370 mode, couldn't be used).

For VM370 Release 3, they announced a HACK that would allow cms users to execute with the VM370 microcode assist ... where CMS address space could modify shared protected pages while executing ... but VM370 kernel would scan all protected pages for having been "changed" ... if it found any changed pages, it would regress the modified virtual page to an unmodified version on disk (before switching CMS user). The reduction in privileged instruction simulation (by using VM370 microcode assist) was greater than the overhead scanning the CMS 16 shared/protected pages for changes everytime switched the CMS user executing. The problem was was that also introduced in VM370 Release 3 ... there was a big increase in the number of CMS shared/protected pages which inverted the trade-off (the release 3 change to allow use of VM370 microcode assist not coordinated with the big increase in the number of CMS shared/protected that needed to be scanned on every task switch). Further aggravating the situation was many 370/168 customers had bought the VM370 microcode assist (based on vm370 release announce using the microcode assist) and marketing claimed that it wasn't possible to reverse to not using VM370 microcode assist (even though the benefit was inverted because of the increase in number of shared/protected pages that had to be constantly scanned). The "problem" was further aggravated in VM370 Release 4 with the introduction of multiprocessor support (one of the things dropped in the original morph of CP67->VM370). The Release 3 change to allow changing shared/protected shared pages were dependent on exclusive use by task during its execution.

With Release 4 SMP introduction there could now be two concurrently CMS users executing. In order to meet the "exclusive" requirement, there now had to be two processor-specific copies of every shared page ... not only would all (processor-specific) shared/page on task switch from a user ... but before a user (with shared/protected pages) starts executing, their address tables had to be updated to point to the processor-specific copy of shared/protected pages (huge additional overhead, further aggravating the CPU penalty being paid for just enabling CMS users to execute with VM370 microcode assist ... and couldn't reverse it because IBM had convinced some 370/168 vm370 customers to buy the VM370 microcode assist).

science center posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech
SMP multiprocessor posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#smp

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

IBM 360/50 Simulation From Its Microcode

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: IBM 360/50 Simulation From Its Microcode
Date: 25 May 2022
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#58 IBM 360/50 Simulation From Its Microcode
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#61 IBM 360/50 Simulation From Its Microcode

other trivia: one of my hobbies after joining IBM was enhanced production operating systems for internal datacenters and HONE was long time customer. HONE had originally started out after the 23Jun1969 unbundling announcement, starting to charge for (application) software, maintenance, SE services, etc. The problem was part of SE education was sort of apprentice as part of multi-SE group onsite at customers ... and they couldn't figure out how not to charge for apprentice SEs at customer site. HONE was originally created for that part of training ... allowing branch SEs to practice with guest operating systems in CP67 virtual machines. The science center had also ported APL\360 to CMS as CMS\APL (redoing storage management for large demand paged, virtual address spaces and adding system services API ... including things like file I/O) and HONE started offering CMS\APL-based sales&marketing support applications. The sales&marketing applications eventually came to dominate all HONE use (and the original HONE guest operating system purpose evaporated).

I eventually got around to upgrading VM370 with lots of my CP67 (that ran on 360/67 and CP67I&CP67SJ that ran on 370) enhancements (including lots of integrity and serialization eliminating many system crashes) for my internal "CSC/VM" (vm370 release 2) ... including upgrading HONE datacenters (that had previously started migration to VM370). I continue with CSC/VM on release 3 platform ... that used the CP/67 process for shared/protected shared pages (mostly HONE ran APL that had another couple score shared/protected pages ... which would have further grossly inflated the official release3 mechanism for shared/protected pages. US HONE datacenters had been consolidated in Palo Alto (facebook trivia: when facebook 1st moves into silicon valley, it was new bldg built next door to the former HONE datacenter).

US HONE VM systems were further enhanced to max number of 370 processors in single system image, loosely-coupled configuration (with complex-wide load-balancing and fall-over; every 3330 string w/string switch and every string switch, connected to two 3830 controllers with 4-channel interfaces ... 8 channels & systems total for every 3330). I then moved a lot of (cp67) multiprocessor support to release3-based CSC/VM ... and HONE added a 2nd processor to each system (for 16processors total, I believe at the time, the largest single-system image complex in the world).

Eventually in the 80s ... a page protect bit was added to the mainframe architecture ... allowing access but not store/changing data for all address spaces ... wasn't exactly like the original 370 architecture ... where each address space had private segment address space tables and some address spaces could be allow r/w access to all pages in a shared segment while other address spaces would be restricted to r/o access. Trivia: this was somewhat simulated in the original RDBMS/relational System/R implementation (where server/controller address space had r/w shared access but all client address spaces had r/o shared/protected access).

science center posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech
HONE posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#hone
SMP multiprocessor posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#smp
23jun1969 unbundling announce
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#unbundle
original sql/relational implementation system/r
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#systemr

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

VM/370 Turns 50 2Aug2022

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: VM/370 Turns 50 2Aug2022
Date: 25 May 2022
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#60 VM/370 Turns 50 2Aug2022

recent history discussions in other threads
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#61 IBM 360/50 Simulation From Its Microcode
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#59 CMS OS/360 Simulation
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#58 IBM 360/50 Simulation From Its Microcode
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#57 CMS OS/360 Simulation
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#56 CMS OS/360 Simulation
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#55 CMS OS/360 Simulation
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#48 360&370 I/O Channels
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#19 COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology

science center posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech
HONE posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#hone
SMP posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#smp

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

For aficionados of the /360

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: For aficionados of the /360
Newsgroups: comp.arch
Date: Thu, 26 May 2022 09:01:55 -1000
slight trivia: up through 360/50, also had "integrated channels" ... microprocessor had to both execute the 360 instruction set microcode as well as the I/O channel microcode. 360/65 and up got external channel boxes.

370 similar up through 370/158 had integrated channels (with processor engine executing both 370 instruction set microcode and the I/O channel microcode).

303x follow-on was quick&dirty effort in the wake of the future system project failure. they took 158 engine with integrated I/O channel microcode (and no 370 instruction set) for external channel box. A 3031 was two 370/158 engines, one with just the integrated channel microcode and 2nd with just the 370 instruction set microcode. 3032 was 168-3 reworked to use 303x external channel box. 3033 started out mapping 168-3 logic to 20% faster chips.

future system posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#futuresys

some posts memntion 303x channel director
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#102 370/158 Integrated Channel
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#77 165/168/3033 & 370 virtual memory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#105 IBM Future System
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#85 IBM 3033 channel I/O testing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021h.html#107 3277 graphics
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021f.html#40 IBM Mainframe
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021d.html#56 IBM 370
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021b.html#2 Will The Cloud Take Down The Mainframe?

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

High cost of cancer care in the U.S. doesn't reduce mortality rates

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: High cost of cancer care in the U.S. doesn't reduce mortality rates
Date: 27 May 2022
Blog: Facebook
High cost of cancer care in the U.S. doesn't reduce mortality rates
https://www.eurekalert.org/news-releases/954072

While the U.S. spends twice as much on cancer care as the average high-income country, its cancer mortality rates are only slightly better than average, according to a new analysis by researchers at Yale University and Vassar College.

... snip ...

Loneliness, social isolation, and financial exploitation can go hand in hand for older adults. More than a third of adults over the age of 45 are lonely, and a quarter of those over 65 may be socially isolated. That comes with financial risks, too.
https://www.fastcompany.com/90755986/loneliness-social-isolation-and-financial-exploitation-can-go-hand-in-hand-for-older-adults

Unfortunately, falling for financial scams is also becoming an increasingly common fixture of old age, too, especially for seniors who may be more socially isolated than others.

... snip ...

private equity posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#private.equity
capitalism posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#capitalism

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

VM/370 Turns 50 2Aug2022

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: VM/370 Turns 50 2Aug2022
Date: 27 May 2022
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#60 VM/370 Turns 50 2Aug2022
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#63 VM/370 Turns 50 2Aug2022

Jan1979, I was con'ed into doing benchmarks on engineering 4341 (I was supporting over in bldg15, disk product test; aka one of my hobbies was enhanced production systems for internal datacenters) for national lab looking at getting 70 for compute farm ... sort of the leading edge of the coming cluster supercomputing and cluster cloud tsunami.

In the 80s, some large customers were ordering hundreds of vm/4341s at a time for putting out in departmental areas, sort of the leading edge of the coming distributed computing tsunami (inside IBM, so many departmental conferencee rooms were converted to vm/4341s, that conference rooms were becoming scarce). MVS had big issues in the explosion in vm/4341 sales ... especially the departmental machines in non-datacenter areas, 1) all the CKD disks were datacenter, only non-datacenter disks were FBA & MVS didn't have FBA support ... eventually there was a CKD "3375" emulated on FBA 3370, 2) customers were looking at the number (in some cases tens) of vm/4341s per staff, while MVS still was number of staff required per MVS system.

Also it was possible to get five vm/4341s for less cost than a 3033, higher aggregate processor and I/O throughput, and requiring much less floor space and environmentals (something like current cluster cloud, except each cloud blade can have ten times the processing of max. configured mainframe, POK was trying hard to kneecap vm/4341 systems).

note: 308x originally was going to be multiprocessor only, eventually IBM comes out with 3083 (for ACP/TPF airlines market which didn't have multiprocessor support, a 3083 was 3081 with one of the processors removed, trivia: ibm mainframes from UP to MP slowed the processor rate down by 10% to help tolerate multiprocessor cross-cache syncronization protocool ... going from two processor to single processor allowed processor rate to be speeded back up).

3081 wasn't called multiprocessor but "dyadic" ... to differentiate from prior mainframe multiprocessors that could be split into two single processors (for various availability reasons). In any case, Each processor in original 3081 "D" was still claimed to have higher throughput than 3033 ... but customer benchmarks showed 3081D processors slower than 3033 ... so IBM introduced 3081K, with twice the cache size to try to improve each 3081K processor to have throughput of 3033 processor (and the two 3081K processors in aggregate, still slower than latest Amdahl single processor).

Date:
26 August 1982, 14:10:23 EDT

To: WHEELER
re - comparison of 4341 with 3033

To be fair, the price of the 3081 is much less than two 3033s; and the 3033 itself has come down a lot in the last few months.

3033UP, 16meg - $2,029,000 4.8 mips
3083E, 16 meg - $1,320,000 4.0 mips
3081K, 16meg - $4,320,000 10.2 mips


... snip ... top of post, old email index

Date: 08/26/82 12:00:34 PDT
From: WHEELER

to be fair, Endicott has a faster 4341mp that they won't get to announce. POK has strapped back a 3081 to create a slowdown'ed 3083 and I expect that Endicott is now under POK's thumb, they will not be allowed to do anything more in that area ... 4341 frame was engineered to hold two CPUs and 16meg of 32k OEM chips (in case IBM/POK tried to screw them on deliveries of IBM 64k chips). The E7 would only be a little slower than the 3083. Also it is not clear from some of the high I/O benchmark reports whether or not the 3081 technology with high I/O rates & high task switch rates (lots of cycle stealing & lower cache hit ratios) is faster than a 3033.


... snip ... top of post, old email index

Note in the wake of the FS failure (during FS, internal politics was shutting down 370 efforts and lack of new 370 is cvredited with giving clone 370 makers their market foothold), there was mad rush to get stuff back into the 370 product pipelines, including kicking off quick&dirty 3033&3081 in parallel; more FS, 3033, & 3081 ... including 3081 (3083, 3084) worst performance/circuit of any other mainframe product
http://www.jfsowa.com/computer/memo125.htm

The 370 emulator minus the FS microcode was eventually sold in 1980 as as the IBM 3081. The ratio of the amount of circuitry in the 3081 to its performance was significantly worse than other IBM systems of the time; its price/performance ratio wasn't quite so bad because IBM had to cut the price to be competitive. The major competition at the time was from Amdahl Systems -- a company founded by Gene Amdahl, who left IBM shortly before the FS project began, when his plans for the Advanced Computer System (ACS) were killed. The Amdahl machine was indeed superior to the 3081 in price/performance and spectaculary superior in terms of performance compared to the amount of circuitry.]

... snip ...

getting to play disk engineer in bldg14&15 posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#disk
future system posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#futuresys
SMP, multiprocessor posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#smp

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

CMS OS/360 Simulation

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: CMS OS/360 Simulation
Date: 28 May 2022
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#59 CMS OS/360 Simulation
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#57 CMS OS/360 Simulation
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#56 CMS OS/360 Simulation
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#55 CMS OS/360 Simulation

... not long before POK got VM370 development group shutdown and the group moved to POK to work on MVS/XA ... they demonstrated a large expansion of OS Simulation ... not just OS simulation using CMS filesystem ... but most OS dataset access methods and read/write OS filesystem disks. Didn't manage to get it shipped before the shutdown ... and it was all destroyed/trashed with the shutdown.

Parts of the CP67/CMS group had split off from the science center (as part of vm370/cms effort) and moved to the 3rd flr, taking over the IBM Boston Programming Center. The group was rapidly expanded and outgrew the 3rd flr and moved out to the vacant IBM SBC (service bureau corp having gone to CDC as part of legal settlement) bldg in burlington mall ... and renamed the New England Programming Center ... and internal network nodes prefixed "NEPC" .... remnant of that survived as "NEPCA" for a time down in Hudson valley.

science center posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech

a couple posts with NEPCA reference
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004o.html#49 Integer types for 128-bit addressing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002e.html#28 moving on (typo)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002e.html#27 moving on

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

CMS OS/360 Simulation

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: CMS OS/360 Simulation
Date: 28 May 2022
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#55 CMS OS/360 Simulation
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#56 CMS OS/360 Simulation
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#57 CMS OS/360 Simulation
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#59 CMS OS/360 Simulation
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#67 CMS OS/360 Simulation

Online sales&marketing support HONE system originally started out in the wake of the 23Jun1969 unbundling announce (charging for application software, maintenance, SE services). Part of SE training had been sort of apprentice as part of SE group onsite at customer. With unbundling, they couldn't figure out how to NOT charge for "apprentice" SE onsite. HONE started out SEs practicing with guest operating systems running in CP67 virtual machines. Science center had also ported APL\360 to CP67/CMS as CMS\APL and had redone storage management so could go from 16kbyte workspaces to large virtual memory (up to 16mbyte) demand page workspaces ... and also had done APIs for system services ... like file I/O. HONE then started offering CMS\APL-based sales&marketing support applications ... which eventually came to dominate all HONE activity (and SE practicing with guest virtual machines evaporated).

Note eventually there was requirement that all mainframe sales orders had to be processed by HONE applications ... including verifying all the various options and features, pre-reqs and co-reqs, were consistent (for various reasons started with 370/115 & 370/125).

One of my hobbies after joining IBM was enhanced production operating systems for internal datacenters and HONE was long time customer. As HONE clones propagated around the world, I was asked to go along do some of the first installs. trivia: in the mid 70s, all the US HONE datacenters were consolidated in Palo Alto. Much later when FACEBOOK first moves into silicon valley, it was into a new bldg built next door to the (former) US HONE datacenter.

science center posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech
hone posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#hone
23jun1969 unbundling posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#unbundling

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Mainframe History: How Mainframe Computers Evolved Over the Years

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Mainframe History: How Mainframe Computers Evolved Over the Years
Date: 28 May 2022
Blog: Facebook
Mainframe History: How Mainframe Computers Evolved Over the Years. Learn about mainframe history in this quick synopsis of major developments for these computer powerhouses from their launch through today
https://www.precisely.com/blog/mainframe/mainframe-history

other recent post mentioning article
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#32 COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology

Univ had 709/1401, 709 IBSYS tape->tape ... 1401 unit record front-end ... manually move tapes between 709 & 1401 ... 1401<->unit record. 709 had a bunch of administrative cobol applications that had to be converted to 360 cobol (ibsys not just 7090/7094 but also 709)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM_7090

IBSYS is a "heavy duty" production operating system with numerous subsystem and language support options, among them FORTRAN, COBOL, SORT/MERGE, the MAP assembler, and others.

... snip ...

I took a 2hr intro to fortran/computers ... end of semester got student programming job. Univ. had a 709/1401 ... but was sold 360/67 for tss/360 (to replace 709/1401) ... as part of transition, univ got 360/30 temporarily to replace 1401... pending 360/67. Although 360/30 had 1401 emulation ... my job was to re-implement 1401 MPIO (did the tape<->unit record frontend for 709 tape->tape) on 360/30 in 360 assembler. I was given lots of manuals and got to design and implement my own monitor, device drivers, interrupt handlers, error recovery, etc ... univ. shutdown datacenter for the weekend and I had it dedicated all to myself for 48hrs (although 48hrs w/o sleep could make monday classes a little hard). Within several weeks I had 2000 card assembler program.

The 360/67 eventually shows up and replaces the 709 (& 360/30) ... but tss/360 never comes to production fruition and runs with os/360 as 360/65 ... and I'm hired fulltime responsible for OS/360. Student fortan jobs ran less than second on 709 (ibsys tape->tape) .... initially on OS/360 ran over a minute ... I install HASP (spooling) to OS/360 release 9.5 MFT and cuts time in half. OS/360 release 11 MFT ... I do highly optimized sysgen carefully placing datasets and PDS members for optimal arm seek and PDS directory member multi-track search ... cutting another 2/3rds to 12.9secs. Student fortran never ran faster than 709 until installed Univ. of Waterloo WATFOR.

recent posts mentioning watfor
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#57 CMS OS/360 Simulation
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#20 COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#10 Computer Server Market
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#70 IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#0 System Response
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#89 Computer BUNCH
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#13 360 Performance
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#72 165/168/3033 & 370 virtual memory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#23 Target Marketing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#12 Programming Skills
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#108 IBM Disks
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#1 PCP, MFT, MVT OS/360, VS1, & VS2
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#105 IBM CKD DASD and multi-track search
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#64 addressing and protection, was Paper about ISO C
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#63 IBM 360s
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021g.html#70 the wonders of SABRE, was Magnetic Drum reservations 1952
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021g.html#44 iBM System/3 FORTRAN for engineering/science work?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021g.html#17 iBM System/3 FORTRAN for engineering/science work?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021f.html#43 IBM Mainframe
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021e.html#33 Univac 90/30 DIAG instruction
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021e.html#32 Univac 90/30 DIAG instruction
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021e.html#21 Univac 90/30 DIAG instruction
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021e.html#19 Univac 90/30 DIAG instruction
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021d.html#37 April 7, 1964: IBM Bets Big on System/360
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021b.html#64 Early Computer Use
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2020.html#26 What's Fortran?!?!

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

IBM Z16 - The Mainframe Is Dead, Long Live The Mainframe

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: IBM Z16 - The Mainframe Is Dead, Long Live The Mainframe
Date: 29 May 2022
Blog: Facebook
IBM Z16 - The Mainframe Is Dead, Long Live The Mainframe
https://www.forbes.com/sites/patrickmoorhead/2022/04/05/ibm-z16--the-mainframe-is-dead-long-live-the-mainframe/

Downfall contributing factor that I periodically mention is IBM mainframe hardware use to be the mainstay of IBM revenue ... but that was quickly dropping with the death grip stranglehold that the communication group had on mainframe datacenters with their corporate strategic ownership of everything that crossed datacenter walls ... and fiercely fighting off client/server and distributed computing (trying to preserve their dumb terminal paradigm).

Late 80s a GPD/Adstar senior disk engineer got a talk scheduled at internal, annual, world-wide, communication group conference ... supposedly on 3174 performance, but opens the talk with statement that the communication group was going to be responsible for the demise of the disk division. They were seeing a drop in disk sales with customer data fleeing datacenters to more distributed computing friendly platforms. They had come up with number of solutions ... but they were constantly being vetoed by the communication group (with their corporate strategic ownership of everything that crossed datacenter walls). Trying to work around the corporate politics, the senior GPD/Adstar executive of software is investing in distributed computing startups that would use IBM disks ... he also asks us to visit his investments and provide any help we could.

