List of Archived Posts

2024 Newsgroup Postings (06/12 - )

time-sharing history, Privilege Levels Below User
time-sharing history, Privilege Levels Below User
time-sharing history, Privilege Levels Below User
Disconnect Between Coursework And Real-World Computers
Disconnect Between Coursework And Real-World Computers
Disconnect Between Coursework And Real-World Computers
Disconnect Between Coursework And Real-World Computers
TCP/IP Protocol
TCP/IP Protocol
Benchmarking and Testing
Benchmarking and Testing
ATM, Mainframes, Tandem
ADA, FAA ATC, FSD
MVS/ISPF Editor
801/RISC
Mid-Range Market
REXX and DUMPRX
Private Equity Becomes Roach Motel as Public Pension Funds and Other Investors Borrow As Funds Remain Tied Up
Mid-Range Market
IBM Internal Network
NAS Hitachi 370 Clones
IBM CSC and MIT MULTICS
Early Computer Use
Obscure Systems in my Past
ARM is sort of channeling the IBM 360
IBM 23June1969 Unbundling Announcement
IBM 23June1969 Unbundling Announcement
STL Channel Extender
Do We Need Language to Think?
Future System and S/38
Future System and S/38
Future System and S/38
ancient OS history, ARM is sort of channeling the IBM 360
IBM 23June1969 Unbundling Announcement
ancient OS history, ARM is sort of channeling the IBM 360
Null terminated strings, Disconnect Between Coursework And Real-World Computers
This New Internet Thing, Chapter 8
Chat Rooms and Social Media
GISH GALLOP
ancient OS history, ARM is sort of channeling the IBM 360
ancient OS history, ARM is sort of channeling the IBM 360
ancient OS history, ARM is sort of channeling the IBM 360
GISH GALLOP
Chat Rooms and Social Media
Chat Rooms and Social Media
Economic Mess
GISH GALLOP
E-commerce
Architectural implications of locate mode I/O
REXX and DUMPRX
Architectural implications of locate mode I/O
Email Archive
Cray
16June1911, IBM Incorporation Day
Architectural implications of locate mode I/O
Architectural implications of locate mode I/O
Free and Open Source Software-and Other Market Failures
Seymour Cray and the Dawn of Supercomputing
Architectural implications of locate mode I/O and channels
Too-Big-To-Fail Money Laundering
16June1911, IBM Incorporation Day
Architectural implications of locate mode I/O
360/65, 360/67, 360/75 750ns memory
360/65, 360/67, 360/75 750ns memory
360/65, 360/67, 360/75 750ns memory
360/65, 360/67, 360/75 750ns memory
360/65, 360/67, 360/75 750ns memory
A Timeline of Mainframe Innovation
ARPANET & IBM Internal Network
ARPANET & IBM Internal Network
ARPANET & IBM Internal Network
ARPANET & IBM Internal Network
IBM "Winchester" Disk
GOSIP
Some Email History
Joe Biden Kicked Off the Encryption Wars
Some work before IBM
Other Silicon Valley
Other Silicon Valley
Other Silicon Valley
IBM ATM At San Jose Plant Site
APL and REXX Programming Languages
APL and REXX Programming Languages
Continuations
ATT/SUN and Open System Foundation
ATT/SUN and Open System Foundation
ATT/SUN and Open System Foundation
Benchmarking and Testing
Computer Virtual Memory
John Boyd and IBM Wild Ducks
Computer Virtual Memory
Computer Virtual Memory
Computer Virtual Memory
Why Bush Invaded Iraq
Mainframe Integrity
Mainframe Integrity
Mainframe Integrity
Mainframe Integrity

time-sharing history, Privilege Levels Below User

From: Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: time-sharing history, Privilege Levels Below User
Newsgroups: comp.arch
Date: Wed, 12 Jun 2024 11:54:55 -1000

John Levine <johnl@taugh.com> writes:

In any event, I'd find the second article I linked to, the VM history
written by IBMers who were there, more credible than some random third
party magazine. CMS really was written at the same time as CP, and
they always intended them to work together as a time-sharing system.

Some of the MIT CTSS/7094 people went to the 5th flr to do Multics;
others went to the science center on the 4th flr to do virtual machines,
internal network, invent GML in 1969, other interactive applications.

cambridge science center wanted a 360/50 to add virtual memory to
... but all the spare 360/50s were going to FAA ATC project ... and they
had to settle for 360/40. (virtual machine) CP/40 (running on bare
hardware using hardware virtual memory mods _ was developed in parallel
with CMS (running on bare 360/40). When CP/40 virtual machines was
operational, they then could run CMS in CP/40 virtual machines.

Melinda history
http://www.leeandmelindavarian.com/Melinda#VMHist
and CP/40
http://www.leeandmelindavarian.com/Melinda/JimMarch/CP40_The_Origin_of_VM370.pdf
my OCR from Comeau's original paper
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/cp40seas1982.txt

CP/40 morphs into CP/67 when 360/67 standard with virtual memory
becomes available. I was responsible for OS/360 running on 360/67 (as
360/65), univ shutdown datacenter on weekends and I had datacenter
dedicated for 48hrs straight). CSC came out Jan1968 to install CP/67
(3rd install after CSC itself and MIT Lincoln Labs) ,,, and I mostly
played with it during my weekend dedicated time. First couple months
was rewriting pathlengths for running OS/360 in virtual
machine. Benchmark was OS/360 jobstream that ran 322secs on real
machine. Started out 858secs in virtual machine (CP67 CPU
534secs) .... after few months got CP67 CPU down to 113secs. I then
rewrite time-sharing system scheduling and dispatching, page I/O and
page replacement, I/O arm scheduling, etc.

I'v joked that original CP/67 scheduling delivered to univ (and I
completely replaced) ... looked a lot like Unix scheduling that I
first saw 15yrs later. Also 1st install at univ (jan1968) had CP67
source in OS/360 datasets ... it wasn't until a few months later that
they moved source to CMS files. After I graduated and joined science
center, one of my hobbies was enhanced production operating systems
for internal datacenters.

CP-67
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CP-67
CP/CMS
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CP/CMS
History of CP/CMS
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_CP/CMS
Cambridge Scientific Center
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cambridge_Scientific_Center

when it was decided to add virtual memory to all 370s, it was also
decided to rewrite CP67 for VM370, simplifying and/or dropping lots of
features (also renaming Cambridge Monitor System to Conversational
Monitor System and crippling its ability to run on real machine).

1974, I start migrating lots of original CP67 stuff (including lots
that I had done as undergraduate) to VM370 Release2 base for an
enhanced internal CSC/VM (including for world-wide online
sales&marketing support HONE systems).  Then in 1975 I upgrade to
VM370 Release3 base and add the CP67 multiprocessor support (one of
the things dropped in CP67->VM370) ... originally for US
consolidated HONE complex so they could add 2nd processor to each of
their systems (all the US HONE systems had been consolidated in Palo
Alto, trivia: when FACEBOOK 1st moved into silicon valley, it was into
new bldg built next door to the former US consolidated HONE
datacenter).

science center posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech
CSC/VM posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#cscvm
SMP, tightly-coupled, multiprocessor posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#smp
HONE & APL posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#hone

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

time-sharing history, Privilege Levels Below User

From: Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: time-sharing history, Privilege Levels Below User
Newsgroups: comp.arch
Date: Wed, 12 Jun 2024 15:19:14 -1000

Lawrence D'Oliveiro <ldo@nz.invalid> writes:

I recall CMS was single-user to start with, and the point of running it
under "CP" aka "VM" was to offer a multi-user service. Did CMS ever become
multi-user in its own right?

re:
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#0 time-sharing history, Privilege Levels Below User

over years relying more & more on CP kernel services, no multi-user
... but did get multitasking
https://www.ibm.com/docs/en/zvm/7.3?topic=cms-application-multitasking
https://www.ibm.com/docs/en/zvm/7.3?topic=programming-zvm-cms-application-multitasking
https://www.vm.ibm.com/pubs/redbooks/sg245164.pdf

original CMS that could run on real hardware support SIO and channel
programs for file i/o ... a CP "diagnose" function for CMS file i/o
was added to CP/67 that ran purely synchronous (didn't return to CMS
until file I/O was completed) ... in transition to VM370, CMS went
purely for CP "diagnose" (and SIO capability was eliminated).

When I joined science center and also saw the virtual memory file
support by MULTICS ... I figured I could do one for CMS ... that
scaled up faster than the normal file I/O operation ... and I claimed
I learned what not to do for a page-mapped filesystem from TSS/360
(part of TSS/360 was just memory mapped the filesystem then mostly
faulted in pages ... while I did combination of memory mapping and
pre-fetching, read-ahead and write-behind support).

Some of the IBM Future System issues was specifying a TSS/360-like
filesystem ... one of the last nails in the FS coffin was study that
showed if 370/195 applications were ported to FS machine made out of
the fastest available hardware, it would have throughput of 370/145
(about 30 times slowdown ... part of it was serialization of file
i/o).

Some existing FS descriptions talk about how FS lived on with S/38 ...
for entry-level business operation ... there was sufficient hardware
performance provide necessary throughput for the s/38 market.

In any case, the FS implosion contributed to memory mapped filesystem
implementations acquiring very bad reputation inside IBM. In 1980s, I
could show that heavily loaded, high-end systems with 3380 (3mbyte/sec
disks) running my page-mapped CMS filesystem had at least three times
the sustained throughput of standard CMS filesystems,

some FS
http://www.jfsowa.com/computer/memo125.htm
https://people.computing.clemson.edu/~mark/fs.html

trivia: my brother was regional Apple rep (largest physical area
CONUS) and when he came into town, I could be invited to business
dinners and argue MAC design (even before MAC announced). He also
figured out how to remotely dial into the S/38 that ran Apple to
monitor manufacutring and delivery schedules.

science center posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech
future system posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#futuresys
page-mapped filesystem
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#mmap
CSC/VM posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#cscvm

posts mention my brother regional apple rep
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024c.html#36 Old adage "Nobody ever got fired for buying IBM"
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023f.html#99 Vintage S/38
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023c.html#22 IBM Downfall
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#29 Unix work-alike
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#43 Transaction Memory
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021h.html#48 Dynamic Adaptive Resource Management
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021c.html#89 Silicon Valley
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021b.html#68 IBM S/38
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021b.html#7 IBM & Apple
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019c.html#2 S/38, AS/400
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018f.html#118 The Post-IBM World
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018f.html#49 PC Personal Computing Market
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018b.html#12 Soon, the Only Alternatives to Windows Server will be open-source
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017g.html#66 Is AMD Dooomed? A Silly Suggestion!
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017g.html#29 Eliminating the systems programmer was Re: IBM cuts contractor bil ling by 15 percent (our else)
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015h.html#66 IMPI (System/38 / AS/400 historical)
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014g.html#97 IBM architecture, was Fifty Years of nitpicking definitions, was BASIC,theProgrammingLanguageT
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014e.html#48 Before the Internet: The golden age of online service
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013d.html#55 Arthur C. Clarke Predicts the Internet, 1974
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013b.html#3 New HD
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#23 IBM cuts more than 1,000 U.S. Workers
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011c.html#14 If IBM Hadn't Bet the Company
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010q.html#32 IBM Future System
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010p.html#12 Rare Apple I computer sells for $216,000 in London
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010j.html#80 Idiotic programming style edicts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007u.html#3 folklore indeed
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007m.html#63 The Development of the Vital IBM PC in Spite of the Corporate Culture of IBM
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003d.html#66 unix

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

time-sharing history, Privilege Levels Below User

From: Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: time-sharing history, Privilege Levels Below User
Newsgroups: comp.arch
Date: Wed, 12 Jun 2024 16:13:03 -1000

Lawrence D'Oliveiro <ldo@nz.invalid> writes:

So what did you think of it? The original hardware architecture was
heavily centred around the 60.15Hz video refresh. Each refresh interval,
21888 bytes were read out of the video buffer (for the 512×342 display),
and 740 bytes were read out of the sound buffer to go to the speaker.

re:
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#0 time-sharing history, Privilege Levels Below User
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#1 time-sharing history, Privilege Levels Below User

biggest issue was what I characterized as kitchen table "only" with no
business uses ... desktop publishing was somewhat inbetween (visicalc
wasn't supposedly part of it)... at a time when large corporations
ordering tens of thousands of IBM/PC with 3270 terminal emulation
... single desktop footprint doing both mainframe terminal and
increasing kinds of local processing.

later IBM co-worker left and did some work for Apple using Cray with
100mbyte/sec high-end graphics ... could be used to simulate various
processor and graphic performance ... part of the joke that Cray used
Apple to design Cray machines and Apple used Cray machine to design
Apple machines.

some history
https://arstechnica.com/features/2005/12/total-share/
https://arstechnica.com/features/2005/12/total-share.ars/2
https://arstechnica.com/features/2005/12/total-share.ars/3
https://arstechnica.com/features/2005/12/total-share.ars/4
https://arstechnica.com/features/2005/12/total-share.ars/5
https://arstechnica.com/features/2005/12/total-share.ars/6
https://arstechnica.com/features/2005/12/total-share.ars/7
https://arstechnica.com/features/2005/12/total-share.ars/8
https://arstechnica.com/features/2005/12/total-share.ars/9
https://arstechnica.com/features/2005/12/total-share.ars/10

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Disconnect Between Coursework And Real-World Computers

From: Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Disconnect Between Coursework And Real-World Computers
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Thu, 13 Jun 2024 13:15:21 -1000

Charlie Gibbs <cgibbs@kltpzyxm.invalid> writes:

The big boss at my first POE was reluctant to switch from cards to
disks because "how can you be sure the data is really there if you
can't see the holes?"

May2008 at Berkeley (a year after he disappears on sailing trip), there
was a gathering to celebrate Jim Gray.  Part of that Gray celebration
involved acknowledging Jim Gray as father of (modern) financial
dataprocessing (including enabling electronic payment transactions).
Jim's formalizing of transaction semantics provided the basis that was
crucial in allowing financial auditors to move from requiring paper
ledgers to trusting computer operations (gone 404, but lives on at
wayback machine)
https://web.archive.org/web/20080616153833/http://www.eecs.berkeley.edu/IPRO/JimGrayTribute/pressrelease.html
also transaction benchmarking
http://www.tpc.org/information/who/gray5.asp

after transfering to SJR on west coast in 70s, I worked with Jim Gray
and Vera Watson on original SQL/relational RDBMS (System/R). Jim leaves
IBM for Tandem fall of 1980 ... recent AFC posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024c.html#110 Anyone here (on news.eternal-september.org)?
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024c.html#111 Anyone here (on news.eternal-september.org)?

System/R posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#systemr
"Tandem Memos" and online computer computer conferencing posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#cmc

posts mentioning Jim's celebration
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024.html#79 Benchmarks
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023c.html#37 Global & Local Page Replacement
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022g.html#27 Why Things Fail
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#37 IBM Business Conduct Guidelines
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#25 COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#13 IBM z16: Built to Build the Future of Your Business
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021c.html#39 WA State frets about Boeing brain drain, but it's already happening
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019b.html#13 Tandem Memo
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018d.html#70 tablets and desktops was Has Microsoft
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017f.html#37 MVS vs HASP vs JES (was 2821)
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#39 The Pentagon still uses computer software from 1958 to manage its contracts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016g.html#91 IBM Jargon and General Computing Dictionary Tenth Edition
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016g.html#23 How to Fix IBM
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016b.html#48 Windows 10 forceful update?
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014k.html#2 Flat (VSAM or other) files still in use?
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014f.html#69 Is end of mainframe near ?
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014e.html#24 Tandem Memos
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013m.html#45 Why is the mainframe so expensive?
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013g.html#24 Old data storage or data base
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012p.html#64 IBM Is Changing The Terms Of Its Retirement Plan, Which Is Frustrating Some Employees
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012p.html#28 Some interesting post about the importance of Security and what it means for the Mainframe
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011l.html#32 Selectric Typewriter--50th Anniversary
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011e.html#80 Which building at Berkeley?
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010n.html#85 Hashing for DISTINCT or GROUP BY in SQL
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010m.html#21 Mainframe Hall of Fame (MHOF)
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010m.html#13 Is the ATM still the banking industry's single greatest innovation?
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009r.html#4 70 Years of ATM Innovation
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009o.html#51 8 ways the American information worker remains a Luddite
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009m.html#78 ATMs by the Numbers
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008p.html#27 Father Of Financial Dataprocessing
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008i.html#36 A Tribute to Jim Gray: Sometimes Nice Guys Do Finish First
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008i.html#32 A Tribute to Jim Gray: Sometimes Nice Guys Do Finish First

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Disconnect Between Coursework And Real-World Computers

From: Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Disconnect Between Coursework And Real-World Computers
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Thu, 13 Jun 2024 16:05:47 -1000

Lawrence D'Oliveiro <ldo@nz.invalid> writes:

Was that the name of the research project? Then when it was
commercialized, the product became known as "SQL/DS"?

Later succeeded by IBM's all-singing, all-dancing DBMS product, DB2.

I had to do a DB2 setup a few months ago. As with any IBM product it
seems, you soon find yourself asking "why did they make things so
complicated?" ...

re:
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#3 Disconnect Between Coursework And Real-World Computers

This System/R mentions first customer was Pratt & Whitney
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM_System_R

but there was also Bank of American that was getting 60 VM/4341
systems for distributed operation (one of the things Jim palm off on
me when he leaves for Tandem, was supportting BofA).

System/R ... we were able to do tech transfer to Endicott ("under the
radar" while the company was preoccupied with the next great new DBMS
"EAGLE") for SQL/DS (although Endicott cut back a little, there were
some enhancements to VM370 and Endicott wanted to be able to ship
SQL/DS w/o needing any VM370 changes).

Then when "EAGLE" implodes there was request for how fast could
System/R be ported to MVS ... which is eventually released as DB2
... originally for decision/support *only*.

Last product at IBM was HA/6000 starting in late 80s, originally for
NYTimes to migrate their newspaper system (ATEX) off VAXCluster to
RS/6000. I rename it HA/CMP when I start doing technical/scientific
cluster scale-up with national labs and commercial cluster scale-up
with RDBMS vendors (oracle, sybase, informix, ingres) that had
VAXCluster base in same source base with UNIX.

IBM Toronto had just gotten ("Shelby") project to implement a OS2
RDBMS in C ... while it would be portable ... but it was far from
industrial strenth DBMS ... it took some years before it had
availability and scale-up features as well as (mainframe) DB2
compatibility and (also) (re)branded DB2.

Jim had done a study at Tandem that commodity hardware had gotten at
lot more reliable and major service outages were becoming other
factors like environmental (hurricanes, earthquakes, floods, etc).
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/grayft84.pdf

So one of the factors worked on was geographical distributed
operation, out marketing I coined the terms disaster
survivability and geographic survivability ... and the IBM
S/88 Product Administer starting taking me around to their customes as
well as got me to write a section for the IBM Corporate Continuous
Available Strategy document ... however it got pulled when both
Rochester (AS/400) and POK (mainframe) complained (that they couldn't
meet the requirements).

Early Jan1992, there was meeting with Oracle CEO on cluster scale-up
where AWD/Hester says that we will have 16 processor clusters by
mid-92 and 128 processor clusters by ye-92. In that meeting were a few
local IBMers and a number of other Oracle people ... one was Oracle
SVP who like to mention that when he was at IBM STL, he was the person
that handled most of the tech transfer to STL for MVS DB2.

However, by end of January, cluster scale-up had been transferred for
announce as IBM supercomputer (for technical/scientific *ONLY*) and we
were told that we couldn't work on anything with more than four
processors, we leave IBM a few months later. Contributing was the
mainframe DB2 were complaining that if we were allowed to continue, it
would be years ahead of them.

A couple years later, I was brought in as a consultant for a small
client/server, two former Oracle people (that had been in the HA/CMP
Oracle CEO scale-up meeting) were there responsible for something
called "commerce server" and wanted to do financial transactions on
the server; the startup had also invented this technology they called
"SSL" they wanted to use for transactions; it is sometimes now called
"electronic commerce". I had responsibility for everything between
webservers and financial industry payment networks.

system/r posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#systemr
ha/cmp posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#hacmp
continuous availability, disaster survivability, geographic
survivability posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#available
801/risc, iliad, romp, rios, pc/rt, rs/6000, power, power/pc posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#801
Payment gateway posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#gateway

posts mentioning Toronto "Shelby" RDBMS for OS2
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023e.html#86 Relational RDBMS
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023e.html#42 Systems Network Architecture
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#62 IBM DB2
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021b.html#38 HA/CMP Marketing
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010n.html#82 Hashing for DISTINCT or GROUP BY in SQL
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009f.html#58 Opinion: The top 10 operating system stinkers
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008l.html#57 No offense to any one but is DB2/6000 an old technology. Does anybody still use it, if so what type of industries??
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007j.html#12 Newbie question on table design
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006w.html#13 IBM sues maker of Intel-based Mainframe clones
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005u.html#41 Mainframe Applications and Records Keeping?

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Disconnect Between Coursework And Real-World Computers

From: Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Disconnect Between Coursework And Real-World Computers
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Fri, 14 Jun 2024 07:41:23 -1000

Lawrence D'Oliveiro <ldo@nz.invalid> writes:

I remember around the 1980s or so, IBM did try to sell some models of
System/390 (was it called that then?) as "supercomputers". I'm not sure if
they were ever competitive. IBM was still seen as a marketing behemoth
then.

However, their POWER architecture has been much more successful in this
regard, and there are a few POWER-based machines in respectable places in
the Top500 list.

I had done some work with the 3033 processor engineers, once 3033 was
out the door, they started on 3090. Marketing wanted vector added to
3090 to sell into numerical intensive market. The processor engineers
were a little upset because they had optimized floating point so it
ran as fast as memory (claiming that in the past floating point was so
much slower than memory that memory could keep multiple floating units
constantly feed, resulting in vector).

I had HSDT project that had T1 and faster computer links (both
terrestrial and satellite) and one of the first was T1 satellite link
between Los Gatos lab on the west coast and clementi's
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enrico_Clementi
E&S lab in Kingston (on the east coast) which had several floating point
system boxes which had 40mbyte/sec disk arrays to keep up with numerical
intensive processing (IBM still had 3mbyte/sec channels and no disk
arrays)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Floating_Point_Systems
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Floating_Point_Systems#History

Cornell University, led by physicist Kenneth G. Wilson, made a
supercomputer proposal to NSF with IBM to produce a processor array of
FPS boxes attached to an IBM mainframe with the name lCAP.

Was also working with NSF Director and was suppose to get $20M to
interconnect the NSF Supercomputer centers ... then congress cuts the
budget, some other things happen and eventually an RFP is released (in
part based on what we already had running), from 28Mar1986 Preliminary
Announcement:
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn//2002k.html#12

The OASC has initiated three programs: The Supercomputer Centers
Program to provide Supercomputer cycles; the New Technologies Program
to foster new supercomputer software and hardware developments; and
the Networking Program to build a National Supercomputer Access
Network - NSFnet.

... snip ...

IBM internal politics was not allowing us to bid (being blamed for
online computer conferencing inside IBM likely contributed). The NSF
director tried to help by writing the company a letter (3Apr1986, NSF
Director to IBM Chief Scientist and IBM Senior VP and director of
Research, copying IBM CEO) with support from other gov. agencies
... but that just made the internal politics worse (as did claims that
what we already had operational was at least 5yrs ahead of the winning
bid, awarded 24Nov87), as regional networks connect in, it becomes the
NSFNET backbone, precursor to modern internet.

previous post (in this thread) mentions last product we did at IBM was
HA/CMP and cluster scale-up (large numbers of POWER RS/6000)
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#4

end of Jan1992, cluster scale-up was transferred for announce as IBM
Supercomputer for technical/scientific *ONLY* and we were told we
couldn't work on anything with more than four processors (we leave IBM
a few months later).

Computerworld news 17feb1992 (from wayback machine) ... IBM
establishes laboratory to develop parallel systems (pg8)
https://archive.org/details/sim_computerworld_1992-02-17_26_7
cluster supercomputer for technical/scientific *ONLY*
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001n.html#6000clusters1
more news 11may1992, IBM "caught" by surprise
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001n.html#6000clusters2
and 15jun1992, Foray into Mainstream for Parallel Computing
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001n.html#6000clusters3

as to any "surprise" ... more than decade previous (Jan1979), I was
con'ed into doing a benchmark on IBM 4341 for national lab that was
looking at getting 70 4341s for a compute farm (sort of the leading edge
of the coming cluster supercomputing tsunami).

HSDT posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#hsdt
NSFNET posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#nsfnet
HA/CMP posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#hacmp
online computer conferencing posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#cmc

posts mentioning jan1979 4341 benchmark for national lab
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023d.html#84 The Control Data 6600
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022h.html#108 IBM 360
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022g.html#90 IBM Cambridge Science Center Performance Technology
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022f.html#91 CDC6600, Cray, Thornton
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022f.html#89 CDC6600, Cray, Thornton
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#94 IBM 3278
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#52 ESnet
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019c.html#49 IBM NUMBERS BIPOLAR'S DAYS WITH G5 CMOS MAINFRAMES
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018d.html#42 Mainframes and Supercomputers, From the Beginning Till Today
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018b.html#49 Think you know web browsers? Take this quiz and prove it
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018.html#46 VSE timeline [was: RE: VSAM usage for ancient disk models]
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017i.html#62 64 bit addressing into the future
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016h.html#51 Resurrected! Paul Allen's tech team brings 50-year -old supercomputer back from the dead
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016h.html#44 Resurrected! Paul Allen's tech team brings 50-year-old supercomputer back from the dead
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016e.html#116 How the internet was invented
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015h.html#106 DOS descendant still lives was Re: slight reprieve on the z
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015h.html#71 Miniskirts and mainframes
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014j.html#37 History--computer performance comparison chart
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014c.html#61 I Must Have Been Dreaming (36-bit word needed for ballistics?)
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013c.html#53 What Makes an Architecture Bizarre?
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013.html#38 DEC/PDP minicomputers for business in 1968?
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012n.html#45 Under what circumstances would it be a mistake to migrate applications/workload off the mainframe?
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011d.html#40 IBM Watson's Ancestors: A Look at Supercomputers of the Past
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011c.html#65 Comparing YOUR Computer with Supercomputers of the Past
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009r.html#37 While watching Biography about Bill Gates on CNBC last Night
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009l.html#67 ACP, One of the Oldest Open Source Apps
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007d.html#62 Cycles per ASM instruction
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006y.html#21 moving on
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006x.html#31 The Future of CPUs: What's After Multi-Core?
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002i.html#22 CDC6600 - just how powerful a machine was it?
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002i.html#19 CDC6600 - just how powerful a machine was it?

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Disconnect Between Coursework And Real-World Computers

From: Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Disconnect Between Coursework And Real-World Computers
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Fri, 14 Jun 2024 08:14:08 -1000

re:
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#3 Disconnect Between Coursework And Real-World Computers
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#4 Disconnect Between Coursework And Real-World Computers
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#5 Disconnect Between Coursework And Real-World Computers

slightly related, 1988 the IBM branch office asks if I could help LLNL
(national lab) get some fiber stuff they were playing with, standardized
... which quickly becomes fibre-channel standard (FCS, initially
1gbit/sec, full-duplex, 200mbye/sec aggregate). IBM then finally gets
some of their stuff shipped with ES/9000 as ESCON (when it is already
obsolete), 17mbytes/sec.

Later some IBM POK engineers become involved with FCS and define a heavy
weight protocol that significantly cuts the native throughput,
eventually released as FICON.

Latest public benchmarks I can find is z196 "Peak I/O" that got 2M IOPS
with 104 FICON. About same time a FCS was announced for E5-2600 blades
(commingly used in cloud megadatacenters) claiming over million IOPS
(two such FCS have higher throughput than 104 FICON running over 104
FCS). As an asdie, IBM recommended that SAPs (system assist processors
that do actual I/O) CPU should be limited to 70% ... which would be 1.5M
IOPS. Also, no CKD DASD have been made for decades, all being simulated
on industry standard fixed-block disks.

We also worked with LLNL to get thier Cray Unicos LINCS filesystem ported
to HA/CMP as well as working with NCAR to get their supercomputer
filesystem (Mesa Archival) ported to HA/CMP.

FICON & FCS posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#ficon
ha/cmp posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#hacmp
cloud megadatacenter posts

https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#megadatacenter some old posts mentioning LLNL LINCS and NCAR Mesa Archival https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023g.html#25 Vintage Cray https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021c.html#63 Distributed Computing https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011n.html#34 Last Word on Dennis Ritchie https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006u.html#27 Why so little parallelism? -- virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

TCP/IP Protocol

Refed: **, - **, - **
From: Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: TCP/IP Protocol
Date: 14 Jun, 2024
Blog: Facebook

My wife was co-author of AWP39, peer-to-peer networking architecture
... in the period when SNA 1st appeared ... they had to qualify with
"peer-to-peer" because SNA wasn't a System, wasn't a Network and
wasn't a Architecture ... and had "co-opted" the term "network".

In the 80s, the communication group was starting to fiercely fight off
client/server and distributed computing trying to preserve their dumb
terminal paradigm. Early 80s, I got HSDT project, T1 and faster
computer links (both terrestrial and satellite) and was periodically
in battles with the communication group because they were cap'ed at
56kbits/sec. Mid-80s, communication group prepared analysis for the
corporate executive committee explaining why customers wouldn't be
interested in T1 until well into the 90s. They showed how "fat-pipes"
(parallel 56kbit links treated as single logical link) dropped to zero
by seven links (aka 392kbits). What they didn't know (or didn't want
to tell the executive committee) was that typical T1 telco tariff in
the period was about the same as six 56kbit links. We did a trivial
customer survey and found 200 IBM mainframe customers with T1 links
... they just moved to non-IBM hardware and non-IBM software.

HSDT had some custom hardware being built on the other side of the
pacific. The friday before leaving for a visit, got email from
Raleigh announcing a new online forum about high-speed links with
follow definition:

low-speed: 9.6kbits/sec
medium speed: 19.2kbits/sec
high-speed: 56kbits/sec
very high-speed: 1.5mbits/sed

monday morning on wall of conference room on the other side of the
pacific:

low-speed: <20mbits/sec
medium-speed: 100mbits/sec
high-speed: 200mbits-300mbits/sec
very high-seed >600mbits/sec

Later I was on Chesson's XTP technical advisory board (that
communication tried to block and lost) where I wrote into the
specification "rate-based" pacing ... which we had done when 1st
starting HSDT. Since there was some military agencies involved, took
XTP as HSP (High-Speed Protocol) to ISO chartered US ANSI X3S3.3
(standards group for networking and transport layer 3&4 protocols. It
was eventually rejected, telling us that ISO required standards work
conform to the OSI MODEL, XTP failed because 1) supported
internetworking protocol (sits between level 3&4), 2) by[assed layer
3/4 interface and 3) went directly to LAN MAC interface (which doesn't
exist in OSI model, sitting somewhere in middle of layer 3).

Communication group was also fighting off release of mainframe TCP/IP
support. When they lost, they changed tactic and said that since they
had corporate responsibility for everything that cross the datacenter
walls, it had to be released through them; what shipped got
44kbytes/sec aggregate throughput using nearly whole 3090 processor. I
then did changes for RFC1044 support and in some tuning tests at Cray
Research between Cray and IBM 4341 got sustained 4341 channel
throughput using only modest amount of 4341 processor (something like
500 times increase in bytes moved per instruction executed).

Communication group sort of capitulates and comes out with 3737 for T1
links, it had boat loads of memory and Motorola 68K processors
simulating local CTCA attached mainframe VTAM, immediately ACKing
received packets ... and then using real protocol for T1 link to
remote 3737. Problem was even on short haul terrestrial T1,
(mainframe) VTAM window pacing had exhausted maximum unACKed
transmitted packet limit, before ACKs started arriving (it required
faking ACKs to try and keep packets flowing). However, the box's peak
best was still about 2mbit/sec (US T1 full-duplex 3mbits, EU T1
full-duplex 4mbits).

Note also fighting off client/server and distributed computing it
severely kneecapped PS2 microchannel cards. AWD (workstation) had done
its own 4mbit token-ring card for PC/RT (16bit PC/AT bus), but for
microchannel RS/6000, corporate told AWD they couldn't do their own
cards but had to use the PS2 cards. Turns out the PS2 microchannel
16mbit token-ring cards had lower card throughput than the PC/RT 4mbit
token-ring cards (the other microchannel cards had been also been
severely kneecapped). The new Almaden bldg had been heavily wired
assuming 16mbit T/R. However they found 10mbit ethernet (over the same
wiring) had higher aggregate throughput and lower latency ... besides
$69 10mbit ethernet cards having much higher card throughput than $800
16mbit T/R cards (for the difference in the cost of ENET and T/R
cards, they could put in several high-speed TCP/IP routers that each
had IBM channel interfaces and 16 10mbit ENET interfaces (operating at
8.5mbit sustained, each router capable of 400mbit/sec), and also had
T1 and T3 options.

Late 80s, a senior disk engineer got a talk scheduled at communication
group, world-wide, internal, annual conference supposedly on 3174
performance ... but opens the talk with the statement that the
communication group was going to be responsible for the demise of the
disk division. The disk division was seeing drop in disk sales with
data fleeing the mainframe to more distributed computing friendly
platforms. The disk division had come up with a number of solutions
but they were constantly vetoed by the communication group (with their
corporate strategic ownership of everything that crossed datacenter
walls). One of the disk division partial work-arounds was investing in
distributed computing startups that would use IBM disks ... and the
disk executive would periodically ask us to drop by his investments to
see if we could help.

However, communication group datacenter stranglehold wasn't just disks
and a couple years later, IBM has one of the largest losses in the
history of US companies and was being reorganized into the 13 "baby
blues" in preparation for breaking up the company.
https://web.archive.org/web/20101120231857/http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,977353,00.html
https://content.time.com/time/subscriber/article/0,33009,977353-1,00.html

we had already left the company, but get call from the bowels of (corp
hdqtrs) Armonk asking us to help with the corporate breakup. Before we
get started, the board brings in the former AMEX president as CEO who
(somewhat) reverses the breakup (but it wasn't long before the disk
division was "divested").

HSDT posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#hsdt
RFC1044 posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#1044
XTP/HSP posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#xtphsp
posts mentioning communication group stranglehold on mainframe
datacenters
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#cmc
IBM downturn/downfall/breakup posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#ibmdownfall

some posts mentioning AWP39
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024b.html#101 OSI: The Internet That Wasn't
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024b.html#56 Vintage Mainframe
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024b.html#30 ACP/TPF
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024.html#84 SNA/VTAM
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023f.html#40 Rise and Fall of IBM
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023e.html#41 Systems Network Architecture
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023c.html#49 Conflicts with IBM Communication Group
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022f.html#50 z/VM 50th - part 3
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022f.html#43 What's something from the early days of the Internet which younger generations may not know about?
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022f.html#4 What is IBM SNA?
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022e.html#25 IBM "nine-net"
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021h.html#90 IBM Internal network
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019d.html#119 IBM Acronyms
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#2 Frank Heart Dies at 89
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#1 Service Bureau Corporation
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018b.html#13 Important US technology companies sold to foreigners
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017e.html#62 [CM] What was your first home computer?
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#29 ARM Cortex A53 64 bit
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#55 The ICL 2900
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016e.html#124 Early Networking
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016d.html#48 PL/I advertising
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015h.html#99 Systems thinking--still in short supply
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015g.html#96 TCP joke
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014m.html#25 Microsoft Open Sources .NET, Saying It Will Run on Linux and Mac
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014e.html#15 Last Gasp for Hard Disk Drives
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014.html#99 the suckage of MS-DOS, was Re: 'Free Unix!
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013n.html#26 SNA vs TCP/IP
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013n.html#19 z/OS is antique WAS: Aging Sysprogs = Aging Farmers
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013g.html#44 What Makes code storage management so cool?
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012o.html#52 PC/mainframe browser(s) was Re: 360/20, was 1132 printer history
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012m.html#24 Does the IBM System z Mainframe rely on Security by Obscurity or is it Secure by Design
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012k.html#41 Cloud Computing
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012k.html#23 How to Stuff a Wild Duck
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012i.html#25 Can anybody give me a clear idea about Cloud Computing in MAINFRAME ?
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012h.html#17 Hierarchy
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#41 Where are all the old tech workers?
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011n.html#2 Soups
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011m.html#6 What is IBM culture?
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011l.html#26 computer bootlaces
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010q.html#73 zLinux OR Linux on zEnterprise Blade Extension???
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010g.html#29 someone smarter than Dave Cutler
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010e.html#5 What is a Server?
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010d.html#62 LPARs: More or Less?

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

TCP/IP Protocol

From: Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: TCP/IP Protocol
Date: 14 Jun, 2024
Blog: Facebook

re:
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#7 TCP/IP Protocol

For HSDT, was also working with NSF director and was suppose to get
$20M to interconnect NSF Supercomputer centers ... then congress cuts
the budget, some other things happen and finally an RFP is released
(in part based on what we already had running). From 28Mar1986
Preliminary Announcement:
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002k.html#12
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018d.html#33

The OASC has initiated three programs: The Supercomputer Centers
Program to provide Supercomputer cycles; the New Technologies Program
to foster new supercomputer software and hardware developments; and
the Networking Program to build a National Supercomputer Access
Network - NSFnet.

... snip ...

IBM internal politics was not allowing us to bid (being blamed for
online computer conferencing inside IBM likely contributed). The NSF
director tried to help by writing the company a letter (3Apr1986, NSF
Director to IBM Chief Scientist and IBM Senior VP and director of
Research, copying IBM CEO) with support from other gov. agencies
... but that just made the internal politics worse (as did claims that
what we already had operational was at least 5yrs ahead of the winning
bid), as regional networks connect in, it becomes the NSFNET backbone,
precursor to modern internet.

from one of the science center people that invented GML in 1969 (after
a decade it morphs into ISO standard SGML, after another decade it
morphs into another decade at CERN):
https://web.archive.org/web/20230402212558/http://www.sgmlsource.com/history/jasis.htm

Actually, the law office application was the original motivation for
the project, something I was allowed to do part-time because of my
knowledge of the user requirements. My real job was to encourage the
staffs of the various scientific centers to make use of the
CP-67-based Wide Area Network that was centered in Cambridge.

... snip ...

trivia: the first webserver in the US was on Stanford SLAC VM370
system
https://ahro.slac.stanford.edu/wwwslac-exhibit
https://ahro.slac.stanford.edu/wwwslac-exhibit/early-web-chronology-and-documents-1991-1994

Co-worker at the science center was responsible for the CP67 wide-area
network (which morphs into the corporate network, larger than
arpanet/internet from just about the beginning until sometime mid/late
80s). technology also used for the corporate sponsored univ. BITNET (&
EARN)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BITNET
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/European_Academic_and_Research_Network
https://earn-history.net/technology/the-network/

Edson
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edson_Hendricks

In June 1975, MIT Professor Jerry Saltzer accompanied Hendricks to
DARPA, where Hendricks described his innovations to the principal
scientist, Dr. Vinton Cerf. Later that year in September 15-19 of 75,
Cerf and Hendricks were the only two delegates from the United States,
to attend a workshop on Data Communications at the International
Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, 2361 Laxenburg Austria where
again, Hendricks spoke publicly about his innovative design which
paved the way to the Internet as we know it today.

... snip ...

SJMerc article about Edson (he passed aug2020) and "IBM'S MISSED
OPPORTUNITY WITH THE INTERNET" (gone behind paywall but lives free at
wayback machine)
https://web.archive.org/web/20000124004147/http://www1.sjmercury.com/svtech/columns/gillmor/docs/dg092499.htm
Also from wayback machine, some additional (IBM missed) references
from Ed's website
https://web.archive.org/web/20000115185349/http://www.edh.net/bungle.htm

Science Center posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech
gml, sgml, html posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#sgml
internal network posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#internalnet
bitnet (& earn) posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#bitnet
HSDT posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#hsdt
NSFNET posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#nsfnet
internet posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#internet

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Benchmarking and Testing

From: Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Benchmarking and Testing
Date: 14 Jun, 2024
Blog: Facebook

When I transfer out to SJR in the 70s, I get to wander around
datacenters in silicon valley, including bldg14&15 across the street
(disk engineering and product test). They are running prescheduled,
around the clock, stand alone testing. They mentioned that they had
recently tried MVS, but it had 15min mean-time-betweeen failures in
that environment. I offer to rewrite I/O supervisor to make it bullet
proof and never fail so they can do any amount of ondemand concurrent
testing, greatly improving productivity. I do a internal-only research
report and happen to mention the MVS 15min MTBF, bringing down the
wrath of the MVS organization on my head. A few years later, when
3380/3880 are about to ship, FE has 57 simulated errors that they
expect to see. MVS is still failing for all 57 (requiring manual
re-ipl) and in 2/3rds of the cases, no indication of what caused the
failures (I wasn't sorry).

Earlier, after joining IBM, one of my hobbies was enhanced production
operating systems for internal datacenters ... including bunch of
stuff I had done as undergraduate in the 60s, including page
replacement algorithms, dynamic adaptive scheduling and resource
management, and other stuff (world-wide, online sales&marketing
support HONE systems were long time customers). As part of that I had
done automated benchmarking with synthetic workloads, being able to
specify configurations and kinds and amount of workloads (also
involved automated rebooting/re-ipl between each benchmark). After the
decision to add virtual memory to all 370s, the decision was also made
to rewrite CP67 for VM370 (involved simplifying or dropping lots of
features). In 1974, I start migrating lots of missing features from
CP67 to a VM370 Release2-based system .... starting with automated
benchmarking support. However, initially VM370 was unable to complete
set of benchmarks w/o crashing ... so the next was a lot of CP67
integrity features in order to complete set of benchmarks ... before
starting on further enhancements and performance work for my internal
CSC/VM.

The 23June1969 unbundling announcement included starting to charge for
SE services, maintenance, and (application) software (but managed to
make the case kernel software was still free). In the early 70s, there
was the Future System effort that was completely different from 370
and was going to completely replace 370s (internal politics was
killing off 370 efforts and the lack of new 370 during the period is
credited with giving 370 clone makers their market foothold).
http://www.jfsowa.com/computer/memo125.htm
https://people.computing.clemson.edu/~mark/fs.html

When FS implodes, there is mad rush to get stuff back into the 370
product pipelines, including kicking off quick&dirty 3033&3081
in parallel. Possibly because of the rise of 370 clone makers, there
was also decision to start charging for kernel software ... and a
bunch of my internal stuff was chosen for guinea pig (and I had to
spend time with business planners and lawyers on kernel charging
policies). At the science center, there was also a APL-based
analytical system model done (was made available on HONE systems as
the Performance Predictor where branch people could enter
customer configuration and workloads and ask "what-if" questions about
workload/configuration changes) ... which was integrated with the
automated benchmarking. Before initial release, a 1000 benchmarks were
specified that had uniform distribution of configurations and
workloads, including extreme stress testing benchmarks. The modified
"system model" would predict the result of a benchmark and then
compare the prediction with the benchmark (validating the model and my
dynamic adaptive support). A modified APL-model then selected
configurations and workloads for another 1000 benchmarks (2000 total
that took three months elapsed time to run) searching for anomalous
combinations that my dynamic adaptive scheduling and resource
management might have problems with.

tank trivia: I had been introduced to John Boyd in the early 80s and
would sponsor his briefings at IBM. Boyd is credited with the Desert
Storm left hook, but there are all sorts of excuses why the Abrams
weren't in place to catch the retreating Republican Guards. Add to
excuses is possibly Boyd just used the rated Abrams speed but didn't
realize how tightly tied Abrams were to supply and maintenance.

Boyd posts and URL references
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subboyd.html
playing disk engineer in bldgs14&15 posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#disk
science center posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech
my internal CSC/VM posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#cscvm
HONE & APL posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#hone
23jun1969 unbundling posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#unbundle
future system posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#futuresys
dynamic adaptive resource management posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#fairshare
benchmarking posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#benchmark

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Benchmarking and Testing

From: Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Benchmarking and Testing
Date: 14 Jun, 2024
Blog: Facebook

re:
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#9 Benchmarking and Testing

other trivia: After initial set of CP67->VM370 changes for CSC/VM,
I start migrating SMP, tightly-coupled support to a VM370
Release3-based CSC/VM system, initially for the consolidated US HONE
datacenter to add a 2nd processor to each of their systems (for 16
processors total). I then get talked into helping with a 16-processor
tightly-coupled SMP and we con the 3033 processor engineers into
working on it in their spare time (a lot more interesting than
remapping 168-3 logic to 20% faster chips). Everybody thought it was
great until somebody tells the head of POK that it could be decades
before POK favorite son operating system (MVS) had effective
16-processor support (at the time, MVS documentation had 2-processor
was 1.2-1.5 throughput of single processor). He then invites some of
us to never visit POK again and directs 3033 processor engineers heads
down on 3033 with no distractions (POK doesn't ship a 16-processor SMP
until after turn of century). At HONE, I was getting twice the
throughput with combination of highly efficient SMP as well as a kind
of cache-affinity (improving cache hit ratio).

Head of POK also convinces corporate to kill the vm370 product,
shutdown the development group and transfer all the people to POK for
MVS/XA (Endicott eventually manages to save the VM370 product mission
but has to recreate a development group from scratch). I also transfer
out to the west coast

science center posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech
CSC/VM posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#cscvm
SMP, tightly-coupled multiprocessor posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#smp
HONE posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#hone

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

ATM, Mainframes, Tandem

From: Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: ATM, Mainframes, Tandem.
Date: 16 Jun, 2024
Blog: Facebook

Late 70s, IBM SE in LA on large savings bank account, re-implemented
ATM support under VM/370 running on 370/158 that outperformed TPF
running on 370/168. He had implemented more sophisticated transaction
and disk arm scheduling algorithms that included taking into account
time-of-day and past activity patterns to better organize transaction
scheduling to improve transactions per disk arm sweep.

past refs:
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016.html#65 Lineage of TPF
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014i.html#53 transactions, was There Is Still Hope
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014i.html#13 IBM & Boyd

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

ADA, FAA ATC, FSD

From: Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: ADA, FAA ATC, FSD
Date: 16 Jun, 2024
Blog: Facebook

last product we did at IBM was HA/6000, started out for NYTimes to
move their newspaper system (ATEX) off vaxcluster to rs/6000. I rename
it HA/CMP when I start doing technical/scientific cluster scale-up
with national labs and commercial cluster scale-up with RDBMS vendors
(Oracle, Sybase, Informix, Ingres that had vaxcluster support in same
source base with unix ... it would be years before there was any IBM
with the necessary features). We did reviews of lots of failures and
availability and was brought into review FAA future system and got to
be good friends with the TA (that was spending 2nd shift programming
Ada for the project) to FSD president. Then the S/88 Product Administer
started taking us around to their customers and got me to write a
section for the corporate continuous availability strategy
document (it got pulled when both Rochester/AS400 and POK/mainframe
complained they couldn't meet the requirements).

Early Jan1992 had meeting with Oracle CEO where AWD/Hester tells them
that we would have 16-processor clusters by mid-92 and 128-processor
clusters by ye-92 ... but by the end of Jan, cluster scale-up was
transferred for announce as IBM Supercomputer (for
technical/scientific *ONLY*) and we were told we couldn't work on
anything with more than four processors (we leave IBM a few months
later). Contributing was mainframe DB2 complaining if we were allowed
to proceed, it would be years ahead of them.

Computerworld news 17feb1992 (from wayback machine) ... IBM
establishes laboratory to develop parallel systems (pg8)
https://archive.org/details/sim_computerworld_1992-02-17_26_7
cluster supercomputer for technical/scientific *ONLY*
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001n.html#6000clusters1
more news 11may1992, IBM "caught" by surprise
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001n.html#6000clusters2
and 15jun1992, Foray into Mainstream for Parallel Computing
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001n.html#6000clusters3

part of FAA ATC review was IBM triple redundant hardware made it
unnecessary for software fault analysis ... review found some business
process fault scenarios ... and software design had to be reset

didn't know Fox in IBM, but after leaving IBM did project with company
he (and some other FSD people on FAA ATC) formed
https://www.amazon.com/Brawl-IBM-1964-Joseph-Fox/dp/1456525514

Two mid air collisions 1956 and 1960 make this FAA procurement
special. The computer selected will be in the critical loop of making
sure that there are no more mid-air collisions. Many in IBM want to
not bid. A marketing manager with but 7 years in IBM and less than one
year as a manager is the proposal manager. IBM is in midstep in coming
up with the new line of computers - the 360. Chaos sucks into the fray
many executives- especially the next chairman, and also the IBM
president. A fire house in Poughkeepsie N Y is home to the technical
and marketing team for 60 very cold and long days. Finance and legal
get into the fray after that.

... snip ....

Executive Qualities
https://www.amazon.com/Executive-Qualities-Joseph-M-Fox/dp/1453788794

After 20 years in IBM, 7 as a divisional Vice President, Joe Fox had
his standard management presentation -to IBM and CIA groups -
published in 1976 -entitled EXECUTIVE QUALITIES. It had 9 printings
and was translated into Spanish -and has been offered continuously for
sale as a used book on Amazon.com. It is now reprinted -verbatim- and
available from Createspace, Inc - for $15 per copy. The book presents
a total of 22 traits and qualities and their role in real life
situations- and their resolution- encountered during Mr. Fox's 20
years with IBM and with major computer customers, both government and
commercial. The presentation and the book followed a focus and use of
quotations to Identify and characterize the role of the traits and
qualities. Over 400 quotations enliven the text - and synthesize many
complex ideas.

... snip ...

CSC posts:
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech
CSC/VM posts:
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#cscvm
dynamic adaptive resource management, dispatching, scheduling
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#fairshare
SMP, tightly-coupled, multiprocessor posts
http://www.garilc.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#smp
HONE posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#hone
HA/CMP posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#hacmp
continuous availability, disaster survivability, geographic
survivability posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#available
801/risc, iliad, romp, rios, pc/rt, rs/6000, power, power/pc posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#801

some posts mentioning FAA ATC and triple-redundant hardware and no
need for software fault analysis
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024c.html#18 CP40/CMS
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023f.html#84 FAA ATC, The Brawl in IBM 1964
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021f.html#9 Air Traffic System

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

MVS/ISPF Editor

From: Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: MVS/ISPF Editor
Date: 17 Jun, 2024
Blog: Facebook

edit post from earlier this year
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024.html#90 IBM, Unix, editors

Endicott instead of selecting one of the internal full-screen editors
for release to customers, had the XEDIT effort. I wrote them a memo
why they hadn't selected the (internal) "RED" to use for XEDIT ... it
had more feature/function, much more mature, and more efficient code
(almost the same as original line editor), etc. I got response back
that it was obviously the RED author's fault that he developed it much
earlier than XEDIT and it was much better, so it should be his
responsibility to bring XEDIT up to level of RED. From 6jun1979 email
(compare CPU secs to load large file for editing).
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006u.html#email790606

EDIT CMSLIB MACLIB S 2.53/2.81
RED CMSLIB MACLIB S (NODEF) 2.91/3.12
ZED CMSLIB MACLIB S 5.83/6.52
EDGAR CMSLIB MACLIB S 5.96/6.45
SPF CMSLIB MACLIB S ( WHOLE ) 6.66/7.52
XEDIT CMSLIB MACLIB S 14.05/14.88

... I guess part of the issue was this wasn't long after "Future
System" imploded
http://www.jfsowa.com/computer/memo125.htm
https://people.computing.clemson.edu/~mark/fs.html

and head of POK manages to convince corporate to kill the vm370/cms
product, shutdown the development group, and move all the people to
POK for MVS/XA ... Endicott eventually manages to save the product
mission (for the mid-range), but had to recreate development
organization from scratch (and claims of upwards of 200 people in the
ISPF organization).

In same time-frame, the 3274/3278 started shipping for 3272/3277
replacement ... 3278 had lots of the electronics moved back to the
3274 controller (to reduce 3278 manufacturing costs) significantly
driving up the terminal coax protocol chatter and latency. 3272/3277
had (fixed) .086sec hardware response ... while 3274/3278 had .3-.5sec
hardware response (depending about amount of data). This was also
during the period when there were studies showing quarter sec trivial
interactive response improved productivity (3272/3277 would meet the
objective with .164 "system response" (.086+.164=.25sec) ... which was
impossible to achieve with 3274/3278 (I actual had quite a few of my
internal systems with .11sec system response, aka plus 3722/3277
.086sec gave .196sec trivial interactive response). Letter to 3278
product administer was met with response that 3278 wasn't targeted for
interactive computing, but data entry. Note issue didn't cropped up
with MVS users ... since it was a rare MVS operation that could even
achieve one second system response.

trivia: later with IBM/PC, 3277 terminal emulation card would have 3-5
times the upload/download throughput of a 3278 terminal emulation card

posts mentioning 3272/3277 comparison with 3274/3278
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024b.html#31 HONE, Performance Predictor, and Configurators
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#28 XT/370
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019c.html#4 3270 48th Birthday
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#25 ARM Cortex A53 64 bit
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013l.html#25 Teletypewriter Model 33
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013k.html#19 spacewar
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013b.html#55 Dualcase vs monocase. Was: Article for the boss
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012i.html#74 HELP WITH PCOM - PASTE OPTION NOT WORKING CORRECTLY
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#19 Writing article on telework/telecommuting
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011e.html#94 coax (3174) throughput
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011d.html#53 3270 Terminal
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011b.html#64 If IBM Hadn't Bet the Company
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010o.html#57 So why doesn't the mainstream IT press seem to get the IBM mainframe?
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009q.html#50 The 50th Anniversary of the Legendary IBM 1401

future system posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#futuresys

posts mentioning using revenue from VM370 Performance Products
to underwrite MVS ISPF:
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024.html#108 IBM, Unix, editors
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023.html#28 IBM Punch Cards
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022e.html#63 IBM Software Charging Rules
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#45 IBM deliberately misclassified mainframe sales to enrich execs, lawsuit claims
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#89 IBM PROFs
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#126 23Jun1969 Unbundling
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018d.html#49 What microprocessor is more powerful, the Z80 or 6502?
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017i.html#23 progress in e-mail, such as AOL
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017g.html#34 Programmers Who Use Spaces Paid More
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017e.html#25 [CM] What was your first home computer?
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#2 ISPF (was Fujitsu Mainframe Vs IBM mainframe)
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014h.html#103 TSO Test does not support 65-bit debugging?
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014f.html#89 Real Programmers
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013i.html#36 The Subroutine Call
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012n.html#64 Should you support or abandon the 3270 as a User Interface?
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011p.html#106 SPF in 1978
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010m.html#84 Set numbers off permanently
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010g.html#50 Call for XEDIT freaks, submit ISPF requirements
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010g.html#6 Call for XEDIT freaks, submit ISPF requirements
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009s.html#46 DEC-10 SOS Editor Intra-Line Editing

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

801/RISC

From: Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: 801/RISC
Date: 17 Jun, 2024
Blog: Facebook

1980 there was project to move large number of CISC processors to
801/RISC ... controllers, entry/mid-range 370s (including 4361&4381
follow-on to 4331&4341), AS/400, etc ... for various reasons those
efforts floundered and business returned to CISC business as usual.

There was the 801/RISC ROMP chip that was suppose to be for
displaywriter follow-on ... when that got canceled, they decided to
pivot to the unix workstation market and hired the company that had
done AT&T UNIIX work for IBM/PC PC/IX which becomes "AIX" for
"PC/RT. ACIS was working on doing UCB BSD Unix for 370 and were
redirected to do it for the PC/RT as "AOS". Austin then start on
801/RISC RIOS chipset for the RS/6000.

The last product we did at IBM started out HA/6000 in the late 80s,
originally for NYTimes to move their newspaper system (ATEX) from
VAXCluster to RS/6000. I rename it HA/CMP when start doing cluster
scale-up with national labs and commercial cluster scale-up with RDBMS
vendors (Oracle, Sybase, Informix, Ingres) that had VAXCluster support
in the same source base with UNIX. Lots of studies of availability and
faults was showing that commodity hardware was getting more reliable
and problems were increasingly becoming environmental (floods,
hurricanes, earthquakes, etec) and needed to also support systems at
geographically distributed locations. Out marketing, I coined the
terms disaster survivability and geographic
survivability and IBM S/88 Product Administer started taking us
around to their customers. The S/88 Product Administer also got me to
write a section for the corporate continuous available straegy
document (but it got pulled when both Rochester/AS400 and
POK/mainframe complained they couldn't meet the requirements).

Early Jan1992, had meeting with Oracle CEO where AWD/Hester told them
that we would have 16-processor clusters by mid-92 and 128-processor
clusters by ye-92. However, by end of Jan, cluster scale-up was
transferred for announce as IBM Supercomputer (technical/scientific
*ONLY*) and we were told we couldn't work on anything with more than
four processors (we leave IBM a few months later). 1993 Industry MIPS
benchmarks, number of program iterations compared to reference
platform (not actual instruction count):

ES/9000-982, 8-processor : 408MIPS, 51MIPS/processor
RS6000/990 : 126MIPS (HA/CMP clusters would have been
             16-way/2016MIPS, 128-way/16,128MIPS

Note the executive we reported to when doing HA/CMP, went over to head
up Somerset (single chip 801/risc for AIM, Apple, IBM, Motorola; also
involved integrating a lot of Motoorola 88K RISC features into
Power/PC ... including SMP tightly-coupled multiprocessor
support). This was basis with what Rocheter used for moving AS/400 to
RISC (a decade or so after the original attempt).

Trivia: AWD PC/RT had PC/AT 16-bit bus and they had done their own
4mbit T/R (and other) cards. RS/6000 had microchannel and were told
they couldn't do their own cards but had to use the (communication
group's severely performance kneecapped) PS2 microchannel cards
(example PS2 16mbit T/R microchannel card had low card-throughput than
the PC/RT 4mbit T/R card ... joke was a RS/6000 server with
microchannel 16mbit T/R card would have lower throughput than PC/RT
with 4mbit T/R card).

refs:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM_RT_PC
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM_RS/6000
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/AIM_alliance

Note about PC/RT ref being used for NSFNET: Early 80s, we had HSDT
project (T1 and faster computer links) and working with NSF Director
and was suppose to get $20M to interconnect the NSF Supercomputer
Centers, then congress cuts the budget, some other things happened and
eventually a RFP was release (in part based on what we already had
running), From 28Mar1986 Preliminary Announcement:
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002k.html#12
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018d.html#33

The OASC has initiated three programs: The Supercomputer Centers
Program to provide Supercomputer cycles; the New Technologies Program
to foster new supercomputer software and hardware developments; and
the Networking Program to build a National Supercomputer Access
Network - NSFnet.

... snip ...

IBM internal politics was not allowing us to bid (being blamed for
online computer conferencing inside IBM likely contributed). The NSF
director tried to help by writing the company a letter (3Apr1986, NSF
Director to IBM Chief Scientist and IBM Senior VP and director of
Research, copying IBM CEO) with support from other gov. agencies
... but that just made the internal politics worse (as did claims that
what we already had operational was at least 5yrs ahead of the winning
bid), as regional networks connect in, it becomes the NSFNET backbone,
precursor to modern internet.

The RFP called for T1 network, but the PC/RT links were 440kbits/sec
(not T1) and they put in T1 trunks with telco multiplexers (carrying
multiple 440kbit links) to call it a T1 network. I periodically
ridiculed that why don't they call it T5 network, since it was
possible that some of the T1 trunks were in turn, carried over T5
trunks.

801/risc, iliad, romp, rios, pc/rt, rs/6000, power, power/pc posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#801
ha/cmp posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#hacmp
continuous availability, disaster survivability, geographic
survivability posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#available
HSDT posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#hsdt
NSFNET posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#nsfnet

posts mentioning Somerset, AIM, Apple, Motorola, power/pc, as/400
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024c.html#1 Disk & TCP/IP I/O
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024b.html#98 IBM 360 Announce 7Apr1964
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024b.html#93 PC370
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024.html#1 How IBM Stumbled onto RISC
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023e.html#59 801/RISC and Mid-range
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#133 IBM Clone Controllers
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021d.html#47 Cloud Computing
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019c.html#2 S/38, AS/400
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013f.html#29 Delay between idea and implementation
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013b.html#3 New HD
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#23 IBM cuts more than 1,000 U.S. Workers
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#60 Memory versus processor speed
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011p.html#75 Has anyone successfully migrated off mainframes?

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Mid-Range Market

From: Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Mid-Range Market
Date: 17 Jun, 2024
Blog: Facebook

4300 sold into the same mid-range market as DEC VAX and in about same
numbers for small unit orders, the big difference was large
corporations with orders of hundreds of VM/4341s at a time for
distribution out in departmental areas (sort of the leading edge of
the coming distributed computing tsunami). Archived posts with decade
of VAX sales, sliced and diced by model, year, US/non-US (MVI&MVII
were micro-vax)
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002f.html#0
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024c.html#29

IBM 4361/4381 (follow-on to 4331/4341) was expected to see the same
explosion in sales, but can be seen by the VAX numbers, by the
mid-80s, the mid-range market was starting to shift to workstations
and large PCs.