Report around turn of century was that mainframe hardware was only a few percent of IBM revenue and dropping (all the low-handing fruit had been moved and what was left was high-valued applications where there was very high risk of changes). An analysis in EC12 time-frame that mainframe hardware was now only a couple percent of IBM revenue (and continued dropping) but that the mainframe group was 25% of IBM revenue (and 40% of profit) ... aka almost all software and services.

... note in the 70s and early 80s, I was blamed for online computer conferencing (precursor to social media) on the IBM internal network (non-sna and originally developed by co-worker at the science center, larger than arpanet/internet from just about the beginning until mid/late 80s, technology also used in the corporate sponsored BITNET). It really took off spring of 1981 when I distributed a trip report of visit to Jim Gray at Tandem. There were only about 300 that participated, but claims of upwards of 25,000 were reading. Six copies of about 300 pages of the computer conferencing were printed and along with executive summary and summary of the summary of the summary were packaged in Tandem 3ring binders and sent to executive committee (folklore was 5of6 wanted to fire me). From summary of the summary:

• The perception of many technical people in IBM is that the company is rapidly heading for disaster. Furthermore, people fear that this movement will not be appreciated until it begins more directly to affect revenue, at which point recovery may be impossible

• Many technical people are extremely frustrated with their management and with the way things are going in IBM. To an increasing extent, people are reacting to this by leaving IBM Most of the contributors to the present discussion would prefer to stay with IBM and see the problems rectified. However, there is increasing skepticism that correction is possible or likely, given the apparent lack of commitment by management to take action

• There is a widespread perception that IBM management has failed to understand how to manage technical people and high-technology development in an extremely competitive environment.


... snip ...

... but it takes another decade (1981-1992) ... IBM has one of the worst losses in US company history and was being re-orged into the 13 "baby blues" in preparation for breaking up the company. gone behind paywall, but mostly lives free at wayback machine.
http://web.archive.org/web/20101120231857/http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,977353,00.html
may also work
http://content.time.com/time/subscriber/article/0,33009,977353-1,00.html

had already left IBM, but get a call from the bowels of Armonk asking if could help with breakup of the company. Lots of business units were using supplier contracts in other units via MOUs. After the breakup, all of these contracts would be in different companies ... all of those MOUs would have to be cataloged and turned into their own contracts. However, before getting started, the board brings in a new CEO and reverses the breakup.

... and from IBM Jargon:
https://comlay.net/ibmjarg.pdf

Tandem Memos - n. Something constructive but hard to control; a fresh of breath air (sic). That's another Tandem Memos. A phrase to worry middle management. It refers to the computer-based conference (widely distributed in 1981) in which many technical personnel expressed dissatisfaction with the tools available to them at that time, and also constructively criticized the way products were [are] developed. The memos are required reading for anyone with a serious interest in quality products. If you have not seen the memos, try reading the November 1981 Datamation summary.

... snip ...

communication group death grip posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#terminal
online computer communication posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#cmc
internal network posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#internalnet
bitnet posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#bitnet
cambridge science center posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

IBM Z16 - The Mainframe Is Dead, Long Live The Mainframe

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: IBM Z16 - The Mainframe Is Dead, Long Live The Mainframe
Date: 29 May 2022
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#70 IBM Z16 - The Mainframe Is Dead, Long Live The Mainframe

... goes back to at least the Future System disaster, from Ferguson & Morris, "Computer Wars: The Post-IBM World", Time Books, 1993 .... reference to "Future System" ...

"and perhaps most damaging, the old culture under Watson Snr and Jr of free and vigorous debate was replaced with *SYNCOPHANCY* and *MAKE NO WAVES* under Opel and Akers. It's claimed that thereafter, IBM lived in the shadow of defeat ... But because of the heavy investment of face by the top management, F/S took years to kill, although its wrong headedness was obvious from the very outset. "For the first time, during F/S, outspoken criticism became politically dangerous," recalls a former top executive."

more FS info
http://www.jfsowa.com/computer/memo125.htm

Future System posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#futuresys

... and slightly before, periodic reference to the increasing prevalence of "careerists" and "bureaucrats" among IBM management (by IBM Chairman)

Management Briefing
Number 1-72: January 18,1972
ZZ04-1312

TO ALL IBM MANAGERS:

Once again, I'm writing you a Management Briefing on the subject of bureaucracy. Evidently the earlier ones haven't worked. So this time I'm taking a further step: I'm going directly to the individual employees in the company. You will be reading this poster and my comment on it in the forthcoming issue of THINK magazine. But I wanted each one of you to have an advance copy because rooting out bureaucracy rests principally with the way each of us runs his own shop.

We've got to make a dent in this problem. By the time the THINK piece comes out, I want the correction process already to have begun. And that job starts with you and with me.

Vin Learson


... and ...


+-----------------------------------------+
|           "BUSINESS ECOLOGY"            |
|                                         |
|                                         |
|            +---------------+            |
|            |  BUREAUCRACY  |            |
|            +---------------+            |
|                                         |
|           is your worst enemy           |
|              because it -               |
|                                         |
|      POISONS      the mind              |
|      STIFLES      the spirit            |
|      POLLUTES     self-motivation       |
|             and finally                 |
|      KILLS        the individual.       |
+-----------------------------------------+
"I'M Going To Do All I Can to Fight This Problem . . ."
by T. Vincent Learson, Chairman

... snip ...

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

WAIS. Z39.50

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: WAIS. Z39.50
Date: 30 May 2022
Blog: Facebook
I was on business trip to Cambridge and was walking along the Charles from the hotel to 1 Main Street ... and stopped to watch a workman prying the "Thinking Machine" letters off a bldg ... and wandered if I could get some of the letters from the workman to bring back to Brewster. from long ago and far away:

Source: NY Times, 7/3/91, pg C1, John Markoff

'And getting the data will be simplified' o Thinking Machines enlisted Dow-Jones, Apple, and KPMG Peat Marwick in 1989 - the supercomputer maker wanted to design a new computer library: WAIS . Wide Area Information Servers o WAIS features: - it lets users to access data at remote locations as if it were local - searches can be conducted in English phrases . instead of 'complicated computer commands' . current systems, like Dialog and Nexus, require high specificity - WAIS, in contrast, responds to user inferences . it presents a sample list of documents . the user chooses one or several . 'relevance feedback' presents more documents most like those chosen o Esther Dyson, Release 1.0 editor "This solves the problem of how to get to the information you need, getting not too much and not too little" - it's a sharp contrast to the way things work today . a user might have to access 7 or 8 databases to get the answers o WAIS uses a network of Thinking Machines supercomputers and servers - users with Apple PCs can search a variety of sources . Dow Jones, KPMG, 'several corporations and universities' - they can also read E-mail, enter their own corporate libraries, o WAIS has a corporate memory 'employees who may not be working together can share expertise' - Robin Palmer, Peat Marwick senior manager "If someone did something in Los Angeles and I'm sitting in San Francisco I may not know about the work" o Thinking Machines looks to encourage further progress - they've made their software available at no charge

WAIS uses Internet to deliver the information o the gov't sponsored system of more than 2,600 public and private networks - Internet is rapidly being improved and turned to commercial uses <Ed: see OTHERNET and NETWRKNG FORUMs on IBMVM for more on this> o the market for software that enables retrieval of text is growing - in 1989 there were fewer than 60,000 US users - by next year, total software sales will be $120M - 160,000 users and $235M by 1992: Delphi Consulting o Brewster Kahle, Thinking Machines scientist "Information retrieval technology is starting to spread from supercomputers all the way down to to personal computers" o WAIS is built on a librarian procedure for information retrieval - Z39.50 was developed to computerize card catalogs - several organizations support it: . Library of Congress, Apple, Sun, Next, Dow Jones, Mead Data Central - someday there will be a special directory..."white pages" . that will have an up-to-date list of all the sources o Apple has Rosebud (the name comes from Welles' film, 'Citizen Kane') - it's based on WAIS but adds features - it enables the user to develop a personalized newspaper . customers can specify the kinds of information to retrieved each day - Apple's Advanced Technology Group's researchers: . the necessary software for all this may become standard . part of the operating system


... snip ...

other trivia: In the mid-60s CTSS RUNOFF was re-implemented for CP67/CMS (precursor to VM370/CMS) as "SCRIPT" at the IBM Cambridge Science Center (at the time 545 tech sq). Then in 1969, GML (letters for the 3 last names of the 3 inventors) at the Science Center and GML tag processing added to SCRIPT. A decade later GML evolves into ISO standard "SGML", and after another decade it morphs into HTML at CERN. The first webserver in the US is on the SLAC VM370/CMS system:
http://www.slac.stanford.edu/history/earlyweb/history.shtml
http://www.slac.stanford.edu/history/earlyweb/firstpages.shtml

science center posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech
internet posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#internet

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

WAIS. Z39.50

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: WAIS. Z39.50
Date: 30 May 2022
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#72 WAIS. Z39.50

Interop 88 at santa clara ... weekend packet floods were bringing down floor nets & led to requirement in RFC1122 that machines must default to "ip-forwarding off", I had PC/RT in non-IBM booth at immediate right angles to SUN booth where Case was doing SNMP and got him to come over and install on the PC/RT.

88 ACM SIGCOMM had analysis on why window based congestion control was non-stable in bursty, multi-hop internet environment (returning ACKs frequently bunched up and then all arrived in burst, opening transmission for multiple back-to-back packets). Van Jacobson presented slow-start at 88 IETF.

co-worker at the cambridge science center was responsible for the internal network (larger than arpanet/internet from just about the beginning until sometime mid/late 80s). At the 1jan1983 migration to internetworking protocol, there were approx. 100 IMP network nodes and 255 hosts ... at the same time the internal network was rapidly approaching 1000. Old archive posts with list of worldwide corporate locations that added one or more nodes during 1983:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006k.html#8

in 1977, we had transferred out to san jose research. old SJMN interview about IBM stonewalling internet (gone behind paywall, but lives free at wayback machine)
http://web.archive.org/web/20000124004147/http://www1.sjmercury.com/svtech/columns/gillmor/docs/dg092499.htm
Also from wayback machine, some additional references from Ed's website (Ed passed aug2020)
http://web.archive.org/web/20000115185349/http://www.edh.net/bungle.htm

I started HSDT project in early 80s (T1 and faster computer links, both terrestrial and satellite), was also working with NSF director and was supposed to get $20M to interconnect the NSF supercomputer centers. Then congress cuts the budget, some other things happen, and finally an RFP is release. Preliminary announce (Mar1986)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002k.html#12

The OASC has initiated three programs: The Supercomputer Centers Program to provide Supercomputer cycles; the New Technologies Program to foster new supercomputer software and hardware developments; and the Networking Program to build a National Supercomputer Access Network - NSFnet.

... snip ...

... internal IBM politics prevent us from bidding on the RFP. the NSF director tries to help by writing the company a letter (with support from other agencies), but that just makes the internal politics worse (as did claims that what we already had running was at least 5yrs ahead of the winning bid), as regional networks connect in, it becomes the NSFNET backbone, precursor to modern internet
https://www.technologyreview.com/s/401444/grid-computing/

A very early HSDT T1 link was between the IBM Los Gatos lab and Clementi's
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enrico_Clementi
E&S lab in Kingston ... T1 channel on T3 Collins digital radio from LSG to roof of bldg 12 on main plant site, bldg 12 to the San Jose T3 C-band satellite earth station to Kingston, from Kingston T3 earth station to Clementi's lab, which eventually had a whole boatload of Floating Point Systems boxes.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Floating_Point_Systems

In part because of satellite round trip latency ... from nearly the first, did dynamic adaptive rate-based pacing as part of congestion control. In the 2nd half of the 80s, was on the XTP (Greg Chesson at SGI) technical advisory board and wrote rate-based into the XTP specification.

one of the harder HSDT problems was all internal corporate links had to be encrypted (also lots of gov. politics, especially when links cross national boundaries) ... I really hated what I had to pay for T1 link encryptors and faster encryptors were very hard to find. I got involved in doing link encryptors that could handle at least 3mbyte/sec (not mbits) and cost less than $100 to build. At first corporate crypto group claimed it couldn't be used because it seriously weakened crypto standard. Took me 3months to figure out how to explain to them what was going on ... it was hollow victory ... they then said there was only one organization in the world that could use such crypto ... I could make as many as I wanted, but they all had to be delivered to that organization. It was when I realized that there were three kinds of crypto in the world, 1) the kind they don't care about, 2) the kind you can't do, and 3) the kind you can only do for them.

interop '88 posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#interop88
internal network
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#internalnet
HSDT posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#hsdt
NSFNET posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#nsfnet
XTP posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#xtphsp

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

WAIS. Z39.50

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: WAIS. Z39.50
Date: 30 May 2022
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#72 WAIS. Z39.50
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#73 WAIS. Z39.50

MUMPS???
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MUMPS
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/InterSystems_Cach%C3%A9

... had been ported to vm370/cms and other platforms in the 80s

I spent much of 70s walking to/from north station, past massgeneral, over longfellow bridge, to/from techsq. Longfellow in the winter, the snow plows would pile sidewalk with snow ... only 1-3 ft left of railing and sloped into traffic on one side and into the charles on the other side.

after transfer to SJR, i did some work on both System/R (original sql/relational, codd flr above in bldg28) and "IDEA" ... a semantic network DBMS (being done by the VLSI group out in Los Gatos) in conjunction with sowa ... at the time down at STL (now SVL).
http://www.jfsowa.com/pubs/semnet.htm

last product did at IBM was HA/CMP, started out HA/6000 for the NYTimes to port their newspaper system (ATEX) to RS/6000. I renamed it HA/CMP after starting technical/scientific cluster scaleup work with national labs and commercial cluster scaleup with RDBMS vendors (Ingres, Informix, Sybase, and Oracle, they had vax/cluster support in same source base with unix ... lots of discussions on how to ease/improve their cluster support to HA/CMP). Old archived post about Jan1992 Oracle meeting in Ellison's conference room on cluster scaleup (16-way by mid-92, 128-way by ye-92).
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/95.html#13

Within a few weeks of the Ellison meeting, cluster scaleup was transferred, announced as IBM supercomputer (for technical/scientific *ONLY*) and we were told we couldn't work on anything with more than four processors. We leave IBM a few months later.

After leaving ibm in the early 90s ... redid a semantic network implementation from scratch for unstructured data (query language could query both subject/items and relations ... also supporting wild-cards ... and being able to insert data &/or relations "on the fly") and spent some time talking to people about unstructured data ... including some of the MUMPS community. Also did implementation for NLM's UMLS.
https://www.nlm.nih.gov/research/umls/index.html

About same time was also brought in as a consultant to small client/server startup. Two of the former Oracle people (from the HA/CMP Ellison meeting and involved with cluster scaleup) were there, responsible for something called a "commerce server" and they wanted to do payment transactions on the server. The startup had also invented this technology called "SSL" that they wanted to use, it is now sometimes called "electronic commerce". My responsibility was interface, payment transactions and gateway between webservers and the financial networks.

science center posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech
System/R posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#systemr
HA/CMP posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#hacmp
internet posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#internet

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

"12 O'clock High" In IBM Management School

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: "12 O'clock High" In IBM Management School
Date: 31 May 2022
Blog: Facebook
a little ibm management & military topic drift; In the early 80s, I was introduced to John Boyd and would sponsor his briefings at IBM. First time, I tried to do it through plant site employee education ... at first they agreed, but as I provided more information including about prevailing in competitive situations, they changed their mind. They said that IBM spends a large amount of money training managers on how to handle employees ... and exposing regular employees to John Boyd wouldn't be in the best interest of IBM and I should restrict the audience to senior members of competitive analysis departments. First briefing was in bldg28 auditorium open to all (also learned that conference refreshments left for breaks, required guards, because bldg occupants would make them disappear, signs about for conference attendees *ONLY* were ignored).

In organic design for command and control briefing,
http://www.ausairpower.net/JRB/c&c.pdf
https://fasttransients.files.wordpress.com/2010/03/organic_design5.pdf

he would mention that US corporate culture was being destroyed by former military officers, steeped in rigid, top-down, command and control (climbing corporate "ladders") ... and increasing "careerists" and "bureaucrats" sprouting up everywhere. In 89/90 the commandant of the marine corps leverages Boyd for a corps make-over ... at a time when IBM was in desperate need of a make-over (at the time, the two organizations had approx. same number of people). A couple years later IBM has gone into the red (one of the largest corporate loses in US history) and was being re-orged into the 13 "baby blues" in preparation for breaking up the company ... behind paywall, but mostly lives free at wayback machine.
http://web.archive.org/web/20101120231857/http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,977353,00.html
may also work
http://content.time.com/time/subscriber/article/0,33009,977353-1,00.html

had already left IBM, but get a call from the bowels of Armonk asking if could help with breakup of the company. Lots of business units were using supplier contracts in other units via MOUs. After the breakup, all of these contracts would be in different companies ... all of those MOUs would have to be cataloged and turned into their own contracts. However, before getting started, the board brings in a new CEO and reverses the breakup.

John Boyd - USAF. The Fighter Pilot Who Changed the Art of Air Warfare
http://www.aviation-history.com/airmen/boyd.htm

During the 1950s, John Boyd dominated fighter aviation in the U.S. Air Force. His fame came on the wings of the quirky and treacherous F-100; the infamous "Hun." Boyd was known throughout the Air Force as "Forty-Second Boyd," because he had a standing offer to all pilots that if they could defeat them in simulated air-to-air combat in under 40 seconds, he would pay them $40. Like any gunslinger with a name and a reputation, he was called out many times. As an instructor at the Fighter Weapons School (FWS) at Nellis AFB, he fought students, cadre pilots, Marine and Navy pilots, and pilots from a dozen countries, who were attending the FWS as part of the Mutual Defense Assistance Pact.

Boyd was equally famous in the classroom where he developed the "Aerial Attack Study." Until Boyd came along, fighter pilots thought that air combat was an art rather than a science; that it could never be codified. Boyd proved them wrong when he demonstrated that for every maneuver there is a series of counter maneuvers. And there is a counter to every counter. Afterwards, when fighter pilots attacked (or were attacked), they knew every option open to their adversary and how to respond. After the study was declassified, foreign pilots passing through Nellis took it home where it changed the way every air force in the world flies and fights. Even today, more than 40 years later, nothing substantial has been added to the Aerial Attack Study.


... snip ...

... asked why the 40sec (since he always managed in under 20secs), he said that there might be somebody in the world almost as good as he was and he might need the extra time. He then invented E/M theory and used it to redo the original F15 design (F111 followon, cutting weight nearly in half), and used it for YF16 & YF17 (which become the F16 & F18). By the time he passes in 1997, the USAF had pretty much disowned him and it was the Marines at Arlington. One of his quotes:

"There are two career paths in front of you, and you have to choose which path you will follow. One path leads to promotions, titles, and positions of distinction.... The other path leads to doing things that are truly significant for the Air Force, but the rewards will quite often be a kick in the stomach because you may have to cross swords with the party line on occasion. You can't go down both paths, you have to choose. Do you want to be a man of distinction or do you want to do things that really influence the shape of the Air Force? To be or to do, that is the question."

... snip ...

tribute to Boyd's passing in USNI proceedings,
http://www.usni.org/magazines/proceedings/1997-07/genghis-john
also here for those w/o subscription
http://radio-weblogs.com/0107127/stories/2002/12/23/genghisJohnChuckSpinneysBioOfJohnBoyd.html
"John Boyd's Art of War; Why our greatest military theorist only made colonel":
http://www.theamericanconservative.com/articles/john-boyds-art-of-war/
other refs
https://www.usmcu.edu/Portals/218/ANewConceptionOfWar.pdf
https://www.amazon.com/Warfighting-Maneuver-Warfare-Marine-Corps/dp/1853671983
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Boyd_(military_strategist)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OODA_loop
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Energy-Maneuverability_theory
https://www.professionalmilitaryeducation.com/episode-eleven-john-boyd-maneuver-warfare-and-mcdp-1/
https://www.theamericanconservative.com/articles/40-years-of-the-fighter-mafia/

Boyd postings and web refs:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subboyd.html

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

"12 O'clock High" In IBM Management School

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: "12 O'clock High" In IBM Management School
Date: 31 May 2022
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#75 "12 O'clock High" In IBM Management School

... however "careerists" and "bureaucrats" going back to at least the Future System disaster, from Ferguson & Morris, "Computer Wars: The Post-IBM World", Time Books, 1993 .... reference to "Future System":

"and perhaps most damaging, the old culture under Watson Snr and Jr of free and vigorous debate was replaced with *SYNCOPHANCY* and *MAKE NO WAVES* under Opel and Akers. It's claimed that thereafter, IBM lived in the shadow of defeat ... But because of the heavy investment of face by the top management, F/S took years to kill, although its wrong headedness was obvious from the very outset. "For the first time, during F/S, outspoken criticism became politically dangerous," recalls a former top executive."

... snip ...

more FS info
http://www.jfsowa.com/computer/memo125.htm

... and slightly before, by IBM Chairman

Management Briefing
Number 1-72: January 18,1972
ZZ04-1312

TO ALL IBM MANAGERS:

Once again, I'm writing you a Management Briefing on the subject of bureaucracy. Evidently the earlier ones haven't worked. So this time I'm taking a further step: I'm going directly to the individual employees in the company. You will be reading this poster and my comment on it in the forthcoming issue of THINK magazine. But I wanted each one of you to have an advance copy because rooting out bureaucracy rests principally with the way each of us runs his own shop.

We've got to make a dent in this problem. By the time the THINK piece comes out, I want the correction process already to have begun. And that job starts with you and with me.

Vin Learson


... and ...


+-----------------------------------------+
|           "BUSINESS ECOLOGY"            |
|                                         |
|                                         |
|            +---------------+            |
|            |  BUREAUCRACY  |            |
|            +---------------+            |
|                                         |
|           is your worst enemy           |
|              because it -               |
|                                         |
|      POISONS      the mind              |
|      STIFLES      the spirit            |
|      POLLUTES     self-motivation       |
|             and finally                 |
|      KILLS        the individual.       |
+-----------------------------------------+
"I'M Going To Do All I Can to Fight This Problem . . ."
by T. Vincent Learson, Chairman

... snip ...

future system posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#futuresys

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

"12 O'clock High" In IBM Management School

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: "12 O'clock High" In IBM Management School
Date: 31 May 2022
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#75 "12 O'clock High" In IBM Management School
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#76 "12 O'clock High" In IBM Management School

in the later 70s, after FS imploded .... 3270 terminals were part of annual budget and required VP-level sign-off ... however management started redirecting 3270 terminals to their desks, partly status symbol and partly attempting to imply that they were computer literate. This continued through the 80s ... at least up through 486PS2s with 8514 screens ... but dedicated to 3270 terminal emulation, keyboard almost never used ... but the PROFS menu being burned into the screens.

misc. past posts mentioning 8514 screens
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#19 FS: IBM PS/2 VGA Moni
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018.html#20 IBM Profs
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016g.html#89 "I used a real computer at home...and so will you" (Popular Science May 1967)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014f.html#26 upcoming TV show, "Halt & Catch Fire"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013b.html#58 Dualcase vs monocase. Was: Article for the boss
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#37 IBM cuts more than 1,000 U.S. Workers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011d.html#13 I actually miss working at IBM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010e.html#15 search engine history, was Happy DEC-10 Day
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010c.html#88 search engine history, was Happy DEC-10 Day
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009l.html#41 another item related to ASCII vs. EBCDIC
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009f.html#66 How did the monitor work under TOPS?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003h.html#53 Question about Unix "heritage"

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

US Takes Supercomputer Top Spot With First True Exascale Machine

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: US Takes Supercomputer Top Spot With First True Exascale Machine
Date: 31 May 2022
Blog: Facebook
US Takes Supercomputer Top Spot With First True Exascale Machine. The HPE Frontier system can perform over 1 quintillion calculations per second.
https://www.pcmag.com/news/us-takes-supercomputer-top-spot-with-first-true-exascale-machine
U.S. Retakes Top Spot in Supercomputer Race. A massive machine in Tennessee has been deemed the world's speediest. Experts say two supercomputers in China may be faster, but the country didn't participate in the rankings.
https://www.nytimes.com/2022/05/30/business/us-supercomputer-frontier.html

articles mention that China already had two ... just didn't bother to submit them ... from last fall: China Has Already Reached Exascale - On Two Separate Systems
https://www.nextplatform.com/2021/10/26/china-has-already-reached-exascale-on-two-separate-systems/

... took two credit hr intro fortran/computers ... at the end of the semester was hired to re-implement 1401 MPIO on 360/30 (tape<->unit record front end for 709), univ. shutdown datacenter over the weekend and had the place to myself for 48hrs ... although 48hrs w/o sleep made monday morning classes a little difficult. I was given bunch of manuals and got to design&implement my own monitor, device drivers, interrupt handlers, error recovery, storage management, etc. ... within a few weeks had a 2000 card assembler program. the univ had been sold a 360/67 for tss/360 to replace 709/1401 and 360/30 was temporary pending arrival 360/67. tss/360 never came to production fruition so the 360/67 ran as 360/65 with os/360 and within yr of taking computer intro class, was hired fulltime responsible for os/360.

Univ. library got a grant from ONR grant to do online catalog, part of the money went to 2321 datacell.
https://www.ibm.com/ibm/history/exhibits/storage/storage_2321.html

After 23jun1969 unbundling announcement (starting to charge for software, maintenance, SE services, etc) and univ. online catalog project was selected to be betatest for CICS product ... and supporting CICS was added to my tasks. One of the first was CICS wouldn't start ... turns out that CICS had some undocumented hard coded CICS BDAM options and library had built BDAM datasets with different set of options ... with no source, it took me awhile to track down. refs gone 404, but lives on at wayback machine:
https://web.archive.org/web/20071124013919/http://www.yelavich.com/history/toc.htm
CICS history
https://web.archive.org/web/20050409124902/http://www.yelavich.com/cicshist.htm

Business applications, written in Java to work with CICS applications and data resources, can execute as applets on a desktop web browser, on an outboard server as a servlet, in a CICS Transaction Gateway region as a servlet, or even within the CICS address space, compiled into either byte codes or machine code. IBM's WebSphere Application Servers can be used as front-ends to CICS. CICS is very much on the forefront of e-commerce and e-business.

... snip ...

... trivia: Jan1979 was con'ed into doing vm/4341 benchmarks for national lab which was looking at getting 70 for compute farm ... sort of the leading edge of cluster-scaleup supercomputing tsunami. Then the last product did at IBM was HA/CMP, started out HA/6000 for the NYTimes to port their newspaper system (ATEX) to RS/6000. I renamed it HA/CMP after starting technical/scientific cluster scaleup work with national labs and commercial cluster scaleup with RDBMS vendors (Ingres, Informix, Sybase, and Oracle, they had vax/cluster support in same source base with unix ... lots of discussions on how to ease/improve their cluster support to HA/CMP). Old archived post about Jan1992 Oracle meeting in Ellison's conference room on cluster scaleup (16-way by mid-92, 128-way by ye-92).
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/95.html#13

Within a few weeks of the Ellison meeting, cluster scaleup was transferred, announced as IBM supercomputer (for technical/scientific *ONLY*) and we were told we couldn't work on anything with more than four processors (mainframe DB2 was also complaining that if we allowed to go ahead with commercial cluster scaleup, it would be at least 5yrs ahead of them). We leave IBM a few months later.

Later was brought in as a consultant to small client/server startup. Two of the former Oracle people (from the HA/CMP Ellison meeting and involved with cluster scaleup) were there, responsible for something called a "commerce server" and they wanted to do payment transactions on the server. The startup had also invented this technology called "SSL" that they wanted to use, it is now sometimes called "electronic commerce". My responsibility was interface, payment transactions and gateway between webservers and the financial networks.

23june1969 unbundling announce
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#unbundle
CICS &/or BDAM posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#cics
HA/CMP posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#hacmp

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

ROMP

Refed: **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: ROMP
Newsgroups: comp.arch
Date: Fri, 03 Jun 2022 15:56:28 -1000
Thomas Koenig <tkoenig@netcologne.de> writes:

Looking around for a bit of computer history, I stumbled across the ROMP, the 801 version that IBM commercialized in 1986 as the RT PC.

ROMP was originally going to be for a displaywriter followon, running CP.r implemented in PL.8. When displaywriter followon was canceled, they decided to retarget to the unix workstation market. They got the company that had done PC/IX AT&T unix port for IBM/PC ... to do one for ROMP ("AIX"). They also had all these IBM PL.8 programmers ... and so had the PL.8 programmers do the VRM abstract virtual machine ... and directed the company doing the unix port, to implement to the VRM abstract virtual machine ... claiming that the combined effort to do VRM plus the unix port to VRM ... would be much less than having the unix company port directly to the real hardware.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM_RT_PC

There was an IBM group out in Palo Alto working on BSD port to IBM (370) mainframe ... who got redirected to do BSD port to ROMP (instead) ... which required drastically less resources than the VRM+AIX effort and done in signifcantly less elapsed time ... which shipped as "AOS" for the PC/RT.

one of the side effects of the VRM+AIX was UNIX tradition of being able to easily do new device drivers ... then required a new VRM PL.8 device driver and a AIX device driver in "C".

The Palo Alto group had also been working with UCLA and had done a Locus port to the the IBM Series/1 and working a 370 port ... which eventually ships as AIX/370 (along with AIX/386)
https://dl.acm.org/doi/10.1145/773379.806615
https://www.cs.princeton.edu/courses/archive/fall03/cs518/papers/locus.pdf
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Locus_Computing_Corporation

801/risc, iliad, romp, rios, pc/rt, rs/6000, etc
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#801

some topic drift:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM_RT_PC#As_part_of_the_NSFNET_backbone

In 1987, "The NSF starts to implement its T1 backbone between the supercomputing centers with 24 RT-PCs in parallel implemented by IBM as "parallel routers". The T1 idea is so successful that proposals for T3 speeds in the backbone begin. Internet History of 1980.

... snip ...

Early 80s, I had HSDT project doing T1 and faster computer links (both terrestrial and satellite) and was working with the NSF director and was supposed to get $20M to interconnect the NSF supercomputer centers; then congress cuts the budget, some other things happen and eventually releases an RFP (in part based on what we already had running, like requring T1 links). Preliminary announce (Mar1986)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002k.html#12

The OASC has initiated three programs: The Supercomputer Centers Program to provide Supercomputer cycles; the New Technologies Program to foster new supercomputer software and hardware developments; and the Networking Program to build a National Supercomputer Access Network - NSFnet.

... snip ...

Internal politics prevent us from bidding ... the NSF director tries to help by writing the company a letter (with support from other agencies) but that just makes the internal politics worse (as well as comments that what we already had running was at least 5yrs ahead of winning bid). Note the winning bid had (PC/RT) 440kbit links and to give it appearance of meeting the RFP, had T1 trunks with telco multiplexors running multiple 440kbit links over the T1 trunks. I would ridicule why didn't they call it a T5 network ... since possible some of the T1 trunks were possibly multiplexed in turn over T5 trunks someplace.

They did ask me to be the "red team" for the T3 response .... the "blue team" had couple dozen people from half dozen labs around the world. I presented 1st then the blue team presented. Five mins into the blue team presentation, the executive in charge, pounded on the table saying he would lay down in front of a garbage truck before he let any but the blue team proposal go forward.

hsdt posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#hsdt
nsfnet posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#nsfnet

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

ROMP

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: ROMP
Newsgroups: comp.arch
Date: Sat, 04 Jun 2022 07:28:55 -1000
nemo <invalid@invalid.invalid> writes:

Was ROMP not the 801 with the FPU torn out and later bolted back on for the workstation?

re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#79 ROMP

ROMP was going to be the processor for the displaywriter (8086) followon which was canceled (likely because of the spreading success of the IBM/PC for word processing)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM_Displaywriter_System

most prevalent 801 would have been Iliad chips ... late 70s was effort to replace the myriad of internal microprocessors used in controllers, low&mid range 370s (i.e. 4361 & 4381 followon to 4331&4341 was suppose to be risc instead of cisc), the as/400 followon to s/38, etc. for various reasons they all floundered and company went back to cisc microprocessors (and some number of risc engineers left and went to risc efforts at other vendors).

Los Gatos VLSI lab had been doing "Blue Iliad" ... would have been the first 32-bit 801 chip (predating multi-chip RIOS for RS/6000, claimed 150 million ops, 60 million flops, 7million transisters) ... but never completely debugged ... it was a really large, hot, single chip. trivia: when effort to abandon the Iliad efforts ... one of the primary people working Blue Iliad, left for HP & snake (also later on Itanium)

disclaimer: I contributed to white paper that showed that cisc had gotten to a point where nearly the whole 370 instruction set could be implemented directly in circuits (for 4361 & 4381) rather than microcode simulation (which had been running around avg of ten native instruction for each emulated 370 instruction ... i.e. a 1mip mid-range 370 had required a 10mip cisc microprocessor)

romp, iliad, rios, pc/rt, rs/6000, etc posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#801
360/370 microcode posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#mcode

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

ROMP

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: ROMP
Newsgroups: comp.arch
Date: Sat, 04 Jun 2022 07:33:18 -1000
John Levine <johnl@taugh.com> writes:

It also didn't help that AIX+VRM had huge overhead. Perhaps the VRM could have been tuned to be faster but why bother.

re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#79 ROMP
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#80 ROMP

trivia: I did some work with somebody that claimed he was the person that had tuned the VRM that got it from totally unacceptable to barely acceptable ... or otherwise they would have scrapped the VRM (and all the PL.8 IBM programmers) and done unix directly to the bare hardware (like the BSD "AOS" port).

romp, iliad, rios, pc/rt, rs/6000, etc posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#801

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

ROMP

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: ROMP
Newsgroups: comp.arch
Date: Sat, 04 Jun 2022 17:29:18 -1000
Andy Valencia <vandys@vsta.org> writes:

On the BSD side, it's quite possible they were using pcc (I honestly don't remember, except that the whole system "felt" BSD through and through, so it wasn't some exotic compiler group's rethink of C). A mediocre code generator would represent a pervasive tax, at least for the BSD port.

re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#79 ROMP
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#80 ROMP
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#81 ROMP

The VRM was implemented in PL.8 by all the Austin PL.8 programmers that had been working on ROMP
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PL/8
for displaywriter followon
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM_Displaywriter_System

When the followon was canceled (looked like word processing had move to PCs) they decided to retarget for the workstation market, the created the "VRM" for the PL.8 programmers to implement and the company that had done the AT&T UNIX IBM/PC PC/IX port was contracted to do port to VMR abstract virtual layer for PC/RT AIX.

palo alto group was originally working on BSD port for (mainframe) 370 and needed a compiler.

Los Gatos lab had done lots of VLSI mainframe tools and a Pascal compiler for mainframe using MetaWare's TWS (before pascal became IBM mainframe product). I was then talking to one of the LSG people (that had done the mainframe Pascal) about doing a C language front-end for the 370 pascal compiler ... i'm was then in europe for 6weeks given classes and lectures and when I got back the person had left IBM and gone to work for MetaWare. I suggested to palo alto group that they contract with MetaWare for 370 C compiler (as part of their 370 BSD port). when palo alto got redirected to do the BSD port to PC/RT (ROMP bare hardware) they kept the MetaWare C compiler and had MetaWare do a ROMP backend.

some metaware trivia

Efficient Computation of LALR(1) Look-Ahead Sets FRANK DeREMER and THOMAS PENNELLO University of California, Santa Cruz, and MetaWare TM Incorporated
https://dl.acm.org/doi/pdf/10.1145/69622.357187

romp, iliad, rios, pc/rt, rs/6000, etc posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#801

some past posts mentioning MetaWar's TWS
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#23 Programming Languages in IBM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#45 not a 360 either, was Design a better 16 or 32 bit processor
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021d.html#5 What's Fortran?!?!
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021c.html#95 What's Fortran?!?!
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021.html#37 IBM HA/CMP Product
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#63 EBCDIC Bad History
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017k.html#41 CMS style XMITMSG for Unix and other platforms
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017j.html#18 The Windows 95 chime was created on a Mac
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017f.html#94 Jean Sammet, Co-Designer of a Pioneering Computer Language, Dies at 89
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016c.html#62 Which Books Can You Recommend For Learning Computer Programming?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015g.html#52 [Poll] Computing favorities
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012m.html#21 The simplest High Level Language
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011m.html#32 computer bootlaces
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009o.html#11 Microprocessors with Definable MIcrocode
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009l.html#36 Old-school programming techniques you probably don't miss
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008j.html#77 CLIs and GUIs
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007j.html#14 Newbie question on table design
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005e.html#1 [Lit.] Buffer overruns
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005e.html#0 [Lit.] Buffer overruns
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004f.html#42 Infiniband - practicalities for small clusters
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004d.html#71 What terminology reflects the "first" computer language ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002q.html#19 Beyond 8+3

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Short-term profits and long-term consequences -- did Jack Welch break capitalism?

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Short-term profits and long-term consequences -- did Jack Welch break capitalism?
Date: 05 June 2022
Blog: Facebook
Short-term profits and long-term consequences -- did Jack Welch break capitalism?
https://www.npr.org/2022/06/01/1101505691/short-term-profits-and-long-term-consequences-did-jack-welch-break-capitalism
The Jack Welch Effect. His ruthlessness as General Electric's C.E.O. was ultimately bad for the company, a new book argues.
https://www.nytimes.com/2022/06/05/briefing/jack-welch-david-gelles.html
The Man Who Broke Capitalism: How Jack Welch Gutted the Heartland and Crushed the Soul of Corporate America--and How to Undo His Legacy
https://www.amazon.com/Man-Who-Broke-Capitalism-America-ebook/dp/B09JPKVQV2/

The Great Deformation: The Corruption of Capitalism in America
https://www.amazon.com/Great-Deformation-Corruption-Capitalism-America-ebook/dp/B00B3M3UK6/
pg39/loc1043-47:

CRONY CAPITALIST SLEAZE: HOW THE NONBANK FINANCE COMPANIES RAIDED THE TREASURY The final $600 billion segment of the commercial paper market provided funding to the so-called nonbank finance companies, and it is here that crony capitalism reached a zenith of corruption. During the bubble years, three big financially overweight delinquents played in this particular Wall Street sandbox: GE Capital, General Motors Acceptance Corporation (GMAC), and CIT. And all three booked massive accounting profits based on a faulty business model.

... and IBM becoming financial engineering company pg464/loc9995-10000:

IBM was not the born-again growth machine trumpeted by the mob of Wall Street momo traders. It was actually a stock buyback contraption on steroids. During the five years ending in fiscal 2011, the company spent a staggering $67 billion repurchasing its own shares, a figure that was equal to 100 percent of its net income.

pg465/loc10014-17:

Total shareholder distributions, including dividends, amounted to $82 billion, or 122 percent, of net income over this five-year period. Likewise, during the last five years IBM spent less on capital investment than its depreciation and amortization charges, and also shrank its constant dollar spending for research and development by nearly 2 percent annually.

... snip ...

(2013) New IBM Buyback Plan Is For Over 10 Percent Of Its Stock
http://247wallst.com/technology-3/2013/10/29/new-ibm-buyback-plan-is-for-over-10-percent-of-its-stock/
(2014) IBM Asian Revenues Crash, Adjusted Earnings Beat On Tax Rate Fudge; Debt Rises 20% To Fund Stock Buybacks
http://www.zerohedge.com/news/2014-01-21/ibm-asian-revenues-crash-adjusted-earnings-beat-tax-rate-fudge-debt-rises-20-fund-st

The company has represented that its dividends and share repurchases have come to a total of over $159 billion since 2000.

... snip ...