AS/400 wasn't released until AUG1988
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM_AS/400

Other trivia, I had access to early engineering 4341 and Jan1979 was
con'ed into doing benchmark for national lab that was looking at
getting 70 for a compute farm (sort of leading edge of the coming
cluster supercomputing tsunami)

Posts mentioning mid-range distributed & cluster supercomputing
tsunamis
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024c.html#107 architectural goals, Byte Addressability And Beyond
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024c.html#100 IBM 4300
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024b.html#43 Vintage Mainframe
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024b.html#23 HA/CMP
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024.html#51 VAX MIPS whatever they were, indirection in old architectures
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023g.html#107 Cluster and Distributed Computing
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023g.html#61 PDS Directory Multi-track Search
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023g.html#57 Future System, 115/125, 138/148, ECPS
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023g.html#15 Vintage IBM 4300
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023f.html#12 Internet
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023e.html#71 microcomputers, minicomputers, mainframes, supercomputers
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023e.html#59 801/RISC and Mid-range
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023d.html#102 Typing, Keyboards, Computers
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023.html#74 IBM 4341
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023.html#18 PROFS trivia
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022f.html#92 CDC6600, Cray, Thornton
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022e.html#67 SHARE LSRAD Report
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#19 Telum & z16
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#18 IBM Left Behind
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#5 4361/3092
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#124 TCP/IP and Mid-range market
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#15 Mainframe I/O
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021h.html#107 3277 graphics
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021f.html#84 Mainframe mid-range computing market
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021c.html#47 MAINFRAME (4341) History
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021b.html#24 IBM Recruiting
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021.html#53 Amdahl Computers
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#27 PC Market
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019d.html#107 IBM HONE
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019c.html#49 IBM NUMBERS BIPOLAR'S DAYS WITH G5 CMOS MAINFRAMES
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019c.html#42 mainframe hacking "success stories"?
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#92 It's 1983:  What computer would you buy?
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018b.html#104 AW: mainframe distribution
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018.html#24 1963 Timesharing: A Solution to Computer Bottlenecks
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017i.html#62 64 bit addressing into the future
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016h.html#48 Why Can't You Buy z Mainframe Services from Amazon Cloud Services?
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015g.html#4 3380 was actually FBA?
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014m.html#173 IBM Continues To Crumble
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014m.html#57 Why you need batch cloud computing

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

REXX and DUMPRX

Refed: **, - **, - **
From: Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: REXX and DUMPRX
Date: 18 Jun, 2024
Blog: Facebook

In the very early 80s, I wanted to demonstrate REX(X) was not just
another pretty scripting language (before renamed REXX and released to
customers). I decided on redoing a large assembler application (dump
processor & fault analysis) in REX with ten times the function and ten
times the performance (lot of hacks and slight of hand done to make
interpreted REX run faster than the assembler version), working half
time over three months elapsed. I finished early so started writing
automated script that searched for most common failure signatures. It
also included a pseudo dis-assembler ... converting storage areas into
instruction sequences and would format storage according to specified
dsects. I got softcopy of messages&codes and could index applicable
information. I had thought that it would be released to customers, but
for what ever reasons it wasn't (even tho it was in use by most PSRs
and internal datacenters) ... however, I finally did get permission to
give talks on the implementation at user group meetings ... and within
a few months similar implementations started showing up at customer
shops. Old archived email from 3092 group (3090 service processor,
pair of 4361s running highly modified version of VM370R6 with service
screens done in CMS IOS3270) contacted me about shipping it as part of
3092
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010e.html#email861031
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010e.html#email861223

trivia: (recently gone 404, but lives on at wayback machine)
https://web.archive.org/web/20230719145910/https://www.ibm.com/ibm/history/exhibits/mainframe/mainframe_PP3090.html

mentions requiring pair of 3370 FBA drives, even MVS accounts which
never had FBA support. Late 70s, I offered MVS group FBA support, but
they said that even if fully integrated and tested, I needed $26M
incremental revenue business case (couple hundred million in sales) to
cover cost of education and pubs ... but since IBM was already selling
every disk it could manufacture, FBA MVS sales would just translate
into same amount of disks ... and I couldn't use lifetime savings as
part of business case (note no CKD DASD have been manufactured for
decades, all being simulated on industry standard fixed-block disks,
aka 3380s were already fixed-block ... can be seen in formulas for
records/track where record size has to be rounded up to fixed
cell size).

dumprx posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#dumprx
DASD, CKD, FBA, multi-track search posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#dasd

posts mentioning MVS FBA $26M business case:
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024b.html#110 IBM 360 Announce 7Apr1964
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023f.html#68 Vintage IBM 3380s
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023f.html#58 Vintage IBM 5100
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023e.html#32 3081 TCMs
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023d.html#105 DASD, Channel and I/O long winded trivia
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023c.html#96 Fortran
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023.html#74 IBM 4341
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023.html#73 IBM 4341
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023.html#33 IBM Punch Cards
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022f.html#85 IBM CKD DASD
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021b.html#78 CKD Disks
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021.html#6 3880 & 3380
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#38 long-winded post thread, 3033, 3081, Future System
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018f.html#34 The rise and fall of IBM
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#22 Manned Orbiting Laboratory Declassified: Inside a US Military Space Station
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017f.html#28 MVS vs HASP vs JES (was 2821)
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016c.html#12 You count as an old-timer if (was Re: Origin of the phrase "XYZZY")
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015f.html#86 Formal definition of Speed Matching Buffer
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014e.html#8 The IBM Strategy
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014b.html#18 Quixotically on-topic post, still on topic
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014.html#94 Santa has a Mainframe!
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013n.html#54 rebuild 1403 printer chain
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013i.html#2 IBM commitment to academia
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013g.html#23 Old data storage or data base
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013f.html#80 The cloud is killing traditional hardware and software
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013d.html#2 Query for Destination z article -- mainframes back to the future
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013c.html#68 relative mainframe speeds, was What Makes an Architecture Bizarre?
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013.html#40 Searching for storage (DASD) alternatives
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012p.html#32 Search Google, 1960:s-style
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012o.html#58 ISO documentation of IBM 3375, 3380 and 3390 track format
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011j.html#57 Graph of total world disk space over time?
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011e.html#44 junking CKD; was "Social Security Confronts IT Obsolescence"
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011e.html#35 junking CKD; was "Social Security Confronts IT Obsolescence"
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011b.html#47 A brief history of CMS/XA, part 1
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011.html#23 zLinux OR Linux on zEnterprise Blade Extension???
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010o.html#12 When will MVS be able to use cheap dasd
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010n.html#65 When will MVS be able to use cheap dasd
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010n.html#14 Mainframe Slang terms
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010k.html#10 Documenting the underlying FBA design of 3375, 3380 and 3390?
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010f.html#18 What was the historical price of a P/390?
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009j.html#73 DCSS ... when shared segments were implemented in VM
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008o.html#55 Virtual
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008j.html#49 Another difference between platforms
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006f.html#4 using 3390 mod-9s
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006f.html#3 using 3390 mod-9s
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005m.html#40 capacity of largest drive
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004l.html#23 Is the solution FBA was Re: FW: Looking for Disk Calc

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Private Equity Becomes Roach Motel as Public Pension Funds and Other Investors Borrow As Funds Remain Tied Up

From: Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Private Equity Becomes Roach Motel as Public Pension Funds and Other Investors Borrow As Funds Remain Tied Up
Date: 18 Jun, 2024
Blog: Facebook

Private Equity Becomes Roach Motel as Public Pension Funds and Other
Investors Borrow As Funds Remain Tied Up
https://www.nakedcapitalism.com/2024/06/private-equity-becomes-roach-motel-as-public-pension-funds-and-other-investors-borrow-as-funds-remain-tied-up.html

trivia: the industry got such a bad reputation during the S&L crisis
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Savings_and_loan_crisis

that they renamed the industry private equity and "junk bonds"
became "high yield bonds". I've seen TV interviews where the host kept
saying "junk bonds" and the guest kept say "high yield bonds" (when
talking about the same thing).

private equity posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#private.equity
capitalism posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#capitalism
S&L Crisis posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#s&l.crisis

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Mid-Range Market

From: Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Mid-Range Market
Date: 18 Jun, 2024
Blog: Facebook

re:
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#13 MVS/ISPF Editor
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#15 Mid-Range Market
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#16 REXX and DUMPRX

also note: Future System was completely different and was going to
completely replace 370 (internal politics was killing off 370 efforts
and lack of new 370 is credited with giving the clone 370 makers their
market foothold), then in the wake of the Future System implosion,
there was a mad rush to get stuff back into the 370 product pipeline,
including kicking off quick&dirty 3033&3081 in parallel.
http://www.jfsowa.com/computer/memo125.htm
https://people.computing.clemson.edu/~mark/fs.html

the head of POK also manages to convince corporate to kill the
vm370/cms product, shutdown the development group, and move all the
people to POK for MVS/XA; they weren't planning on telling the people
about the move until the very last moment (to minimize those that
might be able to escape into the Boston area). The information managed
to leak early and several managed to escape, including to the brand
new, infant DEC VAX effort (joke was that head of POK was major
contributor to DEC VAX). They then had a witch hunt for the source of
the leak, fortunately for me, nobody gave up the leak source. Endicott
eventually manages to save the VM370/CMS product mission (for the
mid-range), but had to recreate development organization from scratch
(and claims in early 80s upwards of 200 people in the ISPF
organization).

as aside, one of the final nails in the FS coffin was analysis by the
IBM Houston Science Center that if 370/195 applications were migrated
to FS machine made out of the fastest available hardware, it would
have throughput of 370/145 (something like architecture having factor
of 30times slowdown).

future system posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#futuresys

posts mentioning after future system implodes, head of POK convinces
corporate to kill vm370 product and move all the people to POK
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024c.html#87 Gordon Bell
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023f.html#75 Vintage Mainframe PROFS
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023f.html#26 Ferranti Atlas
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023e.html#74 microcomputers, minicomputers, mainframes, supercomputers
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023e.html#22 Copyright Software
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023d.html#105 DASD, Channel and I/O long winded trivia
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023b.html#64 Another 4341 thread
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023b.html#11 Open Software Foundation
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023.html#55 z/VM 50th - Part 6, long winded zm story (before z/vm)
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022h.html#39 IBM Teddy Bear
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022f.html#44 z/VM 50th
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022e.html#86 Enhanced Production Operating Systems
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#55 CMS OS/360 Simulation
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021c.html#64 CMS Support
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021c.html#12 Z/VM
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021.html#53 Amdahl Computers
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019b.html#77 IBM downturn
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#38 long-winded post thread, 3033, 3081, Future System
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#100 The (broken) economics of OSS
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018d.html#5 DOS & OS2
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#81 GREAT presentation on the history of the mainframe
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#80 Great mainframe history(?)
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015.html#87 a bit of hope? What was old is new again
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014m.html#25 Microsoft Open Sources .NET, Saying It Will Run on Linux and Mac
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014f.html#22 Complete 360 and 370 systems found
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014e.html#52 Rather nice article on COBOL on Vulture Central
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014b.html#105 Happy 50th Birthday to the IBM Cambridge Scientific Center
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014.html#4 Application development paradigms [was: RE: Learning Rexx]
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013n.html#94 z/OS is antique WAS: Aging Sysprogs = Aging Farmers
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012p.html#53 What is holding back cloud adoption?
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012k.html#33 Using NOTE and POINT simulation macros on CMS?
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012f.html#39 SIE - CompArch
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012e.html#38 A bit of IBM System 360 nostalgia
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#65 FAA 9020 - S/360-65 or S/360-67?
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011o.html#6 John R. Opel, RIP
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011j.html#42 assembler help!
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011g.html#8 Is the magic and romance killed by Windows (and Linux)?

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

IBM Internal Network

From: Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: IBM Internal Network
Date: 18 Jun, 2024
Blog: Facebook

re:
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024c.html#78 IBM Internal Network

co-worker at the science center was responsible for the science center
wide-area network ... one of the people that invented GML at the
science center in 1969, saying their original job was to promote the
CP67 wide-area network:
https://web.archive.org/web/20230402212558/http://www.sgmlsource.com/history/jasis.htm

Actually, the law office application was the original motivation for
the project, something I was allowed to do part-time because of my
knowledge of the user requirements. My real job was to encourage the
staffs of the various scientific centers to make use of the
CP-67-based Wide Area Network that was centered in Cambridge.

... snip ...

Science Center wide-area network morphs into the internal corporate
network, larger than arpanet/internet from just about the beginning
until sometime mid/late 80s ... technology was also used for the
corporate sponsored univ BITNET&EARN.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BITNET
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/European_Academic_and_Research_Network
https://earn-history.net/technology/the-network/

At the 1jan1983 cut-over from HOST/IMP to internetworking, there was
100 IMPs and 255 hosts while the internal corporate network was
rapidly approaching 1000; old post with list of corporate locations
that added one or more hosts during 1983:
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006k.html#8

Edson wiki entry
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edson_Hendricks

In June 1975, MIT Professor Jerry Saltzer accompanied Hendricks to
DARPA, where Hendricks described his innovations to the principal
scientist, Dr. Vinton Cerf. Later that year in September 15-19 of 75,
Cerf and Hendricks were the only two delegates from the United States,
to attend a workshop on Data Communications at the International
Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, 2361 Laxenburg Austria where
again, Hendricks spoke publicly about his innovative design which
paved the way to the Internet as we know it today.

... snip ...

SJMerc article about Edson (he passed aug2020) and "IBM'S MISSED
OPPORTUNITY WITH THE INTERNET" (gone behind paywall but lives free at
wayback machine)
https://web.archive.org/web/20000124004147/http://www1.sjmercury.com/svtech/columns/gillmor/docs/dg092499.htm
Also from wayback machine, some additional (IBM missed) references
from Ed's website
https://web.archive.org/web/20000115185349/http://www.edh.net/bungle.htm

We had transferred out to SJR in 1977 and fall of 1982, SJR had the
first IBM connection to CSNET
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CSNET
some old archived email
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/98.html#email821022
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002p.html#email821122
CSNET (arpanet->intenet cutover) status email
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002p.html#email830109
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000e.html#email830202

Early 1980s, had HSDT project with T1 and faster computer links (both
satellite and terrestrial) and one of 1st links was satellite T1 link
between IBM Los Gatos lab and Clementi's
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enrico_Clementi
E&S lab in Kingston, that had a whole boatload of Floating Point Systems boxes
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Floating_Point_Systems
some of which had 40mbyte/sec disk arrays.

Was also working with NSF director and was suppose to get $20M to
interconnect the NSF supercomputer centers ... then congress cut the
budget, some other things happened and eventually a RFP was released
(in part based on what we already had running). Along the way, I was
asked to talk to UCB, NSF thought they were giving UC grant for UCB
supercomputer center, but folklore is that the regent's master
building plan was UCSD would get the next new bldg, and it became the
UCSD supercomputer center instead.

Working with the IBM UCB account team, in 1983 I was also asked if I
would talk to the Berkeley "10M telescope" people and had a number of
meetings with them and visit/tours of some testing being done at Lick
Observatory (east of San Jose). The 10M effort was also working on
transition from film to CCD ... and the plans were to put it on a
mountain in Hawaii and wanted to do remote observing from the
mainland. CCDs were still fairly primitive ... but starting to get
better, in any case it looked like remote viewing would start out
requiring around 800kbits/sec. Along the way, they got grants from the
Keck Foundation ... and it morphs into the Keck Observatory.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/W._M._Keck_Observatory
https://www.keckobservatory.org/

some archived (alt.folklore.computer) posts with old 10m email
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007c.html#email830803b
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007c.html#email830804c
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004h.html#email830804
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004h.html#email830822
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004h.html#email830830
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004h.html#email841121
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004h.html#email860519

other trivia: 28Mar1986 Preliminary Announcement:
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002k.html#12

The OASC has initiated three programs: The Supercomputer Centers
Program to provide Supercomputer cycles; the New Technologies Program
to foster new supercomputer software and hardware developments; and
the Networking Program to build a National Supercomputer Access
Network - NSFnet.

... snip ...

IBM internal politics was not allowing us to bid. The NSF director
tried to help by writing the company a letter (3Apr1986, NSF Director
to IBM Chief Scientist and IBM Senior VP and director of Research,
copying IBM CEO) with support from other gov. agencies ... but that
just made the internal politics worse (as did claims that what we
already had operational was at least 5yrs ahead of the winning bid,
awarded 24Nov87)

Science Center posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech
GML, SGML, HTML, posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#sgml
internal network posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#internalnet
BITNET/EARN posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#bitnet
HSDT posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#hsdt
NSFNET posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#nsfnet
internet posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#internet

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

NAS Hitachi 370 Clones

From: Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: NAS Hitachi 370 Clones
Date: 19 Jun, 2024
Blog: Facebook

Archived post with email about former IBMer (had doneone of the VM370
Performance Products) that was doing consulting ... including for
Lockheed's DIALOG ... mentions DIALOG had got a NAS AS9000
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006b.html#email810318
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006b.html#email810421
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009q.html#email810422

I would periodically drop by DIALOG to see him when he was in town. He
tried to interest me in leaving IBM and joining DIALOG or NAS

past posts mentioning DIALOG
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022g.html#86 Anyone knew or used the Dialog service back in the 80's?
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022g.html#73 Anyone knew or used the Dialog service back in the 80's?
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017i.html#4 EasyLink email ad
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#20 {wtf} Tymshare SuperBasic Source Code
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014i.html#90 IBM Programmer Aptitude Test
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014e.html#39 Before the Internet: The golden age of online services
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011j.html#47 Graph of total world disk space over time?
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009q.html#44 Old datasearches
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009q.html#24 Old datasearches
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009m.html#88 Continous Systems Modelling Package
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007k.html#60 3350 failures
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#150 Q: S/390 on PowerPC?

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

IBM CSC and MIT MULTICS

From: Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: IBM CSC and MIT MULTICS
Date: 19 Jun, 2024
Blog: Facebook

There was friendly rivalry between (IBM science center) 4th &
(multics) 5th flrs ... one of their customers was USAFDC in the
pentagon ...
https://www.multicians.org/sites.html
https://www.multicians.org/mga.html#AFDSC
https://www.multicians.org/site-afdsc.html

In spring 1979, some USAFDC wanted to come by to talk to me about
getting 20 4341 VM370 systems. When they finally came by six months
later, the planned order had grown to 210 4341 VM370 systems. Earlier
in jan1979, I had also been con'ed into doing a 6600 benchmark on an
internal engineering 4341 (processor clock not running full-speed;
before production shipments to customers) for a national lab that was
looking at getting 70 4341s for a compute farm (sort of leading edge
of the coming cluster supercomputing tsunami). The national lab
benchmark had run 35.77sec on 6600 and 36.21secs on engineering 4341.

IBM CSC posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech

Posts mention USAFDC
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024c.html#16 CTSS, Multicis, CP67/CMS
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024b.html#63 Computers and Boyd
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024.html#100 Multicians
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023f.html#12 Internet
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023e.html#47 IBM 360/67
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023d.html#86 5th flr Multics & 4th flr science center
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022g.html#8 IBM 4341
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021c.html#48 MAINFRAME (4341) History
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021b.html#24 IBM Recruiting
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019c.html#42 mainframe hacking "success stories"?
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#92 It's 1983:  What computer would you buy?
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017j.html#95 why VM, was thrashing
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#53 Multics Timeline
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014.html#33 Warnings for the U.S. military about innovation and the information age: The Pentagon looks like a minicomputer firm
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014.html#28 The History of the Grid
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014.html#26 Warnings for the U.S. military about innovation and the information age: The Pentagon looks like a minicomputer firm

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Early Computer Use

From: Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Early Computer Use
Date: 19 Jun, 2024
Blog: Facebook

Took two credit hr intro to fortran/computers, at the end of the
semester, univ hires me to rewrite 1401 MPIO for 360/30 (doing
reader->tape & tape->printer/punch frontend for 709). Univ was getting
360/67 for tss/360 to replace 709/1401 and got a 360/30 (had 1401
microcode emulation) temporarily replacing 1401. The univ. shutdown
datacenter on weekends and I had it dedicated, although 48hrs w/o
sleep made monday classes hard. They gave me a bunch of hardware &
software manuals and I got to design and implement my own stand-alone
monitor, device drivers, interrupt handlers, error recovery, storage
management, etc; within a few weeks had 2000 card 360 assembler
program.

Within a year of intro class, 360/67 arrived and univ. hires me
fulltime responsible for os/360 (tss/360 never came to production) and
I continued to have my dedicated weekend time. Student fortran ran
under second on (tape->tape) 709, initially on os/360 (360/67 running
as 360/65), ran over minute. I install HASP cuts time in half. I then
redo STAGE2 SYSGEN, placing datasets and PDS members to optimize arm
seek and multi-track search, cutting another 2/3rds to 12.9secs; never
got better than 709 until I install Univ. of Waterloo WATFOR.

Before I graduate I'm hired into small group in Boeing CFO office to
help with formation of Boeing Computer Services (consolidate all
dataprocessing into independent business unit). I think Renton
datacenter possibly largest in the world, couple hundred million in
360s, 360/65s arriving faster than they could be installed, boxes
constantly staged in hallways around machine room (somebody joked that
Boeing was acquiring 360/65s like other companies acquired
keypunches). Lots of politics between Renton Director and CFO, who
only had a 360/30 up at Boeing field for payroll (although they
enlarge the machine room to install 360/67 for me to play with when
I'm not doing other stuff).

When I graduate, I join science center (instead of staying with Boeing
CFO) ... not long later IBM gets new CSO (had come from gov. service,
at one time head of presidential detail) and I'm asked to spend time
with him talking about computer security.

science center posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech

some recent posts mentioning working in Boeing CFO office:
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024c.html#100 IBM 4300
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024c.html#93 ASCII/TTY33 Support
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024c.html#15 360&370 Unix (and other history)
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024c.html#9 Boeing and the Dark Age of American Manufacturing
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024b.html#111 IBM 360 Announce 7Apr1964
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024b.html#97 IBM 360 Announce 7Apr1964
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024b.html#63 Computers and Boyd
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024b.html#60 Vintage Selectric
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024b.html#49 Vintage 2250
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024b.html#44 Mainframe Career
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024.html#87 IBM 360
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024.html#77 Boeing's Shift from Engineering Excellence to Profit-Driven Culture: Tracing the Impact of the McDonnell Douglas Merger on the 737 Max Crisis
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024.html#73 UNIX, MULTICS, CTSS, CSC, CP67
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024.html#43 Univ, Boeing Renton and "Spook Base"
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024.html#25 1960's COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME Origin and Technology (IRS, NASA)
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024.html#23 The Greatest Capitalist Who Ever Lived

posts mentioning asked to spend time with new IBM CSO talking about
computer security:
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024b.html#63 Computers and Boyd
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023g.html#4 Vintage Future System
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023f.html#87 FAA ATC, The Brawl in IBM 1964
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023c.html#82 Dataprocessing Career
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023.html#58 Almost IBM class student
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022h.html#75 Researchers found security pitfalls in IBM's cloud infrastructure
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022f.html#115 360/67 Virtual Memory
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022e.html#98 Enhanced Production Operating Systems II
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#4 Industrial Espionage
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#38 Security
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#57 Computer Security
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#45 Automated Benchmarking
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#102 IBM CSO
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#37 IBM Confidential
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021g.html#69 Mainframe mid-range computing market
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021g.html#66 The Case Against SQL
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021f.html#16 IBM Zcloud - is it just outsourcing ?
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021e.html#57 Hacking, Exploits and Vulnerabilities
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021d.html#84 Bizarre Career Events
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021c.html#40 Teaching IBM class
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021.html#78 Interactive Computing
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021.html#0 IBM "Wild Ducks"
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2020.html#37 Early mainframe security
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019d.html#66 Facebook Knows More About You Than the CIA
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#67 Economic Mess
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018d.html#0 The Road Not Taken: Edward Lansdale and the American Tragedy in Vietnam
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018b.html#99 IBM 5100
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017g.html#75 Running unsupported is dangerous was Re: AW: Re: LE strikes again
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017f.html#88 IBM Story
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017e.html#90 Ransomware on Mainframe application ?
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017e.html#50 A flaw in the design; The Internet's founders saw its promise but didn't foresee users attacking one another
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015e.html#28 The real story of how the Internet became so vulnerable
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014i.html#54 IBM Programmer Aptitude Test
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013n.html#60 Bridgestone Sues IBM For $600 Million Over Allegedly 'Defective' System That Plunged The Company Into 'Chaos'
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013f.html#61 The cloud is killing traditional hardware and software
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010q.html#53 Programmer Charged with thieft  (maybe off topic)
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010q.html#8 Plug Your Data Leaks from the inside
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010q.html#3a The Great Cyberheist
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010j.html#33 Personal use z/OS machines was Re: Multiprise 3k for personal Use?
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010j.html#19 Personal use z/OS machines was Re: Multiprise 3k for personal Use?
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009r.html#41 While watching Biography about Bill Gates on CNBC last Night
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009r.html#39 While watching Biography about Bill Gates on CNBC last Night
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009g.html#24 Top 10 Cybersecurity Threats for 2009, will they cause creation of highly-secure Corporate-wide Intranets?
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005g.html#55 Security via hardware?
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aadsm27.htm#49 If your CSO lacks an MBA, fire one of you

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Obscure Systems in my Past

From: Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Obscure Systems in my Past
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Thu, 20 Jun 2024 08:32:17 -1000

"Kurt Weiske" <kurt.weiske@realitycheckbbs.org.remove-8hr-this> writes:

Posting about the Pick system I worked on reminded me of another weird
system I worked on.

801/RISC ROMP chip ran CP.r implemented in PL.8 ... was going to be used
for displaywriter follow-on. When displaywriter follow-on got canceled
(word processing moving to ibm/pc), they decided to pivot to the unix
workstation market and got the company that did AT&T Unix port of IBM/PC
for PC/IX, to do one of ROMP (PC/RT and AIX). The issue was what to do
with the 200 PL.8 programmers.

They decideded to do VRM, a sort of virtual machine implementation in
PL.8 and told the unix port company it would be faster & simpler if
instead of porting to real ROMP ... it would be simpler&faster if they
ported to psuedo virtual machine VRM interface instead (one downside for
unix market, was that new device drivers required both unix/aix C driver
and a VRM PL.8 driver).. Then to help justify the VRM, they also got
Pick port to the psuedo virtual machine VRM interface (and could run
concurrently)

Note IBM ACIS had a few people in the process of doing a UCB BSD port to
(mainframe) 370 when they were told to instead port to PC/RT (bare
machine w/o VRM), ... which took enormously less resources and
enormously less time than either VRM or AIX.

posts mentioning 801/risc, iliad, romp, rios, pc/rt, rs/6000,
power/pc, etc
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#801

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

ARM is sort of channeling the IBM 360

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: ARM is sort of channeling the IBM 360
Newsgroups: comp.arch
Date: Thu, 20 Jun 2024 14:28:04 -1000

John Levine <johnl@taugh.com> writes:

It's not that close.  S/360 had a single key in the PSW that it matched against
all of a program's storage refrences while this has the tag in a pointer, so
it's more like a capability.

The x86 protection keys are more like S/360. There's a key for each
virtual page and a PKRU register that has to match.

360s, each 2kbytes had 4bit storage protect key .... match executing psw
4kbit key to storage protect key. zero in psw 4kbit key reserved for
system and allowing access all storage ... non-zero allowing for
(isolating) up to 15 separated concurrently executing (mvt) regions.

a little over decade ago was asked to track down decision to add virtual
memory to all 370s. basically MVT storage management was so bad that
required specifying region storage requirements four times larger than
used ... limiting number of concurrently executing regions to less than
number needed for keeping 1mbyte, 370/165 busy and justified. Going to
single 16mbyte virtual memory (VS2/SVS) allowed increasing number of
concurrent regions by factor of four (up to 15) with litte or no paging
(sort of like running MVT in a CP67 16mbyte virtual machine). Biggest
bit of code was creating a copy of passed channel (I/O) programs,
substituting real addresses for virtual addresses (Ludlow borrows
"CCWTRANS" from CP67, crafting into MVT EXCP/SVC0).

trivia: 370/165 engineers started complaining they if they had to
implement the full 370 virtual memory architecture, it would slip
announce by six months ... so several features were dropped (including
virtual memory segment table entry r/o flag, could have combination of
different virtual address spaces sharing the same segment, some being
r/w and some being r/o). Note: other models (& software) that
implmeneted full architecture, had to drop back to 370/165 subset.

370s were getting larger fast and increasingly needed more than 15
concurrently executing regions (to keep systems busy and justified) and
so transition to VS2/MVS, a different virtual address space for each
region (isolating each region storage access in different virtual
address space). However, it inherited os/360 pointer-passing APIs and so
mapped an image of the "MVS" kernel image into eight mbytes of every
virtual address space (leaving eight for application). Also "subsystems"
were mapped into separate address spaces and (pointer passing API)
needed to access application storage. Initially a common 1mbyte segment
storage area was mapped into all address spaces (common segment
area/"CSA"). However space requirements was somewhat proportional to
number of subsystems and concurrently executing application and "CSA"
quickly becomes "common system area").

By 3033 time-frame CSA was frequently 5-6mbytes ... leaving 2-3mbytes
for application regions (and threatening to becoming 8mbytes, leaving
zero). This was part of mad rush to xa/370 ... special architecture
features for MVS, including subsystems able to concurrently access
multiple address spaces (a subset was eventually retrofitted to 3033 as
"dual-address space mode").

other trivia: in 70s, I was pontificating that there was increasing
mismatch between disk throughput and system throughput. In early 80s I
wrote a tome about relative system disk throughput had declined by an
order of magnitude since os/360 announce (systems got 40-50 times
faster, disks only got 3-5 times faster). Some disk executive took
exception and assigned the division system performance group to refute
the claim. After a couple weeks they came back and effectively said I
had slightly understated the case. Their analysis was then turned into
(mainframe user group) SHARE
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SHARE_Operating_System
presentation about configuring disks for better system throughput
(16Aug1984, SHARE 63, B874).

posts mentioning DASD, CKD, FBA, multi-track search, etc
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#dasd

some recent posts mentioning SHARE B874
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024c.html#109 Old adage "Nobody ever got fired for buying IBM"
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024c.html#55 backward architecture, The Design of Design
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023g.html#32 Storage Management
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023e.html#92 IBM DASD 3380
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023e.html#7 HASP, JES, MVT, 370 Virtual Memory, VS2
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023b.html#26 DISK Performance and Reliability
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023b.html#16 IBM User Group, SHARE
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023.html#33 IBM Punch Cards
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023.html#6 Mainrame Channel Redrive
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022h.html#36 360/85
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022g.html#88 IBM Cambridge Science Center Performance Technology
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022g.html#84 RS/6000 (and some mainframe)
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022f.html#0 Mainframe Channel I/O
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022e.html#49 Channel Program I/O Processing Efficiency
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#48 360&370 I/O Channels
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#22 COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#77 Channel I/O
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#92 Processor, DASD, VTAM & TCP/IP performance
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#70 165/168/3033 & 370 virtual memory
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#131 Multitrack Search Performance
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#108 IBM Disks
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#105 IBM CKD DASD and multi-track search
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#78 IBM 370 and Future System
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#23 fast sort/merge, OoO S/360 descendants
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021g.html#44 iBM System/3 FORTRAN for engineering/science work?
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021f.html#53 3380 disk capacity
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021e.html#33 Univac 90/30 DIAG instruction
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021.html#79 IBM Disk Division
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021.html#59 San Jose bldg 50 and 3380 manufacturing
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021.html#17 Performance History, 5-10Oct1986, SEAS

some other recent posts mentioning (3033) dual-address space mode
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024c.html#67 IBM Mainframe Addressing
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024c.html#55 backward architecture, The Design of Design
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024b.html#108 IBM 360 Announce 7Apr1964
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024b.html#107 IBM 360 Announce 7Apr1964
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024b.html#58 Vintage MVS
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024.html#1 How IBM Stumbled onto RISC
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023g.html#2 Vintage TSS/360
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023d.html#108 DASD, Channel and I/O long winded trivia
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023d.html#22 IBM 360/195
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023d.html#9 IBM MVS RAS
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023d.html#0 Some 3033 (and other) Trivia
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022f.html#122 360/67 Virtual Memory
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#70 165/168/3033 & 370 virtual memory
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#113 IBM Future System

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

IBM 23June1969 Unbundling Announcement

Refed: **, - **, - **
From: Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: IBM 23June1969 Unbundling Announcement
Date: 22 Jun, 2024
Blog: Facebook

from original post
https://peterskastner.wordpress.com/2024/06/21/ibm-unbundling-decision-birth-of-an-independent-software-industry/

from comment in post in another FACEBOOK group

23Jun1969 unbundling started to charge for (application) software
(however IBM manages to make the case that kernel software should
still be free), SE (software/support engineer) services, and
maintenance.

SE training used to include sort of apprentice program as part of
large group on-site at customer installation, with unbundling they
couldn't figure out how NOT to charge for on-site trainee SE time ...
kicking off the HONE (hands-on network experience) ... branch office
online access to (virtual machine) CP/67 systems practicing
with guest operating systems. The science center had originally wanted
a 360/50 to add virtual memory hardware support, but all the spare
360/50s were going to the FAA ATC program and so had to settle for
360/40, doing "CP40" & "CMS". When 360/67 standard with virtual
memory becomes available, CP40/CMS morphs into CP67/CMS.

I had taken two credit hour intro to Fortran/Computers and at the end
of the semester, the univ hires me to rewrite 1401 MPIO for
360/30. The univ. was getting a 360/67 for TSS/360, replacing 709/1401
and was temporarily getting 360/30 replacing 1401 ... as part of
getting 360 experience. The univ shutdown datacenter on weekends and I
would have the place dedicated, although 48hrs w/o sleep made monday
classes hard. I was given a bunch of hardware and software manuals and
got to design and implement my own monitor, device drivers, interrupt
handlers, error recovery, storage management, etc. and within a few
weeks had a 2000 card assembler program. The 360/67 arrives within a
year of taking intro class and I was hired fulltime responsible for
OS/360 (TSS/360 never really came to production and so 360/67 ran
fulltime as 360/65).

Then CSC came out to install CP67 (3rd installation after CSC itself
and MIT Lincoln Labs) and I got to play with it mostly during my
weekend dedicated time ... getting to redesign and rewrite a lot of
the code. Before I graduate, I was hired fulltime into small group in
the Boeing CFO office to help with formation with Boeing Computer
Services, consolidating all dataprocessing into independent business
unit. I thought Renton was possibly largest datacenter in the world,
360/65s arriving faster than they could be installed (boxes constantly
consolidated in hallways around machine room). Lots of politics
between Renton director and CFO, who only had a 360/30 up at Boeing
field for payroll (although they enlarge the machine room to install
360/67 for me to play with when I wasn't doing other stuff. Eventually
I graduate and join the science center (instead of staying with Boeing
CFO).

At the science center, one of my hobbies was enhanced production
operating systems for internal datacenters and HONE was a long time
customer. CSC ports APL\360 to CMS for CMS\APL and HONE starts
offering CMS\APL-based branch sales&marketing support applications
which come to dominate all HONE activity (and original SE guest
operating system just dwindles away).

During early 70s, IBM has the "Future System" effort which was
completely different than 360/370 and was going to completely replace
it. During FS, internal politics was killing off 370 efforts (lack of
new 370 is credited with giving the clone 370 makers their market
foothol). When FS finally implodes there is mad rush to get stuff back
into 370 product pipelines, including kicking off quick&dirty
3033&3081 efforts in parallel.

Possibly because of the rise of the 370 clone makers, IBM also decides
to start charging for kernel software, starting with new kernel
add-ons (eventually transitioning to charging for all kernel software
and no longer providing software source) and a bunch of my internal
stuff was selected as guinea pig (I get to spend a lot of time with
business planners and lawyers on kernel software charging
practices). By early 80s, full kernel software was being charged for
and the start of the OCO-wars (object code only) with customers.

random other thoughts:
https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/john-boyd-ibm-wild-ducks-lynn-wheeler/

unbundling announce posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#unbundle
CSC posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech
CSC/VM posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#cscvm
HONE posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#hone
future system posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#futuresys
IBM downturn/downfall/breakup posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#ibmdownfall

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

IBM 23June1969 Unbundling Announcement

From: Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: IBM 23June1969 Unbundling Announcement
Date: 22 Jun, 2024
Blog: Facebook

re:
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#25 IBM 23June1969 Unbundling Announcement

recently comment to REXX post:
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#16 REXX and DUMPRX

In the very early 80s, I wanted to demonstrate REX(X) was not just
another pretty scripting language (before renamed REXX and released to
customers). I decided on redoing a large assembler application (dump
processor & fault analysis) in REX with ten times the function and ten
times the performance (lot of hacks and slight of hand done to make
interpreted REX run faster than the assembler version), working half
time over three months elapsed. I finished early so started writing
automated script that searched for most common failure signatures. It
also included a pseudo dis-assembler ... converting storage areas into
instruction sequences and would also format storage according to
specified dsects. I got softcopy of messages&codes and could index
applicable information.