(2016) After Forking Out $110 Billion on Stock Buybacks, IBM Shifts Its Spending Focus
https://www.fool.com/investing/general/2016/04/25/after-forking-out-110-billion-on-stock-buybacks-ib.aspx
(2018) ... still doing buybacks ... but will (now?, finally?, a little?) shift focus needing it for redhat purchase.
https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2018-10-30/ibm-to-buy-back-up-to-4-billion-of-its-own-shares
(2019) IBM Tumbles After Reporting Worst Revenue In 17 Years As Cloud Hits Air Pocket
https://www.zerohedge.com/news/2019-04-16/ibm-tumbles-after-reporting-worst-revenue-17-years-cloud-hits-air-pocket

... and back to GE ... Age of Greed: The Triumph of Finance and the Decline of America, 1970 to the Present
https://www.amazon.com/Age-Greed-Triumph-Finance-Decline-ebook/dp/B004DEPF6I/
pg187/loc3667-70:

When Welch took over GE in 1980, it was the ninth most profitable company in the nation. Now it was first, second, or third. Shareholder value reached $500 billion, more than any other company in America. The stock price was Welch's personal measure of achievement, though he later denied it. The boom of the late 1990s on balance sent the wrong message to American managers: cut costs rather than innovate. Despite its appeal, In Search of Excellence had little true staying power.

... GE Capital & its securitized mortgages took down the company; then failing to fund workers pension plan pg191/loc3754-60:

In 1977, GE Capital, as it was later called, generated $67 million in revenue with only seven thousand employees, while appliances that year generated $100 million and required 47,000 workers. He hired better managers and supplied GE Credit with a lot of capital, and he had built-in scale--meaning large size--due to GE's assets size and triple-A credit rating. In time, GE Capital became a full-fledged bank, financing all kinds of commercial loans, issuing mortgages and other consumer loans, and becoming a leader in mortgage-backed securities. By the time Welch left in 2000, GE Capital's earnings had grown by some eighty times to well more than $5 billion, while the number of its employees did not even double. It provided half of GE's profits.

pg192/loc3777-79:

In a few brief sentences, Welch had defined a new age for big business. He introduced short-run profit management to GE, understanding that stock market investors trusted little so well as rising profits every calendar quarter. It became the best indication of a company's quality, making it stand out in good times and bad.

pg199/loc3909-13:

GE Capital also enabled GE to manage its quarterly earnings, engaging in the last couple of weeks of every calendar quarter in various trades that could push earnings up on the last day or two before the quarter's end. It was an open secret on Wall Street that this was how Welch consistently kept quarterly earnings rising for years at a time. "Though earnings management is a no-no among good governance types," wrote two CNNMoney financial editors, "the company has never denied doing it, and GE Capital is the perfect mechanism."

pg199/loc3919-25:

Over his tenure, he cut back significantly on research and development--by some 20 percent in the 1990s. In 1993, he told BusinessWeek, "We feel that we can grow within a business, but we are not interested in incubating new businesses." GE Capital itself was built through countless acquisitions. As the CNNMoney writers put it, "Consider first what the company really is. Its strength and curse is that it looks a lot like the economy. Over the decades GE's well-known manufacturing businesses--jet engines, locomotives, appliances, light bulbs--have shrunk as a proportion of the total. Like America, GE has long been mainly in the business of services. The most important and profitable services it offers are financial."

pg200/loc3935-41:

He mostly stopped trying to create great new products, hence the reduction in R&D. He took the heart out of his businesses, he did not put it in, as he had always hoped to do. What made his strategy possible, and fully shaped it, was the rising stock market--and the new ideology that praised free markets even as they failed.

... snip ...

capitalism posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#capitalism
stock buyback posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#stock.buyback
economic mess posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#economic.mess
pension posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#pensions
ineqaulity posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#ineqaulity

some past posts mentioning "GE Capital" &/or Welch
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#96 Why Companies Are Becoming B Corporations
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#99 Science Fiction is a Luddite Literature
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#52 The System
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#11 General Electric Breaks Up
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021h.html#18 Whatever Happened to Six Sigma?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021f.html#6 Financial Engineering
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021e.html#50 Whatever Happened to Six Sigma?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021e.html#49 Whatever Happened to Six Sigma?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021b.html#83 Capital in the Twenty-First Century
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021b.html#60 The Dumbest Business Idea Ever. The Myth of Maximizing Shareholder Value. The dominant business philosophy debunked
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#33 Boeing's travails show what's wrong with modern capitalism
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#31 Milton Friedman's "Shareholder" Theory Was Wrong
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#21 Financial Engineering
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#0 How Harvard Business School Has Reshaped American Capitalism
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018f.html#117 What Minimum-Wage Foes Got Wrong About Seattle
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018c.html#83 Economists and the Powerful: Convenient Theories, Distorted Facts, Ample Rewards
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018c.html#81 What Lies Beyond Capitalism And Socialism?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018b.html#27 Important US technology companies sold to foreigners
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018b.html#10 Xerox company sold
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018b.html#3 Xerox company sold
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018b.html#2 GE's $31 billion pension nightmare
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018.html#108 GE's $31 billion pension nightmare
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018.html#19 In Praise of Hierarchy
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017j.html#46 How Economists Turned Corporations into Predators
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017i.html#60 When Working From Home Doesn't Work
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017i.html#55 How Economists Turned Corporations into Predators
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017i.html#14 How to spot a dodgy company - never trust a high achiever
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#54 Why the Pursuit of Shareholder Value Kills Innovation
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016.html#40 I Feel Old
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016.html#7 I Feel Old
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016.html#3 I Feel Old
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015h.html#123 IBM retirement fund
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015c.html#80 Moody's Has a Cow, Slams GE's Masterful Financial Engineering
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015.html#59 IBM Data Processing Center and Pi
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014m.html#147 LEO
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014.html#84 Royal Pardon For Turing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013k.html#51 What Makes a Tax System Bizarre?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013k.html#50 IBM Furloughs U.S. Hardware Employees to Reduce Costs
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013k.html#33 Management Secrets From Inside GE
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012h.html#77 Interesting News Article
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012f.html#66 Predator GE: We Bring Bad Things to Life
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#62 Why Is Finance So Big?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#77 Age of Greed: The Triumph of Finance and the Decline of America, 1970 to the Present
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#45 You may ask yourself, well, how did I get here?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011p.html#9 The Dumbest Idea In The World: Maximizing Shareholder Value

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Destruction Of The Middle Class

Refed: **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Destruction Of The Middle Class
Date: 05 June 2022
Blog: Facebook
Destruction Of The Middle Class

Once Upon A Time, In The 50s, A Family Could Own A Home, A Car And Send the Kids to College, All On One Income ...

... And Then We Cut Taxes On The Rich And The Middle Class Died


... somewhere along the line some publications switched from comparing individual salary to comparing family earnings (as increasingly families required two wage earners)

"The Destruction of Middle Class" 4Sep2011
http://www.nytimes.com/imagepages/2011/09/04/opinion/04reich-graphic.html
from "The Limping Middle Class"
http://www.nytimes.com/2011/09/04/opinion/sunday/jobs-will-follow-a-strengthening-of-the-middle-class.html

... note there were artciles that tried to confuse the data by using "family income", where increasing two-earner families offset the lack in wage increases.

Age of Greed: The Triumph of Finance and the Decline of America, 1970 to the Present
https://www.amazon.com/Age-Greed-Triumph-Finance-Decline-ebook/dp/B004DEPF6I/

there has been lots written about effects of milton friedman, deregulation and corporate governance (and pension plans) in the 80s ... that have since turned out to have been disastrous. Economists and the Powerful: Convenient Theories, Distorted Facts, Ample Rewards
https://www.amazon.com/Economists-Powerful-Convenient-Distorted-Economics-ebook/dp/B01B4X4KOS/
loc1193-95:

According to economists' estimates, such collusion between asset management firms and companies is robbing a large proportion of the retirees of the company of a noticeable share of their retirement benefits. Losses for investors in small fund families with large 401(k) plans can reach more than 13 percent (Cohen and Schmidt 2009).

loc1200-1206:

There are plenty of examples from other countries to copy: the US individual retirement account system is based on the Chilean pension reform of 1980/81 that in turn was based heavily on proposals made in the book Capitalism and Freedom by Milton Friedman. In response to the Chilean system facing a likely collapse in a few decades time, it was substantially overhauled in 2008 to require mandatory participation of all citizens in exchange for universal pension coverage.

... snip ...

How McKinsey Destroyed the Middle Class. Technocratic management, no matter how brilliant, cannot unwind structural inequalities.
https://www.theatlantic.com/ideas/archive/2020/02/how-mckinsey-destroyed-middle-class/605878/

A new ideal of shareholder primacy, powerfully championed by Friedman in a 1970 New York Times Magazine article entitled "The Social Responsibility of Business is to Increase its Profits," gave the newly ambitious management consultants a guiding purpose. According to this ideal, in language eventually adopted by the Business Roundtable, "the paramount duty of management and of boards of directors is to the corporation's stockholders." During the 1970s, and accelerating into the '80s and '90s, the upgraded management consultants pursued this duty by expressly and relentlessly taking aim at the middle managers who had dominated mid-century firms, and whose wages weighed down the bottom line.

... snip ...

How GE, GM, Coca-Cola And Kodak Put Shareholders Ahead Of Employees
https://www.forbes.com/sites/stevedenning/2017/06/29/how-ge-gm-coca-cola-kodak-put-shareholders-ahead-of-employees/
... from here, still increasing productivity/pay gap (updated August 2021)
http://www.epi.org/productivity-pay-gap/

Beginning with the August 2021 update, the entire gap in EPI's pay-productivity figure is associated with rising inequality--inequality among wage earners and the rising share of overall income going to owners of capital rather than to workers for their labor. However, since researchers and analysts may still be interested in factors that account for various parts of the wedge between our measure of pay and other measures of productivity, we decompose these gaps further.

... snip ...

Meet the Economist Behind the One Percent's Stealth Takeover of America
https://www.nakedcapitalism.com/2018/05/meet-economist-behind-one-percents-stealth-takeover-america.html
Bad Ideas; Reknowned economist James K. Galbraith, one of our expert panelists, pulls no punches in talking about the damage wrought by financial innovation
https://www.gfmag.com/magazine/june-2017/bad-ideas
Center for Public Integrity launches inequality team
https://publicintegrity.org/inside-publici/center-for-public-integrity-launches-inequality-team/
U.S. Inequality Reached Highest Level in 50 Years: Census
https://us.glbnews.com/09-2019/52780394201778/

capitalism posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#capitalism
inequality posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#inequality
pension fund posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#pensions

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Destruction Of The Middle Class

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Destruction Of The Middle Class
Date: 05 June 2022
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#84 Destruction Of The Middle Class

In the 70s, congress had put import quotas on (inexpensive) foreign cars, supposedly to cut competition to give US industry enormous profits that would be used to completely remake themselves, but they just pocketed the money and continued business as usual. In the early 80s, there was articles about imposing a 100% unearned profit tax on the US auto industry.

Note restricting inexpensive foreign makers allowed the US industry to nearly double prices over a couple years. From law of unintended consequences, downside was salaries didn't keep pace, so 36month auto loans had to increase to 60-72months ... however banks wouldn't make the longer loans w/o warranty being for the life of the loan. The longer warranties were starting to eat into their enormous (unearned) profits.

1990, there was the "C4 taskforce" in the auto industry to look at significantly remaking themselves (finally). C4 taskforce was planning on heavily leveraging IT technology as part of the remake and invited major IT vendors to send representatives to participate; I was selected as one of the reps from IBM. The taskforce could accurately describe what the foreign makers were doing (well) and how US needed to change to compete. Autos were taking 7-8yrs from conception to rolling off the line (with cosmetic changes in between), with two efforts going on concurrently, offset 3-4yrs (to make it look like it wasn't taking as long).

Note: with the import quotas, foreign competition realized that they could sell that many high-end cars (as low-end) ... so they changed their products ... as part of changing the product, they cut the elapsed time to bring out new auto in half (3-4yrs) and in 1990, they were in process of cutting it in half again (18-24months) ... which met they could adapt to changing technology and/or customer preferences much faster (agile).

The US auto industry had also spun off their parts subsidiaries during the 80s and were now finding some parts in the original designs were no longer available 7-8yrs later. They then had costs&delays to go back and redo design. Their example was the Corvette which had particularly tight space tolerances (under the skin/shell).

Only slightly related: How Toyota Turns Workers Into Problem Solvers
http://hbswk.hbs.edu/item/how-toyota-turns-workers-into-problem-solvers

To paraphrase one of our contacts, he said, "It's not that we don't want to tell you what TPS is, it's that we can't. We don't have adequate words for it. But, we can show you what TPS is."

We've observed that Toyota, its best suppliers, and other companies that have learned well from Toyota can confidently distribute a tremendous amount of responsibility to the people who actually do the work, from the most senior, experienced member of the organization to the most junior. This is accomplished because of the tremendous emphasis on teaching everyone how to be a skillful problem solver.


... snip ..

C4 taskforce posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#auto.c4.taskforce
capitalism posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#capitalism
inequality posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#inequality

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

IBM Z16 - The Mainframe Is Dead, Long Live The Mainframe

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: IBM Z16 - The Mainframe Is Dead, Long Live The Mainframe
Date: 06 June 2022
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#70 IBM Z16 - The Mainframe Is Dead, Long Live The Mainframe
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#71 IBM Z16 - The Mainframe Is Dead, Long Live The Mainframe

Jan1979 got con'ed into doing IBM vm/4341 benchmark for national lab that was looking at getting 70 for compute farm ... sort of the leading edge of the coming cluster supercomputer tsunami ... also cloud megadatacenters ... there was big tech overlap between commodity supercomputer clusters and commodity cloud clusters.

Then in the 80s, large companies had orders for hundreds of vm/4341s to place out in departmental areas ... sort of the leading edge of the coming distributed computing tsunami (see upthread reference to IBM disk division claimed that IBM communication group was going to be responsible for the demise of the disk division, communication group had stranglehold on mainframe datacenters and fiercely fighting off client/server and distributed computing)

Then starting decade later, the last product did at IBM was HA/CMP, started out HA/6000 for the NYTimes to port their newspaper system (ATEX) to RS/6000. I renamed it HA/CMP after starting technical/scientific cluster scaleup work with national labs and commercial cluster scaleup with RDBMS vendors (Ingres, Informix, Sybase, and Oracle, they had vax/cluster support in same source base with unix ... lots of discussions on how to ease/improve their cluster support to HA/CMP). Old archived post about Jan1992 Oracle meeting in Ellison's (Oracle CEO) conference room on cluster scaleup (16-way by mid-92, 128-way by ye-92).
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/95.html#13

Within a few weeks of the Ellison meeting, cluster scaleup was transferred, announced as IBM supercomputer (for technical/scientific *ONLY*) and we were told we couldn't work on anything with more than four processors (mainframe DB2 was also complaining that if we allowed to go ahead with commercial cluster scaleup, it would be at least 5yrs ahead of them). We leave IBM a few months later.

trivia: late 70s/early 80s, was also working with Jim Gray and Vera Watson on original sql/relational implementation ... System/R ... then managed to do tech transfer to Endicott for SQL/DS, "under the radar" while the company was preoccupied with next "new" DBMS, EAGLE. When EAGLE implodes there is request how fast could System/R be ported to MVS ... eventually released as DB2 (originally for decision support only) ... some history
http://www.mcjones.org/System_R/

HA/CMP posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#hacmp
original sql/relational implementation system/r
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#systemr
communication group dumb terminal paradigm posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#terminal
cloud megadatacenter posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#megadatacenter

similar thread from 2016
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016d.html#81 The mainframe is dead. Long live the mainframe!
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016d.html#83 The mainframe is dead. Long live the mainframe!
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016d.html#84 The mainframe is dead. Long live the mainframe!

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Punch Cards

Refed: **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Punch Cards
Date: 06 June 2022
Blog: Facebook
I took 2 credit hr intro to fortran/computers, at the end of semester I got student programming job to re-implement 1401 MPIO on 360/30. The univ. had been running 709/1401, 709 IBSYS tape->tape and 1401 unit record front end for 709 (tapes manually move between 709 and 1401 7track drives). The univ had been sold 360/67 for tss/360 replacing the 709/1401 ... and IBM supplied 360/30 replacing 1401 pending availability of 360/67. The univ. shutdown datacenter on weekends and I had the whole place all to myself for 48hrs straight, although 48hrs w/o sleep made monday classes a little difficult. I was given whole bunch of manuals and turned loose. I got to design/implement my own monitor, interrupt handlers, device drivers, error recovery, storage management, etc. Within a few weeks I had a 2000 card assembler program (note: 360/30 had 1401 emulation, but I guess I was guinea pig learning 360).

My assembler program had conditional assembly that produced OS/360 version with get/put and DCB macros or a stand-alone version (loaded with the BPS card loader). The stand-alone version took 30mins to assemble, but the OS/360 version took a little over an hour ... each DCB macro 5-6mins elapsed (OS/360 PCP release 6). I quickly learned to read punch card holes for assembler output "12-2-9 TXT" deck (256 hex) and do card patches (simple fixes faster than re-assembling) ... fan the card deck looking for the TXT card with the hex displacement into the program (for the card to patch, dup card in 029 keypunch out to patch and then multi-punch).

trivia: card->tape and tape->punch needed to handle (709) BCD cards and "binary cards" (binary cards had two 6bit "bytes" punched in each 12 hole column). 2540 reader/punch had support for "column binary mode" ("binary" cards taking 160 360 bytes).

past posts mentioning column binary
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021f.html#79 Where Would We Be Without the Paper Punch Card?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021e.html#44 Blank 80-column punch cards up for grabs
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#73 Movie Computers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#72 Movie Computers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#68 Movie Computers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#65 Movie Computers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014m.html#152 Is true that a real programmer would not stoop to wasting machine capacity to do the assembly?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014j.html#92 curly brace languages source code style quides
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012l.html#84 72 column cards
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011g.html#70 History of byte addressing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010h.html#72 1130, was System/3--IBM compilers (languages) available?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010h.html#36 IBM 029 service manual
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008k.html#47 IBM 029 keypunch -- 0-8-2 overpunch -- what hex code results?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008b.html#77 Usefulness of bidirectional read/write?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006c.html#17 IBM 610 workstation computer
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004f.html#49 can a program be run withour main memory?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002q.html#29 Collating on the S/360-2540 card reader?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002o.html#19 The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Mainframe
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001h.html#72 ummmmm
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001h.html#24 "Hollerith" card code to EBCDIC conversion
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001b.html#20 HELP
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000b.html#6 ascii to binary
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000.html#79 Mainframe operating systems
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#59 Living legends
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#13 Old Computers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/98.html#9 ** Old Vintage Operating Systems **
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/95.html#4 1401 overlap instructions

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Short-term profits and long-term consequences -- did Jack Welch break capitalism?

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Short-term profits and long-term consequences -- did Jack Welch break capitalism?
Date: 06 June 2022
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#83 Short-term profits and long-term consequences -- did Jack Welch break capitalism?

Corporations used to be for organizations that did things in the public interest. Almost from the start there has been efforts to allow corporations to operate in self-interest and then to give corporations "rights" (as people).

False Profits: Reviving the Corporation's Public Purpose
https://www.uclalawreview.org/false-profits-reviving-the-corporations-public-purpose/

I Origins of the Corporation. Although the corporate structure dates back as far as the Greek and Roman Empires, characteristics of the modern corporation began to appear in England in the mid-thirteenth century.[4] "Merchant guilds" were loose organizations of merchants "governed through a council somewhat akin to a board of directors," and organized to "achieve a common purpose"[5] that was public in nature. Indeed, merchant guilds registered with the state and were approved only if they were "serving national purposes."[6]

... snip ...

In the 1880s, Supreme Court were scammed (by the railroads) to give corporations "person rights" under the 14th amendment.
https://www.amazon.com/We-Corporations-American-Businesses-Rights-ebook/dp/B01M64LRDJ/
pgxiii/loc45-50:

IN DECEMBER 1882, ROSCOE CONKLING, A FORMER SENATOR and close confidant of President Chester Arthur, appeared before the justices of the Supreme Court of the United States to argue that corporations like his client, the Southern Pacific Railroad Company, were entitled to equal rights under the Fourteenth Amendment. Although that provision of the Constitution said that no state shall "deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law" or "deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws," Conkling insisted the amendment's drafters intended to cover business corporations too.

... testimony falsely claiming authors of 14th amendment intended to include corporations, pgxiv/loc74-78:

Between 1868, when the amendment was ratified, and 1912, when a scholar set out to identify every Fourteenth Amendment case heard by the Supreme Court, the justices decided 28 cases dealing with the rights of African Americans--and an astonishing 312 cases dealing with the rights of corporations.

pg36/loc726-28:

On this issue, Hamiltonians were corporationalists--proponents of corporate enterprise who advocated for expansive constitutional rights for business. Jeffersonians, meanwhile, were populists--opponents of corporate power who sought to limit corporate rights in the name of the people.

pg229/loc3667-68:

IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY, CORPORATIONS WON LIBERTY RIGHTS, SUCH AS FREEDOM OF SPEECH AND RELIGION, WITH THE HELP OF ORGANIZATIONS LIKE THE CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.

... snip ...

capitalism posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#capitalism
inequality posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#inequality

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Short-term profits and long-term consequences -- did Jack Welch break capitalism?

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Short-term profits and long-term consequences -- did Jack Welch break capitalism?
Date: 06 June 2022
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#83 Short-term profits and long-term consequences -- did Jack Welch break capitalism?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#88 Short-term profits and long-term consequences -- did Jack Welch break capitalism?

... goes back to at least the Future System disaster, from Ferguson & Morris, "Computer Wars: The Post-IBM World", Time Books, 1993 .... reference to "Future System" ...

"and perhaps most damaging, the old culture under Watson Snr and Jr of free and vigorous debate was replaced with *SYNCOPHANCY* and *MAKE NO WAVES* under Opel and Akers. It's claimed that thereafter, IBM lived in the shadow of defeat ... But because of the heavy investment of face by the top management, F/S took years to kill, although its wrong headedness was obvious from the very outset. "For the first time, during F/S, outspoken criticism became politically dangerous," recalls a former top executive."

... snip ...

more FS info
http://www.jfsowa.com/computer/memo125.htm

... and slightly before, periodic reference to the increasing prevalence of "careerists" and "bureaucrats" among IBM management (by IBM Chairman)

Management Briefing
Number 1-72: January 18,1972
ZZ04-1312

TO ALL IBM MANAGERS:

Once again, I'm writing you a Management Briefing on the subject of bureaucracy. Evidently the earlier ones haven't worked. So this time I'm taking a further step: I'm going directly to the individual employees in the company. You will be reading this poster and my comment on it in the forthcoming issue of THINK magazine. But I wanted each one of you to have an advance copy because rooting out bureaucracy rests principally with the way each of us runs his own shop.

We've got to make a dent in this problem. By the time the THINK piece comes out, I want the correction process already to have begun. And that job starts with you and with me.

Vin Learson


... and ...


+-----------------------------------------+
|           "BUSINESS ECOLOGY"            |
|                                         |
|                                         |
|            +---------------+            |
|            |  BUREAUCRACY  |            |
|            +---------------+            |
|                                         |
|           is your worst enemy           |
|              because it -               |
|                                         |
|      POISONS      the mind              |
|      STIFLES      the spirit            |
|      POLLUTES     self-motivation       |
|             and finally                 |
|      KILLS        the individual.       |
+-----------------------------------------+
"I'M Going To Do All I Can to Fight This Problem . . ."
by T. Vincent Learson, Chairman

... snip ...

futute system posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#futuresys

some past posts with Management Briefing #1-72:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#76 "12 O'clock High" In IBM Management School
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#71 IBM Z16 - The Mainframe Is Dead, Long Live The Mainframe
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#52 Another IBM Down Fall thread
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#35 IBM Business Conduct Guidelines
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021g.html#51 Intel rumored to be in talks to buy chip manufacturer GlobalFoundries for $30B
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021g.html#32 Big Blue's big email blues signal terminal decline - unless it learns to migrate itself
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021e.html#62 IBM / How To Stuff A Wild Duck
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021d.html#51 IBM Hardest Problem(s)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021.html#0 IBM "Wild Ducks"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017j.html#23 How to Stuff a Wild Duck
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017f.html#109 IBM downfall
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#56 Wild Ducks
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015d.html#19 Where to Flatten the Officer Corps
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013.html#11 How do we fight bureaucracy and bureaucrats in IBM?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012f.html#92 How do you feel about the fact that India has more employees than US?

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Short-term profits and long-term consequences -- did Jack Welch break capitalism?

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Short-term profits and long-term consequences -- did Jack Welch break capitalism?
Date: 06 June 2022
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#83 Short-term profits and long-term consequences -- did Jack Welch break capitalism?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#88 Short-term profits and long-term consequences -- did Jack Welch break capitalism?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#89 Short-term profits and long-term consequences -- did Jack Welch break capitalism?

Opel's obit ...
https://www.pcworld.com/article/243311/former_ibm_ceo_john_opel_dies.html

According to the New York Times, it was Opel who met with Bill Gates, CEO of the then-small software firm Microsoft, to discuss the possibility of using Microsoft PC-DOS OS for IBM's about-to-be-released PC. Opel set up the meeting at the request of Gates' mother, Mary Maxwell Gates. The two had both served on the National United Way's executive committee.

... snip ...

before msdos
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MS-DOS
there was Seattle computer
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seattle_Computer_Products
before Seattle computer, there was cp/m
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CP/M
before developing cp/m, kildall worked on cp/67-cms at npg (gone 404, but lives on at the wayback machine)
http://web.archive.org/web/20071011100440/http://www.khet.net/gmc/docs/museum/en_cpmName.html
npg
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Naval_Postgraduate_School

trivia: (CP67)/CMS was precursor to personal computing; Some of the MIT/7094 CTSS people
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Compatible_Time-Sharing_System
went to the 5th flr, project mac, and MULTICS.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multics

Others went to the 4th flr, IBM Cambridge Science Center, did virtual machine CP40/CMS (on 360/40 with hardware mods for virtual memory, morphs into CP67/CMS when 360/67 standard with virtual memory becomes available, precursor to vm370), online and performance apps, CTSS RUNOFF redid for CMS as SCRIPT, GML invented at science center in 1969 (and GML tag processing added to SCRIPT, a decade later GML morphs into ISO SGML and after another decade morphs into HTML at CERN), networking, etc.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CP/CMS
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conversational_Monitor_System

science center posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech

some past posts mentioning Opel's obit:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#44 CMS Personal Computing Precursor
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#111 The Rise of DOS: How Microsoft Got the IBM PC OS Contract
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#22 MS/DOS for IBM/PC
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2020.html#27 What's Fortran?!?!
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#136 Half an operating system: The triumph and tragedy of OS/2
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019d.html#71 Decline of IBM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018f.html#102 Netscape: The Fire That Filled Silicon Valley's First Bubble

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Short-term profits and long-term consequences -- did Jack Welch break capitalism?

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Short-term profits and long-term consequences -- did Jack Welch break capitalism?
Date: 06 June 2022
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#83 Short-term profits and long-term consequences -- did Jack Welch break capitalism?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#88 Short-term profits and long-term consequences -- did Jack Welch break capitalism?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#89 Short-term profits and long-term consequences -- did Jack Welch break capitalism?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#90 Short-term profits and long-term consequences -- did Jack Welch break capitalism?

another Welch article:

'Neutron Jack' fired thousands of GE workers and helped the rise of 'Trumpism'. A new book explains why he was wrong
https://www.businessinsider.com/how-neutron-jack-fired-thousands-made-trump-broke-capitalism-2022-5

Welch was obsessed with growth and spent about $130 billion on nearly 1,000 acquisitions during his time running GE, although many of them failed. Under Welch the company's financial services division, GE Capital, became enormous but it later needed a $139 billion bailout from the US government following the 2008 financial crisis, as well as a $3 billion rescue investment by Warren Buffett, Gelles says.

...

'Jack Welch rigged the game' for Trumpism

More damaging, though, was the thinking Welch inspired among other business leaders. Gelles says his approach was embraced by Jim McNerney, who as Boeing CEO was accused of embarking on a range of cost-cutting measures that contributed to the Boeing 737 Max disasters that killed 346 people five months apart.


... snip ...

disclaimer: after leaving IBM was brought in as consultant to small client/server company that wanted to do payment transactions on their server, they had also invented this technology called "SSL" they wanted to use, result is now frequently called "electronic commerce". As part of doing "electronic commerce", got roped into financial standards (X9) and other industry activity. Then in Jan1999 was asked to try and help stop the coming economic mess (we failed). A decade later (Jan2009) was asked to HTML'ize the Pecora Hearings (senate looking at the '29 crash, resulted in jail time and Glass-Steagall) with lots of internal hrefs and URLs comparing what happen then and what this time (comment that the new congress might have an appetite to do something). I work on it for awhile and then get a call that it won't be needed after all (comment that capital hill was completely buried under enormous mountains of wallstreet cash).

economic mess posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#economic.mess
pecora &/or glass-steagal posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#Pecora&/orGlass-Steagall
(triple-A rated) toxic CDOs posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#toxic.cdo
Too Big To Fail (too big to prosecute, too big to jail) posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#too-big-to-fail

disclaimer 2: I took two credit hr intro to fortran/computers and then within a year of taking the intro class, univ. hires me fulltime to be responsible for os/360 ... then before I graduate, I'm hired fulltime into a small group in the Boeing CFO office to help with the formation of Boeing Computer Services (consolidate all dataprocessing into an independent business unit to help monetize the investment, including offering services to non-Boeing entities). I think Renton was possibly largest datacenter in the world, 360/65s arriving faster than they could be installed, boxes constantly staged in the hallways around the machine room. Lots of politics between Renton manager and CFO, who only had a 360/30 up at Boeing field for payroll (although they enlarged the room for 360/67 for me to play with when I wasn't doing other stuff). When I graduate, I leave Boeing and join the IBM Cambridge Science Center. Much later there is lots of strife with the Boeing take-over of McDonnell-Douglas

Boeing 100th anniv article "The Boeing Century"
https://issuu.com/pnwmarketplace/docs/i20160708144953115

included long article Scrappy start forged a company built to last, has analysis of the Boeing merger with M/D ("A different Boeing") and the disastrous effects that it had on the company ... and even though many of those people are gone, it still leaves the future of the company in doubt. One was the M/D (military-industrial complex) culture of outsourcing to lots of entities in different jurisdiction as part of catering to political interests ... as opposed to focusing on producing quality products ... which shows up in the effects that it had on 787 (and later 737 MAX).

The Coming Boeing Bailout?
https://mattstoller.substack.com/p/the-coming-boeing-bailout

Unlike Boeing, McDonnell Douglas was run by financiers rather than engineers. And though Boeing was the buyer, McDonnell Douglas executives some how took power in what analysts started calling a "reverse takeover." The joke in Seattle was, "McDonnell Douglas bought Boeing with Boeing's money."

... snip ...

Crash Course
https://newrepublic.com/article/154944/boeing-737-max-investigation-indonesia-lion-air-ethiopian-airlines-managerial-revolution

Sorscher had spent the early aughts campaigning to preserve the company's estimable engineering legacy. He had mountains of evidence to support his position, mostly acquired via Boeing's 1997 acquisition of McDonnell Douglas, a dysfunctional firm with a dilapidated aircraft plant in Long Beach and a CEO who liked to use what he called the Hollywood model" for dealing with engineers: Hire them for a few months when project deadlines are nigh, fire them when you need to make numbers. In 2000, Boeing's engineers staged a 40-day strike over the McDonnell deal's fallout; while they won major material concessions from management, they lost the culture war. They also inherited a notoriously dysfunctional product line from the corner-cutting market gurus at McDonnell.

... snip ...

Boeing's travails show what's wrong with modern capitalism. Deregulation means a company once run by engineers is now in the thrall of financiers and its stock remains high even as its planes fall from the sky
https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2019/sep/11/boeing-capitalism-deregulation

science center posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech
capitalism posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#capitalism
military-industrial(-congressional) complex
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#military.industrial.complex

past posts mentioning "The Boeing Century"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#117 Downfall: The Case Against Boeing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#109 Not counting dividends IBM delivered an annualized yearly loss of 2.27%
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#69 'Flying Blind' Review: Downward Trajectory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#40 Boeing Built an Unsafe Plane, and Blamed the Pilots When It Crashed
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018c.html#60 11 crazy up-close photos of the F-22 Raptor stealth fighter jet soaring through the air
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018c.html#26 DoD watchdog: Air Force failed to effectively manage F-22 modernization
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018c.html#21 How China's New Stealth Fighter Could Soon Surpass the US F-22 Raptor
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017k.html#58 Failures and Resiliency
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016e.html#20 The Boeing Century

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Wage gap between CEOs and US workers jumped to 670-to-1 last year, study finds

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Wage gap between CEOs and US workers jumped to 670-to-1 last year, study finds
Date: 06 June 2022
Blog: Facebook
Wage gap between CEOs and US workers jumped to 670-to-1 last year, study finds. Report on 300 top US companies found CEOs making an average of $10.6m, with the median worker getting $23,968
https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2022/jun/07/us-wage-gap-ceos-workers-institute-for-policy-studies-report

A study of 300 top US companies released by the Institute for Policy Studies (IPS) on Tuesday found the average gap between CEO and median worker pay jumped to 670-to-1 (meaning the average CEO received $670 in compensation for every $1 the worker received). The ratio was up from 604-to-1 in 2020. Forty-nine firms had ratios above 1,000-to-1.

At more than a third of the companies surveyed, IPS found that median worker pay did not keep pace with inflation.

The report, titled Executive Excess, comes amid a wave of unionization efforts among low wage workers and growing scrutiny of the huge share buyback programs many corporations have been using to inflate their share prices. US companies announced plans to buy back more than $300bn of their own shares in the first quarter of the year and Goldman Sachs has estimated that buybacks could top $1tn in 2022.


... snip ...

capitalism posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#capitalism
stock buyback posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#stock.buyback
inequality posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#inequality

some past posts mentioning ratio of executive:worker compensation exploding to 400:1 (after being 20:1)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#158 Goliath
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#99 Is America ready to tackle economic inequality?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018.html#19 In Praise of Hierarchy
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017g.html#100 Why CEO pay structures harm companies
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016g.html#13 Rogue sysadmins the target of Microsoft's new 'Shielded VM' security
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015h.html#50 rationality
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015g.html#17 There's No Such Thing as Corporate DNA
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015b.html#23 What were the complaints of binary code programmers that not accept Assembly?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015.html#80 Here's how a retired submarine captain would save IBM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014m.html#61 Decimation of the valuation of IBM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014l.html#61 How Comp-Sci went from passing fad to must have major
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014h.html#81 The Tragedy of Rapid Evolution?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014f.html#29 upcoming TV show, "Halt & Catch Fire"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014f.html#15 Why IBM Is Tumbling: BRIC Sales Plunge, Total Revenue Lowest Since 2009
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014f.html#14 Before the Internet: The golden age of online services
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014d.html#91 IBM layoffs strike first in India; workers describe cuts as 'slaughter' and 'massive'
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013k.html#51 What Makes a Tax System Bizarre?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013k.html#50 IBM Furloughs U.S. Hardware Employees to Reduce Costs
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013k.html#28 Flag bloat
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013e.html#10 The Knowledge Economy Two Classes of Workers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013d.html#33 IBM Spent A Million Dollars Renovating And Staffing Its Former CEO's Office
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012p.html#64 IBM Is Changing The Terms Of Its Retirement Plan, Which Is Frustrating Some Employees
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012m.html#65 General Mills computer
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012k.html#87 Cultural attitudes towards failure
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012k.html#40 Core characteristics of resilience
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012k.html#36 Race Against the Machine
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012h.html#41 Monopoly/ Cartons of Punch Cards
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012h.html#32 Monopoly/ Cartons of Punch Cards
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012h.html#31 How do you feel about the fact that today India has more IBM employees than US?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012h.html#3 Monopoly/ Cartons of Punch Cards
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012g.html#73 Monopoly/ Cartons of Punch Cards
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012f.html#77 Vampire Squid
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012e.html#91 The Fractal Organization: Creating sustainable organizations with the Viable System Model
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#16 IBM cuts more than 1,000 U.S. Workers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012b.html#90 IBM Doing Some Restructuring?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012b.html#44 What's the most interesting thing you do in your non-work life?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012b.html#43 Where are all the old tech workers?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012b.html#31 PC industry is heading for more change
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012b.html#26 Strategy subsumes culture
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012b.html#19 "Buffett Tax" and truth in numbers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012b.html#12 Sun Tzu, Boyd, strategy and extensions of same
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#26 What's your favorite quote on "accountability"?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#25 You may ask yourself, well, how did I get here?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011p.html#147 The Myth of Work-Life Balance
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011l.html#28 computer bootlaces
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011j.html#69 Who was the Greatest IBM President and CEO of the last century?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011g.html#13 The Seven Habits of Pointy-Haired Bosses
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011b.html#53 Productivity And Bubbles
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011.html#80 Chinese and Indian Entrepreneurs Are Eating America's Lunch
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010p.html#10 OODA in highly stochastic environments
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010o.html#71 They always think we don't understand
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010o.html#66 They always think we don't understand
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010o.html#59 They always think we don't understand
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010o.html#22 60 Minutes News Report:Unemployed for over 99 weeks!
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010m.html#67 Idiotic programming style edicts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010m.html#62 Dodd-Frank Act Makes CEO-Worker Pay Gap Subject to Disclosure
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010f.html#33 The 2010 Census
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010e.html#39 Agile Workforce
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010d.html#8 search engine history, was Happy DEC-10 Day
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009o.html#37 Young Developers Get Old Mainframers' Jobs
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009g.html#44 What TARP means for the future of executive pay
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009f.html#2 CEO pay sinks - Wall Street Journal/Hay Group survey results just released
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009e.html#73 Most 'leaders' do not 'lead' and the majority of 'managers' do not 'manage'. Why is this?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009d.html#3 Congress Set to Approve Pay Cap of $500,000
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009b.html#41 The subject is authoritarian tendencies in corporate management, and how they are related to political culture
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009b.html#25 The recently revealed excesses of John Thain, the former CEO of Merrill Lynch, while the firm was receiving $25 Billion in TARP funds makes me sick
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009.html#80 Are reckless risks a natural fallout of "excessive" executive compensation ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009.html#50 Greed Is
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008s.html#41 Executive pay: time for a trim?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008s.html#5 Greed - If greed was the cause of the global meltdown then why does the biz community appoint those who so easily succumb to its temptations?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008r.html#61 The vanishing CEO bonus
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008q.html#17 realtors (and GM, too!)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008q.html#14 realtors (and GM, too!)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008n.html#58 Traditional Approach Won't Take Businesses Far Places
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008n.html#2 Blinkylights
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008m.html#93 What do you think are the top characteristics of a good/effective leader in an organization? Do you feel these characteristics are learned or innate to an individual?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008m.html#53 Are family businesses unfair competition?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008m.html#33 Taxes
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008m.html#25 Taxes
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008k.html#71 Cormpany sponsored insurance
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008j.html#76 lack of information accuracy
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008j.html#24 To: Graymouse -- Ireland and the EU, What in the H... is all this about?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008i.html#73 Should The CEO Have the Lowest Pay In Senior Management?

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Operating System File/Dataset I/O

Refed: **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Operating System File/Dataset I/O
Date: 07 June 2022
Blog: Facebook
VS2 prototype started out doing "SVS" ... little different than running MVT in a 16mbyte (CP/67) virtual machine ... but the code to build a 16mbyte virtual memory table was moved inside MVT. The biggest issue was channel programs required real addresses and all the application/library built channel program passed in EXCP/SVC0 call had virtual addresses ... basically (CP67) CCWTRANS was wired into EXCP to build a copy of the channel program ... but with real addresses.