I had thought that it would be released to customers, but for what
ever reasons it wasn't (even tho it was in use by most PSRs and
internal datacenters) ... however, I finally did get permission to
give talks on the implementation at user group meetings ... and within
a few months similar implementations started showing up at customer
shops. Old archived email from 3092 group (3090 service processor,
pair of 4361s running highly modified version of VM370R6 with service
screens done in CMS IOS3270) contacted me about shipping it as part of
3092
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010e.html#email861031
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010e.html#email861223

trivia: (recently gone 404, but lives on at wayback machine)
https://web.archive.org/web/20230719145910/https://www.ibm.com/ibm/history/exhibits/mainframe/mainframe_PP3090.html
mentions requiring pair of 3370 FBA drives, even MVS accounts which
never had FBA support. Late 70s, I offered MVS group FBA support, but
they said that even if fully integrated and tested, I needed $26M
incremental revenue business case (couple hundred million in sales) to
cover cost of education and pubs ... but since IBM was already selling
every disk it could manufacture, FBA would just translate into same
amount of disks ... and I couldn't use lifetime savings as part of
business case (note no CKD DASD have been manufactured for decades,
all being simulated on industry standard fixed-block disks).

other trivia: while at Boeing I modified CP67 to support "pageable
kernel" for lower use features, in some cases splitting large routines
into four 4kbyte page "chunks". This drove up the number of kernel
entry points to over 255. Turns out CP67 text decks were placed behind
a "BPS Loader" which only supported 255 ESD entries ... also
discovered that BPS did pass the address of its ESD table to routine
(CPINIT which wrote an image copy to disk for IPL from disk) ... I
moved a copy of the ESD table to the end of the pageable kernel
... which CPINIT would also write to disk (I was faced with constant
kludge to keep ESD entries within 255 limit). Also modified CPINIT
when IPLed from disk, pre-allocating failure/dump file, would also
write a copy of the ESD table to the file (a complete copy of all ESD
entries was available while running as well as in any DUMP file for
analysis).

After leaving Boeing for science center ... I did find a source copy
of the BPS loader in a card cabinet up in 545 tech sq attic ... which
I modified for more than 255 ESD and also new type control card that
would force a 4k-byte boundary.

DUMPRX posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#dumprx
cambridge science center posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech
DASD, CKD, FBA, multi-track search posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#dasd

a few posts mentioning 709/1401, mpio, 360/67, os/360, cp/67, boeing
cfo, renton datacenter, boeing field
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024b.html#97 IBM 360 Announce 7Apr1964
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024b.html#60 Vintage Selectric
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024b.html#49 Vintage 2250
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024.html#87 IBM 360
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023g.html#39 Vintage Mainframe
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023e.html#64 Computing Career
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023e.html#54 VM370/CMS Shared Segments
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023e.html#34 IBM 360/67
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023d.html#106 DASD, Channel and I/O long winded trivia
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023d.html#83 Typing, Keyboards, Computers
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023c.html#82 Dataprocessing Career
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022h.html#31 IBM OS/360
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#12 Programming Skills
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019b.html#51 System/360 consoles
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018f.html#51 All programmers that developed in machine code and Assembly in the 1940s, 1950s and 1960s died?

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

STL Channel Extender

From: Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: STL Channel Extender
Date: 22 Jun, 2024
Blog: Facebook

1980 IBM STL (since renamed SVL) was bursting at the seams and they
were moving 300 people from IMS group to offsite bldg with service
back to STL datacenter. They had tried "remote 3270", but found the
human factors unacceptable. I get con'ed into implementing channel
extender support for NSC HYPERChannel (A220, A710/A715/A720,
A510/A515) ... allowing channel attached 3270 controllers to be
located at the offsite bldg, connected to mainframes back in STL
datacenter ... with no perceived difference in human factors (quarter
second or better trivial response).
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Network_Systems_Corporation
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HYPERchannel

STL had spread 3270 controller boxes across all the channels with 3830
disk controller boxes. Turns out the A220 mainframe channel-attach
boxes (used for channel extender) had significantly lower channel busy
for the same amount of 3270 terminal traffic (as 3270 channel-attach
controllers) and as a result the throughput for IMS group 168s (with
NSC A220s) increased by 10-15% ... and STL considered using NSC
HYPERChannel A220 channel-extender configuration, for all 3270
controllers (even those within STL). NSC tried to get IBM to release
my support, but a group in POK playing with some fiber stuff got it
vetoed (concerned that if it was in the market, it would make it
harder to release their stuff).

trivia: The vendor eventually duplicated my support and then the 3090
product administer tracked me down. He said that 3090 channels were
designed to have a total 3-5 channel errors (EREP reported) for all
systems&customers over a year period and there were instead 20 (extra
turned out to be channel-extender support). When I got a unrecoverable
telco transmission error, I would reflect a CSW "channel-check" to the
host software. I did some research and found that if an IFCC
(interface control check) was reflected instead, it basically resulted
in the same system recovery activity (and got vendor to change their
software from "CC" to "IFCC").

About the same time, the IBM communication group was fighting off the
release of mainframe TCP/IP ... and when that got reversed, they
changed their tactic and claimed that since they had corporate
ownership of everything that crossed datacenter walls, TCP/IP had to
be released through them; what shipped got 44kbytes/sec aggregate
using nearly whole 3090 processor. I then did RFC1044 support and in
some tuning tests at Cray Research between Cray and IBM 4341, got
sustained 4341 channel throughput using only modest amount of 4341 CPU
(something like 500 times improvement in bytes moved per instruction
executed).
https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/html/rfc1044

other trivia: 1988, the IBM branch office asks me if I could help LLNL
(national lab) "standardize" some fiber stuff they were playing with,
which quickly becomes FCS (fibre-channel standard, including some
stuff I had done in 1980), initially 1gbit/sec, full-duplex, aggregate
200mbyte/sec. Then the POK "fiber" group gets their stuff released in
the 90s with ES/9000 as ESCON, when it was already obsolete,
17mbytes/sec. Then some POK engineers get involved with FCS and define
a heavy-weight protocol that drastically cuts the native throughput
which eventually ships as FICON. Most recent public benchmark I've
found is z196 "Peak I/O" getting 2M IOPS using 104 FICON (over 104
FCS). About the same time a FCS was announced for E5-2600 server
blades claiming over million IOPS (two such FCS having higher
throughput than 104 FICON). Note also, IBM documents keeping SAPs
(system assist processors that do I/O) to 70% CPU (which would be more
like 1.5M IOPS).

channel-extender posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#channel.extender
HSDT posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#hsdt
rfc 1044 posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#1044
FICON &/or FCS posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#ficon

some posts mentioning 3090 channel-extender channel "errors"
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023e.html#107 DataTree, UniTree, Mesa Archival
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023d.html#4 Some 3090 & channel related trivia:
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019c.html#16 mainframe hacking "success stories"?
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018d.html#48 IPCS, DUMPRX, 3092, EREP
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016h.html#53 Why Can't You Buy z Mainframe Services from Amazon Cloud Services?
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012e.html#54 Why are organizations sticking with mainframes?
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008g.html#10 Hannaford case exposes holes in law, some say
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005u.html#22 Channel Distances
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004j.html#19 Wars against bad things

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Do We Need Language to Think?

From: Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Do We Need Language to Think?
Date: 22 Jun, 2024
Blog: Facebook

Do We Need Language to Think? A group of neuroscientists argue that
our words are primarily for communicating, not for reasoning.
https://www.nytimes.com/2024/06/19/science/brain-language-thought.html

Late 70s & early 80s, I was blamed for online computer conferencing on
the internal corporate network (larger than arpanet/internet from just
about beginning until sometime mid/late 80s) ... it really took off
spring 1981 when I distributed trip report of visit to Jim Gray at
Tandem. Folklore is 5of6 of the corporate executive committee wanted
to fire me. One of the outcomes is researcher was paid to sit in the
back of my office for nine months, taking notes on how I communicated,
face-to-face, telephone, got copies of all my incoming and outgoing
email and logs of all instant messages. Results was books, papers,
conference talks and Stanford Phd joint between language and computer
AI (Winograd was advisor on AI side).

Researcher was ESL teacher in prior life and claimed I have
characteristics english as 2nd language ... but I have no other
natural language ... so there was some conjecture that I don't have a
"native" natural language.

online computer conferencing posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#cmc
internal corporate network posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#internalnet

some posts mentioning ESL characteristics but no native natural
language
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022h.html#90 Psychology of Computer Programming
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022f.html#88 Foreign Language
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#102 IBM Bookmaster, GML, SGML, HTML
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#12 Programming Skills
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#64 addressing and protection, was Paper about ISO C
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#18 Online Computer Conferencing
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018c.html#73 Army researchers find the best cyber teams are antisocial cyber teams
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017g.html#94 AI Is Inventing Languages Humans Can't Understand. Should We Stop It?
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016f.html#84 We Use Words to Talk. Why Do We Need Them to Think?
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016d.html#8 What Does School Really Teach Children
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016.html#49 Strategy
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015b.html#66 fingerspitzengefuhl and Coup d'oeil
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012f.html#51 Thinking in a Foreign Language
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010o.html#60 Compressing the OODA-Loop - Removing the D (and maybe even an O)

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Future System and S/38

From: Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Future System and S/38
Date: 23 Jun, 2024
Blog: Facebook

Folklore is that with Future System imploding, some of the people
retreated to Rochester and did a simplified version resulting in
S/38. FS was completely different from 360/370 and was going to
completely replace it. One of the last nails in the FS "coffin" was
analysis by the IBM Houston Science Center that if 370/195 apps were
moved to FS machine made out of the fastest available hardware, it
would have throughput of 370/145 (about 30 times slowdown, aka
available hardware could meet throughput requirements of low-end s/38
market)
http://www.jfsowa.com/computer/memo125.htm
https://people.computing.clemson.edu/~mark/fs.html

One of the S/38 issues is it treated all disks as single large
filesystem (single file might have scatter allocation with pieces on
multiple disks) ... backup had to do whole backup as single large unit
(which could take many hrs while system was down) and any simple
single disk failures, required restoring the complete filesystem
backup (replace failed disk and then do complete filesystem restore,
large mainframe with 300 disks would have been down for weeks for any
backup or restore) ... which could take day or two.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM_System/38
Single disk failures were so traumatic that S/38 was early adopter of
redundant disks (IBM 1977 patent)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RAID#History
this mentions microcode and 23jun1969 unbundling announcement
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM_System/38#Microcode

recent longer tome on unbundling, charging for (application) software,
keeping "kernel software" free and later decision to start charging
for kernel software
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#25 IBM 23June1969 Unbundling Announcement
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#26 IBM 23June1969 Unbundling Announcement

I continued to work on 360/370 all during FS period and would
periodically ridicule FS activity (which wasn't very career enhancing
activity) ... including their single-level-store which somewhat was
carry over from TSS/360. I had done a page-mapped filesystem for CMS
and would claim that I learned what not to do from TSS/360 ... however
part of the FS failure gave single-level-store implementations a bad
reputation ... and I couldn't get my CMS version approved for part of
the product (even though could demonstrate at least three times the
throughput of standard CMS filesystem).

Note little over decade ago, I was asked to track down decision to add
virtual memory to all 370s; basically MVT storage management was so
bad that region sizes had to be specified four times later than used,
as result typical 1mbyte 370/165 would only run four concurrent
regions, insufficient to keep 165 busy and justified; going to 16mbyte
virtual address space, aka VS2/SVS, increase number of concurrent
running regions by factor of four with little or no paging (sort of
like running MVT in a CP67 16mbyte virtual machine). Simpson (of HASP
fame) had done MFT-based virtual memory operating system with
page-mapped filesystem "RASP" ... and he couldn't make any headway
... and left IBM for Amdahl where he redid "RASP" from scratch. Post
with some of email exchange about virtual memory for all 370s
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011d.html#73 Multiple Virtual Memory

Future System posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#futuresys
23jun1969 unbundling posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#unbundle
posts mentioning getting to play disk engineer in bldg14&15 across the
street in 2nd half 70s
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#disk
cms page-mapped filesystem posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#mmap

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Future System and S/38

From: Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Future System and S/38
Date: 23 Jun, 2024
Blog: Facebook

re:
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#29 Future System and S/38

CEO Learson tried (and failed) to block bureaucrats, careerists, MBAs
from destroying Watson culture & legacy.
https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/john-boyd-ibm-wild-ducks-lynn-wheeler/

FS (failing) significantly accelerated the rise of the bureaucrats,
careerists, and MBAs .... From Ferguson & Morris, "Computer Wars:
The Post-IBM World", Time Books, 1993
https://www.amazon.com/Computer-Wars-The-Post-IBM-World/dp/1587981394

"and perhaps most damaging, the old culture under Watson Snr and Jr of
free and vigorous debate was replaced with *SYNCOPHANCY* and *MAKE NO
WAVES* under Opel and Akers. It's claimed that thereafter, IBM lived
in the shadow of defeat ... But because of the heavy investment of
face by the top management, F/S took years to kill, although its wrong
headedness was obvious from the very outset. "For the first time,
during F/S, outspoken criticism became politically dangerous," recalls
a former top executive

... snip ...

note: since FS was going to replace 360/370, internal politics was
killing off 370 efforts (and the lack of new IBM 370s during the
period is credited with given the clone 370 system makers their market
foothold). claim is a major motivation for FS was as a complex
countermeasure to clone compatible 360/370 I/O controllers ... but it
resulted in giving a rise to the clone 370 system makers)

late 80s, senior disk engineer gets a talk scheduled at annual,
world-wide, internal communication group conference, supposedly on
3174 performance ... but opens the talk that the communication group
was going to be responsible for the demise of the disk division. The
disk division was seeing drop in disk sales with data fleeing
datacenters to more distributed computing friendly platforms. The
communication group had a stranglehold on datacenters with their
corporate strategic responsibility for everything that crossed
datacenter walls and were fiercely fighting off client/server and
distributed computing. The disk division had come up with a number of
(distributed computing) solutions that were constantly vetoed by the
communication group.

Communication group datacenter stranglehold wasn't just disks, a
couple years later IBM has one of the largest losses in the history of
US companies and was being reorged into the 13 "baby blues" in
preparation for breaking up the company.
https://web.archive.org/web/20101120231857/http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,977353,00.html
https://content.time.com/time/subscriber/article/0,33009,977353-1,00.html

we had already left IBM but get a call from the bowels of Armonk
asking if we could help with the breakup of the company. Before we get
started, the board brings in the former president of AMEX that
(somewhat) reverses the breakup (although it wasn't long before the
disk division is gone).

... other trivia: before ms/dos
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MS-DOS
there was Seattle computer
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seattle_Computer_Products
before Seattle computer, there was cp/m
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CP/M
before developing cp/m, kildall worked on IBM cp67/cms at npg
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Naval_Postgraduate_School

... and opel
https://www.pcworld.com/article/243311/former_ibm_ceo_john_opel_dies.html

According to the New York Times, it was Opel who met with Bill Gates,
CEO of then-small software firm Microsoft, to discuss the possibility
of using Microsoft PC-DOS OS for IBM's about-to-be-released PC. Opel
set up the meeting at the request of Gates' mother, Mary Maxwell
Gates. The two had both served on the National United Way's executive
committee.

... snip ...

The communication group had later performance kneecapped the PS2
microchannel cards. The AWD workstation division had done their own
cards for the PC/RT (AT-bus) including the 4mbit token-ring
card. However, for RS/6000 microchannel, AWD was told they couldn't do
their own cards, but had to use the PS2 microchannel cards. An example
of severe performance kneecap was that the PS2 microchannel 16mbit T/R
card had lower card throughput than the PC/RT 4mbit T/R card (joke was
a RS/6000 16mbit T/R server would have lower throughput than PC/RT
4mbit T/R server).

Note: 4300s sold into the same mid-range market as DEC VAX and in
about same numbers (for small unit orders). Big difference was large
corporation orders for hundreds of 4300s at a time for placing out in
departmental areas (sort of the leading edge of the coming distributed
computing tsunami). Old post with a decade of DEC VAX sales, sliced
and diced by model, year, US/non-US. As can be seen by mid-80s VAX
numbers, mid-range market was starting to shift to workstations and
large PC servers (MVI/MVII are microvax workstations).
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002f.html#0

future system posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#futuresys
communication group datacenter stranglehold posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#terminal
801/risc, iliad, romp, rios, pc/rt, rs/6000, power, power/pc posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#801
IBM downturn/downfall/breakup posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#ibmdownfall
AMEX President posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#gerstner

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Future System and S/38

From: Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Future System and S/38
Date: 23 Jun, 2024
Blog: Facebook

re:
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#29 Future System and S/38
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#30 Future System and S/38

Mainframe emulators (running on PC, linux, windows, max os x)
http://www.hercules-390.org/
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hercules_(emulator)
https://bradrigg456.medium.com/run-your-own-mainframe-using-hercules-mainframe-emulator-and-mvs-3-8j-tk4-e8a85ebecd62

Free and copyright "free" IBM software (through the 70s) available.
http://www.ibiblio.org/jmaynard/

Early 1979, copyright law changed & extended life, I scanned my copy
of SHARE LSRAD report (copyright Dec79), in late 2011 and had to find
somebody at SHARE to approve putting it up on bitsavers:
http://bitsavers.org/pdf/ibm/share/

some posts mentioning hercules and funsoft mainframe emulators
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023d.html#34 IBM Mainframe Emulation
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#31 What is the oldest computer that could be used today for real work?
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011c.html#93 Irrational desire to author fundamental interfaces
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010e.html#42 search engine history, was Happy DEC-10 Day
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009c.html#21 IBM tried to kill VM?
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005k.html#8 virtual 360/67 support in cp67
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004e.html#32 The attack of the killer mainframes

posts mentioning bitsaver and SHARE LSRAD
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024c.html#25 Tymshare & Ann Hardy
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024b.html#90 IBM User Group Share
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023g.html#32 Storage Management
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023e.html#20 Copyright Software
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#122 SHARE LSRAD Report
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015f.html#82 Miniskirts and mainframes
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014j.html#53 Amdahl UTS manual
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013h.html#85 Before the PC: IBM invents virtualisation
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013h.html#82 Vintage IBM Manuals
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013e.html#52 32760?
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012p.html#58 What is holding back cloud adoption?
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012o.html#35 Regarding Time Sharing
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012i.html#40 GNOSIS & KeyKOS
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012i.html#39 Just a quick link to a video by the National Research Council of Canada made in 1971 on computer technology for filmmaking
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012f.html#58 Making the Mainframe more Accessible - What is Your Vision?
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011p.html#146 IBM Manuals
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011p.html#11 1979 SHARE LSRAD Report
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011p.html#10 1979 SHARE LSRAD Report
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011n.html#62 1979 SHARE LSRAD Report
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011.html#88 digitize old hardcopy manuals
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011.html#85 Two terrific writers .. are going to write a book
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010q.html#33 IBM S/360 Green Card high quality scan
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010l.html#13 Old EMAIL Index
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009n.html#0 Wanted: SHARE Volume I proceedings
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009.html#70 A New Role for Old Geeks
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009.html#47 repeat after me:  RAID != backup

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

ancient OS history, ARM is sort of channeling the IBM 360

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: ancient OS history, ARM is sort of channeling the IBM 360
Newsgroups: comp.arch
Date: Sun, 23 Jun 2024 17:46:11 -1000

John Levine <johnl@taugh.com> writes:

Not really. VS1 was basically MFT running in a single virtual address
space. The early versions of VS2 were SVS, MVT running in a single
virtual address space, and then MVS, where each job got its own
address space. As Lynn has often explained, OS chewed up so much of
the address space that they needed MVS to make enough room for
programs to keep doing useful work.

re:
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#24 ARM is sort of channeling the IBM 360

... also SVS single 16mbyte virtual address space (sort of like
running MVT in CP67 16mbyte virtual machine) to "protect"
regions from each other still used the 360 4bit storage protection key
...  so caped at 15 concurrent regions ... but systems were getting
faster, much faster than disks were getting faster ... so needed
increasing numbers of concurrently executing regions ... so went to
MVS ... gave each region its own virtual address space (to keep them
isolated/protected from each other). But MVS was becoming increasingly
bloated both in real storage and amount it took in each region's
virtual address space .... so needed more than 16mbyte real storage as
well as more than 16mbyte virtual storage.

trivia: I was pontificating in the 70s about mismatch between increase
in system throughput (memory & CPU) and increase in disk
throughput. In early 80s wrote a tome that the relative system
throughput of disk had declined by an order of magnitude since 360 was
announced in the 60s (systems increase 40-50 times, disks increased
3-5 times). A disk division executive took exception and assigned the
division performance group to refute my claims. After a couple of
weeks, they basically came back and said that I had slightly
understated the problem.

They then respun the analysis for a (mainframe user group) SHARE
presentation for how to configure disks for increased system
throughput (16Aug1984, SHARE 63, B874).

more recently there have been some references that cache-miss, memory
access latency, when measured in count of processor cycles, is
compareable to 60s disk access latency, when measured in count of 60s
processor cycles (memory is new disk ... current memory access
relative to processor speed is similar to 60s disk access relative to
60s processor speed)

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

IBM 23June1969 Unbundling Announcement

From: Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: IBM 23June1969 Unbundling Announcement
Date: 24 Jun, 2024
Blog: Facebook

re:
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#25 IBM 23June1969 Unbundling Announcement
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#26 IBM 23June1969 Unbundling Announcement

undergraduate at univ and working full time for the datacenter
responsible for os/360 ... I had added 2741&tty ascii terminal support
and editor (with CMS edit-syntax) to HASP ... and on way to east coast
SHARE had side trip to Cornell to see the head (Bill Worley?) of SHARE
HASP committee ... flew in from west coast to La Guardia and getting a
(DC3?) flt to Ithaca ... from Marine(?) terminal ... sat in plane for
an hour held up as thunderstorm went through ... then heavy turbulence
whole time in air (and periodically throwing up). Got off 1st stop
(Elmira), got a rental car, found motel for the night, and drove the
rest of the way to Cornell the next morning.

Univ library did get ONR grant to do online catalog, part of the
money went for 2321 datacell, also selected for IBM CICS betatest and
supporting CICS added to tasks ... 1st bug was CICS wouldn't come up
... turns out there were some undocumented, hard-coded BDAM options
and library had built their BDAM datasets with different set of
options. trivia: some 25yrs later was brought into NIH's NLM to look
at UMLS and a couple people still there that had built NLM's
(BDAM-based) online catalog 25yrs earlier.

posts mentioning HASP/ASP, JES2/JES, and/or NJE/NJI:
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#hasp
CICS and/or BDAM posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#cics

... a few posts mentioning Worley and Cornell/HASP
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015h.html#86 Old HASP
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008.html#51 IBM LCS
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007p.html#21 Newsweek article--baby boomers and computers
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007j.html#79 IBM 360 Model 20 Questions
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006e.html#1 About TLB in lower-level caches
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004f.html#29 [Meta] Marketplace argument

... a few posts mentioning NIH, NLM, UMLS, BDAM
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023d.html#7 Ingenious librarians
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#39 After IBM
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018c.html#13 Graph database on z/OS?
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018b.html#54 Brain size of human ancestors evolved gradually over 3 million years
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017f.html#34 The head of the Census Bureau just quit, and the consequences are huge
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013g.html#87 Old data storage or data base
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004p.html#0 Relational vs network vs hierarchic databases
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004o.html#67 Relational vs network vs hierarchic databases

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

ancient OS history, ARM is sort of channeling the IBM 360

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: ancient OS history, ARM is sort of channeling the IBM 360
Newsgroups: comp.arch
Date: Tue, 25 Jun 2024 08:33:39 -1000

John Levine <johnl@taugh.com> writes:

My recollection is that if you were using QSAM with multiple buffers
and full track records it wasn't hard to keep the disk going at full
speed. Later versions of OS do chained scheduling if you have enough
buffers, doing several disk operations with one cnannel program.

https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#24 ARM is sort of channeling the IBM 360
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#32 ancient OS history, ARM is sort of channeling the IBM 360

When 360/67 was delivered to univ. I was hired fulltime responsible
for OS/360 (tss/360 never came to production). Initially student
fortran jobs ran over a minute (had run under a second on 709
tape->tape). I installed HASP which cuts the time in half. I then
started redoing OS/360 SYSGEN to carefully place SYSTEM datasets and
PDS (program library) members to optimize arm seek and multi-track
search (channel program used to searc PDS directory for member
location) cutting another 2/3rds to 12.9secs. Student Fortran never
got better than 709 until I installed Univ. of Waterloo WATFOR.

when CP67 was 1st delivered to univ (3rd installation after cambridge
itself and MIT lincoln labs), all I/O was FIFO and page I/O was single
4k page at time. CMS filesystem was 800 byte blocks and was usually
single block transfer per channel program ... however if loading a
program image and had been allocated contiguous sequential, it would
transfer up to track worth in single channel program.

I redid disk I/O to ordered seek and redid page I/O to maximize page
transfers per revolution (at same arm position). For 2301 fixed-head
(paging) drum I got it from max around 70 4k/sec to peak of 270 4k/sec
(max transfers per 2301 revolution).

There was problem with CMS filesystem that pretty much did scatter
allocate (CMS sort of shared some CTSS heritage with UNIX going back
through MULTICS) ... so it was rare file that it happened to have any
sequentially allocated, contiguous records. Shortly after graduating
and joining science center ... and seeing what multics was doing on
flr above (science center was on 4th flr 545tech sq, multics was on
the 5flr), I modified CMS filesystem to be 4k records and use a paged
mapped API (and the underneath page I/O support would order for
maximum transfers per revolution) ... and I also added to CMS program
image generation, an attempt to maximize contiguous allocation, which
could result close to max transfers/revolution in single channel
program (when loading program).

science center posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech
page-mapped filesystem posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#mmap

some recent posts mentioning work as undergraduate
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024c.html#94 Virtual Memory Paging
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024b.html#97 IBM 360 Announce 7Apr1964
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024b.html#63 Computers and Boyd
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024b.html#44 Mainframe Career
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023g.html#1 Vintage TSS/360
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023f.html#102 MPIO, Student Fortran, SYSGENS, CP67, 370 Virtual Memory
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023f.html#83 360 CARD IPL
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023f.html#65 Vintage TSS/360
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023f.html#34 Vintage IBM Mainframes & Minicomputers
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023f.html#17 Video terminals
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023e.html#64 Computing Career
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023e.html#34 IBM 360/67
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023e.html#29 Copyright Software
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023e.html#12 Tymshare
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023e.html#10 DASD, Channel and I/O long winded trivia
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023d.html#106 DASD, Channel and I/O long winded trivia
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023c.html#46 IBM DASD
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023c.html#26 Global & Local Page Replacement
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023c.html#25 IBM Downfall

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Null terminated strings, Disconnect Between Coursework And Real-World Computers

From: Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Null terminated strings, Disconnect Between Coursework And Real-World Computers
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Wed, 26 Jun 2024 11:50:16 -1000

Lawrence D'Oliveiro <ldo@nz.invalid> writes:

Ah, the GE 645, the MULTICS machine. Was the H6180 very similar? Did
Honeywell develop any entirely separate OS to take advantage of that kind
of hardware? (Not sure if its computer business remained in existence long
enough to do so...)

GCC's new fortification level: The gains and costs
https://developers.redhat.com/articles/2022/09/17/gccs-new-fortification-level

C programs routinely suffer from memory management problems. For several
years, a _FORTIFY_SOURCE preprocessor macro inserted error detection to
address these problems at compile time and run time. To add an extra
level of security, _FORTIFY_SOURCE=3 has been in the GNU C Library
(glibc) since version 2.34.

... snip ...

There were claims that null-terminated buffer string lengths were major
Internet/TCPIP exploits and vulnerabilities in 90s (until big uptic in
automagic execution of visual basic in data files). I pontificated that such
overflows were not seen in IBM mainframe VS/Pascal TCP/IP implementation
... or MULTICS PL/I implementation

Thirty Years Later: Lessons from the Multics Security Evaluation
https://www.acsac.org/2002/papers/classic-multics.pdf
2.2 Security as Standard Product Feature
2.3 No Buffer Overflows
2.4 Minimizing Complexity

Multics Security Evaluation: Vulnerability Analysis (1974)
https://csrc.nist.gov/publications/history/karg74.pdf

Turn of the century, I tried to do semantic analysis of CVE reports
https://cve.mitre.org/
and asked MITRE if they could require a little more precision in the
reports (at the time Mitre responded that they were lucky to get any
information in the reports). Archived posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004e.html#43
then few months later, NIST published something similar
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005b.html#20
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005d.html#0

(C-language) buffer overflow posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subintegrity.html#buffer

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

This New Internet Thing, Chapter 8

From: Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: This New Internet Thing, Chapter 8
Date: 28 Jun, 2024
Blog: Facebook

This New Internet Thing, Chapter 8
https://albertcory50.substack.com/p/this-new-internet-thing-chapter-8

... opel & ms/dos
https://www.pcworld.com/article/243311/former_ibm_ceo_john_opel_dies.html

According to the New York Times, it was Opel who met with Bill Gates,
CEO of then-small software firm Microsoft, to discuss the possibility
of using Microsoft PC-DOS OS for IBM's about-to-be-released PC. Opel
set up the meeting at the request of Gates' mother, Mary Maxwell
Gates. The two had both served on the National United Way's executive
committee.

... snip ...

... other trivia: before ms/dos
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MS-DOS
there was Seattle computer
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seattle_Computer_Products
before Seattle computer, there was cp/m
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CP/M
before developing cp/m, kildall worked on IBM cp/67-cms at npg
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Naval_Postgraduate_School

(virtual machine) CP67 (precursor to vm370)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CP-67
other (virtual machine) history
http://www.leeandmelindavarian.com/Melinda#VMHist

I had taken two credit hr intro to fortran/computers and at the end of
the semester was hired to rerite 1401 MPIO in assembler for
360/30. The univ. was getting a 360/67 to replace 709/1401 and
temporarily the 1401 was replaced with 360/30 pending arrival of
360/67. The univ. shutdown datacenter on weekends and I got to have
the whole place dedicated (although 48hrs w/o sleep made monday
classes hard). I was given a bunch of hardware&software manuals and
got to design my own monitor, device drivers, error recovery, storage
management, etc ... and within a few weeks had 2000 card 360 assembler
program. Within a year of taking intro class, 360/67 arrive and I was
hired fulltime responsible for os/360 (tss/360 never came to
production fruition, so ran as 360/65 w/os360). Student fortran ran
less than second on 709 (tape->tape) but well over a minute with
fortgclg on 360/65 os/360. I install HASP and cuts time in half, then
I start redoing STAGE2 SYSGEN to carefully place datasets and PDS
member of optimized arm seek and multi-track search, cutting another
2/3rds to 12.9secs ... never got better than 709 until I install
WATFOR.

Then cambridge came out to install cp67 (3rd install after cambridge
itself and mit lincoln labs) and I mostly got to play with it during
my weekend dedicated time. First few months concentrated on reWriting
lots of code to cut CP67 CPU time running OS/360. Test stream ran
322secs on bare machine and initially 856secs in virtual machine
(534seecs CP67 CPU) ... i get CP67 CPU down to 113secs. I then redo
disk and (fixed-head) drum I/O for ordered seek arm queuing and
chained page requests (optimizing transfers/revolution ... from purely
FIFO single page transfers ... and then dynamic adaptive
scheduling/resource-management and new page replacement algorithms.

HASP posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#hasp
CSC posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech
NSFNET posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#nsfnet
internet posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#internet

part of 60s SHARE presentation on os/360 & CP/67 work
at the univ
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/94.html#18 CP/67 & OS MFT14

recent posts mentioning 709, 1401, MPIO, 360/30, 360/67, os/360,
student fortran, watfor, getting CP67 benchmark from 534secs to 113secs
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024c.html#94 Virtual Memory Paging
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024c.html#15 360&370 Unix (and other history)
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024b.html#114 EBCDIC
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024b.html#97 IBM 360 Announce 7Apr1964
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024b.html#63 Computers and Boyd
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024b.html#60 Vintage Selectric
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024b.html#44 Mainframe Career
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024.html#87 IBM 360
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023f.html#102 MPIO, Student Fortran, SYSGENS, CP67, 370 Virtual Memory
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023f.html#83 360 CARD IPL
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023f.html#34 Vintage IBM Mainframes & Minicomputers
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023e.html#54 VM370/CMS Shared Segments
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023e.html#34 IBM 360/67
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023d.html#106 DASD, Channel and I/O long winded trivia
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023d.html#88 545tech sq, 3rd, 4th, & 5th flrs
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022e.html#95 Enhanced Production Operating Systems II

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Chat Rooms and Social Media

From: Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Chat Rooms and Social Media
Date: 29 Jun, 2024
Blog: Facebook

One of the GML inventors (in 1969, "law office application") at the
science center, originally hired promoting cambridge wide-area network
https://web.archive.org/web/20230402212558/http://www.sgmlsource.com/history/jasis.htm

Actually, the law office application was the original motivation for
the project, something I was allowed to do part-time because of my
knowledge of the user requirements. My real job was to encourage the
staffs of the various scientific centers to make use of the
CP-67-based Wide Area Network that was centered in Cambridge.

... snip ...

science center wide-area network morphing into corporate network
(larger than arpanet/internet from just about the beginning until
sometime mid/late 80s) ... technology also used for the corporate
sponsored univ BITNET&EARN
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BITNET
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/European_Academic_and_Research_Network
https://earn-history.net/technology/the-network/

Note in aug1976, TYMSHARE
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tymshare
started offering their CMS-based online computer conferencing "free"
to (IBM mainframe user group) SHARE
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SHARE_(computing)
as VMSHARE ... archives here
http://vm.marist.edu/~vmshare
talk given at 1983 vm workshop
http://vm.marist.edu/~vmshare/read.cgi?fn=VMAGENDA&ft=MEMO&line=522
"networking research" on feb1987 agenda for vm workshop
http://vm.marist.edu/~vmshare/read.cgi?fn=VMWKABSA&ft=MEMO&line=347

I cut a deal with TYMSHARE to get monthly tape dumps of all VMSHARE
files for putting up on internal network and systems (largest problem
was with lawyers that were concerned internal employees would be
contaminated exposed to unfiltered customer information).

Late 70s and early 80s I was blamed for online computer conferencing
on the internal network, it really taking off spring of 1981 when I
distributed trip report of visit to Jim Gray at TANDEM ... only about
300 directly participated but claims that upwards of 25,000 was
reading (folklore when corporate executive committee was told, 5of6
wanted to fire me). One of the outcomes was researcher was paid to sit
in back of my office for nine months taking notes on how I
communicated (face-to-face, telephone, etc), also got copies of all my
incoming and outgoing email and logs of all instant messages. Results
were papers, conference talks, books and Stanford PHD (joint with
language and computer AI). One statistic was I averaged TO and/or FROM
email with some 270+ unique/different people per week for the nine
months. Other details:
https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/john-boyd-ibm-wild-ducks-lynn-wheeler/

1jan1983, arpanet transition from HOST/IMPs (approx. 100 network IMPs,
and 255 HOSTS) to internetworking protocol ... at the time the
internal network rapidly approaching 1000 ... archived post with
world-wide corporate locations getting one or more new nodes during
1983 (one of the complications was corporate requirement that all
links be encrypted and government resistance, especially when crossing
national boundaries):
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006k.html#8

Early 80s, also got HSDT project (T1 and faster computer links, both
terrestrial and satellite) and was working with NSF director on
interconnecting the NSF supercomputer centers ... initially was
suppose to get $20M, then congress cuts the budget, some other things
happen, and eventually RFP released (in part based on what we already
had running). Preliminary agenda 28Mar1986 Preliminary Announcement:
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002k.html#12

The OASC has initiated three programs: The Supercomputer Centers
Program to provide Supercomputer cycles; the New Technologies Program
to foster new supercomputer software and hardware developments; and
the Networking Program to build a National Supercomputer Access
Network - NSFnet.

... snip ...

IBM internal politics was not allowing us to bid (possibly
contributing was being blamed for online computer conferencing). The
NSF director tried to help by writing the company a letter (3Apr1986,
NSF Director to IBM Chief Scientist and IBM Senior VP and director of
Research, copying IBM CEO) with support from other gov. agencies
... but that just made the internal politics worse (as did claims that
what we already had operational was at least 5yrs ahead of the winning
bid, awarded 24Nov87)

co-worker at CSC and responsible for cambridge wide-area network
... we later transfer to SJR
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edson_Hendricks

In June 1975, MIT Professor Jerry Saltzer accompanied Hendricks to
DARPA, where Hendricks described his innovations to the principal
scientist, Dr. Vinton Cerf. Later that year in September 15-19 of 75,
Cerf and Hendricks were the only two delegates from the United States,
to attend a workshop on Data Communications at the International
Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, 2361 Laxenburg Austria where
again, Hendricks spoke publicly about his innovative design which
paved the way to the Internet as we know it today.

... snip ...

SJMerc article about Edson (he passed aug2020) and "IBM'S MISSED
OPPORTUNITY WITH THE INTERNET" (gone behind paywall but lives free at
wayback machine)
https://web.archive.org/web/20000124004147/http://www1.sjmercury.com/svtech/columns/gillmor/docs/dg092499.htm
Also from wayback machine, some additional (IBM missed) references
from Ed's website
https://web.archive.org/web/20000115185349/http://www.edh.net/bungle.htm

CSC posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech
GML, SGML, HTML, etc posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#sgml
csc/vm posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#cscvm
internal network posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#internalnet
bitnet and/or earn posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#bitnet
computer conferencing posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#cmc
hsdt posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#hsdt
nsfnet posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#nsfnet
internet posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#internet

some recent posts mentioning TYMSHARE and VMSHARE
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024c.html#120 Disconnect Between Coursework And Real-World Computers
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024c.html#110 Anyone here (on news.eternal-september.org)?
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024c.html#104 Virtual Memory Paging
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024c.html#103 CP67 & VM370 Source Maintenance
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024c.html#43 TYMSHARE, VMSHARE, ADVENTURE
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024c.html#25 Tymshare & Ann Hardy
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024b.html#90 IBM User Group Share
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024b.html#87 Dialed in - a history of BBSing
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024b.html#81 rusty iron why ``folklore''?
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024b.html#34 Internet
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024.html#109 IBM User Group SHARE
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024.html#47 3330, 3340, 3350, 3380

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

GISH GALLOP

From: Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: GISH GALLOP
Date: 29 Jun, 2024
Blog: Facebook

I recognized it, but didn't know it had a name

The GISH GALLOP. It's a rhetorical technique in which someone throws
out a fast string of lies, non-sequiturs, and specious arguments, so
many that it is impossible to fact-check or rebut them in the amount
of time it took to say them. Trying to figure out how to respond makes
the opponent lok confused, because they don't know where to start
grappling with the flood that has just him them. It is a form of
gaslighting

... snip ...

more detail:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gish_gallop
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brandolini%27s_law
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gaslighting

There's a name for Trump's technique to overwhelm the public with a
stream of tiny lies (8Feb2017)
https://qz.com/905252/donald-trumps-lies-are-all-part-of-a-debate-tactic-called-the-gish-gallop

The Gallop works by leveraging two basic tendencies in human
reasoning. First, it's easier and faster to make a false claim than it
is to disprove one. Second, if an opponent fails to disprove every
single one of the spurious statements you state, you can claim victory
on the leftovers.

... snip ...

some past posts mentioning Trump's lies, and/or false, racist,
fascist, birther statements
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024.html#10 GOP Rep. Says Quiet Part Out Loud About Rejecting Border Deal
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023f.html#63 We can't fight the Republican party's 'big lie' with facts alone
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021h.html#39 Republicans delete webpage celebrating Trump's deal with Taliban
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021h.html#21 A Trump bombshell quietly dropped last week. And it should shock us all
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021g.html#93 A top spreader of coronavirus misinformation says he will delete his posts after 48 hours
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021g.html#83 Trump Pressured DOJ to Declare Election Corrupt and 'Leave the Rest to Me'
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021g.html#58 The Storm Is Upon Us
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021f.html#82 Giuliani's Law License Is Suspended Over Trump Election Lies
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021c.html#43 Just 15% of Americans say they like the way that Donald Trump conducts himself as president
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021.html#44 American Fascism
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#150 How Trump Lost an Evangelical Stalwart
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#74 Eric Holder is the Official Missing from Discussions of the Bidens' Ukrainian Efforts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#72 CIA's top lawyer made 'criminal referral' on complaint about Trump Ukraine call
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#59 Acting Intelligence Chief Refuses to Testify, Prompting Standoff With Congress
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019d.html#95 The results of Facebook's anti-conservative bias audit are in
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018d.html#80 Former NSA And CIA Director Michael Hayden: The 'Golden Age Of Electronic Surveillance' Is Ending

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

ancient OS history, ARM is sort of channeling the IBM 360

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: ancient OS history, ARM is sort of channeling the IBM 360
Newsgroups: comp.arch
Date: Sat, 29 Jun 2024 23:39:22 -1000

Lawrence D'Oliveiro <ldo@nz.invalid> writes:

Work out the numbers. The CPU time necessary to copy a single record is
most likely a small fraction of the time it takes to service an I/O
interrupt.

And this is not taking into account the fact that I/O interrupts run at a
higher priority than user-level tasks like copying buffers, anyway.

re:
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#24 ARM is sort of channeling the IBM 360
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#32 ARM is sort of channeling the IBM 360
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#34 ARM is sort of channeling the IBM 360

back to IBM decision to add virtual memory to every 370 ... aka MVT
storage management was so bad that regions had to be specified four
times larger than used ... as result a normal/typical 1mbyte 370/165
only ran four regions concurrently, insufficient to keep system busy
and justified. adding virtual memory, could run MVT in a 16mbyte
virtual address space (aka VS2/SVS, sort of like running MVT in cp67
16mbyte virtual machine)... increasing number of concurrent
running regions by factor of four times (up to 15) ... with little or
no paging.

however, created different overhead (in part because the FS failure
gave page-mapped filesystems a bad reputation) ... application
filesystem channel programs were created (usually) by library routines
in application space ... and the channel programs passed to EXCP/SVC0
for execution, now would have virtual addresses (rather than real
required by I/O system) ... this required EXCP/SVC0 make a copy of
every channel program, substituting real addresses for virtual
addresses (initially done by crafting CP67's "CCWTRANS" into
EXCP/SVC0).

370 systems getting larger were then banging against the concurrent
region 15 limit imposed by the 4bit storage protection scheme keeping
regions separated and had to transition from VS2/SVS single address
space to VS2/MVS where every region was isolated in its own separate
address space.

However, MVS was increasingly becoming quite bloated (also EXCP/SVC0
still had to make channel program copies) and device redrive (device
idle between interrupt to starting next queued request) was a few
thousand instructions. I had transferred to SJR and got to wander
around datacenters in silicon valley including bldg14&15 (disk
development and product test) across the street. They were doing
prescheduled, 7x24, stand-alone testing and had mentioned they had
recently tried MVS, but in that environment, MVS had 15min
mean-time-between failure (besides its significant device idle waiting
for device redrive) requiring manual re-ipl/reboot (aka test devices
frequently violated all sort of rules & protocol). I offered to
rewrite I/O supervisor to make it bullet proof and never fail allowing
any amount of ondemand, concurrent testing ... improving productivity
(as well as cutting to a couple hundred instructions between taking
interrupt and redriving device).

post mentioning getting to play disk engineer in bldgs14&15
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#disk
future system posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#futuresys

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

ancient OS history, ARM is sort of channeling the IBM 360

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: ancient OS history, ARM is sort of channeling the IBM 360
Newsgroups: comp.arch
Date: Sun, 30 Jun 2024 08:58:22 -1000

jgd@cix.co.uk (John Dallman) writes:

What was the problem with the memory management? My experience of systems
without virtual memory doesn't include any that shared the machine among
several applications, so I have trouble guessing.

re:
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#24 ARM is sort of channeling the IBM 360
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#32 ARM is sort of channeling the IBM 360
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#34 ARM is sort of channeling the IBM 360
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#39 ARM is sort of channeling the IBM 360

os/360 had "relative" (fixed) adcons ... that were resolved to fixed
(real) address at initial program load (and couldn't change for the
duration of the program) ... that also presented downside when moving
to virtual memory paged environment ... could directly execute paged
image from disk ... first, executable image had to be preloaded and
all "relative' adcons modified for the specific instance. tss/360 had
addressed that by keeping relative adcons, "relative" to base kept in
data structure specifically for that instance (same paged shared
executable image could appear at different addresses for different
programs executing in different address spaces).

MVT memory management for dynamic allocation for data had horrendous
problem with storage fragmentation and frequent requirement for large
areass of contiguous storage. Storage fragmentation problem increased
the longer the programs were running (and maintaining contiguous
allocation as number of different, concurrently running regions
increased). After joining IBM, I had done a page mapped filesystem for
CMS and because CMS made extensive use of OS/360 compilers, I was
constantly fighting the OS/360 adcon convention (wanting to constantly
pre-fix the ADCONs as part of executable loading).

note before I had graduated, I had been hired fulltime into small
group in the Boeing CFO office to help with the formation of Boeing
Computer Services (consolidate all data processing into an independent
busines unit). I thot Renton datacenter possibly largest in the world
(couple hundred million in IBM 360s, sort of precursor to modern cloud
megadatacenters), 360/65s arriving faster than could be installed,
boxes constantly being staged in the hallways around the machine
room. Lots of politics between Renton director and CFO who only had a
360/30 up at Boeing field for payroll (although they enlarged the room
to install a 360/67 for me to play with when I wasn't doing other
stuff).

While I was there they moved a two-processor, duplex 360/67
(originally for tss/36) up to Seattle from Boeing Huntsville.
Huntsville had got the two processor machine with lots of 2250 graphic
screens
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM_2250

for (long running) CAD 2250 applications ... since tss/360 didn't have
any CAD support ... they configured it as two single processor systems
each running MVT13 ... which was severely affected by the
fragmentation problem that increased the longer each CAD 2250 program
was running. A few years before the decision was made to add virtual
memory to all 370s ... Boeing Huntsville had modified MVT13 to run in
virtual memory mode ... it didn't support paging ... but used the
virtual memory to create contiguous virtual memory areas out of
non-contiguous areas of real storage (to address the MVT storage
management problem).

the initial solution adding virtual memory to all 370s (VS2/SVS) was
to continue allow each executing region to continue
specifying/reserving large, contiguous storage area ... but support
paging and increase the number of concurrently executing regions.

The original OS/360 design point of running in small real storage
contributed to the excessive disk activity ... where lots of system
was fragmented into small pieces that would be sequentially loaded
from disk for execution ... and then increasing the number of
concurrently executing regions used to compensate for the large I/O
disk filesystem wait time (somewhat analogous to processor poor cache
hit rate)

cms page-mapped filesystem posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#mmap
trying to map os/360 "relocation" adcons into cms page-mapped
conventions
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#adcon

some posts mentioning Boeing CFO, Boeing Huntsville, MVT13
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024.html#87 IBM 360
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024.html#17 IBM Embraces Virtual Memory -- Finally
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023g.html#39 Vintage Mainframe
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023g.html#19 OS/360 Bloat
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023g.html#5 Vintage Future System
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023g.html#4 Vintage Future System
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023f.html#110 CSC, HONE, 23Jun69 Unbundling, Future System
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023e.html#34 IBM 360/67

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

ancient OS history, ARM is sort of channeling the IBM 360

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: ancient OS history, ARM is sort of channeling the IBM 360
Newsgroups: comp.arch
Date: Sun, 30 Jun 2024 09:09:23 -1000

jgd@cix.co.uk (John Dallman) writes:

Are you sure? Per Wikipedia, the lowest-end real S/360, the Model 30,
could run with only card equipment, running BPS, or with only tape drives,
under TOS.

<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM_System/360_Model_30#System_software>

BOS was a really minimal OS for an 8KB RAM machine with one disc
drive, and DOS was less minimal.

The Model 30 was apparently one of the most popular machines in the
early days of S/360. Being able to build such small machines was a
strong commercial consideration for the company, and thus the
architecture.

re:
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#24 ARM is sort of channeling the IBM 360
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#32 ARM is sort of channeling the IBM 360
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#34 ARM is sort of channeling the IBM 360
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#39 ARM is sort of channeling the IBM 360
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#40 ARM is sort of channeling the IBM 360

at end of semester after taking two credit hr intro course, was hired
to rewrite 1401 MPIO for (64kbyte) 360/30 ... which was running early
os/360 PCP (single executable program at a time) ... had 2311 disks,
tapes, and unit record. I first had a 2000 card program, assembled
under os/360 but ran "stand-alone" ... being loaded with the "BPS"
loader (had my own monitor, device drivers, interrupt handlers, error
recovery, storage management, etc). Making changes during development
& test required brining up os/360 and re-assembly and then
stand-alone loading.

I eventually got around to adding os/360 mode of operation using
assembly option to generate either the stand-alone version or the
os/360 version. It turns out the stand-alone version took 30mins to
assemble, however the OS/360 version took an hour to assemble (OS/360
required DCB macro for each device and each DCB macro added six
minutes elapsed time to assembly) ... aka stand-alone testing and then
re-ipl for OS/360 30min re-assemble still took less time than OS/360
testing and hour re-assemble.

posts mentioning 1401 mpio 360/30 dcb macros and  hour to assemble
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024.html#43 Univ, Boeing Renton and "Spook Base"
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023g.html#66 2540 "Column Binary"
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023f.html#83 360 CARD IPL
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023c.html#28 Punch Cards
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023.html#22 IBM Punch Cards
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#87 Punch Cards
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#57 CMS OS/360 Simulation
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#26 Is this group only about older computers?
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#61 Virtual Machine Debugging
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021f.html#79 Where Would We Be Without the Paper Punch Card?
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021f.html#19 1401 MPIO
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021e.html#47 Recode 1401 MPIO for 360/30
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2020.html#32 IBM TSS
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#19 All programmers that developed in machine code and Assembly in the 1940s, 1950s and 1960s died?
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019b.html#51 System/360 consoles
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018f.html#51 All programmers that developed in machine code and Assembly in the 1940s, 1950s and 1960s died?
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018d.html#104 OS/360 PCP JCL
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018c.html#86 OS/360
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017h.html#49 System/360--detailed engineering description (AFIPS 1964)
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017f.html#36 MVS vs HASP vs JES (was 2821)
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015b.html#15 What were the complaints of binary code programmers that not accept Assembly?
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013l.html#69 model numbers; was re: World's worst programming environment?
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013h.html#4 The cloud is killing traditional hardware and software
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012l.html#98 PDP-10 system calls, was 1132 printer history
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012i.html#21 IEBPTPCH questions
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012e.html#98 Burroughs B5000, B5500, B6500 videos
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#7 PCP - memory lane
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011h.html#15 Is the magic and romance killed by Windows (and Linux)?
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010n.html#66 PL/1 as first language
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010f.html#22 history of RPG and other languages, was search engine history
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009h.html#56 Punched Card Combinations
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009h.html#52 IBM 1401
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007n.html#59 IBM System/360 DOS still going strong as Z/VSE
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006g.html#43 Binder REP Cards (Was: What's the linkage editor really wants?)
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002o.html#19 The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Mainframe

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

GISH GALLOP

From: Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: GISH GALLOP
Date: 30 Jun, 2024
Blog: Facebook

re:
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#38 GISH GALLOP

another version:

Gish Gallop A debate tactic where one flood their opponent
with numerous arguments, regardless of their accuracy or
validity. The goal is to overwhelm the opponent, creating the
impression of victory.

The key to this strategy is presenting these arguments with
confidence, contrasting sharply with the opponent's struggle
to debunk them.

When used in propaganda, it's called "firehosing" or the "Firehose of
Falsehood," often seen in Russian propaganda.

... snip ...

Firehose of falsehood
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Firehose_of_falsehood

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Chat Rooms and Social Media

From: Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Chat Rooms and Social Media
Date: 30 Jun, 2024
Blog: Facebook

re:
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#37 Chat Rooms and Social Media

Note cambridge science center 60s cp67 had instant messages between
users on same machine. Then Pisa science center added SPM to CP67
... where there was software program interface for anyting that CP67
would otherwise display on the terminal/screen. Ed had done RSCS/VNET
that was used for the CP67 science center wide area network (that
morphed into the internal corporate network and also used for the
corporate sponsored univ BITNET) ... and supported "SPM" and instant
message forwarding to users on other machines in the network. SPM was
never released to customers ... although the RSCS/VNET shipped to
customers contained support for SPM. In the morph of CP67->VM370
... lots of features were initially dropped and/or simplified
.... although SPM internally was migrated to VM370. During the 70s,
VMCF, IUCV, and SMSG support were added to VM370 and RSCS/VNET also
added support (even tho SPM was a superset combination of VMCF, IUCV
and SMSG) which shipped to customer allowing "instant messaging"
between users on BITNET. A number of software "CHAT" applications
appeared that utilized this instant messaging capability.

Other trivia, circa 1980, a client/server multi-user spacewar game
appeared internally that used SPM between CMS 3270 clients and the
spacewar server (where clients could be on different vm370 network
nodes ... utilizing the same RSCS/VNET instant messaging
support). Then robot clients started appearing beating all human
players (in part because of their faster reaction time) ... and the
server was modified to increase power "use" non-linear as reactions
dropped below nominal human time (to somewhat level the playing
field).

science center posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech
internal network posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#internalnet
BITNET &/or EARN posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#bitnet

recent posts mentioning cambridge cp67 wide-area network:
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#19 IBM Internal Network
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#8 TCP/IP Protocol
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024c.html#111 Anyone here (on news.eternal-september.org)?
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024c.html#57 IBM Mainframe, TCP/IP, Token-ring, Ethernet
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024c.html#30 GML and W3C
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024c.html#22 FOILS
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024b.html#109 IBM->SMTP/822 conversion
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024b.html#104 OSI: The Internet That Wasn't
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024b.html#86 Vintage BITNET
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024b.html#82 rusty iron why ``folklore''?
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024b.html#33 Internet
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024b.html#32 HA/CMP
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024.html#110 IBM User Group SHARE
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024.html#100 Multicians
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024.html#65 IBM Mainframes and Education Infrastructure
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024.html#31 MIT Area Computing
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024.html#12 THE RISE OF UNIX. THE SEEDS OF ITS FALL
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023f.html#8 Internet
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023f.html#4 GML/SGML separating content and format
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#72 WAIS. Z39.50

posts mentioning (internal) multi-user spacewar game
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024.html#70 IBM AIX
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023f.html#116 Computer Games
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022e.html#96 Enhanced Production Operating Systems II
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022e.html#1 IBM Games
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#81 Peer-Coupled Shared Data
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014g.html#93 Costs of core
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014.html#1 Application development paradigms [was: RE: Learning Rexx]
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013b.html#77 Spacewar! on S/360
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010d.html#74 Adventure - Or Colossal Cave Adventure

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Chat Rooms and Social Media

From: Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Chat Rooms and Social Media
Date: 01 Jul, 2024
Blog: Facebook

re:
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#37 Chat Rooms and Social Media
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#43 Chat Rooms and Social Media

blamed for (company) online computer conferencing ... mentioned
upthread; one of the other outcomes was official software (supporting
both usenet-like servers and mailing list modes) and officially
sanctioned, moderated online forums

part of internet passing corporate network in nodes in mid/late 80s,
was 1) corporate mandate that all links were encrypted and 2) the
communication group fiercely fighting off client/server and
distributed computing ... including (mostly) keeping network nodes to
mainframes and everything else was terminal emulation. Late 80s,
senior disk engineer got a talk scheduled at an internal, annual,
world-wide communication group conference supposedly on 3174
performance, but opened his talk with statement that the communication
group was going to be responsible for the demise of the disk
division. The disk division was seeing a drop in disk sales with data
fleeing mainframe datacenters to more distributed computing friendly
platforms. The disk division had come up with a number of solutions,
but they were constantly being vetoed by the communication group (with
communication group corporate strategic ownership of everything that
crosses datacenter walls). Communication group datacenter stranglehold
wasn't just disks and a couple years later, IBM has one of the largest
losses in the history of US companies ... and was being reorged into
the 13 "baby blues" in preparation for breaking up the company
https://web.archive.org/web/20101120231857/http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,977353,00.html
https://content.time.com/time/subscriber/article/0,33009,977353-1,00.html
we had already left IBM but get a call from the bowels of Armonk
(corporate hdqtrs) asking if we could help with the breakup of the
company. Before we get started, the board brings in the former
president of AMEX that (somewhat) reverses the breakup (although it
wasn't long before the disk division is gone).

Old email from person in Paris charged with formation of EARN (BITNET
in Europe) looking for network applications
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001h.html#email840320
shortly later mailing list, listserv appears in Paris.
https://www.lsoft.com/products/listserv-history.asp
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LISTSERV

online computer conferencing posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#cmc
communication group stranglehold on mainframe datacenter posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#terminal
internal corporate network posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#internalnet
BITNET and/or EARN posts
http://www.gaclic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#bitnet
IBM downturn/downfall/breakup posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#ibmdownfall

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Economic Mess

From: Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Economic Mess
Date: 01 Jul, 2024
Blog: Facebook

Jan1999 I was asked to help prevent the coming economic mess (we
failed). I was told some investment bankers had walked away "clean"
from the S&L Crisis, were then running Internet IPO mills (invest
a million, hype, IPO for a couple billion, needed to fail to leave the
field clear for the next round) and were predicted to get into
securitiezed loans and mortgages next. I was to improve the integrity
of supporting documents for securtized mortgages&loans. Then (from
Oct2008 congressional testimony), they found they could pay rating
agencies for triple-A ratings (when the agencies knew they
weren't worth triple-A) enabling no-documentation, liar
loans/mortgages. Then they found they could design securitized
loans/mortgages to fail, pay for triple-A, sell into the bond
market and take out CDS "gambling bets". The largest holder of CDS of
CDS "gambling bets" was AIG and negotiating to pay off at 50cents on
the dollar, when the SECTREAS (who had convinced congress to provide
$700B in TARP funds, supposedly to buy off-book toxic CDOs
from too-big-to-fail) and has AIG sign a document that they
couldn't sue the those taking out CDS "gambling bets" and to take TARP
funds to pay off at face value. The largest recipient of TARP funds
was AIG and the largest recipient of face value CDS payoffs was the
firm formally headed by the SECTREAS.

Jan2009, I was asked to HTML'ize the Pecora Hearings (30s
congressional hearings into the '29 crash, that resulted in
Glass-Steagal; had been scanned the fall before (comments that the new
congress might have an appetite to do something) with lots of URLs
between what happened this time and what happened then. I work on it
for a few weeks and then get a call saying it won't be needed after
all (comments that capital hill was totally buried under enormous
mountains of wallstreet cash). Trivia: $700B TARP funds ... although
supposedly for buying TBTF off-book toxic CDOs would
have hardly made a dent; end of 2008, just the four
largest TBTF were carrying $5.2T in off-book, toxic
CDOs. TARP funds went for other stuff and the Federal Researve
handled the "real" TBTF bail-out behind the scenes.

economic mess posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#economic.mess
regulatory "capture" posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#regulatory.capture
too-big-to-fail, too-big-to-prosecute, too-big-to-jail posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#too-big-to-fail
toxic CDO posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#toxic.cdo
regulatory capture posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#regulatory.capture
federal chairman posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#fed.chairman
ZIRP funds
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#zirp
glass-steagall and/or pecora hearing posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#Pecora&/orGlass-Steagall
S&L crisis posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#s&l.crisis
capitalism posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#capitalism

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

GISH GALLOP

From: Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: GISH GALLOP
Date: 02 Jul, 2024
Blog: Facebook

re:
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#38 GISH GALLOP
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#42 GISH GALLOP

"ends justify the means" ... saying/doing what ever was necessary to
achieve objectives ... including stealth take-over of the conservative
Republican Party
https://www.ineteconomics.org/perspectives/blog/meet-the-economist-behind-the-one-percents-stealth-takeover-of-america

The tycoon knew that the project was extremely radical, even a
"revolution" in governance, but he talked like a conservative to make
his plans sound more palatable.

... snip ...

lying more than ever
https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/2020/01/20/president-trump-made-16241-false-or-misleading-claims-his-first-three-years/
https://www.forbes.com/sites/davidmarkowitz/2020/05/05/trump-is-lying-more-than-ever-just-look-at-the-data/
https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/2020/07/13/president-trump-has-made-more-than-20000-false-or-misleading-claims/

https://www.amazon.com/Democracy-Chains-History-Radical-Stealth-ebook/dp/B01EH1EL7A/

While some others in the movement called themselves conservatives, he
knew exactly how radical his cause was. Informed early on by one of
his grantees that the playbook on revolutionary organization had been
written by Vladimir Lenin, Koch dutifully cultivated a trusted "cadre"
of high-level operatives, just as Lenin had done, to build a movement
that refused compromise as it devised savvy maneuvers to alter the
political math in its favor.

... snip ...

Take-Over Republican Party
https://www.orlandosentinel.com/politics/os-ne-mac-stipanovich-republican-20191224-tz7bjps56jazbcwb3ficlnacqa-story.html

As for the party, Trump hasn't transformed the party, in my judgment,
as much as he has unmasked it. There was always a minority in the
Republican party -- 25, 30 percent -- that, how shall we say this,
that hailed extreme views, aberrant views. They've always been there,
from the John Birchers in the '50s, who thought Dwight Eisenhower was
a communist, to the Trump folks today who think John McCain's a
traitor. They had different names -- the religious right, tea partiers
-- but they've always been there. They were a fairly consistent,
fairly manageable minority who we, the establishment, enabled and
exploited.

... snip ...

https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/monkey-cage/wp/2017/05/17/trumps-values-are-abhorrent-to-the-federalist-society-of-conservative-lawyers-that-doesnt-stop-them-from-helping-him/

So the Federalist Society is part of an attempt to build an
alternative legal elite; one capable of moving conservative and
libertarian ideas into the mainstream. And it has worked. As evidenced
by Trump's repeated flaunting of his list of potential judges as
"Federalist Society approved," the society -- now a vast network of
tens of thousands of conservative and libertarian lawyers and judges
-- has evolved into the de facto gatekeeper for right-of-center
lawyers aspiring to government jobs and federal judgeships under
Republican presidents.

... snip ...

capitalism posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#capitalism
racism posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#racism

some posts mentioning false, misleading, lying
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023f.html#63 We can't fight the Republican party's 'big lie' with facts alone
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021h.html#21 A Trump bombshell quietly dropped last week. And it should shock us all
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021c.html#43 Just 15% of Americans say they like the way that Donald Trump conducts himself as president
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021.html#44 American Fascism
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021.html#30 Trump and Republican Party Racism
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021.html#24 Trump Tells Georgia Official to Steal Election in Recorded Call
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#150 How Trump Lost an Evangelical Stalwart
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019d.html#99 Trump claims he's the messiah. Maybe he should quit while he's ahead
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019d.html#95 The results of Facebook's anti-conservative bias audit are in

posts mentioning federalist society and/or heritage foundation
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024c.html#26 The Last Thing This Supreme Court Could Do to Shock Us
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023d.html#99 Right-Wing Think Tank's Climate 'Battle Plan' Wages 'War Against Our Children's Future'
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023d.html#41 The Architect of the Radical Right
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023c.html#51 What is the Federalist Society and What Do They Want From Our Courts?
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022g.html#37 GOP unveils 'Commitment to America'
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022g.html#14 It Didn't Start with Trump: The Decades-Long Saga of How the GOP Went Crazy
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#4 Alito's Plan to Repeal Roe--and Other 20th Century Civil Rights
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#118 The Death of Neoliberalism Has Been Greatly Exaggerated
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#107 The Cult of Trump is actually comprised of MANY other Christian cults
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021f.html#63 'A perfect storm': Airmen, F-22s struggle at Eglin nearly three years after Hurricane Michael
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021e.html#88 The Bunker: More Rot in the Ranks
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2020.html#6 Onward, Christian fascists
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2020.html#5 Book:  Kochland : the secret history of Koch Industries and corporate power in America
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2020.html#4 Bots Are Destroying Political Discourse As We Know It
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2020.html#3 Meet the Economist Behind the One Percent's Stealth Takeover of America
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#127 The Barr Presidency
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019d.html#97 David Koch Was the Ultimate Climate Change Denier
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019c.html#66 The Forever War Is So Normalized That Opposing It Is "Isolationism"
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#34 The Rise of Leninist Personnel Policies
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#56 Update on the F35 Debate
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012b.html#75 The Winds of Reform
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#41 The Heritage Foundation, Then and Now

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

E-commerce

From: Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: E-commerce
Date: 02 Jul, 2024
Blog: Facebook

doesn't mention whether "other applications" included direct consumer
purchases

Much more Ann Hardy at Computer History Museum
https://www.computerhistory.org/collections/catalog/102717167

Ann rose up to become Vice President of the Integrated Systems
Division at Tymshare, from 1976 to 1984, which did online airline
reservations, home banking, and other applications. When Tymshare was
acquired by McDonnell-Douglas in 1984, Ann's position as a female VP
became untenable, and was eased out of the company by being encouraged
to spin out Gnosis, a secure, capabilities-based operating system
developed at Tymshare. Ann founded Key Logic, with funding from Gene
Amdahl, which produced KeyKOS, based on Gnosis, for IBM and Amdahl
mainframes. After closing Key Logic, Ann became a consultant, leading
to her cofounding Agorics with members of Ted Nelson's Xanadu project.