Move to MVS gave each application a 16mbyte virtual address space ... however because of the extensive use of pointer-passing APIs in OS/360 ... an 8mbyte image had to be mapped into every 16mbyte virtual address space (so the kernel code could just directly access the parameter list as if it was OS/360 running in real memory). Problem was that MVT subsystems were moved into their own 16mbyte virtual address space ... and for applications calling subsystems, they created the "common segment area" (or CSA), a 1mbyte segment mapped into every application 16mbyte virtual address space (application space now reduced to 7mbytes) where API could stash parameters when calling a subsystem. Then because API space for calling subsystems was somewhat proportional to number of concurrently executing applications and number of subsystems, common segment requirement quickly became "Common System Area also CSA" as it balloons to 5or6mbytes (leaving only 2 or 3mbytes for applications) and was threatening to explode to 8mbytes (leaving zero for applications).

other trivia; a decade ago, I got asked to track down the decision to make all 370s "virtual memory". I eventually found somebody that was staff to the executive. Basically, MVT storage management was so bad that execution regions had to be four times larger than normally used ... a typical 1mbyte 370/165 could only have four regions ... not sufficient to keep processor busy and justified. Going to virtual memory would allow number of regions to be increased by a factor of four times ... with little or no paging. Reference to tracking down decision to make all 370s virtual memory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011d.html#73

some recent common segment/system area ("CSA") posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#55 CMS OS/360 Simulation
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#69 IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#49 IBM 3033 Personal Computing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#19 Channel I/O
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#70 165/168/3033 & 370 virtual memory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#113 IBM Future System
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#17 Versatile Cache from IBM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021h.html#70 IBM Research, Adtech, Science Center
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021b.html#63 Early Computer Use
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2020.html#36 IBM S/360 - 370
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019d.html#115 Assembler :- PC Instruction
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019b.html#94 MVS Boney Fingers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019b.html#25 Online Computer Conferencing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#38 long-winded post thread, 3033, 3081, Future System
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#18 IBM assembler

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Operating System File/Dataset I/O

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Operating System File/Dataset I/O
Date: 07 June 2022
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#93 Operating System File/Dataset I/O

TSS/360 (the original "official" operating system for 360/67 virtual memory) had handled the problem .. where the executable image could be shared concurrently in multiple address spaces and at different addresses ... because the address constants were in a separate private area in each address space. TSS/360 was similar to MULTICS in the same time-frame ... but CP67/CMS came to dominate because it had much higher throughput and better interactive response . Some of the multics, cp67/cms, tss/360, and 360/67 history here
http://www.leeandmelindavarian.com/Melinda#VMHist
lots of tss/360 documents at bitsavers
http://www.bitsavers.org/pdf/ibm/360/tss/

some of the MIT IBM7094 CTSS people
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Compatible_Time-Sharing_System
went to the 5th flr, project mac, and MULTICS.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multics

Others went to the 4th flr, IBM Cambridge Science Center, did virtual machine CP40/CMS (on 360/40 with hardware mods for virtual memory, morphs into CP67/CMS when 360/67 standard with virtual memory becomes available, precursor to vm370), online and performance apps, CTSS RUNOFF redid for CMS as SCRIPT, GML invented at science center in 1969 (and GML tag processing added to SCRIPT, a decade later GML morphs into ISO SGML and after another decade morphs into HTML at CERN), networking, etc.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CP/CMS
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conversational_Monitor_System

some rivalry between cp67/cms on the 4th flr and multics on 5th flr
http://www.multicians.org/thvv/360-67.html

OS/360 executables were "relocatable" in the sense that executable image contained address constants, the whole program had to be brought into memory and the addresses modified to reflect the loaded location.

CP67/CMS had adopted many of its language applications from OS/360 ... so relied on OS/360 conventions. I had devil of a time when I did paged mapped filesystem for CP67/CMS and making applications generated from OS/360 language applications using the "relocatable" address constants ... since it modified the executable image ... and I wanted to have the same (read/only, unchanged) executable image shareable concurrently in multiple address spaces at potentially different locations.

In the early 70s, future system project had adopted the TSS/360 "single-level-store" paradigm but was completely different from 370 ... and was going to completely replace 370. After FS implodes, "single-level-store" got a bad reputation ... lot more FS info
http://www.jfsowa.com/computer/memo125.htm

Even tho I claimed I had learned from tss/360 what not to do for my cp67/cms paged-mapped filesystem ... and upgraded to vm370/cms ... it was impossible to get it approved for release with the adverse bad reputation from FS, just had it running at lots of internal IBM datacenters).

science center posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech
future system posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#futuresys
cms page-mapped filesystem
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#mmap
OS/360 "adcon" posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#adcon

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Operating System File/Dataset I/O

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Operating System File/Dataset I/O
Date: 07 June 2022
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#93 Operating System File/Dataset I/O
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#94 Operating System File/Dataset I/O

I had taken two credit hr intro to fortran/computers and at the end of the semester got student programming job to re-implement 1401 MPIO on 360/30. Univ. had been sold 360/67 for tss/360 to replace 709 (ibsys tape->tape) and 1401 (unit record front end for 709, tape<->reader/printer/punch). 360/30 replaced 1401 pending arrival of 360/67 (360/30 had 1401 emulation mode, I guess I was hired just as part of of univ. getting 360 experience). I was given a bunch of manuals and got to design/implement my own monitor, device drivers, interrupt handlers, error retry/handiing, storage management, etc. The univ. shutdown the datacenter over the weekend and I had the whole place dedicated to myself, although 48hrs w/o sleep could make monday classes a little hard ... within a few weeks I had 2000 card assembler program. Read card by card ... 709 tape files had two formats, 80byte record bcd card image and 160byte record binary card image (two 6bit bytes punched two "bytes" per 12 hole column) ... read card input, 1st read 80 char BCD, if error, tried reread in 160 byte column binary.

360/67 finally came in, but tss/360 never came to production fruition and so ran as 360/65 with os/360 and I was hired fulltime responsible for os/360 ... used for lots of administration cobol applications and student fortran jobs. Student fortran jobs had ran under second on 709 ... started out over a minutes on OS/360 on (360/67 as) 360/65. I install HASP and it cut time in half. I then start doing highly customized SYGGENs for careful placement of datasets and PDS members, for optimized arm seek and PDS directory member multi-track search ... which cut another 2/3rds to 12.9secs. Never got better than 709 until installed Univ. of Waterloo WATFOR.

Some people came out from the science center and installed CP67/CMS at the univ (3rd installation after science center and MIT lincoln labs) and I got to play with it a lot in my weekend window ... but never had support for all the administration cobol workload (most ported over from 709 cobol). IBM TSS/360 SE was still hanging around and sometime came in on weekends and I had to share my weekend window (joke was at its peak TSS/360 had 1200 people while the CP67/CMS group at science center had 12 people). We did a synthetic fortran edit, compile, and execute benchmark for both TSS/360 and CP67/CMS. CP67/CMS running 35 simulated users had much better throughput and interactive response than TSS/360 running 4 simulated users. I then started rewriting lots of CP67/CMS code trying to improve throughput of OS/360 in virtual machine. Benchmark was batch program ran 323secs on bare machine and start at 856secs under CP67 (533 secs CP67 cpu overhead). Within six months I had down to 113 CP67 cpu overhead.

Upthread I mention Van Vleck story about CP67 crashing 27 times in one day. CP67 delivered to univ. had 1052 & 2741 terminal support with automagic terminal type identification. Univ had some ASCI TTY33 terminals and so I added ascii/tty support ... but had some fiddling with one byte (255char) line lengths. IBM got in habit of picking up a lot of my changes and including in shipped CP67. Tom was supporting MIT USL CP67/CMS located in bldg across the quad from the bldg multics/IBM in (behind Land's 2story bldg in tech sq off main st). He had somebody down at harvard that wanted to use some sort of ascii device (plotter?) and tried increasing max. length to 1200chars ... but hadn't changed my fiddle with one byte length calculation ... which resulted in buffer overruns and crashing the system
http://www.multicians.org/thvv/360-67.html

Before i graduate, I'm hired into small group in Boeing CFO office to help with the formation of Boeing Computer Services (consolidate all dataprocessing into independent business unit to better monetize the investment, including offering services to non-IBM entities). Just Renton datacenter I thought possibly largest in the world, couple hundred million in IBM 360s (1960s dollars) ... 360/65s were arriving faster than they could be installed, boxes constantly staged in the hallways around the machine room. Lots of politics between renton manager and CFO ... who just had a 360/30 for payroll up at Boeing field (although they enlarged it and install 360/67 for me to play with when I wasn't doing other stuff). When I graduate, I join the science center, instead of staying at Boeing.

One of my hobbies after joining IBM was enhanced production operating systems for internal datacenters (and continued to work on 360/370 stuff all during FS, even periodically ridiculing them drawing analogy with FS and a long running cult film running down at central sq ... which wasn't exactly career enhancing) ... including the online sales&marketing support "HONE" systems ... numbers really exploded after they started doing HONE clones all over the world. I would joke it wasn't fair to compare number of customer IBM online systems with number of Multics systems, or even number of internal IBM systems with number of Multics systems, but at peak, I had more of my enhanced systems (over hundred) than the total number of Multics systems that ever existed.
https://www.multicians.org/sites.html

HASP, JES, and/or NJI/NJE posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#hasp
science center posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech
HONE (&/or APL) posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#hone

some "column binary" posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#87 Punch Cards
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021f.html#79 Where Would We Be Without the Paper Punch Card?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021e.html#44 Blank 80-column punch cards up for grabs
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#73 Movie Computers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#72 Movie Computers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#68 Movie Computers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#65 Movie Computers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014m.html#152 Is true that a real programmer would not stoop to wasting machine capacity to do the assembly?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014j.html#92 curly brace languages source code style quides
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012l.html#84 72 column cards
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011g.html#70 History of byte addressing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010h.html#72 1130, was System/3--IBM compilers (languages) available?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010h.html#36 IBM 029 service manual
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008k.html#47 IBM 029 keypunch -- 0-8-2 overpunch -- what hex code results?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008b.html#77 Usefulness of bidirectional read/write?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006c.html#17 IBM 610 workstation computer
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004f.html#49 can a program be run withour main memory?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002q.html#29 Collating on the S/360-2540 card reader?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002o.html#19 The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Mainframe
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001h.html#72 ummmmm
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001h.html#24 "Hollerith" card code to EBCDIC conversion
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001b.html#20 HELP
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000b.html#6 ascii to binary
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000.html#79 Mainframe operating systems
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#59 Living legends
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#13 Old Computers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/98.html#9 ** Old Vintage Operating Systems **
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/95.html#4 1401 overlap instructions

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Goldman Sachs predicts $140 oil as gas prices spike near $5 a gallon

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Goldman Sachs predicts $140 oil as gas prices spike near $5 a gallon
Date: 07 June 2022
Blog: Facebook
Goldman Sachs predicts $140 oil as gas prices spike near $5 a gallon
https://www.cnn.com/2022/06/07/energy/oil-prices/index.html

CFTC used to require that commodity players had significant position because speculators were causing wild irrational price fluctuation (i.e. they profited by manipulating price, buy low sell high, then short sale on the way day ... including manipulating news to push price in the direction they wanted. But then CFTC sent (secret) letters to selected speculators allowing them play ... responsible for the huge oil&gas price hike summer of 2008.

Later a member of congress published the transactions for 2008 showing the speculators that were responsible for the huge price spike summer of 2008. Instead of vilifying the speculators responsible, somehow the press vilified the member of congress for violating corporation privacy (as if corporations were people, disinformation to distract from those responsible). Guess who at the top of the list???

Oil settles at record above $140 a barrel - Jun. 27, 2008
https://money.cnn.com/2008/06/27/markets/oil/

Griftopia posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#griftopia
Capitalism posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#capitalism

some recent "big oil" posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#117 Documentary Explores How Big Oil Stalled Climate Action for Decades
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#28 Big oil's 'wokewashing' is the new climate science denialism
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021g.html#72 It's Time to Call Out Big Oil for What It Really Is
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021g.html#16 Big oil and gas kept a dirty secret for decades
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021g.html#13 NYT Ignores Two-Year House Arrest of Lawyer Who Took on Big Oil
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021g.html#3 Big oil and gas kept a dirty secret for decades
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021e.html#77 How climate change skepticism held a government captive

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

MVS support

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: MVS support
Date: 07 June 2022
Blog: Facebook
previous thread
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#128 SHARE LSRAD Report
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#123 SHARE LSRAD Report
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#122 SHARE LSRAD Report

trivia: in 1974, CERN had done a head-to-head between MVS and VM/370 and published report at SHARE. Inside IBM, the report was classified "IBM Confidential - Restricted" ... next to highest level security classification, available on need to know only (althouugh freely available at SHARE).

also from that era, other SHARE trivia (I was at SHARE for 1st performance)
http://www.mxg.com/thebuttonman/boney.asp

Words to follow along with... (glossary at bottom)

If it IPL's then JES won't start, And if it gets up then it falls apart, MVS is breaking my heart, Maybe things will get a little better in the morning, Maybe things will get a little better. The system is crashing, I'm having a fit, and DSS doesn't help a bit, the shovel came with the debugging kit, Maybe things will get a little better in the morning, Maybe things will get a little better. Work Your Fingers to the Bone and what do you get? Boney Fingers, Boney Fingers!

from glossary $4K - MVS was the first operating system for which the IBM Salesman got a $4000 bonus if he/she could convince their customer to install VS 2.2 circa 1975. IBM was really pissed off that this fact became known thru this


... snip ...

... a decade ago, I was asked if I could track down decision to make all 370s "virtual memory" ... found somebody on the executive's staff ... basically MVT storage management was so bad that regions had to be four times larger than used and typical 1mbyte 370/165 would only have four regions ... insufficient throughput and utilization to justify 165. going to virtual memory would allow number of regions to be increased by a factor of four times with little or no paging. post with pieces of original email exchange:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011d.html#73

recent posts mentioning decision making all 370s virtual memory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#93 Operating System File/Dataset I/O
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#61 IBM 360/50 Simulation From Its Microcode
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#55 CMS OS/360 Simulation
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#51 IBM Spooling
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#20 COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#18 Computer Server Market

trivia: in the 2nd half of the 70s, when I transferred from science center out to san jose research, i got to wander around IBM (and non-IBM) datacenters in silicon valley ... including disk engineering (bldg14) and disk product test (bldg15) across the street. Disk engineering had around the clock, pre-scheduled, stand-alone mainframe testing. They said that MVS had been tried, but in that environment, had 15min mean-time-between-failure (requiring manual re-ipl). I offered to rewrite input/output supervisor making it bullet proof and never fail ... allowing any amount of concurrent, on-demand testing (greatly improving productivity).

Downside was engineers kneejerk was to blame me for any of their problems and I had to spend increasing amount of time playing disk engineer diagnosing their problems. I then wrote up work for research report and happened to mention the MVS 15min MTBF ... bringing down the wrath of the MVS organization on my head (claims were they tried to have me separated from the company, when that didn't work they tried to make things as unpleasant as possible).

Later, just before 3380 drives were about to ship ... FE had hardware regression test of 57 simulated 3380 errors likely to occur, in all 57 cases, MVS would fail (requiring re-ipl) and in 2/3rds of the cases there was no indication of what caused the failure (I didn't feel badly at all).

getting to play disk engineer posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#disk

other posts mentioning LSRAD
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015f.html#82 Miniskirts and mainframes
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014j.html#53 Amdahl UTS manual
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013h.html#85 Before the PC: IBM invents virtualisation
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013h.html#82 Vintage IBM Manuals
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013e.html#52 32760?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012p.html#58 What is holding back cloud adoption?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012o.html#36 Regarding Time Sharing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012o.html#35 Regarding Time Sharing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012i.html#40 GNOSIS & KeyKOS
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012i.html#39 Just a quick link to a video by the National Research Council of Canada made in 1971 on computer technology for filmmaking
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012f.html#58 Making the Mainframe more Accessible - What is Your Vision?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011p.html#146 IBM Manuals
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011p.html#22 1979 SHARE LSRAD Report
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011p.html#15 1979 SHARE LSRAD Report
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011p.html#14 1979 SHARE LSRAD Report
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011p.html#11 1979 SHARE LSRAD Report
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011p.html#10 1979 SHARE LSRAD Report
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011n.html#70 1979 SHARE LSRAD Report
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011n.html#62 1979 SHARE LSRAD Report
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011.html#89 Make the mainframe work environment fun and intuitive
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011.html#88 digitize old hardcopy manuals
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011.html#85 Two terrific writers .. are going to write a book
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010q.html#33 IBM S/360 Green Card high quality scan
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010l.html#13 Old EMAIL Index
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009n.html#0 Wanted: SHARE Volume I proceedings
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009.html#70 A New Role for Old Geeks
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009.html#47 repeat after me: RAID != backup
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007d.html#40 old tapes
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006d.html#38 Fw: Tax chooses dead language - Austalia
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005e.html#1 [Lit.] Buffer overruns
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001b.html#50 IBM 705 computer manual

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Datamation Archive

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Datamation Archive
Date: 07 June 2022
Blog: Facebook
Datamation Archive:
http://www.bitsavers.org/magazines/Datamation/

trivia: Late 70s and early 80s, I was blamed for online computer conferencing on the internal network ... it really balloomed after I distributed a trip report of visit to Jim Gray at Tandem (only about 300 participated but claims upward of 25,000 were reading) ... from IBM Jargon:
https://comlay.net/ibmjarg.pdf

Tandem Memos - n. Something constructive but hard to control; a fresh of breath air (sic). That's another Tandem Memos. A phrase to worry middle management. It refers to the computer-based conference (widely distributed in 1981) in which many technical personnel expressed dissatisfaction with the tools available to them at that time, and also constructively criticized the way products were [are] developed. The memos are required reading for anyone with a serious interest in quality products. If you have not seen the memos, try reading the November 1981 Datamation summary.

... snip ...

online computer conferencing posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#cmc
internal network posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#internalnet

recent posts mentioning "Tandem Memos"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#70 IBM Z16 - The Mainframe Is Dead, Long Live The Mainframe
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#54 Another IBM Down Fall thread
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#53 Another IBM Down Fall thread
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#37 IBM Business Conduct Guidelines
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#36 IBM Business Conduct Guidelines
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#25 COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#64 IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#47 IBM deliberately misclassified mainframe sales to enrich execs, lawsuit claims
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#13 IBM z16: Built to Build the Future of Your Business
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#107 15 Examples of How Different Life Was Before The Internet
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#90 Computer BUNCH
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#78 Channel I/O
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#51 IBM History
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#7 USENET still around
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#123 SHARE LSRAD Report
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#101 Online Computer Conferencing

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

IBM Stretch (7030) -- Aggressive Uniprocessor Parallelism

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: IBM Stretch (7030) -- Aggressive Uniprocessor Parallelism
Date: 08 June 2022
Blog: Facebook
IBM Stretch (7030) -- Aggressive Uniprocessor Parallelism
https://people.cs.clemson.edu/~mark/stretch.html

Summary: The IBM Stretch computer from the 1950s contains many high-performance design features that we usually think of as being associated only with current day superscalar microprocessors. Gene Amdahl and John Backus were influential in proposing an instruction "lookahead" approach to start memory fetches early and queue up operations for a fast arithmetic unit. John Cocke and Harwood Kolsky later helped refine the lookahead design by developing a timing simulator used in tradeoff studies. The register set and function unit partitioning as well as the resulting pre-execution of certain instructions in the instruction stream are ideas from Stretch that have influenced high-end processor design within IBM for decades.

... snip ...

other trivia: ACS/360 page
https://people.cs.clemson.edu/~mark/acs.html

end of ACS/360 ... IBM executives afraid it would advance state of art too fast and IBM would loose control of the market (amdahl leaves shortly later)
https://people.cs.clemson.edu/~mark/acs_end.html

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

IBM Stretch (7030) -- Aggressive Uniprocessor Parallelism

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: IBM Stretch (7030) -- Aggressive Uniprocessor Parallelism
Date: 09 June 2022
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#99 IBM Stretch (7030) -- Aggressive Uniprocessor Parallelism

a little topic drift, Boeing "large contracts" leading to change from commission to quota ... renton datacenter akin to early version of cloud megadatacenter

Both the Boeing and IBM marketing people tell tale about prior IBM marketing rep. On the 360 announcement day, Boeing gives the rep an order (who barely knows what a 360 is) ... on commission, he is highest paid IBM employee that year. The next year, IBM changes from commissions to quota ... by end of January the rep has made 100% quota for the year (on another Boeing order) and his quota is "adjusted" ... he leaves IBM.