... snip ...

TYMSHARE
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tymshare
TYMNET
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tymnet

trivia: I was brought in to evaluate GNOSIS as part of the 1984 spin-off

other trivia: aug1976, TYMSHARE started offering its (VM370/)CMS-based
online computer conferencing free to SHARE
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SHARE_(computing)
as VMSHARE ... archives here
http://vm.marist.edu/~vmshare

I cut a deal with TYMSHARE to get a monthly tape dump of all VMSHARE
files for putting up on internal systems and network.

after leaving IBM in early 90s, I was brought in as consultant into small
client/server company, two former Oracle employees (that I had worked
with on cluster scale-up for IBM HA/CMP) were there, responsible for
something called "commerce server" doing credit card transactions, the
startup had also done this invention called "SSL" they were using, it
is now frequently called "electronic commerce". I had responsibility
for everything between webservers and the financial payment
networks. I then did a talk on "Why The Internet Wasn't Business
Critical Dataprocessing" (that Postel sponsored at ISI/USC), based on
the reliability, recovery & diagnostic software, procedures, etc I did
for e-commerce. Payment networks had a requirement that their trouble
desks doing first level problem determination within five
minutes. Early trials had a major sports store chain doing internet
e-commerce ads during week-end national football game half-times and
there were problems being able to connect to payment networks for
credit-card transactions ... after three hrs, it was closed as "NTF"
(no trouble found).

payment gateway posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#gateway
internet posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#internet
HA/CMP posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#hacmp
availability posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#available

posts mentioning Ann Hardy and TYMSHARE
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024c.html#25 Tymshare & Ann Hardy
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023e.html#62 IBM Jargon
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023e.html#12 Tymshare
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023e.html#9 Tymshare
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023d.html#37 Online Forums and Information
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023d.html#16 Grace Hopper (& Ann Hardy)
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023c.html#97 Fortran
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023b.html#35 When Computer Coding Was a 'Woman's' Job
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022h.html#60 Fortran
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022g.html#92 TYMSHARE
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#92 Cobol and Jean Sammet
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#0 Women in Computing
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#71 book review:  Broad Band:  The Untold Story of the Women Who Made the Internet
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021h.html#98 CMSBACK, ADSM, TSM
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019d.html#27 Someone Else's Computer: The Prehistory of Cloud Computing
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008s.html#3 New machine code

posts mentioning "commerce server", former oracle employees, "SSL", Postel
sponsoring my talk:
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024c.html#82 Inventing The Internet
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024c.html#62 HTTP over TCP
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024b.html#106 OSI: The Internet That Wasn't
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024b.html#73 Vintage IBM, RISC, Internet
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024b.html#70 HSDT, HA/CMP, NSFNET, Internet
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024b.html#33 Internet
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024.html#71 IBM AIX
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024.html#38 RS/6000 Mainframe
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023f.html#23 The evolution of Windows authentication
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023e.html#37 IBM 360/67
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023e.html#17 Maneuver Warfare as a Tradition. A Blast from the Past
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023d.html#85 Airline Reservation System
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023d.html#56 How the Net Was Won
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023d.html#46 wallpaper updater
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023.html#54 Classified Material and Security
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023.html#31 IBM Change
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022g.html#26 Why Things Fail
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022e.html#28 IBM "nine-net"
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#14 IBM z16: Built to Build the Future of Your Business
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#108 Attackers exploit fundamental flaw in the web's security to steal $2 million in cryptocurrency
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#68 ARPANET pioneer Jack Haverty says the internet was never finished
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#38 Security
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#129 Dataprocessing Career
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#128 The Network Nation
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#55 ESnet
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#42 IBM Business School Cases
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#10 System Availability
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021e.html#74 WEB Security
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021e.html#56 Hacking, Exploits and Vulnerabilities
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021d.html#16 The Rise of the Internet
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021c.html#68 Online History
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017g.html#14 Mainframe Networking problems
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017f.html#100 Jean Sammet, Co-Designer of a Pioneering Computer Language, Dies at 89
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017e.html#14 The Geniuses that Anticipated the Idea of the Internet
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017e.html#11 The Geniuses that Anticipated the Idea of the Internet
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016e.html#124 Early Networking

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Architectural implications of locate mode I/O

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Architectural implications of locate mode I/O
Newsgroups: comp.arch
Date: Tue, 02 Jul 2024 17:36:50 -1000

mitchalsup@aol.com (MitchAlsup1) writes:

Once you recognize that I/O is eating up your precious CPU, and you
get to the point you are willing to expend another fixed programmed
device to make the I/O burden manageable, then you basically have
CDC 6600 Peripheral Processors, programmed in code or microcode.

re:
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#32 ancient OS history, ARM is sort of channeling the IBM 360
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#34 ancient OS history, ARM is sort of channeling the IBM 360
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#39 ancient OS history, ARM is sort of channeling the IBM 360
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#40 ancient OS history, ARM is sort of channeling the IBM 360
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#41 ancient OS history, ARM is sort of channeling the IBM 360

QSAM library does serialization for the application ...  get/put calls
does "wait" operations inside the library for I/O complete. BSAM library
has the applications performing serialization with their own "wait"
operations for read/write calls (application handling overlap of
possible processing with I/O).

Recent IBM articles mentioning that QSAM default multiple buffering was
established years ago as "five" ... but current recommendations are for
more like 150 (for QSAM to have high processing overlapped with
I/O). Note while they differentiate between application buffers and
"system" buffers (for move & locate mode), QSAM (system) buffers run was
part of application address space but are managed as part of QSAM
library code.

Both QSAM & BSAM libraries build the (application) channel programs
... and since OS/360 move to virtual memory for all 370s, they all have
(application address space) virtual addresses. When the library code
passes the channel program to EXCP/SVC0, a copy of the passed channel
programs are made, replacing the virtual addresses in the CCWs with
"real addresses". QSAM GET can return the address within its buffers
(involved in the actual I/O, "locate" mode) or copy data from its
buffers to the application buffers ("move" mode). The references on the
web all seemed to reference "system" and "application" buffers, but I
think it would be more appropriate to reference them as "library" and
"application" buffers.

370/158 had "integrated channels" ... the 158 engine ran both 370
instruction set microcode and the integrated channel microcode.

when future system imploded, there was mad rush to get stuff back into
the 370 product pipelines, including kicking off the quick&dirty
303x&3081 efforts in parallel.

for 303x they created "external channels" by taking a 158 engine with
just the integrated channel microcode (and no 370 microcode) for the
303x "channel director".

a 3031 was two 158 engines, one with just the 370 microcode and a 2nd
with just the integrated channel microcode

a 3032 was 168-3 remapped to use channel director for external channels.

a 3033 started with 168-3 logic remapped to 20% faster chips.

Jan1979, I had lots of use of an early engineering 4341 and was con'ed
into doing a (cdc6600) benchmark for national lab that was looking for
70 4341s for computer farm (sort of leading edge of the coming cluster
supercomputing tsunami). Benchmark was fortran compute doing no I/O and
executed with nothing else running.

4341: 36.21secs, 3031: 37.03secs, 158: 45.64secs

now integrated channel microcode ... 158 even with no I/O running was
still 45.64secs compared to the same hardware in 3031 but w/o channel
microcode: 37.03secs.

I had a channel efficiency benchmark ... basically how fast can channel
handle each channel command word (CCW) in a channel program (channel
architecture required it fetched, decoded and executed purely
sequentially/synchronously). Test was to have two disk read ("chained")
CCWs for two consecutive records. Then add a CCW between the two disk
read CCWs (in the channel program) ... which results in a complete
revolution to read the 2nd data record (because the latency, while disk
is spinning, in handling the extra CCW separating the two record read
CCWs).

Then reformat the disk to add a dummy record between each data record,
gradually increasing the size of the dummy record until the two data
records can be done in single revolution.

The size of the dummy record required for single revolution reading the
two records was the largest for 158 integrated channel as well as all
the 303x channel directors. The original 168 external channels could do
single revolution with the smallest possible dummy record (but a 168
with channel director, aka 3032, couldn't, nor could 3033) ... also the
4341 integrated channel microcode could do it with smallest possible
dummy record.

The 3081 channel command word (CCW) processing latency was more like 158
integrated channel (and 303x channel directors)

Second half of the 80s, I was member of Chesson's XTP TAB ... found a
comparison between typical UNIX at the time for TCP/IP had on the order
of 5k instructions and five buffer copies ... while compareable
mainframe protocol in VTAM had 160k instructions and 15 buffer copies
(larger buffers on high-end cache machines ... the cache misses for the
15 buffer copies could exceed processor cycles for the 160k
instructions).

XTP was working on no buffer copies and streaming I/O ... attempting to
process TCP as close as possible to no buffer copy disk I/O.
Scatter/gather I/O for separate header and data ... also move from
header CRC protocol .... to trailor CRC protocol ... instead of software
prescanning the buffer to calculate CRC (for placing in header)
... outboard processing the data as it streams through, doing the CRC
and then appended to the end of the record.

When doing IBM's HA/CMP and working with major RDBMS vendors on cluster
scaleup in late 80s/early 90s, there was lots of references to POSIX
light-weight threads and asynchronous I/O for RDBMS (with no buffer
copies) and the RDBMS managing large record cache.

future system posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#futuresys
posts mentioning getting to play disk engineer in bldgs 14&15
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#disk
XTP/HSP posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#xtphsp
HA/CMP posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#hacmp

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

REXX and DUMPRX

From: Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: REXX and DUMPRX
Date: 02 Jul, 2024
Blog: Facebook

re:
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#16 REXX and DUMPRX

quick web search for when rexx added to mvs

rexx history announce 1987 for tso & mvs
https://www.rexxla.org/rexxlang/history/mfc/rexxhist.html

apr1988
https://speleotrove.com/rexxhist/rexxtso.html

above mentions SAA ... there was joke about communication group trying
to get lots of IBM/PC applications running (or at least tied to) IBM
mainframes (part of fighting off client/server and distributed
computing trying to preserve their dumb terminal paradigm).

posts mentioning communication group fighting off client/server
and distributed computing trying to preserve their dumb terminal
paradigm
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#terminal
IBM downturn/downfall/breakup posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#ibmdownfall

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Architectural implications of locate mode I/O

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Architectural implications of locate mode I/O
Newsgroups: comp.arch
Date: Wed, 03 Jul 2024 07:42:42 -1000

re:
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#24 ARM is sort of channeling the IBM 360
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#32 ancient OS history, ARM is sort of channeling the IBM 360
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#34 ancient OS history, ARM is sort of channeling the IBM 360
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#39 ancient OS history, ARM is sort of channeling the IBM 360
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#40 ancient OS history, ARM is sort of channeling the IBM 360
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#41 ancient OS history, ARM is sort of channeling the IBM 360
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#48 Architectural implications of locate mode I/O

little "dependable" I/O drift

1980, IBM STL (since renamed SVL) was bursting at the seams and they
were moving 300 people (and their 3270 terminals) from the IMS (DBMS)
group to offsite bldg with dataprocessing service back to STL
datacenter. They had tried "remote 3270", but found the human factors
unacceptable. I get con'ed into implementating channel extender
support (A220, A710/A715/A720, A510/A515) ... allowing channel
attached 3270 cntrolers to be located at the offsite bldg, connected
to mainframes back in STL ... with no perceived difference in human
factors (quarter second or better trivial response).
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Network_Systems_Corporation
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HYPERchannel

STL had spread 3270 controller boxes across all the channels with 3830
disk controller boxes. Turns out the A220 mainframe channel-attach
boxes (used for channel extender) had significantly lower channel busy
for the same amount of 3270 terminal traffic (as 3270 channel-attach
controllers) and as a result the throughput for IMS group 168s (with
NSC A220s) increased by 10-15% ... and STL considered using NSC
HYPERChannel A220 channel-extender configuration, for all 3270
controllers (even those within STL). NSC tried to get IBM to release
my support, but a group in POK playing with some fiber stuff got it
vetoed (concerned that if it was in the market, it would make it
harder to release their stuff).

trivia: The vendor eventually duplicated my support and then the 3090
product administer tracked me down. He said that 3090 channels were
designed to have an aggregate total 3-5 channel errors (EREP reported)
for all systems&customers over a year period and there were
instead 20 (extra, turned out to be channel-extender support). When I
got a unrecoverable telco transmission error, I would reflect a CSW
"channel-check" to the host software. I did some research and found
that if an IFCC (interface control check) was reflected instead, it
basically resulted in the same system recovery activity (and got
vendor to change their software from "CC" to "IFCC").

I was asked to give a talk at NASA dependable computing workshop and
used the 3090 example as part of the talk
https://web.archive.org/web/20011004023230/http://www.hdcc.cs.cmu.edu/may01/index.html

About the same time, the IBM communication group was fighting off the
release of mainframe TCP/IP ... and when that got reversed, they
changed their tactic and claimed that since they had corporate
ownership of everything that crossed datacenter walls, TCP/IP had to
be released through them; what shipped got 44kbytes/sec aggregate
using nearly whole 3090 processor. I then did RFC1044 support and in
some tuning tests at Cray Research between Cray and IBM 4341, got
sustained 4341 channel throughput using only modest amount of 4341 CPU
(something like 500 times improvement in bytes moved per instruction
executed).

other trivia: 1988, the IBM branch office asks me if I could help LLNL
(national lab) "standardize" some fiber stuff they were playing with,
which quickly becomes FCS (fibre-channel standard, including some
stuff I had done in 1980), initially 1gbit/sec, full-duplex, aggregate
200mbyte/sec. Then the POK "fiber" group gets their stuff released in
the 90s with ES/9000 as ESCON, when it was already obsolete,
17mbytes/sec. Then some POK engineers get involved with FCS and define
a heavy-weight protocol that drastically cuts the native throughput
which eventually ships as FICON. Most recent public benchmark I've
found is z196 "Peak I/O" getting 2M IOPS using 104 FICON (over 104
FCS). About the same time a FCS was announced for E5-2600 server
blades claiming over million IOPS (two such FCS having higher
throughput than 104 FICON). Note also, IBM documents keeping SAPs
(system assist processors that do I/O) to 70% CPU (which would be more
like 1.5M IOPS).

after leaving IBM in early 90s, I was brought in as consultant into
small client/server company, two former Oracle employees (that I had
worked with on cluster scale-up for IBM HA/CMP) were there,
responsible for something called "commerce server" doing credit card
transactions, the startup had also done this invention called "SSL"
they were using, it is now frequently called "electronic commerce". I
had responsibility for everything between webservers and the financial
payment networks. I then did a talk on "Why The Internet Wasn't
Business Critical Dataprocessing" (that Postel sponsored at ISI/USC),
based on the reliability, recovery & diagnostic software,
procedures, etc I did for e-commerce. Payment networks had a
requirement that their trouble desks doing first level problem
determination within five minutes. Early trials had a major sports
store chain doing internet e-commerce ads during week-end national
football game half-times and there were problems being able to connect
to payment networks for credit-card transactions ... after three hrs,
it was closed as "NTF" (no trouble found).

HSDT posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#hsdt
channel-extender posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#channel.extender
RFC1044 posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#1044
FICON and/or FCS posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#ficon
electronic commerce gateway posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#gaeway
HA/CMP posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#hacmp
available posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#available

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Email Archive

From: Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Email Archive
Date: 03 Jul, 2024
Blog: Facebook

I have all email back to mid-1977. Most email (software source &
documents) from 60s up to mid-1977 were on triple redundant tapes in
the IBM Research tape library ... until mid-80s when IBM Almaden
Research had an operational problem with random tapes being mounted as
scratch and I lost a dozen tapes (including the triple-redundant
archive tapes).

just prior to the almaden tape library fiasco ... I got a request from
melinda (for her historical work)
http://www.leeandmelindavarian.com/Melinda#VMHist

for the (early 70s) original multi-level source maintenance
implementation ... and was able to pull it off archive tapes and email
it to her (before they got overwritten). old email (in archived posts)
... has reference to source maintenance from summer 1970
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006w.html#email850906
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006w.html#email850908

some old archived posts about multi-level source maint.
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023e.html#28 Copyright Software
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#51 VM/SP crashing all over the place
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014e.html#35 System/360 celebration set for ten cities; 1964 pricing for oneweek
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011c.html#3 If IBM Hadn't Bet the Company
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006w.html#48 vmshare
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006w.html#42 vmshare

internet trivia: person that did DNS, a decade+ earlier as MIT co-op
student at the science center worked on the multi-level source
maintenance, few old posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024b.html#74 Internet DNS Trivia
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022g.html#45 Some BITNET (& other) History
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019c.html#90 DNS & other trivia
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007k.html#33 Even worse than UNIX

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Cray

From: Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Cray
Date: 04 Jul, 2024
Blog: Facebook

mid-80s, communication group fiercely fighting off client/server and
distributed computing and trying to block mainframe TCP/IP support,
when that was overturned they changed tactic and said that since they
had corporate responsibility for everything that crossed datacenter
walls, it had to be released through them; what shipped got aggregate
of 44kbytes/sec using nearly whole 3090 processor. I then did support
for RFC1044 and in some tuning tests at Cray Research between Cray and
IBM 4341, got sustained 4341 channel throughput using only modest
amount of 4341 CPU (something like 500 times improvement in bytes
moved per instruction executed).

The last product we did at IBM was HA/6000, originally for NYTimes to
port their newspaper system (ATEX) from DEC VAXCluster to RS/6000. I
rename it HA/CMP when I start doing technical/scientific cluster
scale-up with national labs and commercial cluster scale-up with RDBMS
vendors (Oracle, Sybase, Informix, and Ingres) that had VAXCluster
support in same source base with Unix (I do a distributed lock manager
with VAXCluster API semantics and lots of scale-up, to ease the
port). AWD/Hester was saying we would have 16-way clusters by mid-92
and 128-way clusters by ye-92. Lots of work with LLNL (besides fiber
channel standard/FCS) including having their Cray Lincs/UNIREE ported
to HA/CMP. Then towards end of Jan92, cluster scale-up was transferred
for announce as IBM Supercomputer (for technical/scientific only) and
we were told we couldn't work on anything with more than four
processors (we leave IBM a few months later). We assumed contributing
was mainframe DB2 group complaining if we were allowed to proceed that
it would be far ahead of them.

17feb1992, IBM establishes laboratory to develop parallel systems (pg8)
https://archive.org/details/sim_computerworld_1992-02-17_26_7

Administration pushing national labs to commercialize technology as
part of making US more competitive, LANL supercomputer work
commercialized as DATATREE (by General Atomics), LLNL commercializes
LINCS as UNITREE and NCAR commercializes thier supercomputer work as
"Mesa Archival" ... HA/CMP was involved in working with all three.

Late 90s, did some consulting work for Steve Chen (responsible for
Y-MP) who was then CTO at Sequent (before IBM bought Sequent and shut
it down).

hsdt posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#hsdt
RFC1044 posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#1044
FCS and/or FICON posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#ficon
HA/CMP posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#hacmp

some posts mentioning LLNL LINCS/UNITREE
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023g.html#25 Vintage Cray
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022h.html#84 CDC, Cray, Supercomputers
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#67 David Boggs, Co-Inventor of Ethernet, Dies at 71
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021h.html#93 CMSBACK, ADSM, TSM
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021c.html#52 IBM CEO
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019b.html#60 S/360
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019b.html#57 HA/CMP, HA/6000, Harrier/9333, STK Iceberg & Adstar Seastar
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012i.html#54 IBM, Lawrence Livermore aim to meld supercomputing, industries
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011n.html#34 Last Word on Dennis Ritchie
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008l.html#20 IBM-MAIN longevity
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006u.html#27 Why so little parallelism?
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005e.html#16 Device and channel
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005e.html#15 Device and channel
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002k.html#31 general networking is: DEC eNet: was Vnet : Unbelievable

recent posts mentioning Thornton, Cray, NSC, HYPERchannel
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#50 Architectural implications of locate mode I/O
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#27 STL Channel Extender
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024b.html#10 Some NSFNET, Internet, and other networking background
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024b.html#8 IBM User Group SHARE
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024.html#9 How IBM Stumbled onto RISC
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023e.html#109 DataTree, UniTree, Mesa Archival
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023e.html#107 DataTree, UniTree, Mesa Archival
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023e.html#106 DataTree, UniTree, Mesa Archival
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022h.html#84 CDC, Cray, Supercomputers
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022f.html#93 NCAR Fileserver
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#98 CDC6000
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#69 ARPANET pioneer Jack Haverty says the internet was never finished
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#109 Network Systems
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#32 IBM Downturn
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021h.html#93 CMSBACK, ADSM, TSM

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

16June1911, IBM Incorporation Day

From: Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: 16June1911, IBM Incorporation Day
Date: 04 Jul, 2024
Blog: Facebook

16June1911, IBM Incorporation Day

CEO Learson tried (and failed) to block bureaucrats, careerists, MBAs
from destroying Watson culture & legacy.
https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/john-boyd-ibm-wild-ducks-lynn-wheeler/

FS (failing) significantly accelerated the rise of the bureaucrats,
careerists, and MBAs .... From Ferguson & Morris, "Computer Wars: The
Post-IBM World", Time Books
https://www.amazon.com/Computer-Wars-The-Post-IBM-World/dp/1587981394

... and perhaps most damaging, the old culture under Watson Snr and Jr
of free and vigorous debate was replaced with *SYNCOPHANCY* and *MAKE
NO WAVES* under Opel and Akers. It's claimed that thereafter, IBM
lived in the shadow of defeat ... But because of the heavy investment
of face by the top management, F/S took years to kill, although its
wrong headedness was obvious from the very outset. "For the first
time, during F/S, outspoken criticism became politically dangerous,"
recalls a former top executive

... snip ...

note: since FS was going to replace 360/370, internal politics was
killing off 370 efforts and the lack of new IBM 370s during the period
is credited with given the clone 370 system makers their market
foothold. Claim is a major motivation for FS was as a complex
countermeasure to clone compatible 360/370 I/O controllers ... but it
resulted in giving a rise to the clone 370 system makers. Less than
two decades later, IBM has one of the largest losses in the history of
US companies and was being reorged into the 13 "baby blues" in
preparation for breaking up the company.
https://web.archive.org/web/20101120231857/http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,977353,00.html
https://content.time.com/time/subscriber/article/0,33009,977353-1,00.html

we had already left IBM but get a call from the bowels of Armonk
asking if we could help with the breakup of the company. Before we get
started, the board brings in the former president of AMEX that
(somewhat) reverses the breakup (although it wasn't long before the
disk division is gone).

Future System posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#futuresys
IBM downturn/downfall/breakup posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#ibmdownfall

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Architectural implications of locate mode I/O

Refed: **, - **, - **
From: Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Architectural implications of locate mode I/O
Newsgroups: comp.arch
Date: Fri, 05 Jul 2024 15:35:50 -1000

John Levine <johnl@taugh.com> writes:

By putting most of the logic into the printer controller, the 1403 was
not just faster, but only took a small fraction of the CPU so the
whole system could do more work to keep the printer printing.

re:
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#24 ARM is sort of channeling the IBM 360
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#32 ancient OS history, ARM is sort of channeling the IBM 360
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#34 ancient OS history, ARM is sort of channeling the IBM 360
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#39 ancient OS history, ARM is sort of channeling the IBM 360
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#40 ancient OS history, ARM is sort of channeling the IBM 360
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#41 ancient OS history, ARM is sort of channeling the IBM 360
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#48 Architectural implications of locate mode I/O
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#50 Architectural implications of locate mode I/O

360 "CKD DASD" and multi-track search trade-off. 360s had relatively
little real storage (for caching information) and slow processor, so
for program libraries on disk ... they created "PDS" format and had
(disk resident, cylinder aligned) directory that contained records for
name of each program and its disk location in the library. To load a
program, it first did a "multi-track" search of of the PDS directory
started at track 0 of the 1st cylinder of the directory ... ran until
it found name match (or reached end of cylinder). If name wasn't found
at end of cylinder, it would restart if there were additional
cylinders in the directory. Trivia: the searched-for program name was
in processor memory and the multi-track search operation would refetch
the name every time it did a compare for matching name (with records
in the PDS directory), monopolizing channel, controller, & disk.

Roll forward to 1979, a large national grocery chain had large
loosely-coupled complex of multiple 370/168 systems sharing string of
DASD containing the PDS dataset of store controller applications
... and was experiencing enormous throughput problems. All the usual
corporate performance specialists had been dragged through the
datacenter with hopes that they could address the problem ... until
they eventually got around to calling me. I was brought into large
classroom with tables covered with large stacks of
activity/performance reports for each system. After 30-40 mins
examaning the reports ... I being to realize the aggregate activity
(summed across all systems) for specific shared disk was peaking at
6-7 (total) I/O operations ... and corresponding with severe
performance problem. I asked what was on that disk and was told it was
the (shared) store controller program library for all the stores in
all regions and 168 systems; which I then strongly suspected it was
the PDS multi-track search perfoerformance that I had grappled with as
undergraduate in the 60s.

The store controller PDS dataset was quite large and had a three
cylinder directory, resident on 3330 disk drive ... implying that on
the avg, a search required 1.5 cylinders (and two I/Os), the first
multi-track search I/O for all 19 cylinders would be 19/60=.317sec
(during which time that processor's channel was busy, and the shared
controller was also busy ... blocking access to all disks on that
string, not just the speecific drive, for all systems in the complex)
and the 2nd would be 9.5/60=.158sec ... or .475sec for the two
... plus a seek to move the disk arm to PDS directory, another seek to
move the disk arm to the cylinder where the program was located
... approx. .5+secs total for each store controller program library
load (involving 6-7 I/Os) or two program loads per second aggregate
serving all stores in the country.

The store controller PDS program library was then split across set of
three disks, one dedicated (non-shared) set for each system in the
complex.

I was also doing some work on System/R (original sql/releational
RDBMS) and taking some flak from the IMS DBMS group down the road. The
IMS group were complaining that RDBMS had twice the disk space (for
RDBMS index) and increased the number of disk I/Os by 4-5 times (for
processing RDBMS index). Counter was that the RDBMS index
significantly reduced the manual maintenance (compared to IMS). By
early 80s, disk price/bit was significantly plummeting and system real
memory significantly increased useable for RDBMS caching, reducing
physical I/Os (while manual maintenance skills costs were
significantly increasing).

other trivia: when I transfer to San Jose, I got to wander around
datacenters in silicon valley, including disk engineering & product
test (bldg14&15) across the street. They were doing prescheduled,
7x24, stand-alone mainframe testing. They mentioned they had recently
tried MVS, but it had 15min mean-time-between-failure, requiring
manual re-ipl/reboot in that environment. I offered to rewrite I/O
supervisor to make it bullet-proof and never fail enabling any amount
of on-demand, concurrent testing (greatly improving
productivity). Downside was they would point their finger at me
whenever they had problem and I was spending increasing amount of time
diagnosing their hardware problems.

1980 was real tipping point as hardware tradeoff switched from system
bottleneck to I/O bottleck (my claims that relative system disk
throughput had declined by order or magnitude, systems got 40-50 times
faster, disks got 3-5 faster).

getting to play disk engineer in bldgs14&15 posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#disk
DASD, CKD, FBA, multi-track search posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#dasd
original SQL/relational RDBMS, System/R
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#systemr

some posts mentioning national grocery, PDS multi-track search
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023g.html#60 PDS Directory Multi-track Search
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023e.html#7 HASP, JES, MVT, 370 Virtual Memory, VS2
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023c.html#96 Fortran
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022f.html#85 IBM CKD DASD
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019b.html#15 Tandem Memo

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Architectural implications of locate mode I/O

From: Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Architectural implications of locate mode I/O
Newsgroups: comp.arch
Date: Sat, 06 Jul 2024 07:34:43 -1000

"Stephen Fuld" <SFuld@alumni.cmu.edu.invalid> writes:

As you posted below, the whole PDS search stuff could easily be a
disaster.  Even with moremodest sized PDSs, it was inefficient has
hell.  Doing a linear search, and worse yet, doing it on a device that
was slower than main memory, and tying up the disk controller and
channel to do it.  It wasn't even sort of addressed until the early
1990s with the "fast PDS search" feature in the 3990 controller.  The
searches still took the same amount of elapsed time, but the key field
comparison was done in the controller and it only returned status when
it found a match (or end of the extent), which freed up the channel.
Things would have been much better if they simply used some sort of
"table of contents" or index at the start of the PDS, read it in, then
did an in memory search.  Even on small memory machines, if you had a
small sized index block and used something like a B-tree of them, it
would have been faster.

re:
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#24 ARM is sort of channeling the IBM 360
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#32 ancient OS history, ARM is sort of channeling the IBM 360
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#34 ancient OS history, ARM is sort of channeling the IBM 360
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#39 ancient OS history, ARM is sort of channeling the IBM 360
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#40 ancient OS history, ARM is sort of channeling the IBM 360
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#41 ancient OS history, ARM is sort of channeling the IBM 360
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#48 Architectural implications of locate mode I/O
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#50 Architectural implications of locate mode I/O
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#54 Architectural implications of locate mode I/O

trivia: I've also mentioned in 1980 using HYPERChannel to implement
channel extender ... as side-effect also reduced channel busy on the
"real" channels ... another side-effect would get calls from ibm
branches that had customers also doing stuff with HYPERChannel
including NCAR that did supercomputer "network access storage" (NAS)
that as side-effect eliminated channel busy for CKD DASD "search"
operations in 1st half of 80s (a decade before 3990)

for A510 channel emulator , the channel program was downloaded into
the A510 and executed from there. NCAR got a upgrade for A515 which
also allowed the search argument to be included in the download ...
so mainframe real memory and channels weren't involved (although the
dasd controller was still involved). It also supported 3rd party
transfer.

Supercomputer would send request over HYPERChannel to mainframe
server. The mainframe would download the channel program into a A515
and return the A515 and channel program "handle" to the
supercomputer. The supercomputer would send a request to that A515 to
execute the specified channel program (and data would transfer
directly between the disk and the supercomputer w/o passing through
the mainframe).

Then became involved with HIPPI (open cray channel standard pushed by
LANL) and FCS (open fibre channel pushed by LLNL) also being able to
do 3rd party transfers ... along with have LLNL's LINCS/Unitree and
NCAR's "Mesa Archival" ported to IBM's HA/CMP product we were doing.

other trivia: as also mentioned System/R (original SQL/relational
RDBMS implementation) used cacheable indexes ... not linear searches.

HSDT posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#hsdt
channel-extender posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#channel.extender
post mentioning DASD, CKD, FBA, mutli-track searches
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#dasd
FCS and/or FICON posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#ficon
system/r posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#systemr

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Free and Open Source Software-and Other Market Failures

From: Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Free and Open Source Software-and Other Market Failures
Date: 06 Jul, 2024
Blog: Facebook

Free and Open Source Software-and Other Market Failures
https://cacm.acm.org/practice/free-and-open-source-software-and-other-market-failures/

IBM, the unimaginably huge monopoly, was so big that "nobody got fired
for buying IBM," and it was IBM's way or no way. Then there was
everybody else, sometimes referred to as "the seven dwarfs," and they
all wanted to be IBM instead of IBM. None of them realized that when
customers asked for "anything but IBM," it was not about the letters
on the nameplate but about the abuse of power.

... snip ...

CEO Learson tried (& failed) to block the bureaucrats, careerists &
MBAs from destroying Watson legacy and culture
https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/john-boyd-ibm-wild-ducks-lynn-wheeler/

IBM downturn/downfall/breakup posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#ibmdownfall
capitalism posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#capitalism

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Seymour Cray and the Dawn of Supercomputing

From: Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Seymour Cray and the Dawn of Supercomputing
Date: 06 Jul, 2024
Blog: Facebook

Seymour Cray and the Dawn of Supercomputing
https://www.allaboutcircuits.com/news/seymour-cray-dawn-of-supercomputing/

Seymour Cray once dreamed of building the fastest computer in the
world. In a 30-year span, the "father of supercomputing" accomplished
that goal several times over.

... snip ...

HA/CMP posts ... some mentioning cluster scale-up
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#hacmp

then there is thornton ... some posts mentioning thornton, cray and
cdc6000:
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023e.html#109 DataTree, UniTree, Mesa Archival
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022h.html#84 CDC, Cray, Supercomputers
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022f.html#89 CDC6600, Cray, Thornton
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#98 CDC6000
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021b.html#44 HA/CMP Marketing
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015h.html#10 the legacy of Seymour Cray
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013g.html#6 The cloud is killing traditional hardware and software
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013g.html#3 A Complete History Of Mainframe Computing
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012o.html#27 Blades versus z was Re: Turn Off Another Light - Univ. of Tennessee
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012m.html#11 Blades versus z was Re: Turn Off Another Light - Univ. of Tennessee
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009c.html#12 Assembler Question
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005u.html#22 Channel Distances
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002i.html#13 CDC6600 - just how powerful a machine was it?

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Architectural implications of locate mode I/O and channels

From: Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Architectural implications of locate mode I/O and channels
Newsgroups: comp.arch
Date: Sun, 07 Jul 2024 07:30:58 -1000

"Paul A. Clayton" <paaronclayton@gmail.com> writes:

In theory, non-practicing patent licensors seem to make sense, similar
to ARM not making chips, but when the cost and risk to the single
patent holder is disproportionately small, patent trolling can be
profitable. (I suspect only part of the disparity comes from not
practicing; the U.S. legal system has significant weaknesses and
actual expertise is not easily communicated. My father, who worked for
AT&T, mentioned a lawyer who repeated sued AT&T who settled out of
court because such was cheaper than defending even against a claim
without basis.)

re:
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#24 ARM is sort of channeling the IBM 360
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#32 ancient OS history, ARM is sort of channeling the IBM 360
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#34 ancient OS history, ARM is sort of channeling the IBM 360
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#39 ancient OS history, ARM is sort of channeling the IBM 360
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#40 ancient OS history, ARM is sort of channeling the IBM 360
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#41 ancient OS history, ARM is sort of channeling the IBM 360
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#48 Architectural implications of locate mode I/O
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#50 Architectural implications of locate mode I/O
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#54 Architectural implications of locate mode I/O
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#55 Architectural implications of locate mode I/O

in 90s, there was semantic analysis of patents and found that something
like 30% of "computer/technology" patents were filed in other categories
using ambiguous wording ... "submarine" patents (unlikely to be found in
normal patent search) ... waiting for somebody that was making lots of
money that could be sued for patent infringement.

other trivia: around turn of century was doing some security chip work
for financial institution and was asked to work with patent boutique
legal firm, eventually had 50 draft (all assigned) patents and the
legal firm predicted that there would be over hundred before done
... some executive looked at the filing costs and directed all the
claims be repackaged as nine patents. then the patent office came back
and said they were getting tired of these humongous patents where the
filing fee didn't even cover the cost of reading the claims ... and
directed the claims be repackaged as at least a couple dozen patents.

some related info
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/x959.html
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subpubkey.html#x959

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Too-Big-To-Fail Money Laundering

From: Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Too-Big-To-Fail Money Laundering
Date: 07 Jul, 2024
Blog: Facebook

After the economic mess implosion at the end of 1st decade of the
century ... started having too big to fail/prosecute/jail" being
found money laundering for drug cartels (stories about the money
enabling large purchases of military grade equipment and responsible
for big uptic in violence on both sides of the border) ... and being
slapped with "deferred prosecution"
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deferred_prosecution

if they promised to stop ... or they would be prosecuted ... however
some had repeated cases and earlier "deferred prosecution" instances
just being ignored.

economic mess posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#economic.mess
too big to fail (prosecute/jail) posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#too-big-to-fail
money laundering posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#money.laundering

past posts mentioning deferred prosecution:
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024b.html#77 Mexican cartel sending people across border with cash to buy these weapons
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024.html#58 Sales of US-Made Guns and Weapons, Including US Army-Issued Ones, Are Under Spotlight in Mexico Again
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024.html#19 Huge Number of Migrants Highlights Border Crisis
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022h.html#89 As US-style corporate leniency deals for bribery and corruption go global, repeat offenders are on the rise
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#73 Wall Street Has Deployed a Dirty Tricks Playbook Against Whistleblowers for Decades, Now the Secrets Are Spilling Out
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#111 Pigs Want To Feed at the Trough Again: Bernanke, Geithner and Paulson Use Crisis Anniversary to Ask for More Bailout Powers
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018d.html#60 Dirty Money, Shiny Architecture
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017h.html#79 Feds widen hunt for dirty money in Miami real estate
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017h.html#56 Feds WIMP
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#39 Trump to sign cyber security order
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#13 Trump to sign cyber security order
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#45 Western Union Admits Anti-Money Laundering and Consumer Fraud Violations, Forfeits $586 Million in Settlement with Justice Department and Federal Trade Commission
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016e.html#109 Why Aren't Any Bankers in Prison for Causing the Financial Crisis?
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016c.html#99 Why Is the Obama Administration Trying to Keep 11,000 Documents Sealed?
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016c.html#41 Qbasic
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016c.html#29 Qbasic
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016b.html#73 Qbasic
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016b.html#0 Thanks Obama
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016.html#36 I Feel Old
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016.html#10 25 Years: How the Web began
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015h.html#65 Economic Mess
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015h.html#47 rationality
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015h.html#44 rationality
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015h.html#31 Talk of Criminally Prosecuting Corporations Up, Actual Prosecutions Down
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015f.html#61 1973--TI 8 digit electric calculator--$99.95
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015f.html#57 1973--TI 8 digit electric calculator--$99.95
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015f.html#37 LIBOR: History's Largest Financial Crime that the WSJ and NYT Would Like You to Forget
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015f.html#36 Eric Holder, Wall Street Double Agent, Comes in From the Cold
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015e.html#47 Do we REALLY NEED all this regulatory oversight?
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015e.html#44 1973--TI 8 digit electric calculator--$99.95
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015e.html#23 1973--TI 8 digit electric calculator--$99.95
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015d.html#80 Greedy Banks Nailed With $5 BILLION+ Fine For Fraud And Corruption
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014i.html#10 Instead of focusing on big fines, law enforcement should seek long prison terms for the responsible executives

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

16June1911, IBM Incorporation Day

From: Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: 16June1911, IBM Incorporation Day
Date: 07 Jul, 2024
Blog: Facebook

re:
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#53 16June1911, IBM Incorporation Day

re: SNA/TCPIP; 80s, the communication group was fighting off
client/server and distributed computing, trying to preserve their dumb
terminal paradigm ... late 80s, a senior disk engineer got a talk
scheduled at an annual, world-wide, internal, communication group
conference, supposedly on 3174 performance ... but opens the talk with
statement that the communication group was going to be responsible for
the demise of the disk divisions. The disk division was seeing a drop
in disk sales with data fleeing datacenters to more distributed
computing friendly platforms. They had come up with a number of
solutions but were constantly vetoed by the communication group (with
their corporate strategic ownership of everything that crossed
datacenters walls) ... communication group datacenter stranglehold
wasn't just disks and a couple years later IBM has one of the largest
losses in the history of US companies.

As partial work-around, senior disk division executive was investing
in distributed computing startups that would use IBM disks ... and
would periodically ask us to drop by his investments to see if we
could provide any help.

other trivia: I had HSDT project from early 80s (T1 and faster
computer links, both terrestrial and satellite), including work with
NSF director and was suppose to get $20M from NSF to interconnect the
NSF Supercomputing Centers; then congress cuts the budget, some other
things happened and finally an RFP is released (in part based on what
we already had running), Preliminary Announcement:
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002k.html#12

The OASC has initiated three programs: The Supercomputer Centers
Program to provide Supercomputer cycles; the New Technologies Program
to foster new supercomputer software and hardware developments; and
the Networking Program to build a National Supercomputer Access
Network - NSFnet.

.... snip ...

... IBM internal politics was not allowing us to bid (possibly
contributing was being blamed for online computer conferencing). The
NSF director tried to help by writing the company a letter (3Apr1986,
NSF Director to IBM Chief Scientist and IBM Senior VP and director of
Research, copying IBM CEO) with support from other gov. agencies
... but that just made the internal politics worse (as did claims that
what we already had operational was at least 5yrs ahead of the winning
bid, awarded 24Nov87)

co-worker at CSC and responsible for cambridge wide-area network (that
evolves into the corporate internal network, originally non-SNA,
technology also used for the corporate sponsored univ BITNET) ... from
one of the inventors of GML at the science center in the 60s
https://web.archive.org/web/20230402212558/http://www.sgmlsource.com/history/jasis.htm

Actually, the law office application was the original motivation for
the project, something I was allowed to do part-time because of my
knowledge of the user requirements. My real job was to encourage the
staffs of the various scientific centers to make use of the
CP-67-based Wide Area Network that was centered in Cambridge.

... snip ...

... we later transfer to SJR
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edson_Hendricks

In June 1975, MIT Professor Jerry Saltzer accompanied Hendricks to
DARPA, where Hendricks described his innovations to the principal
scientist, Dr. Vinton Cerf. Later that year in September 15-19 of 75,
Cerf and Hendricks were the only two delegates from the United States,
to attend a workshop on Data Communications at the International
Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, 2361 Laxenburg Austria where
again, Hendricks spoke publicly about his innovative design which
paved the way to the Internet as we know it today.

... snip ...

SJMerc article about Edson (he passed aug2020) and "IBM'S MISSED
OPPORTUNITY WITH THE INTERNET" (gone behind paywall but lives free at
wayback machine)
https://web.archive.org/web/20000124004147/http://www1.sjmercury.com/svtech/columns/gillmor/docs/dg092499.htm
Also from wayback machine, some additional (IBM missed) references
from Ed's website
https://web.archive.org/web/20000115185349/http://www.edh.net/bungle.htm

communication group fighting off client/server & distributed
computing posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#terminal
IBM downturn/downfall/breakup posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#ibmdownfall
science center posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech
internal network posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#internalnet
bitnet (& earn) posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#bitnet
GML, SGML, HTML, etc posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#sgml
HSDT posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#hsdt
NSFNET posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#nsfnet
internet posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#internet

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Architectural implications of locate mode I/O

From: Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Architectural implications of locate mode I/O
Newsgroups: comp.arch
Date: Mon, 08 Jul 2024 08:01:22 -1000

Lawrence D'Oliveiro <ldo@nz.invalid> writes:

Did IMS have a locate mode as well?

re:
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#24 ARM is sort of channeling the IBM 360
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#32 ancient OS history, ARM is sort of channeling the IBM 360
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#34 ancient OS history, ARM is sort of channeling the IBM 360
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#39 ancient OS history, ARM is sort of channeling the IBM 360
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#40 ancient OS history, ARM is sort of channeling the IBM 360
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#41 ancient OS history, ARM is sort of channeling the IBM 360
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#48 Architectural implications of locate mode I/O
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#50 Architectural implications of locate mode I/O
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#54 Architectural implications of locate mode I/O
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#55 Architectural implications of locate mode I/O
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#58 Architectural implications of locate mode I/O and channels

channel programs were built by filesystem library running as part of
application or directly by applicatiion code .... and then executes
system call, EXCP/SVC0 to invoke the channel program. With MVS and
virtual memory its in application virtual address space.

QSAM the library code data is to/from library buffers and then either
copies to application buffers or "locate" mode passing pointers in
QSAM buffers.

For IMS has data buffer cache directly managed (aware of whether data
record is aleady in cache or must be read ... and/or is changed in
cache and must be written) ... also transaction log)

With transition to virtual memory, the channel programs passed to
EXCP/SVC0 now had virtual addresses and channel architecture required
real addresses ... so EXCP/SVC0 required making a copy of the passed
channel programs replacing virtual addresses with real addresses (as
well as pinning the associated virtual pages until I/O completes, code
to create channel program copies with real addresses and managing
virtual page pin/unpin initially done copy crafting virtual
machine CP67 "CCWTRANS" into EXCP).

for priviliged apps that had fixed/pinned virtual pages for I/O
buffers, a new EXCPVR interface was built ... effectively the original
EXCP w/o (CCWTRANS) channel program copying (and virtual page
pinning/unpinning).

IMS "OSAM" and "VSAM" (OSAM may use QSAM
https://www.ibm.com/docs/en/ims/15.3.0?topic=sets-using-osam-as-access-method

IMS communicates with OSAM using OPEN, CLOSE, READ, and WRITE macros. In
turn, OSAM communicates with the I/O supervisor by using the I/O driver
interface.

Data sets

An OSAM data set can be read by using either the BSAM or QSAM access method.

... snip ...

IMS Performance and Tuning guide page167
https://www.redbooks.ibm.com/redbooks/pdfs/sg247324.pdf

• EXCPVR=0
Prevents page fixing of the OSAM buffer pool. This is the correct choice
these days

... snip ..

START_Input/Output
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Start_Input/Output
EXCPVR
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Execute_Channel_Program_in_Real_Storage

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

360/65, 360/67, 360/75 750ns memory

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **
From: Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: 360/65, 360/67, 360/75 750ns memory
Date: 08 Jul, 2024
Blog: Facebook

virtual memory 360 SMP original pubs had up to four processors ... but
only two processor SMP were made (except special 3-processor for
manned orbital lab, "MOL" project) ... can see single processor and
two processor specs in 360/67 func spec at bitsavers
https://www.bitsavers.org/pdf/ibm/360/functional_characteristics/GA27-2719-2_360-67_funcChar.pdf

... control register layout still has provisions for four-processor
configuration.

360/65 SMP was just two single processor machines (each with their own
dedicated channels, SMP channel configuration simulated with
two-channel controllers at same address on the two machines) sharing
real storage (same for 370 SMP). 360/67 "duplex" had multi-ported
memory where CPU transfers and I/O transfers could go on concurrently
and allowed both processors to access all channels.

Charlie was working on fine-grain CP67 SMP locking at the science
center when he invented compare-and-swap (name chosen because
"CAS" were his initials). In meetings with the POK 370 architecture
owners trying to get CAS added, we were told that the POK favorite son
operating system people (MVT) said (360) test-and-set was sufficient;
and if CAS was to be justified, uses other than kernel locking (single
spin-lock) were needed ... thus were born the examples for
multi-threaded applications (as alternative to kernel locking system
calls).

In the morph of CP67->VM370, lots of features were simplified (and/or
dropped, including SMP support). In 1974, I started added lots of
stuff back into VM370R2-base for my internal "CSC/VM" (one of my
hobbies after joining IBM was enhanced production operating systems
for internal datacenters, and the internal, world-wide sales&marketing
support HONE systems were long time customers) ... which included
kernel re-org for multiprocessor operation (but not SMP itself). Then
in 1975, I upgraded to VM370R3-base with the inclusion of SMP support,
originally for the US consolidated HONE system (up in Palo Alto across
the back parking lot from the IBM Palo Science Center); trivia when
FACEBOOK 1st moved into silicon valley, it was into new bldg built
next door to the former HONE datacenter).

When US HONE datacenters were consolidated in Palo Alto,
loosely-coupled, shared DASD, "single-system image", with
load-balancing and fall-over support across the complex ... then with
SMP support they could add a 2nd processor to each system (largest IBM
"single-system image" complex in the world). With some slight of hand,
I was able to double the throughput of each system (at a time when POK
MVT/SVS/MVS documentation was only claiming two-processor SMP having
1.2-1.5 times the throughput of single processor).

Future System was cratering (during FS, internal politics was killing
off 370 efforts) and there was mad rush to get stuff back into the 370
product pipelines, including kicking off quick&dirty 3033&3081 efforts
in parallel.
http://www.jfsowa.com/computer/memo125.htm
https://people.computing.clemson.edu/~mark/fs.html

and I was con'ed into helping with a 16-processor SMP 370 effort and
we shanghaied the 3033 processor engineers into working on it in their
spare time (lot more interesting that remapping 168 logic to 20%
faster chips. Everybody thought it was great until somebody told the
head of POK that it could be decades before MVS had (effective) 16-way
support (start at 1.2-1.5 throughput for 2-way and overhead/contention
increasing for each processor added). Some of us were then invited to
never visit POK again and the 3033 processor engineers directed "heads
down" only on 3033. Note POK doesn't ship a 16-processor SMP machine
until after the turn of the century.

trivia: 360/67 was originally, officially for tss/360 ... but tss/360
was enormously bloated and poor performance. Single processor 360/67
only had max 1mbyte real storage (while two processor could have
2mbytes) ... most of the 1mbyte taken up by tss/360 kernel. TSS/360
published that a two processor SMP had 3.8times the throughput of a
single processor (doesn't mention single processor heavily page
thrashed ... and while two processor still wasn't really good, the 2nd
mbyte allowed less page thrashing ... getting 3.8times throughput of
single processor. Melinda has some history about the early 360/67 and
TSS360/CP67 conflict (also at one time TSS/360 project had something
like 1200 people  while CP67/CMS has 12).
http://www.leeandmelindavarian.com/Melinda#VMHist

SMP, tightly-coupled, multiprocessor posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#smp
CSC posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech
CSC/VM posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#cscvm
HONE posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#hone
Future System posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#futuresys

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

360/65, 360/67, 360/75 750ns memory

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **
From: Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: 360/65, 360/67, 360/75 750ns memory
Date: 08 Jul, 2024
Blog: Facebook

re:
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#62 360/65, 360/67, 360/75 750ns memory

I had taken a two credit hr intro to fortran/computer and at the end
of semester I was hired to rewrite 1401 MPIO for 360/30. Univ. was
getting 360/67 for tss/360 to replace 709/1401 and got a 360/30
temporarily replacing 1401 until 360/67 was available. I was given a
pile of software&hardware manuals (univ shutdown datacenter on
weekends and I got it dedicated although 48hrs w/o sleep made monday
classes hard) and got to design&implement my own monitor, device
drivers, interrupt handlers, error recovery, storage management, etc
and within a few weeks had 2000 card assembler program. The 360/67
arrived within a year of taking intro class, and I was hired fulltime
responsible for OS/360 (tss/360 was never satisfactory), so 360/67 ran
as 360/65.

Then three people from CSC came out to install CP67/CMS (3rd after CSC
itself and MIT Lincoln Labs) and I mostly played with it in my
dedicated weekend window. Before I graduate I was hired fulltime into
a small group in the Boeing CFO office to help with the formation of
Boeing Computer Services (consolidate all dataprocessing in an
independent business unit). I think Renton largest datacenter in the
world (couple hundred million in 360s), 360/65s arriving faster than
they could be installed, boxes constantly staged in the hallways
around the machine room. Lots of politics between Renton director and
CFO, who only had a 360/30 up at Boeing Field for payroll (although
they enlarge the machine room to install 360/67 for me to play with
when I wasn't doing other stuff). When I graduate, I join IBM CSC
instead of staying in the CFO office.

While I was at Boeing, the Boeing Huntsville two-processor, duplex/SMP
360/67 was brought up to Seattle. It had (also) originally been
ordered for TSS/360 but was configured as two 360/65 systems running
MVT. However it was intended for CAD/CAM with lots of 2250 graphic
displays
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM_2250

and ran into the horrible MVT storage management problem, aggravated
with long running CAD/CAM jobs ... and had modified MVTR13 to run in
virtual memory mode with no paging (sort of precursor to VS2/SVS)
... just using fiddling of virtual memory as partial countermeasure.

Note a little over a decade ago, a customer asked me to track down
decision to add virtual memory to all 370s. Found a staff to executive
making decision. Basically MVT storage management was so bad that
region sizes typically had to be specified four times larger than used
... as a result standard 1mbyte 370/165 only had space for running
four concurrent regions, insufficient to keep the system busy and
justified. Putting MVT in 16mbyte virtual address space, VS2/SVS (sort
of like running MVT in 16mbyte virtual machine) allowed number of
concurrently running regions to be increase by factor of four (up to
15, aka 2kbyte 4bit storage protect keys), with little or no
paging. Later had to move to VS2/MVS, giving each "region", its own
private address space (for protection), as work around to the storage
protect key limit of 15.

science center posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech

some posts mentioning Univ MPIO work, Boeing CFO work, Boeing
Hunstville two processor 360/67
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024b.html#49 Vintage 2250
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024.html#87 IBM 360
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023g.html#39 Vintage Mainframe
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023g.html#19 OS/360 Bloat
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023e.html#34 IBM 360/67
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2020.html#32 IBM TSS
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019b.html#51 System/360 consoles

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

360/65, 360/67, 360/75 750ns memory

From: Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: 360/65, 360/67, 360/75 750ns memory
Date: 08 Jul, 2024
Blog: Facebook

re:
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#62 360/65, 360/67, 360/75 750ns memory
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#63 360/65, 360/67, 360/75 750ns memory

Trivia: In the early 80s, I was introduced to John Boyd and would
sponsor his briefings at IBM ... responsible for redoing F-15 design
(cutting weight in half) and YF-16 & YF-17 (that become the F16 and
F18) ... and also helped Pierre Sprey with A-10.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/General_Dynamics_F-16_Fighting_Falcon#Relaxed_stability_and_fly-by-wire

The F-16 is the first production fighter aircraft intentionally
designed to be slightly aerodynamically unstable, also known as
"relaxed static stability" (RSS), to improve manoeuvrability. Most
aircraft are designed with positive static stability, which induces
aircraft to return to straight and level flight attitude if the pilot
releases the controls; this reduces manoeuvrability as the inherent
stability has to be overcome. Aircraft with negative stability are
designed to deviate from controlled flight and thus be more
maneuverable. At supersonic speeds the F-16 gains stability
(eventually positive) due to aerodynamic changes.

... snip ...

other trivia: one of Boyd stories was about being very vocal that
electronics across the trail wouldn't work and possibly as punishment,
he is put in command of spook base (about the same time I was at
Boeing), one of his biographies has "spook base" a $2.5B "windfall"
for IBM (aka ten times Renton).
https://web.archive.org/web/20030212092342/http://home.att.net/~c.jeppeson/igloo_white.html
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Igloo_White

other Boyd mention:
https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/john-boyd-ibm-wild-ducks-lynn-wheeler/
Former commandant (passed earlier this spring) would sponsor us for
Boyd conferences at Marine Corp Univ.

Boyd posts and URLs
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subboyd.html

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

360/65, 360/67, 360/75 750ns memory

From: Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: 360/65, 360/67, 360/75 750ns memory
Date: 08 Jul, 2024
Blog: Facebook

re:
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#62 360/65, 360/67, 360/75 750ns memory
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#63 360/65, 360/67, 360/75 750ns memory
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#63 360/65, 360/67, 360/75 750ns memory

note: Amdahl had won the battle to make ACS 360 compatible and then
ACS/360 was killed because executives thot that it would advance the
state-of-the-art too fast and IBM might loose control off the market
... also mentions design for full-speed, 1/3rd speed, and 1/9th speed
(he leaves IBM shortly later):
https://people.computing.clemson.edu/~mark/acs_end.html

trivia: my wife was in gburg JES group and one of the catchers for
ASP/JES3. Then was con'ed into going to POK to be responsible for
"loosely-coupled (shared dasd) architecture (peer-coupled shared
data). She didn't remain long because 1) constant battles with
communication group trying to force her into using SNA/VTAM for
loosely-coupled operation and 2) little uptake (until much later with
SYSPLEX and Parallel SYSPLEX) except for IMS hot-standby. She has
story about asking Vern Watts who he would ask permission to do
hot-standby ... and he replies nobody, he would just tell them after
he was all done.

peer-coupled shared data posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#shareddata
HASP/ASP, JES/JES3, NJE/NJI posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#hasp

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

360/65, 360/67, 360/75 750ns memory

From: Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: 360/65, 360/67, 360/75 750ns memory
Date: 08 Jul, 2024
Blog: Facebook

re:
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#62 360/65, 360/67, 360/75 750ns memory
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#63 360/65, 360/67, 360/75 750ns memory
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#63 360/65, 360/67, 360/75 750ns memory
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#64 360/65, 360/67, 360/75 750ns memory
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#65 360/65, 360/67, 360/75 750ns memory

trivia: while Boeing Renton datacenter was lots of 360/65s, there was
one 360/75 that had black rope around its perimeter area, when running
classified program, there would be guards at the corner and black
velvet draped over the lights of the 75 panel and 1403 areas where
printed paper was exposed. 360/75 funcchars at bitsaver
https://www.bitsavers.org/pdf/ibm/360/functional_characteristics/GA27-2719-2_360-67_funcChar.pdf

other trivia: I was blamed for online computer conferencing in the
late 70s and early 80s. It really took off the spring of 1981 when I
distributed trip report to Jim Gray at Tandem. When the corporate
executive committee was told there was something of uproar (folklore
5of6 wanted to fire me), with some task forces that resulted in
official online conferencing software and officially sanctioned
moderated forums. One of the observations


Date: 04/23/81 09:57:42
To: wheeler

your ramblings concerning the corp(se?) showed up in my reader
yesterday. like all good net people, i passed them along to 3 other
people. like rabbits interesting things seem to multiply on the
net. many of us here in pok experience the sort of feelings your mail
seems so burdened by: the company, from our point of view, is out of
control. i think the word will reach higher only when the almighty $$$
impact starts to hit. but maybe it never will. its hard to imagine one
stuffed company president saying to another (our) stuffed company
president i think i'll buy from those inovative freaks down the
street. '(i am not defending the mess that surrounds us, just trying
to understand why only some of us seem to see it).

bob tomasulo and dave anderson, the two poeple responsible for the
model 91 and the (incredible but killed) hawk project, just left pok
for the new stc computer company. management reaction: when dave told
them he was thinking of leaving they said 'ok. 'one word. 'ok. ' they
tried to keep bob by telling him he shouldn't go (the reward system in
pok could be a subject of long correspondence). when he left, the
management position was 'he wasn't doing anything anyway. '

in some sense true. but we haven't built an interesting high-speed
machine in 10 years. look at the 85/165/168/3033/trout. all the same
machine with treaks here and there. and the hordes continue to sweep
in with faster and faster machines. true, endicott plans to bring the
low/middle into the current high-end arena, but then where is the
high-end product development?

... snip ... top of post, old email index

note: trout/3090 engineers thought they were doing much better than
3081 (warmed over FS technology from the early 70s used in the early
80s, not part of 85/165/168/3033/trout).
http://www.jfsowa.com/computer/memo125.htm
end of ACS/360 has references to features that show up in ES/9000 more
than two decades later
https://people.cs.clemson.edu/~mark/acs_end.html
Tomasulo algorithm
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tomasulo%27s_algorithm
some discussion of online computer conferencing
https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/john-boyd-ibm-wild-ducks-lynn-wheeler/

shortly after joining IBM, I was asked to help with
hyper-/multi-threading the 370/195 (aka simulating two processor SMP,
patent mentioned in the "acs_end" web page, "Sidebar:
Multithreading"). 370/195 didn't have branch prediction and/or
speculative execution, so conditional branches drained the pipeline
and most codes ran at half 195 rated speed. Going to two instruction
streams (two simulated processors) theoretically would keep the
machine running at top speed (modulo MVT two-processor SMP overhead
only have 1.2-1.5 throughput of single processor). Effort got can'ed
when it was decided to add virtual memory to all 370s (and it was
decided it wasn't worth it to retrofit virtual memory to
370/195). 360/195 funct char (for 370/195 they add the basic new 370
instructions and some instruction retry)
https://www.bitsavers.org/pdf/ibm/360/functional_characteristics/GA22-6943-1_360-195_Functional_Characteristics_197008.pdf

SMP, tightly-coupled, multiprocessor posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#smp
FS posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#futuresys
online computer conferencing posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#cmc
internal network posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#internalnet

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

A Timeline of Mainframe Innovation

From: Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: A Timeline of Mainframe Innovation
Date: 09 Jul, 2024
Blog: Facebook

A Timeline of Mainframe Innovation
https://interactive.techchannel.com/ibm-z-impact/timeline-of-mainframe-innovation-125ZV-736XK.html

System/R was the original sql/relational implementation and we managed
to do tech transfer to Endicott for SQL/DS, while the company was
preoccupied with "EAGLE" (the next great DBMS follow-on to IMS). When
"EAGLE" implodes, there is request for how fast can System/R be ported
to MVS, which is eventually released as DB2 (originally for
decision/support "only").

1980, STL (since renamed SVL) was bursting at the seams and
transferring 300 people from the IMS group to offsite bldg (along with
their 3270 terminals) with dataprocessing back to STL datacenter. They
tried remote 3270 but found the human factors totally unacceptable. I
was con'ed into doing channel-extender support for them, allow
channel-attached 3270 controllers at the offsite bldg, with no
perceived difference in human factors. They had previously distributed
3270 controllers across processor channels with disks. The
channel-extended significantly cutting the channel busy time (for the
same amount of 3270 traffic), resulting in increasing system
throughput by 10-15%. STL then considered putting all 3270
channel-attached controllers (even those inhouse) on channel-extender
(for improvement in system throughput). An attempt to release my
support got vetoed by a group in POK (playing with some serial stuff,
afraid it would make it harder to announce their stuff).

In 1988, IBM branch office asks if I could help LLNL (national lab)
with getting some serial stuff they were playing with, standardized
(including some stuff I had done in 1980) ... which quickly becomes
fibre-channel standard ("FCS", initially 1gbit, full-duplex, aggregate
200mbytes/sec). POK eventually gets their stuff announced w/ES9000 as
ESCON (when it is already obsolete, 17mbytes/sec). Then some POK
engineers start playing with FCS and define a heavy-weight protocol
that drastically cuts throughput that eventually is announced as FICON
(running over FCS).  Most recent public benchmark I can find is z196
"Peak I/O" that got 2M IOPS using 104 FICON. About the same time a FCS
was announced for E5-2600 server blades claiming over million IOPS
(two native FCS getting higher throughput than 104 FICON). Also IBM
pubs recommends SAPs (system assist processors that do actual I/O) CPU
limit to 70% (aka 1.5M IOPS).

system/r posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#systemr
channel-extender posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#channel.extender
FICON and/or FCS posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#ficon

some recent mainframe posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024c.html#73 Mainframe and Blade Servers
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024c.html#2 ReBoot Hill Revisited
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024b.html#68 IBM Hardware Stories
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024b.html#53 Vintage Mainframe
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023g.html#40 Vintage Mainframe
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022h.html#113 TOPS-20 Boot Camp for VMS Users 05-Mar-2022
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022g.html#71 Mainframe and/or Cloud
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022f.html#10 9 Mainframe Statistics That May Surprise You
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#6 Computer Server Market
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#111 Financial longevity that redhat gives IBM
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#67 IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#54 IBM Z16 Mainframe
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#19 Telum & z16

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

ARPANET & IBM Internal Network

Refed: **, - **, - **
From: Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: ARPANET & IBM Internal Network
Date: 10 Jul, 2024
Blog: Facebook

Note the IBM internal network was passing 200 ... base was built off
the 60s science center CP67 wide-area network (RSCS/VNET) and then the
growing number of VM370 (RSCS/VNET). San Jose and some other locations
had wanted to start bldg "SUN" network out of HASP/JES2 systems
... and a RSCS/VNET line-driver was written that simulated HASP
protocol. The problem was that the HASP support (still had "TUCC" in
cols. 68-71 and) used spare entries in the HASP psuedo device 255
entry table, usually around 160-180 ... and continued with JES2. The
HASP/JES2 implementation also trashed any traffic where there wasn't
an entry for either traffic origin or destination in the local
table. Since the internal network was passing 200 nodes, the HASP/JES2
systems had to be carefully restricted to edge/boundary nodes.

By the time of 1Jan1983 ARPANET cut-over from IMP/HOST protocol to
internetworking protocol there was approx. 100 IMP nodes and 255
mainframe hosts ... while the internal network was rapidly approaching
1000. Old archive post with misc 1983 network update samples and a
list of company locations that added one or more nodes during 1983.
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006k.html#8

The Cambridge internal network technology was also used for the
corporate sponsored univ. BITNET, for a time also larger than internet
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BITNET
in 89, merges with CSNET
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CSNET
to form CREN:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Corporation_for_Research_and_Educational_Networking

History/comment from one of the Cambridge people that had invented
GML, but job was to promote the science center wide-area network
https://web.archive.org/web/20230402212558/http://www.sgmlsource.com/history/jasis.htm

Actually, the law office application was the original motivation for
the project, something I was allowed to do part-time because of my
knowledge of the user requirements. My real job was to encourage the
staffs of the various scientific centers to make use of the
CP-67-based Wide Area Network that was centered in Cambridge.