I take 2 credit hr intro to fortran/computers, at the end of the semester get student programming job, then within a year am hired fulltime responsible for os/360 (univ had 709/1401 but was sold 360/67 for tss/360 replacing 709/1401 ... tss/360 never came to production fruition, so ran as 360/65 with os/360).

Then before I graduate, I'm hired into small group in Boeing CFO office to help with the formation of Boeing Computer Services (consolidate all dataprocessing into independent business unit to better monetize the investment, including offering services to non-Boeing entities). I think just renton datacenter is possibly largest in the world (couple hundred million in 360s) ... 360/65s arriving faster than they could be installed, boxes constantly staged in hallways around machine room. Lots of politics between renton manager and CFO who only had 360/30 up at boeing field for payroll ... although they enlarge it for a 360/67 for me to play with when I'm not doing other stuff. When I graduate, I join IBM science center (instead of staying at Boeing).

IBM science center posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech
megadatacenter posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#megadatacenter

some recent "Boeing Computer Services" posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#95 Operating System File/Dataset I/O
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#91 Short-term profits and long-term consequences -- did Jack Welch break capitalism?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#57 CMS OS/360 Simulation
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#19 COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#10 Computer Server Market
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#72 IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#42 Why did Dennis Ritchie write that UNIX was a modern implementation of CTSS?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#8 Cloud Timesharing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#2 IBM 2250 Graphics Display
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#0 System Response
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#126 Google Cloud
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#117 Downfall: The Case Against Boeing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#73 IBM Disks
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#35 Dataprocessing Career
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#27 Dataprocessing Career
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#10 Seattle Dataprocessing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#120 Series/1 VTAM/NCP
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#109 Not counting dividends IBM delivered an annualized yearly loss of 2.27%
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#73 MVT storage management issues
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#48 Mainframe Career
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#30 CP67 and BPS Loader
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#22 IBM IBU (Independent Business Unit)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#12 Programming Skills
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#70 'Flying Blind' Review: Downward Trajectory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#55 System Availability
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#64 addressing and protection, was Paper about ISO C
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#63 IBM 360s
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#89 IBM Downturn
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#6 The Kill Chain: Defending America in the Future of High-Tech Warfare
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021h.html#64 WWII Pilot Barrel Rolls Boeing 707
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021h.html#46 Dynamic Adaptive Resource Management
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021h.html#35 IBM/PC 12Aug1981
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021g.html#39 iBM System/3 FORTRAN for engineering/science work?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021g.html#6 IBM 370
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021f.html#78 The Long-Forgotten Flight That Sent Boeing Off Course
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021f.html#57 "Hollywood model" for dealing with engineers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021f.html#20 1401 MPIO
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021f.html#16 IBM Zcloud - is it just outsourcing ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021e.html#80 Amdahl
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021e.html#55 SHARE (& GUIDE)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021e.html#54 Learning PDP-11 in 2021
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021d.html#51 IBM Hardest Problem(s)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021d.html#34 April 7, 1964: IBM Bets Big on System/360
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021d.html#25 Field Support and PSRs
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021c.html#2 Colours on screen (mainframe history question)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021b.html#62 Early Computer Use
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021b.html#40 IBM & Boeing run by Financiers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021b.html#5 Availability
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021.html#78 Interactive Computing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021.html#48 IBM Quota
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021.html#41 CADAM & Catia
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2020.html#45 Watch AI-controlled virtual fighters take on an Air Force pilot on August 18th
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2020.html#32 IBM TSS
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2020.html#29 Online Computer Conferencing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2020.html#10 "This Plane Was Designed By Clowns, Who Are Supervised By Monkeys"

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

IBM Stretch (7030) -- Aggressive Uniprocessor Parallelism

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: IBM Stretch (7030) -- Aggressive Uniprocessor Parallelism
Date: 09 June 2022
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#99 IBM Stretch (7030) -- Aggressive Uniprocessor Parallelism
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#100 IBM Stretch (7030) -- Aggressive Uniprocessor Parallelism

... supercomputer topic drift ... Jan1979 I had been con'ed into doing vm/4341 benchmarks for a national lab looking at getting 70 for a compute farm (sort of leading edge of the coming cluster scaleup supercomputer tsunami). About the same time I was doing some work with Jim Gray and Vera Watson on the original sql/relational implementation ... System/R.

The last product we did at IBM was HA/CMP. It started out HA/6000 for the NYTimes to move their newspaper system (ATEX) off (DEC) Vaxcluster to RS/6000. However as I started doing technical/scaleup cluster scaleup with national labs and commercial cluster scaleup with RDBMS vendors (Ingres, Informix, Sybase, Oracle, all had vax/cluster support in the same source base with unix support ... lots of discussion on improving over vaxcluster and easing RDBMS port to HA/CMP). However, nearly every time we visited national labs (including LANL & LLNL) we would get hate mail from the Kingston supercomputer group (working on more traditional supercomputer design).

Oct1991 senior VP backing the Kingston group, retires and there are audits of his projects. Shortly later there is announcement of internal supercomputing conference (effectively trolling the company for technology). Early Jan1992 we have meeting in Ellison's (Oracle CEO) conference room on (commercial) cluster/scaleup, 16way by mid92, 128way by ye92. Then within a few weeks of the Ellison meeting, cluster scaleup is transferred, announced as IBM supercomputer (for technical/scientific *ONLY*) and we are told we can't work on anything with more than four processors. We leave IBM a few months later. Possibly contributing was mainframe DB2 group complaining that if we were allowed to continue, it would be years ahead of them.

System/R posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#systemr
HA/CMP posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#hacmp

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

IBM Stretch (7030) -- Aggressive Uniprocessor Parallelism

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: IBM Stretch (7030) -- Aggressive Uniprocessor Parallelism
Date: 09 June 2022
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#99 IBM Stretch (7030) -- Aggressive Uniprocessor Parallelism
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#100 IBM Stretch (7030) -- Aggressive Uniprocessor Parallelism
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#101 IBM Stretch (7030) -- Aggressive Uniprocessor Parallelism

In early 80s, I'm introduced to John Boyd and sponsored his briefings at IBM. One of his stories was about being very vocal that the electronics across the trail wouldn't work ... so possibly as punishment he is put in command of "spook base" ref gone 404, but lives on at wayback machine
http://web.archive.org/web/20030212092342/http://home.att.net/~c.jeppeson/igloo_white.html
also
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Igloo_White

Boyd biography claims "spook base" was $2.5B windfall for IBM (60s $$$, ten times renton??). Also "John Boyd's Art of War; Why our greatest military theorist only made colonel":
http://www.theamericanconservative.com/articles/john-boyds-art-of-war/

trivia: 89/90, the Commandant of Marine Corps leverages Boyd for a corps makeover ... at the time that IBM was desparately in need of makeover ... a couple yrs later has one of the largest losses in US corporate history and was being reorged into the 13 "baby blues" in preparation for breaking up the company. ... behind paywall, but mostly lives free at wayback machine.
http://web.archive.org/web/20101120231857/http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,977353,00.html
may also work
http://content.time.com/time/subscriber/article/0,33009,977353-1,00.html

had already left IBM, but get a call from the bowels of Armonk asking if could help with breakup of the company. Lots of business units were using supplier contracts in other units via MOUs. After the breakup, all of these contracts would be in different companies ... all of those MOUs would have to be cataloged and turned into their own contracts. However, before getting started, the board brings in a new CEO and reverses the breakup.

boyd posts & web refs:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subboyd.html

some recent posts mentioning the 13 IBM "baby blues"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#75 "12 O'clock High" In IBM Management School
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#70 IBM Z16 - The Mainframe Is Dead, Long Live The Mainframe
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#54 Another IBM Down Fall thread
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#53 Another IBM Down Fall thread
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#49 IBM Dug A Hole
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#40 AMEX, First Data, & IBM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#36 IBM Business Conduct Guidelines
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#23 COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#110 Financial longevity that redhat gives IBM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#98 IBM Systems Revenue Put Into a Historical Context
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#64 IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#47 IBM deliberately misclassified mainframe sales to enrich execs, lawsuit claims
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#40 After IBM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#38 After IBM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#23 Telum & z16
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#13 IBM z16: Built to Build the Future of Your Business
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#11 IBM z16: Built to Build the Future of Your Business
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#107 15 Examples of How Different Life Was Before The Internet
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#90 Computer BUNCH
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#78 Channel I/O
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#75 Frameworks Quagmire
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#73 IBM Disks
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#63 Mainframes
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#56 Fujitsu confirms end date for mainframe and Unix systems
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#52 IBM History
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#51 IBM History
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#6 On why it's CR+LF and not LF+CR [ASR33]
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#123 SHARE LSRAD Report
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#110 Not counting dividends IBM delivered an annualized yearly loss of 2.27%
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#102 Online Computer Conferencing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#88 Virtual Machine SIE instruction
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#54 Automated Benchmarking
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#53 Automated Benchmarking
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#47 IBM Conduct
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#126 The Network Nation
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#123 Mainframe "Peak I/O" benchmark
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#117 Building the System/360 Mainframe Nearly Destroyed IBM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#79 IBM Fridays
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#76 'Flying Blind' Review: Downward Trajectory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#18 IBM's social media policy
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#113 IBM Downturn
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#96 IBM 3278
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#76 IBM 370 and Future System
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#74 IBM 3278
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#70 IBM Wild Ducks
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#68 MTS, 360/67, FS, Internet, SNA
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#79 IBM Downturn
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#64 Virtual Machine Debugging
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#47 vs/pascal
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021h.html#93 CMSBACK, ADSM, TSM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021h.html#1 Cloud computing's destiny
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021g.html#51 Intel rumored to be in talks to buy chip manufacturer GlobalFoundries for $30B
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021g.html#45 Cloud computing's destiny
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021g.html#33 Big Blue's big email blues signal terminal decline - unless it learns to migrate itself
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021g.html#31 IBM Programming Projects
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021g.html#20 Big Blue's big email blues signal terminal decline - unless it learns to migrate itself
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021g.html#18 IBM email migration disaster
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021f.html#61 Private Inequity: How a Powerful Industry Conquered the Tax System
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021f.html#55 3380 disk capacity
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021f.html#47 Martial Arts "OODA-loop"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021f.html#32 IBM HSDT & HA/CMP
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021f.html#24 IBM Remains Big Tech's Disaster
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021f.html#7 The Rise of Private Equity
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021f.html#6 Financial Engineering
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021f.html#4 Study: Are You Too Nice to be Financially Successful?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021e.html#16 IBM Internal Network
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021d.html#68 How Gerstner Rebuilt IBM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021d.html#15 The Rise of the Internet
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021c.html#95 What's Fortran?!?!
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021c.html#84 IBM SNA/VTAM (& HSDT)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021c.html#63 Distributed Computing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021c.html#61 MAINFRAME (4341) History
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021c.html#49 IBM CEO
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021c.html#48 MAINFRAME (4341) History
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021b.html#97 IBM Glory days
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021b.html#9 IBM Kneecapping products
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021b.html#7 IBM & Apple
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021b.html#4 Killer Micros
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021b.html#0 Will The Cloud Take Down The Mainframe?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021.html#79 IBM Disk Division
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021.html#39 IBM Tech
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021.html#26 CMSBACK, ADSM, TSM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021.html#7 IBM CEOs

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

IBM'S MISSED OPPORTUNITY WITH THE INTERNET

Refed: **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: IBM'S MISSED OPPORTUNITY WITH THE INTERNET
Date: 09 June 2022
Blog: Facebook
co-worker at science center was responsible for the internal (non-SNA) network
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edson_Hendricks

we transfer out to San Jose research in late 70s, (in 80s he transfers to San Diago FSD) SJMerc article about Edson (he passed aug2020) and "IBM'S MISSED OPPORTUNITY WITH THE INTERNET" (gone behind paywall but lives free at wayback machine)
http://web.archive.org/web/20000124004147/http://www1.sjmercury.com/svtech/columns/gillmor/docs/dg092499.htm

Also from wayback machine, some additional references from Ed's website (Ed passed aug2020)
http://web.archive.org/web/20000115185349/http://www.edh.net/bungle.htm
list of some of the correspondence (from above):

030481_2.gif -- images of pages one and two of the letter sent by Mike Engel to IBM CEO John Opel, requesting a formal review ("Open Door") of IBM's decision to cancel our Internet initiative.

051581.gif -- an image of Mike Engel' follow-up letter to the above, complaining that IBM was being unresponsive and requesting a personal meeting with Mr. Opel to discuss the importance of the emerging Internet to IBM.

051981a.gif -- an image of John Opel's response to Mike Engel's first letter, supporting the decision to terminate our "VNET/ARPANET" project due to lack of "business potential."

060381.gif -- an image of John Opel's response to Mike Engel's second letter, denying any further review and refusing to meet in person to discuss the matter, technically violating IBM's Open Door Policy as loudly proclaimed by IBM back then.

031981.gif -- Dale Johnson's request to Thomas J. Watson, Jr.(who was still on IBM's board at that time), requesting his review of IBM's decision-making in canceling our effort to join IBM with the emerging Internet.

051981b.gif -- A rejection letter to Dale Johnson from John Opel (making three) in response to his request for review to Thomas J. Watson, Jr., above.

091181_2.gif -- pages one and two of John Opel's "Management Briefing" giving glossy lip service to his and IBM's claim of management excellence.


... snip ...

science center posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech
internal network posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#internalnet
internet posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#internet

some recent posts mentioning Opel:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#90 Short-term profits and long-term consequences -- did Jack Welch break capitalism?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#89 Short-term profits and long-term consequences -- did Jack Welch break capitalism?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#76 "12 O'clock High" In IBM Management School
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#71 IBM Z16 - The Mainframe Is Dead, Long Live The Mainframe
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#52 Another IBM Down Fall thread
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#49 IBM Dug A Hole
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#44 CMS Personal Computing Precursor
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#35 IBM Business Conduct Guidelines
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#111 The Rise of DOS: How Microsoft Got the IBM PC OS Contract
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#99 CDC6000
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#95 IBM Salary
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#88 Computer BUNCH
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#58 Interdata Computers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#50 100 days after IBM split, Kyndryl signs strategic cloud pact with AWS
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#37 Leadership
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#12 TCP/IP and Mid-range market
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#1 On why it's CR+LF and not LF+CR [ASR33]
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#74 165/168/3033 & 370 virtual memory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#53 Automated Benchmarking
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#39 Mainframe I/O

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

IBM'S MISSED OPPORTUNITY WITH THE INTERNET

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: IBM'S MISSED OPPORTUNITY WITH THE INTERNET
Date: 09 June 2022
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#103 IBM'S MISSED OPPORTUNITY WITH THE INTERNET

In the early 80s, had HSDT project ... T1 and faster computer links (both satellite and terrestrial) ... also working with NSF director and suppose to get $20M to interconnect the NSF supercomputer centers (non-SNA, communication group didn't have any hardware or software products that would work, had to be TCP/IP), then congress cuts the budget, some other things happen and finally an RFP is released. Preliminary announce (Mar1986)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002k.html#12

The OASC has initiated three programs: The Supercomputer Centers Program to provide Supercomputer cycles; the New Technologies Program to foster new supercomputer software and hardware developments; and the Networking Program to build a National Supercomputer Access Network - NSFnet.

... snip ...

internal IBM politics prevent us from bidding on the RFP. the NSF director tries to help by writing the company a letter (with support from other agencies), but that just makes the internal politics worse (as did claims that what we already had running was at least 5yrs ahead of the winning bid), as regional networks connect in, it becomes the NSFNET backbone, precursor to modern internet
https://www.technologyreview.com/s/401444/grid-computing/

communication group (and other) executives were spreading all sorts of misinformation about how SNA products could be used for NSFnet ... somebody collected lots of that misinformation email and forwarded it to us ... old archived post with the email, heavily redacted and clipped to protect the guilty
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006w.html#email870109

hsdt posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#hsdt
NSFNET posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#nsfnet
internal network posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#internalnet

Late 80s, senior disk engineer gets a talk scheduled annual, internal, world-wide, communication group conference, supposedly on 3174 performance ... but opens the talk with the statement that the communication group was going to be responsible for the demise of the disk division. The communication group had strangle hold on mainframe datacenters with their corporate strategic responsibility for everything that crossed datacenter wall and were fiercely fighting off client/server and distributed computing (trying to preserve their dumb terminal paradigm). The disk division was seeing data fleeing mainframe datacenters to more distributed computing friendly platforms, with drops in disk sales. They had come up with a number of solutions ... which were constantly being vetoed by the communication group.

dumb terminal related posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#terminal

a couple short yrs later, company has one of the largest loss ever in US corporate history and was being reorganized into the 13 "baby blues" in preparation for breaking up the company ... behind paywall, but mostly lives free at wayback machine.
http://web.archive.org/web/20101120231857/http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,977353,00.html
may also work
http://content.time.com/time/subscriber/article/0,33009,977353-1,00.html

recent posts mentioning 13 "baby blues"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#102 IBM Stretch (7030) -- Aggressive Uniprocessor Parallelism
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#75 "12 O'clock High" In IBM Management School
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#70 IBM Z16 - The Mainframe Is Dead, Long Live The Mainframe
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#54 Another IBM Down Fall thread
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#53 Another IBM Down Fall thread
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#49 IBM Dug A Hole
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#40 AMEX, First Data, & IBM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#36 IBM Business Conduct Guidelines
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#23 COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#110 Financial longevity that redhat gives IBM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#98 IBM Systems Revenue Put Into a Historical Context
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#64 IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#47 IBM deliberately misclassified mainframe sales to enrich execs, lawsuit claims
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#40 After IBM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#38 After IBM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#23 Telum & z16
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#13 IBM z16: Built to Build the Future of Your Business
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#11 IBM z16: Built to Build the Future of Your Business
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#107 15 Examples of How Different Life Was Before The Internet
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#90 Computer BUNCH
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#78 Channel I/O
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#75 Frameworks Quagmire
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#73 IBM Disks
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#63 Mainframes
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#56 Fujitsu confirms end date for mainframe and Unix systems
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#52 IBM History
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#51 IBM History
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#6 On why it's CR+LF and not LF+CR [ASR33]
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#123 SHARE LSRAD Report
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#110 Not counting dividends IBM delivered an annualized yearly loss of 2.27%
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#102 Online Computer Conferencing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#88 Virtual Machine SIE instruction
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#54 Automated Benchmarking
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#53 Automated Benchmarking
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#47 IBM Conduct

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Transistors of the 68000

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Transistors of the 68000
Newsgroups: comp.arch
Date: Fri, 10 Jun 2022 10:45:26 -1000
anton@mips.complang.tuwien.ac.at (Anton Ertl) writes:

Interesting that he mentions all kinds of microprocessors (both from Motorola and the competition), but not Motorola's 88100 and 88110.

801/risc didn't have cache consistency (for multiprocessor) plus some number of other deficiencies ... rios/power was large six chip implementation. When AIM (apple, ibm, motorola) was formed
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/AIM_alliance

the executive we reported to (when we were doing ha/cmp), went over to head up somerset ... for power/pc doing single chip design, also multiprocessor cache consistency and some number of other features ... I claimed a lot of it came from 88k.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PowerPC_600

.. then well before ibm sells somerset, our former boss and gone over to be president of mips.

POWERPC ALLIANCE FRACTURED AS IBM SELLS SOMERSET
https://techmonitor.ai/technology/powerpc_alliance_fractured_as_ibm_sells_somerset

801/risc, iliad, romp, rios, power, power/pc posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#801
HA/CMP posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#hacmp

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

IBM Quota

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: IBM Quota
Date: 11 June 2022
Blog: Facebook
In early 80s, I'm introduced to John Boyd and sponsored his briefings at IBM. One of his stories was about being very vocal that the electronics across the trail wouldn't work ... so possibly as punishment he is put in command of "spook base" ref gone 404, but lives on at wayback machine
http://web.archive.org/web/20030212092342/http://home.att.net/~c.jeppeson/igloo_white.html
also
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Igloo_White

Boyd biography claims "spook base" was $2.5B "windfall" for IBM (60s $$$, ten times renton??). Also "John Boyd's Art of War; Why our greatest military theorist only made colonel":
http://www.theamericanconservative.com/articles/john-boyds-art-of-war/

trivia: 89/90, the Commandant of Marine Corps leverages Boyd for a corps makeover ... at a time when IBM was desparately in need of makeover ... a couple yrs later has one of the largest losses in US corporate history and was being reorged into the 13 "baby blues" in preparation for breaking up the company. ... behind paywall, but mostly lives free at wayback machine.
http://web.archive.org/web/20101120231857/http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,977353,00.html
may also work
http://content.time.com/time/subscriber/article/0,33009,977353-1,00.html
had already left IBM, but get a call from the bowels of Armonk asking if could help with breakup of the company. Lots of business units were using supplier contracts in other units via MOUs. After the breakup, all of these contracts would be in different companies ... all of those MOUs would have to be cataloged and turned into their own contracts. However, before getting started, the board brings in a new CEO and reverses the breakup.

Many years earlier, both the Boeing and IBM marketing people tell tale about prior IBM marketing rep. On the 360 announcement day, Boeing gives the rep an order (who barely knows what a 360 is) ... on commission, he is highest paid IBM employee that year. The next year, IBM changes from commissions to quota ... by end of January the rep has made 100% quota for the year (on another Boeing order) and his quota is "adjusted" ... he leaves IBM.

I take 2 credit hr intro to fortran/computers, at the end of the semester get student programming job, then within a year am hired fulltime responsible for os/360 (univ had 709/1401 but was sold 360/67 for tss/360 replacing 709/1401 ... tss/360 never came to production fruition, so ran as 360/65 with os/360).

Then before I graduate, I'm hired into small group in Boeing CFO office to help with the formation of Boeing Computer Services (consolidate all dataprocessing into independent business unit to better monetize the investment, including offering services to non-Boeing entities). I think just renton datacenter is possibly largest in the world (couple hundred million in 360s, 1/10th spook base??) ... 360/65s arriving faster than they could be installed, boxes constantly staged in hallways around machine room. Lots of politics between renton manager and CFO who only had 360/30 up at boeing field for payroll ... although they enlarge it for a 360/67 for me to play with when I'm not doing other stuff. When I graduate, I join IBM science center (instead of staying at Boeing).

turns out I was at Boeing about the same time he was at "spook base". another account of Boyd

John Boyd - USAF. The Fighter Pilot Who Changed the Art of Air Warfare
http://www.aviation-history.com/airmen/boyd.htm

During the 1950s, John Boyd dominated fighter aviation in the U.S. Air Force. His fame came on the wings of the quirky and treacherous F-100; the infamous "Hun." Boyd was known throughout the Air Force as "Forty-Second Boyd," because he had a standing offer to all pilots that if they could defeat them in simulated air-to-air combat in under 40 seconds, he would pay them $40. Like any gunslinger with a name and a reputation, he was called out many times. As an instructor at the Fighter Weapons School (FWS) at Nellis AFB, he fought students, cadre pilots, Marine and Navy pilots, and pilots from a dozen countries, who were attending the FWS as part of the Mutual Defense Assistance Pact.

Boyd was equally famous in the classroom where he developed the "Aerial Attack Study." Until Boyd came along, fighter pilots thought that air combat was an art rather than a science; that it could never be codified. Boyd proved them wrong when he demonstrated that for every maneuver there is a series of counter maneuvers. And there is a counter to every counter. Afterwards, when fighter pilots attacked (or were attacked), they knew every option open to their adversary and how to respond. After the study was declassified, foreign pilots passing through Nellis took it home where it changed the way every air force in the world flies and fights. Even today, more than 40 years later, nothing substantial has been added to the Aerial Attack Study.


... snip ...

... asked why "40 secs" when he always did it in 20 secs ... he said that there might be somebody in the world almost as good as he was and he might need the extra time

Boyd posts & web URLs
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subboyd.html

posts mentioning IBM change from sales commission to quota
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#100 IBM Stretch (7030) -- Aggressive Uniprocessor Parallelism
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021.html#48 IBM Quota
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019d.html#60 IBM 360/67
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019b.html#51 System/360 consoles
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019b.html#39 Building the System/360 Mainframe Nearly Destroyed IBM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019b.html#38 Reminder over in linkedin, IBM Mainframe announce 7April1964
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015b.html#36 IBM CEO Rometty gets bonus despite company's woes
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015.html#93 Ginni gets bonus, plus raise, and extra incentives
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014k.html#76 HP splits, again
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013o.html#18 Why IBM chose MS-DOS, was Re: 'Free Unix!' made30yearsagotoday
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011l.html#37 movie "Airport" on cable
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011j.html#65 Who was the Greatest IBM President and CEO of the last century?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011b.html#7 Mainframe upgrade done with wire cutters?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010m.html#59 z196 sysplex question
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007u.html#26 T3 Sues IBM To Break its Mainframe Monopoly
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004o.html#58 Integer types for 128-bit addressing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002n.html#72 bps loader, was PLX

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Short-term profits and long-term consequences -- did Jack Welch break capitalism?

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Short-term profits and long-term consequences -- did Jack Welch break capitalism?
Date: 11 June 2022
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#83 Short-term profits and long-term consequences -- did Jack Welch break capitalism?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#88 Short-term profits and long-term consequences -- did Jack Welch break capitalism?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#89 Short-term profits and long-term consequences -- did Jack Welch break capitalism?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#90 Short-term profits and long-term consequences -- did Jack Welch break capitalism?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#91 Short-term profits and long-term consequences -- did Jack Welch break capitalism?

In the early 80s, I was introduced to John Boyd and would sponsor his briefings at IBM. In 89/90, the Commandant of the Marine Corps leverages Boyd for a Corp make-over ... at a time when IBM was desparately in need of a make-over (at the time, the Corps and IBM had about the same number of people). A couple short years later, IBM has one of the largest losses in US corporate history and was being reorged into the 13 "baby blues" in preparation for breaking up the company ... behind paywall, but mostly lives free at wayback machine.
http://web.archive.org/web/20101120231857/http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,977353,00.html
may also work
http://content.time.com/time/subscriber/article/0,33009,977353-1,00.html

had already left IBM, but get a call from the bowels of Armonk asking if could help with breakup of the company. Lots of business units were using supplier contracts in other units via MOUs. After the breakup, all of these contracts would be in different companies ... all of those MOUs would have to be cataloged and turned into their own contracts. However, before getting started, the board brings in a new CEO and reverses the breakup.

recent related threads
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#106 IBM Quota
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#99 IBM Stretch (7030) -- Aggressive Uniprocessor Parallelism
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#47 IBM deliberately misclassified mainframe sales to enrich execs, lawsuit claims
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#46 IBM deliberately misclassified mainframe sales to enrich execs, lawsuit claims
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#45 IBM deliberately misclassified mainframe sales to enrich execs, lawsuit claims

older long-winded post/comments on IBM downturn (from last fall):
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#50 IBM Downturn
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#49 IBM Downturn
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#45 IBM Downturn
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#32 IBM Downturn
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#31 IBM Downturn
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#89 IBM Downturn
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#88 IBM Downturn
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#84 IBM Downturn
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#83 IBM Downturn
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#82 IBM Downturn
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#81 IBM Downturn
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#80 IBM Downturn
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#79 IBM Downturn

other recent comments mentioning IBM reorg into 13 "baby blues"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#104 IBM'S MISSED OPPORTUNITY WITH THE INTERNET
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#75 "12 O'clock High" In IBM Management School
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#70 IBM Z16 - The Mainframe Is Dead, Long Live The Mainframe
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#54 Another IBM Down Fall thread
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#53 Another IBM Down Fall thread
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#49 IBM Dug A Hole
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#40 AMEX, First Data, & IBM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#36 IBM Business Conduct Guidelines
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#23 COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#110 Financial longevity that redhat gives IBM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#98 IBM Systems Revenue Put Into a Historical Context
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#64 IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#47 IBM deliberately misclassified mainframe sales to enrich execs, lawsuit claims
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#40 After IBM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#38 After IBM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#23 Telum & z16
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#13 IBM z16: Built to Build the Future of Your Business
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#11 IBM z16: Built to Build the Future of Your Business
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#107 15 Examples of How Different Life Was Before The Internet
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#90 Computer BUNCH
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#78 Channel I/O
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#75 Frameworks Quagmire
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#73 IBM Disks
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#63 Mainframes
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#56 Fujitsu confirms end date for mainframe and Unix systems
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#52 IBM History
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#51 IBM History
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#6 On why it's CR+LF and not LF+CR [ASR33]
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#123 SHARE LSRAD Report
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#110 Not counting dividends IBM delivered an annualized yearly loss of 2.27%
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#102 Online Computer Conferencing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#88 Virtual Machine SIE instruction
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#54 Automated Benchmarking
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#53 Automated Benchmarking
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#47 IBM Conduct

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

System Dumps & 7x24 operation

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: System Dumps & 7x24 operation
Date: 11 June 2022
Blog: Facebook
In the 60s, the science center and two commercial online service bureaus (spinoffs from the science center) did a lot of CP67 work for 7x24 availability operation (including darkroom and no human present). At the time, IBM leased/rented machines with charges (even "funny money" for IBM internal datacenters) based on the processor "system meter" ... that ran whenever any processor and/or channel was busy. Special channel programs were done for online terminals ... which would go idle, but instant on for arriving characters (allowing system meter to stop when system was idle, trivia: all processors and channels had to be idle for at least 400ms before the system meter would stop, long after IBM had converted to sales, MVS still had a timer task that woke up every 400ms, guaranteeing system meter would never stop).

Other 60s 7x24 work was system dump automatically written to disk file (instead of printer) and system would automagically re-ipl (with no human intervention). Old account of MIT USL programmer modified CP67 which resulted in 27 crashes (automagic dump and re-ipl) in single day.
http://www.multicians.org/thvv/360-67.html

An application was developed for processing dump file (1st cp67 and later vm370) ... although function was little different from dealing with real paper dump. With appearance of REX (before renamed REXX and release for customers), I wanted to demo that it wasn't just another pretty scripting language ... and chose to reimplement the (at the time vm370) dump application in REX with ten times the performance (compared to the assembler implementation, some slight of hand for interpreted REX) and ten times the function ... doing it in half time over three months. I finished early, so started implementation of automagic library that looked for most common failure signatures.

I thought it would be released to customers in place of the current application, but for various reason it wasn't even tho it was in use by nearly every PSR and internal datacenter. Eventually I got permission to give presentations at user group meetings on the implementation ... and within a few months, non-IBM implementations started to appear.

Trivia: old email from the 3090 service processor group (3092) about including it as part of 3092 service processor
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010e.html#email861031
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010e.html#email861223

other triva: after CP67 was made available to the univ (3rd installation after science center itself and MIT Lincoln Labs) ... I wrote &/or rewrote a lot of CP67(& CMS) code that IBM would pickup and ship in product to customers. CP67 had 2741 and 1052 support, and the univ. had some ASCII TTY33 terminals ... so I added ASCII TTY33 support (which IBM shipped). For TTY33, I fiddled some length calculations using one byte (255char) values. Some MIT USL user down at Harvard got some sort of ASCII device (I think a "plotter") that needed 1200char max line length (not 255) ... the simple change for 1200 char resulted in invalid length calculations, crashing the system.

science center posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech
dumprx posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#dumprx
online (virtual machine) service bureaus
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#timeshare

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Short-term profits and long-term consequences -- did Jack Welch break capitalism?

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Short-term profits and long-term consequences -- did Jack Welch break capitalism?
Date: 12 June 2022
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#83 Short-term profits and long-term consequences -- did Jack Welch break capitalism?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#88 Short-term profits and long-term consequences -- did Jack Welch break capitalism?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#89 Short-term profits and long-term consequences -- did Jack Welch break capitalism?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#90 Short-term profits and long-term consequences -- did Jack Welch break capitalism?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#91 Short-term profits and long-term consequences -- did Jack Welch break capitalism?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#107 Short-term profits and long-term consequences -- did Jack Welch break capitalism?
and
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#92 Wage gap between CEOs and US workers jumped to 670-to-1 last year, study finds

Why Investors Are Pushing Back on Massive CEO Pay Hikes
https://time.com/6184355/ceo-pay-investors-workers/

bureaucracy & syncophancy from future system failure in the 70s (quote mentioned upthread) ...

I was introduced to John Boyd in the early 80s, and use to sponsor his briefings at IBM. The first time, I tried to do it through plant site employee education. At first they agreed, but as I provided more information about how to prevail/win in competitive situations, they changed their mind. They said that IBM spends a great deal of money training managers on how to handle employees and it wouldn't be in IBM's best interest to expose general employees to Boyd, I should limit audience to senior members of competitive analysis departments. First briefing in in bldg28 auditorium open to all.

... sort of the opposite ... and similar to many things in Boyd's briefings .. from HBS article 2005 How Toyota Turns Workers Into Problem Solvers
http://hbswk.hbs.edu/item/how-toyota-turns-workers-into-problem-solvers

To paraphrase one of our contacts, he said, "It's not that we don't want to tell you what TPS is, it's that we can't. We don't have adequate words for it. But, we can show you what TPS is."

We've observed that Toyota, its best suppliers, and other companies that have learned well from Toyota can confidently distribute a tremendous amount of responsibility to the people who actually do the work, from the most senior, experienced member of the organization to the most junior. This is accomplished because of the tremendous emphasis on teaching everyone how to be a skillful problem solver.


... snip ...

Boyd posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subboyd.html
capitalist posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#capitalism

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Window Display Ground Floor Datacenters

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Window Display Ground Floor Datacenters
Date: 12 June 2022
Blog: Facebook
I had taken two credit hr intro fortran/computers, at end of semester got student job reimplementing 1401 MPIO for 360/30 (univ. had 709/1401 with 1401 unit record front-end for 709 tape->tape and had been sold 360/67 for tss/360 ... and temporary got 360/30 pending availability of 360/67, even tho 360//30 had 1401 emulation mode ... I guess my job was just part of getting 360 experience). Within year of intro class, I was hired fulltime responsible for OS/360 (360/67 ran as 360/65, tss/360 never came to production quality).

student fortran jobs ran less than second on 709, but started out over a minute on os/360. I install hasp and cut time in half. First sysgen I did was mft release 11 ... I took apart the SYSGEN2 deck putting it back together for careful placement of datasets and PDS members (arm seek and PDS directory multi-track search optimization) ... cutting another 2/3rds to 12.9secs for student fortran. Never beat 709 until install Univ. of Waterloo WATFOR.

For MVT release 15/16, got 3rd shift time at the IBM regional office in Seattle. Datacenter was on ground floor with large glass windows.

During the day, wander around the bldg and found MVT debugging class and asked if I could attend. I lasted less than 20mins ... the instructor asked me to leave because I kept suggesting things.

Then before I graduate, I'm hired fulltime into a small group in the Boeing CFO office to help with the formation of Boeing Computing Services (consolidate all dataprocessing into independent business unit to better monetize the investment, including offering services to non-Boeing entities). I thot Renton datacenter was possibly largest in the world (a couple hundred million in computer systems), 360/65s were arriving faster than they could be installed, boxes constantly staged in the hallways around the machine room. Lots of politics between renton manager and the CFO who only had a 360/30 up at boeing field for payroll (although they enlarged the room for a 360/67 for me to play with when I wasn't doing other stuff).

recent Boeing Computer Services posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#106 IBM Quota
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#100 IBM Stretch (7030) -- Aggressive Uniprocessor Parallelism
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#95 Operating System File/Dataset I/O
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#91 Short-term profits and long-term consequences -- did Jack Welch break capitalism?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#57 CMS OS/360 Simulation
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#19 COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#10 Computer Server Market
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#72 IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#8 Cloud Timesharing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#2 IBM 2250 Graphics Display
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#0 System Response
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#126 Google Cloud
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#117 Downfall: The Case Against Boeing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#73 IBM Disks
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#35 Dataprocessing Career
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#27 Dataprocessing Career
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#10 Seattle Dataprocessing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#120 Series/1 VTAM/NCP
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#73 MVT storage management issues
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#48 Mainframe Career
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#22 IBM IBU (Independent Business Unit)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#12 Programming Skills

other recent posts mentioning MPIO
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#87 Punch Cards
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#84 Destruction Of The Middle Class
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#78 US Takes Supercomputer Top Spot With First True Exascale Machine
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#69 Mainframe History: How Mainframe Computers Evolved Over the Years
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#45 MGLRU Revved Once More For Promising Linux Performance Improvements
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#8 Computer Server Market
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#97 Why Companies Are Becoming B Corporations
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#126 On the origin of the /text section/ for code
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#106 The Cult of Trump is actually comprised of MANY other Christian cults
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#72 165/168/3033 & 370 virtual memory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#35 Error Handling
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#26 Is this group only about older computers?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#1 LLMPS, MPIO, DEBE

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

A Trillion Here, a Trillion There

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: A Trillion Here, a Trillion There...
Date: 12 June 2022
Blog: Facebook
A Trillion Here, a Trillion There...
https://www.mauldineconomics.com/frontlinethoughts/a-trillion-here-a-trillion-there/

... note above appears to lump Social Security Trust Fund in with the rest of the gov collections and "spending". The SS Trust Fund was set up for people to pay in as a pension plan ... that they would draw on when they retired. However, with fast growing working population (in large part the baby boomer/bubble), there have been significant principle accumulating (more payed in each year than amount payed out) and the government was "borrowing" the excess for other purposes (leaving IOUs). With the baby boomers retiring that is starting to invert and the gov. will have to start paying off those IOUs. Reagan's "budget director" takes credit for analysis that increased SS contributions to cover increases in life expectancy and the coming baby boomer retirement. However, he also states that it was somewhat of a cover story, wanting to have more SS Trust Fund money to borrow for military-industrial complex spending ... without having to increase standard taxe rates (also to double tax SS, contributions come out of after taxed income, and then benefits taxed again). However, other places Greenspan claimed credit. Some recent political rhetoric appear to obfuscate the nature of the trust fund and the debt it is owed ... as if they are planning on defaulting/welshing on the debt
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_Security_Trust_Fund

2002 congress lets the financial responsibility act lapse (spending can't exceed revenue, on its way to eliminating all federal debt).
https://www.cbpp.org/research/federal-budget/the-pay-as-you-go-budget-rule

In the late 1990s, however, Congress and the President began waiving PAYGO in response to the booming economy and several years of budget surpluses. In 2001 they waived PAYGO enforcement and approved very large tax cuts without offsets -- a sharp departure from PAYGO discipline. This set the stage for other PAYGO exceptions. In 2002 Congress allowed PAYGO to expire, facilitating the passage of deficit-increasing tax and entitlement legislation over the next several years, including the 2003 tax cuts and the Medicare prescription drug bill.

... snip ...

... by 2005, comptroller general was including in speeches that nobody in congress was capable of middle school arithmetic (for how badly they were savaging the budget). 2010 CBO report 2003-2009 tax revenue cut by $6T and spending increased by $6T for $12T gap compared to fiscal responsible budget (first time taxes were cut to not pay for two wars). Sort of confluence of FEDRES and TBTF (too big to fail) needed huge federal debt, special interests wanting huge tax cut and military-industrial complex wanting huge spending increase.

CBS 60mins had expose on medicare part-d legislation ... focusing on 18 responsible for getting bill through. Just before final vote, they insert one liner that eliminates competitive bidding and they block distribution of CBO report that takes into account that change. 60mins showed drugs from the VA that are 1/3rd the price of the identical drug under Part-D. They also found that all the 18 republicans, within 6-12 months had resigned and were on drug industry payrolls. the comptroller general was on program that medicare part-d comes to represent $40T unfunded mandate ... totally swamping all other budget items ... and the bill was passed shortly after congress let the fiscal responsibility act expire.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medicare_Part_D

posts mentioning fiscal responsibility act
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#fiscal.responsibility.act
medicare part-d posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#medicate.part-d
posts mentioning Comptroller General
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#comptroller.general
military-industrial complex posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#military.industrial.complex
Too Big To Fail (too big to prosecute, too big to jail) posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#too-big-to-fail

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

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