... snip ...

GML drift, some of the MIT CTSS/7094 people had gone to the 5th flr
for MULTICS and others had gone to the IBM Science Center on 4th
flr. CTSS RUNOFF
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TYPSET_and_RUNOFF
was rewritten for CP67/CMS as "SCRIPT" and after GML was invented in
1969, GML tag processing was added to "SCRIPT".

JES2 was finally updated to max of 999 nodes, but it was after the
internal network had passed 1000 (and JES2 still trashed traffic if
origin or destination nodes were in local table). The other JES2
shortcoming was that network fields and job control fields were
intermixed and traffic from JES2 nodes at different release levels
could crash destination JES2, bringing down MVS (requiring manual
re-ipl). As a result the VM370 emulated HASP driver acquired family of
changes that could reorganize HASP/JES fields to correspond to what
directly connected JES system required. There was the infamous case of
Hursley MVS systems crashing by San Jose MVS systems and the Hursley
VM370 staff was blamed (they hadn't gotten notice of latest VM370
emulated JES driver to account for San Jose JES2 header format
changes)

Internal network was larger than ARPANET/INTERNET from just about the
beginning until sometime mid/late 80s ... then in large part IBM
communication group forcing internal network to convert to SNA and
their fierce battle trying to block client/server and distributed
computing (internet start to see PCs and workstations as nodes, while
internally they were restricted to terminal emulation).

Some of us (including person response for CP67 wide-area network), in
the 2nd half of the 70s, tranfer from Cambridge to San Jose.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edson_Hendricks

In June 1975, MIT Professor Jerry Saltzer accompanied Hendricks to
DARPA, where Hendricks described his innovations to the principal
scientist, Dr. Vinton Cerf. Later that year in September 15-19 of 75,
Cerf and Hendricks were the only two delegates from the United States,
to attend a workshop on Data Communications at the International
Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, 2361 Laxenburg Austria where
again, Hendricks spoke publicly about his innovative design which
paved the way to the Internet as we know it today.

... snip ...

SJMerc article about Edson (he passed aug2020) and "IBM'S MISSED
OPPORTUNITY WITH THE INTERNET" (gone behind paywall but lives free at
wayback machine)
https://web.archive.org/web/20000124004147/http://www1.sjmercury.com/svtech/columns/gillmor/docs/dg092499.htm
Also from wayback machine, some additional (IBM missed) references
from Ed's website
https://web.archive.org/web/20000115185349/http://www.edh.net/bungle.htm

A network distributed development project started in 1970 between
Endicott and Cambridge (after decision to add virtual memory to all
370s) ... to modify CP67 (running on 360/67) to emulate 370 virtual
memory machines ... and then do modified CP67 to run on 370 virtual
memory machines. "CP67I" was running in "CP67H" 370 virtual
machines regularly a year before the first engineering 370
with virtual machine was operational (in fact Endicott used
ipl'ing CP67I as a test for the first engineering 370 virtual memory
hardware). In part because non-IBM students, staff, professors from
Boston area institutions were using the Cambridge system, my
CP67L/CSCVM ran on the real hardware and CP67H ran in a
360/67 virtual machine (isolated from other users on the
Cambridge system), with CP67I running in a CP67H 370 virtual
machine (and CMS running in a CP67I virtual machine)

Cambridge Science Center posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech
CSC/VM posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#cscvm
HASP, ASP, JES2, JES3, NJE, NJI posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#hasp
GML, SGML, HTML, etc, posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#sgml
internal network posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#internalnet
BITNET posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#bitnet
NSFNET posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#nsfnet
internet posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#internet

some recent posts mentioning CP67L, CP67H, CP67I, CP67SJ
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024c.html#88 Virtual Machines
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023g.html#63 CP67 support for 370 virtual memory
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023f.html#47 Vintage IBM Mainframes & Minicomputers
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023e.html#70 The IBM System/360 Revolution
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023e.html#44 IBM 360/65 & 360/67 Multiprocessors
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023d.html#98 IBM DASD, Virtual Memory
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023.html#74 IBM 4341
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023.html#71 IBM 4341
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022h.html#22 370 virtual memory
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022e.html#94 Enhanced Production Operating Systems
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022e.html#80 IBM Quota
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#59 CMS OS/360 Simulation
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#55 Precursor to current virtual machines and containers
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#12 Programming Skills
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#23 MS/DOS for IBM/PC
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021g.html#34 IBM Fan-fold cards
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021g.html#6 IBM 370
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021d.html#39 IBM 370/155
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021c.html#5 Z/VM

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

ARPANET & IBM Internal Network

From: Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: ARPANET & IBM Internal Network
Date: 10 Jul, 2024
Blog: Facebook

re:
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#68 ARPANET & IBM Internal Network

RSCS/VNET from the 60s (point-to-point telco links), predating SNA by
nearly a decade (our joke SNA wasn't a System, wasn't a Network, and
wasn't an Architecture, about SNA time-frame, my wife was co-author of
AWP39, Peer-to-Peer Networking Architecture, they had to qualify it
with "Peer-to-Peer" since the communication group had misused
"network" for SNA). RSCS/VNET did use the CP67 (and then VM370) spool
file system with an optimized 4k block interface for stating data
... resulting in aggregate throughput limit of about 6-8 4k
records/sec (or 32kbyes/320kbits, less if spool file system was
heavily loaded with use by other users). Early 80s I got HSDT with T1
and faster computer links (both terrestrial and satellite) and I
needed 3-4mbits/sec per T1 link (300-400kbytes, 75-100 4k/sec).

I did a rewrite of VM370 spool file system in VS/Pascal running in
virtual address space, provided RSCS/VNET with asynchronous interface
(instead of synchronous) support contiguous allocation, multi-block
transfer, read-ahead and write-behind and super fast checkpoint
recovery) allowing supporting of multiple T1 (and faster) links. I was
scheduled to give presentation (spring 1987) on upgrading the backbone
network hubs at corporate backbone network meeting when I got email
saying the communication group had restricted attendance to managers
only while they brow-beat the company into converting the internal
network to SNA (SNA products at the time capped at 56kbit links),
claims included that if it wasn't upgraded to SNA, internal email
PROFS would stop working (which had been running fine for nearly a
decade)

The communication group was also trying to suppress release of
mainframe TCP/IP suport and when the lost, they change strategy and
said that since they had corporate straegic responsibility for
everything that crossed datacenter walls, it had to be release through
them. When shipped got aggregate of 44kbytes/sec using nearly whole
3090 processors. I then did support for RFC1044 and in some turning
tests at Cray Research between Cray and IBM 4341, got sustained 4341
channel throughput using only modest amount of 4341 CPU (something
like 500 times improvement in bytes moved per instruction executing).

I was also working with NSF Director and HSDT was suppose to get $20M
to interconnect the NSF supercomputer centers, then congress cuts the
budget, some other things happen and finally an RFP is released (in
part based on what we already had running). Preliminary agenda
28Mar1986 Preliminary Announcement:
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002k.html#12

The OASC has initiated three programs: The Supercomputer Centers
Program to provide Supercomputer cycles; the New Technologies Program
to foster new supercomputer software and hardware developments; and
the Networking Program to build a National Supercomputer Access
Network - NSFnet.

... snip ...

... IBM internal politics was not allowing us to bid (possibly
contributing was being blamed for online computer conferencing). The
NSF director tried to help by writing the company a letter (3Apr1986,
NSF Director to IBM Chief Scientist and IBM Senior VP and director of
Research, copying IBM CEO) with support from other gov. agencies
... but that just made the internal politics worse (as did claims that
what we already had operational was at least 5yrs ahead of the winning
bid, awarded 24Nov87)

internal network posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#internalnet
HSDT posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#hsdt
RFC1044 posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#1044
NSFNET posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#nsfnet

some posts mentioning spool file system rewrite in vs/pascal
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023g.html#68 Assembler & non-Assembler For System Programming
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017e.html#24 [CM] What was your first home computer?
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011e.html#29 Multiple Virtual Memory
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010k.html#26 Was VM ever used as an exokernel?
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009h.html#63 Operating Systems for Virtual Machines
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008g.html#22 Was CMS multi-tasking?
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007c.html#21 How many 36-bit Unix ports in the old days?
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005s.html#28 MVCIN instruction
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003k.html#63 SPXTAPE status from REXX
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003k.html#26 Microkernels are not "all or nothing". Re: Multics Concepts For
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003b.html#33 dasd full cylinder transfer (long post warning)
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000b.html#43 Migrating pages from a paging device (was Re: removal of paging device)

some recent posts mentioning awp39:
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#7 TCP/IP Protocol
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024b.html#101 OSI: The Internet That Wasn't
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024b.html#56 Vintage Mainframe
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024b.html#30 ACP/TPF
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024.html#84 SNA/VTAM
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023f.html#40 Rise and Fall of IBM
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023e.html#41 Systems Network Architecture
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023c.html#49 Conflicts with IBM Communication Group
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022f.html#50 z/VM 50th - part 3
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022f.html#43 What's something from the early days of the Internet which younger generations may not know about?
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022f.html#4 What is IBM SNA?
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022e.html#25 IBM "nine-net"
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021h.html#90 IBM Internal network

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

ARPANET & IBM Internal Network

From: Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: ARPANET & IBM Internal Network
Date: 10 Jul, 2024
Blog: Facebook

re:
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#68 ARPANET & IBM Internal Network
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#69 ARPANET & IBM Internal Network

NSA DOCKMASTER and public email
https://www.multicians.org/mgn.html#NSA
https://www.multicians.org/site-dockmaster.html

after leaving IBM, I was rep to the ANSI financial industry standards
body including dealing with some amount of crypto and there were NIST
and other gov. agencies with reps. I got asked to be on panel in
trusted computing track at IDF ... I semi-facetiously mentioned
aggressively cost reducing a $500 security mil-spec chip to less than
dollar while improving security ... gone 404 but live on at wayback
machine (the guy running TPM (trusted computing module) chip effort
was in the front row and commented that I was able to do it because I
didn't have a committee of 200 people helping me with the design)
https://web.archive.org/web/20011109072807/http://www.intel94.com/idf/spr2001/sessiondescription.asp?id=stp%2bs13

I also got asked to give presentation to former agency director then
at BAH ... and net was they couldn't see how to make any
profit. Trivia: BAH had bought the former (IBM) SBS bldg in Tysons,
gutted the bldg and built a 2nd identical bldg with lobby between the
two bldgs. The former director's office was in the original (SBS) bldg
and included the area where my wife's office had been (she returned to
IBM after SBS was dissolved).

... another case where people were complaining to me about couldn't do
something because it cost too much and I aggressively cost reduce and
then they would complain they couldn't do something because there was
no profit.

I had embedded the crypto in the silicon of the chip and just before I
went for EAL5-high (or 6) evaluation, the gov. pulled the crypto
evaluation criteria and I had to settle for a chip EAL4-high
evaluation.

some security chip work refs
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/x959.html
some financial standard posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subpubkey.html#x959
some assurance posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subintegrity.html#assurance

posts mentioning EAL-4 evalucation
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023f.html#2 Bounty offered for secret NSA seeds behind NIST elliptic curves algo
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#108 Attackers exploit fundamental flaw in the web's security to steal $2 million in cryptocurrency
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017e.html#76 Typesetting
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#92 Old hardware
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013l.html#55 "NSA foils much internet encryption"
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013k.html#88 NSA and crytanalysis
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012m.html#7 Blades versus z was Re: Turn Off Another Light - Univ. of Tennessee
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010p.html#0 CARD AUTHENTICATION TECHNOLOGY - Embedded keypad on Card - Is this the future
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010o.html#84 CARD AUTHENTICATION TECHNOLOGY - Embedded keypad on Card - Is this the future
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010o.html#56 The Credit Card Criminals Are Getting Crafty
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010m.html#57 Has there been a change in US banking regulations recently
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010f.html#83 Notes on two presentations by Gordon Bell ca. 1998
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010f.html#26 Should the USA Implement EMV?
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009q.html#40 Crypto dongles to secure online transactions
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009n.html#12 33 Years In IT/Security/Audit
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009n.html#7 Some companies are selling the idea that you can use just a (prox) physical access badge (single factor) for logical access as acceptable
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008q.html#64 EAL5 Certification for z10 Enterprise Class Server
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008q.html#63 EAL5 Certification for z10 Enterprise Class Server
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008e.html#62 Any benefit to programming a RISC processor by hand?
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008b.html#13 Education ranking
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007u.html#11 Public Computers
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007u.html#5 Public Computers
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007q.html#34 what does xp do when system is copying
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007l.html#39 My Dream PC -- Chip-Based
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007b.html#47 newbie need help (ECC and wireless)
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007b.html#30 How many 36-bit Unix ports in the old days?
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004m.html#41 EAL5
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004j.html#2 Authenticated Public Key Exchange without Digital Certificates?
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002m.html#72 Whatever happened to C2 "Orange Book" Windows security?
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002m.html#44 Beware, Intel to embed digital certificates in Banias
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002c.html#15 Opinion on smartcard security requested
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002c.html#10 Opinion on smartcard security requested
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aadsm27.htm#37 The bank fraud blame game
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aadsm24.htm#26 Naked Payments IV - let's all go naked
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aadsm24.htm#23 Use of TPM chip for RNG?
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aadsm18.htm#48 Dell to Add Security Chip to PCs
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aadsm18.htm#47 Dell to Add Security Chip to PCs
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aadsm12.htm#14 Challenge to TCPA/Palladium detractors

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

ARPANET & IBM Internal Network

From: Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: ARPANET & IBM Internal Network
Date: 11 Jul, 2024
Blog: Facebook

re:
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#68 ARPANET & IBM Internal Network
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#69 ARPANET & IBM Internal Network
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#70 ARPANET & IBM Internal Network

trivia: big part of SBS demise was SNA/VTAM window pacing algorithm
... the sat. round-trip delay ... even with low-bandwidth link, met
that outstanding packet transmission limit was reached long before
returning ACKs started arriving ... so at a minimum very low bandwidth
utilization. Also contributed to capping terrestrial links at 56kbit
... even short haul T1 was so fast, that outstanding packet
transmission limit was reached (relatively) long before return ACKs
started arriving (so very little of bandwidth could be used)

There was 80s incident where they wanted to have double-hop satellite
link between STL on the west coast and Hursley (England, up/down
between west/east coast and then up/down between east coast/England)
being able to use the other's datacenter "off-shift". Initially
brought up with RSCS/VNET and no problems. Then (STL executive infused
with MVS/JES/SNA) insisted it be switched to JES2 and wouldn't
work. It was then switched back to RSCS/VNET and no problems. The
executive then decided that RSCS/VNET was too dumb to know it wasn't
working (even thought data was flowing fine). The actual problem was
the link startup protocol would time-out with the round-trip
double-hop delay.

Trivia: HSDT very early went to dynamic adaptive rate-based pacing
protocol (as opposed to window based protocol).

Trivia2: 1988 IETF (internet) meeting, there was presentation of (TCP)
slow-start window pacing for TCP. However, almost same time, 1988 ACM
SIGCOMM article showed how "slow-start window pacing" was non-stable
in large, multi-hop internet ... where returning ACKs bunch up at
intermediate hop and then released in burst ... resulting in sender
sending multiple back-to-back packets ... over running something in
the infrastructure.

Trivia3: after communication group presented to corporate executive
committee why customers wouldn't want "T1 support" until well into the
90s, they came out with 3737 in the 2nd half of the 80s. It had a
boat-load of memory and Motorola 68K with a simulated mini-VTAM,
simulating CTCA to local mainframe/VTAM. The 3737 would immediately
ACK transmission to local VTAM ... then use non-SNA with remote 3737
... trying to keep data flowing (although processing was capped around
2mbits/sec aggregate; aka US T1 full-duplex is 3mbits aggregate while
EU T1 full-duplex is 4mbits aggregate)

HSDT posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#hsdt
internal network posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#internalnet
internet posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#internet

some posts mentioning 3737, T1, rate-based
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#7 TCP/IP Protocol
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024b.html#56 Vintage Mainframe
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024b.html#54 Vintage Mainframe
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023b.html#53 Ethernet (& CAT5)
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#80 Peer-Coupled Shared Data
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#14 IBM z16: Built to Build the Future of Your Business
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#16 IBM SNA ARB
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021h.html#49 Dynamic Adaptive Resource Management
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021c.html#97 What's Fortran?!?!
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021c.html#83 IBM SNA/VTAM (& HSDT)
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018f.html#109 IBM Token-Ring
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#57 TV Show "Hill Street Blues"
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014e.html#7 Last Gasp for Hard Disk Drives
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011g.html#77 Is the magic and romance killed by Windows (and Linux)?

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

IBM "Winchester" Disk

From: Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: IBM "Winchester" Disk
Date: 12 Jul, 2024
Blog: Facebook

re:
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024c.html#59 IBM "Winchester" Disk
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024c.html#60 IBM "Winchester" Disk
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024c.html#61 IBM "Winchester" Disk

First thin-film head was used with FBA3370 ... followed by CKD3380
(although already transition to everything actually FBA, 3380
records/track formula has record length being rounded up to "cell"
size). First 3380 had 20 track spacings between each data track, that
was then cut in half for double capacity 3380 (twice number tracks)
and then cut again for triple capacity. The father of 801/risc then
asks me to see if I can help him with idea for disk "wide-head",
handle 18 tracks, format has servo-track and 16 data tracks
(read/write 16 data tracks in parallel, following two servo-tracks on
each side side of set 16 data tracks). Problem was 50mbytes/sec
transfer and mainframe channels still stuck 3mbyte/sec .... this was
about same time as I was asked to help LLNL with what becomes FCS
... but POK doesn't become involved and announce FICON until much,
much later.

posts mentioning getting to play disk engineer in bldgs 14&15
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#disk
FICON & FCS posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#ficon

misc. past posts mentioning cutting spacing between 3380 data tracks
and disk "wide-head"
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024b.html#110 IBM 360 Announce 7Apr1964
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023f.html#70 Vintage RS/6000 Mainframe
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023f.html#67 Vintage IBM 3380s
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023e.html#25 EBCDIC "Commputer Goof"
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023d.html#104 DASD, Channel and I/O long winded trivia
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023.html#86 IBM San Jose
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021f.html#44 IBM Mainframe
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021.html#56 IBM Quota
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019b.html#75 IBM downturn
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019b.html#52 S/360
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018d.html#17 3390 teardown
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018d.html#12 3390 teardown
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018b.html#111 Didn't we have this some time ago on some SLED disks? Multi-actuator
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017g.html#95 Hard Drives Started Out as Massive Machines That Were Rented by the Month
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#54 GREAT presentation on the history of the mainframe
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014h.html#9 Demonstrating Moore's law

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

GOSIP

From: Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: GOSIP
Date: 12 Jul, 2024
Blog: Facebook

GOSIP
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Government_Open_Systems_Interconnection_Profile

I was member Greg Chesson's XTP TAB in the 80s, with some
gov. agencies involved ... prompting taking it to ISO charted ANSI
X3S3.3 (standards body for "level 3 and 4" standards) as
HSP. Eventually was told that ISO required that standards had to
correspond/follow OSI model; XTP/HSP failed because 1) supported
internetworking which doesn't exist in the OSI model, 2) skipped the
OSI model level 4/3 (transport/network) interface and 3) went directly
to LAN/MAC interface (also doesn't exist in OSI model, sitting
somewhere in middle of level 3). Somebody was circulating joke that
while IETF required two interoperable implementations to progress in
standards process while ISO didn't even require that a standard be
implementable.

I was at ACM SIGMOD conference in the early 90s and in large
auditorium session, somebody asked what was this x.500/x.509 that was
happening in ISO and somebody else (I think one of the panelists up on
stage) explained that it was a bunch of networking engineers
attempting to reinvent 1960s-era database technology. Disclaimer: at
various times in 70s, 80s, and 90s worked on relational (RDBMS)
products.

I was on panel up on stage in large ballroom, standing room only, took
opportunity to somewhat repeat the SIGMOD reference, 07Sep1998 21st
National Information Systems Security Conference
https://csrc.nist.gov/pubs/conference/1998/10/08/proceedings-of-the-21st-nissc-1998/final
also made reference to taking $500 mil-spec security chip, cost
reducing to less than dollar while improving security, assurance panel
in trusted computing track at 2001 IDF
https://web.archive.org/web/20011109072807/http://www.intel94.com/idf/spr2001/sessiondescription.asp?id=stp%2bs13

XTP/HSP posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#xtphsp
interop '88 posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#interop88
assurance posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subintegrity.html#assurance
original sql/relational RDBMS posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#systemr
internet posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#internet

some recent posts mentioning GOSIP
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024b.html#99 OSI: The Internet That Wasn't
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024b.html#54 Vintage Mainframe
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024b.html#37 Internet
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023f.html#6 Internet
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023d.html#56 How the Net Was Won
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023.html#104 XTP, OSI & LAN/MAC
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023.html#16 INTEROP 88 Santa Clara
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022g.html#49 Some BITNET (& other) History
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022f.html#20 IETF TCP/IP versus ISO OSI
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#88 IBM and Internet Old Farts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021h.html#72 IBM Research, Adtech, Science Center
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021e.html#55 SHARE (& GUIDE)
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021d.html#20 The Rise of the Internet
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021d.html#13 The Rise of the Internet
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#86 5 milestones that created the internet, 50 years after the first network message
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#74 21 random but totally appropriate ways to celebrate the World Wide Web's 30th birthday
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#3 Network names

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Some Email History

From: Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Some Email History
Date: 12 Jul, 2024
Blog: Facebook

some early email history
https://multicians.org/thvv/mail-history.html

then some of the CTSS people went to the 5th flr for MULTICS and
others went to the IBM Science Center on the 4th flr and did virtual
machine CP40/CMS on 360/40 with hardware virtual memory mods
... morphs into CP67/CMS when 360/67 standard with virtual memory
becomes available. I was undergraduate at univ but hired fulltime,
responsible for OS/360 (360/67 for tss/360 replacing 709/1401, but
tss/360 never came to production so ran as 360/65 with os/360), univ
shutdown datacenter on weekends and I would have it dedicated although
48hrs w/o sleep made Monday classes hard. Then CSC came out to install
CP67 (3rd after CSC itself and MIT Lincol Labs) and I mostly played
with it in my weekend dedicated time.

CSC initially had 1052 and 2741 terminal support. At univ, I add
TTY/ASCII support which CSC picks up and incorporates in standard
distributed CP67, Account of MIT Urban Lab CP67 (across tech sq quad
from 545) CP67 crashing 27 times in single day (I had done hack for
single byte/255char line lengths and somebody down at harvard wanted
to use ASCII device with max 1200 char ... they failed to fiddle all
the one byte hacks).
http://www.multicians.org/thvv/360-67.html

CSC 1st had message/mail for users on the same machine. Then one of
the CSC people did science center wide-area network (morphing into the
corporate network, larger than arpanet/internet from just about the
beginning until sometime mid/late 80s, technology also used for the
corporate sponsored univ BITNET, also for a time larger than
arpanet/internet) ... by one of the people inventing GML at science
center in 1969:
https://web.archive.org/web/20230402212558/http://www.sgmlsource.com/history/jasis.htm

Actually, the law office application was the original motivation for
the project, something I was allowed to do part-time because of my
knowledge of the user requirements. My real job was to encourage the
staffs of the various scientific centers to make use of the
CP-67-based Wide Area Network that was centered in Cambridge.

... snip ...

Before I graduate, I'm hired fulltime into small group in Boeing CFO
office to help with the formation of Boeing Computer Services
(consolidate all dataprocessing into independent business unit). Then
when I graduate I join the science center (instead of staying with CFO
office). One of my hobbies was enhanced production operating systems
for internal datacenter and the US online (branch office)
sales&marketing support HONE systems were long time customers. Early
70s, decision to start deploying HONE to rest of world and was asked
to do some early non-US HONE installs, 1st in Paris ... and while
there had to figure out how to do email back to the states.

In Aug1976, TYMSHARE
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tymshare
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tymnet
started offering their CMS-based online computer conferencing "free"
to (IBM mainframe user group) SHARE
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SHARE_(computing)
as VMSHARE ... archives here
http://vm.marist.edu/~vmshare

and I cut deal with TYMSHARE to get monthly tape dump of all VMSHARE
files for putting up on internal network and systems

At the great 1jan1983 internetworking protocol cut-over there were
approx. 100 IMPs and 255 hosts, while the internal network was rapidly
approaching 1000, which it passes a few months later. Archived post
with corporate locations that added one or more new nodes during 1983
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006k.html#8

IBM CSC posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech
CSC/VM posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#cscvm
posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#hone
internal network posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#internalnet
BITNET (and EARN) posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#bitnet
GML, SGML, HTML, etc posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#sgml

some posts mentioning CTSS/EMAIL history
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023c.html#78 IBM TLA
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023b.html#88 Online systems fostering online communication
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022h.html#122 The History of Electronic Mail
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#27 IBM Cambridge Science Center
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#25 IBM Mainframe time-sharing
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021h.html#50 PROFS
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021g.html#92 Was E-mail a Mistake? The mathematics of distributed systems suggests that meetings might be better
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018f.html#54 PROFS, email, 3270
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018.html#31 1963 Timesharing: A Solution to Computer Bottlenecks
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#21 Congratulations IBM for 'inventing' out-of-office email. You win Stupid Patent of the Month
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014d.html#39 [CM] Ten recollections about the early WWW and Internet
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012h.html#51 The Invention of Email
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#15 Authorized functions
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#12 Inventor of e-mail honored by Smithsonian
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012b.html#81 The PC industry is heading for collapse
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011h.html#49 OT The inventor of Email - Tom Van Vleck
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011h.html#44 OT The inventor of Email - Tom Van Vleck

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Joe Biden Kicked Off the Encryption Wars

From: Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Joe Biden Kicked Off the Encryption Wars
Date: 13 Jul, 2024
Blog: Facebook

Joe Biden Kicked Off the Encryption Wars
https://newsletter.pessimistsarchive.org/p/joe-biden-kicked-off-the-encryption

I got HSDT in the early 80s (T1 and faster computer links, both
terrestrial and satellite) ... corporate requirement that links had to
be encrypted and I hated what I had to pay for T1 link encryptors and
faster encryptors were hard find. I did some benchmarking of software
(DES) encryption and it would require both IBM 3081K processors
dedicated to handle DES encryption/decryption for single T1
full-duplex link. I then became involved in link encryptor that would
handle 3mbytes/sec and cost less than $100 to make. The corporate DES
encryption group told me it was much weaker than DES encryption (and
couldn't be used). It took me three months to figure out how to
explain to the group, rather than much weaker, it was much stronger
than DES encryption. It was hollow victory, I was then told there was
only one operation in the world allowed to use such encryption. I
could make as many as I wanted, but they all had to be sent to address
on the east coast. It was when I realized there was three kinds of
crypto, 1) the kind they don't care about, 2) the kind you can't do,
and 3) the kind you can only do for them.

Some 15 or so yrs later, was rep to financial standards including
"commercial" key-escrow meetings. I did presentation on how escrow of
keys used for authentication would be violation of basic security
practices (santa cruz meeting?).  Some people got upset claiming that
users could misuse authentication keys for encryption (I believe it
was last meeting of that particular committee). Part of the issue was
business information in electronic transactions could be used for
fraudulent transactions. I worked hard on transaction standard with
much stronger authentication, which eliminated the anti-fraud
requirement for encrypting transactions. The eliminating encryption
requirement for financial transactions made some gov. types happy but
were unhappy that strong authentication required that the keys
couldn't be escrowed (as well as authentication didn't mean
identification ...aka PAIN/CAIN: Privacy/Confidential, Authentication,
Identification, Non-repudiation)

HSDT posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#hsdt
internet posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#internalnet
three factor authentication posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subintegrity.html#3factor
risk, fraud, explots, threats, vulnerability posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subintegrity.html#fraud
secrets and accont numbers
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subintegrity.html#secrets

posts mentioning realizing there were three kinds of crypto
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024b.html#36 Internet
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023f.html#79 Vintage Mainframe XT/370
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#73 WAIS. Z39.50
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#29 Network Congestion
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#57 Computer Security
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021e.html#75 WEB Security
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021e.html#58 Hacking, Exploits and Vulnerabilities
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021c.html#70 IBM/BMI/MIB
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021b.html#57 In the 1970s, Email Was Special
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021b.html#22 IBM Recruiting
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021b.html#8 IBM Travel
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#86 5 milestones that created the internet, 50 years after the first network message
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018d.html#33 Online History
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017g.html#91 IBM Mainframe Ushers in New Era of Data Protection
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017g.html#35 Eliminating the systems programmer was Re: IBM cuts contractor billing by 15 percent (our else)
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017e.html#58 A flaw in the design; The Internet's founders saw its promise but didn't foresee users attacking one another
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016e.html#31 How the internet was invented
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016c.html#57 Institutional Memory and Two-factor Authentication
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015h.html#3 PROFS & GML
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015e.html#2 Western Union envisioned internet functionality
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015c.html#85 On a lighter note, even the Holograms are demonstrating
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014j.html#77 No Internet. No Microsoft Windows. No iPods. This Is What Tech Was Like In 1984
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014i.html#54 IBM Programmer Aptitude Test
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014e.html#27 TCP/IP Might Have Been Secure From the Start If Not For the NSA
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014e.html#25 Is there any MF shop using AWS service?
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014e.html#7 Last Gasp for Hard Disk Drives
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014.html#9 NSA seeks to build quantum computer that could crack most types of encryption
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013l.html#23 Teletypewriter Model 33
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013i.html#69 The failure of cyber defence - the mindset is against it
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#63 Reject gmail
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011n.html#63 ARPANET's coming out party: when the Internet first took center stage
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011h.html#0 We list every company in the world that has a mainframe computer
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010o.html#43 Internet Evolution - Part I: Encryption basics
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009p.html#32 Getting Out Hard Drive in Real Old Computer
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008i.html#86 Own a piece of the crypto wars
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008h.html#87 New test attempt

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Some work before IBM

From: Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Some work before IBM
Date: 13 Jul, 2024
Blog: Facebook

I took two credit hr intro fortran/computers and at end of semester
was hired to rewrite 1401 MPIO for 360/30. Univ was getting 360/67 for
TSS/360 to replace 709/1401 and temporarily got 360/30 replacing 1401
pending availability of 360/67. Within a year of taking intro class,
the 360/67 came in and I was hired fulltime responsible for OS/360
(tss/360 didn't come to production so ran as 360/65). Student fortran
ran under a second on 709 (tape->tape), but over a minute on os/360
(fortgclg). I install HASP and cuts time in half. I then carefully
reorder stage2 sysgen for placement of datasets and PDS members to
optimize disk arm seek and multi-track searches, reducing time by
another 2/3rds to 12.9secs. Student Fortran never gets better than 709
until I install Univ. of Waterloo WATFOR.

Later the Univ. Library gets an ONR grant to do online catalog, some
of the money goes for an IBM 2321 datacell and the project was also
selected as betatest for original CICS product ... and CICS support
was added to my tasks. First problem was CICS wouldn't come
up. Problem was that CICS had some undocumented, hardcodied BDAM
options and library had built BDAM datasets with different set of
options. Yelavich URLs gone 404, but live on at wayback machine
https://web.archive.org/web/20050409124902/http://www.yelavich.com/cicshist.htm
https://web.archive.org/web/20071124013919/http://www.yelavich.com/history/toc.htm

Also CSC had come by to install CP67 (3rd after CSC itself and MIT
Lincoln Labs) and I get to play with it mostly during my weekend
dedicated time. I spend first few months rewriting CP67 to cut CPU
overhead running OS/360. OS/360 jobstream ran 322secs on bare machine,
initially 856secs in virtual machine; CP67 CPU 534secs got it down to
113secs.

Before I graduate I'm hired fulltime in small group in Boeing CFO
office to help with the formation of Boeing Computer Services
(consolidate all dataprocessing into independent business unit). I
think Renton largest datacenter in the world, 360/65s arriving faster
than they could be installed, boxes constantly staged in hallways
around machine room. Lots of politics between Renton director and CFO
who only had a 360/30 up at Boeing field for payroll, although they
enlarge the machine room for a 360/67 for me to play with when I
wasn't doing other stuff. When I graduate, I join IBM science center
(instead of staying with Boeing CFO).

CICS/BDAM posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#cics
IBM CSC posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech

Posts mentioning Boeing CFO, BCS, Renton, 1401 MPIO, fortran/watfor,
and CP/67
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#63 360/65, 360/67, 360/75 750ns memory
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024b.html#63 Computers and Boyd
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024b.html#49 Vintage 2250
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023g.html#39 Vintage Mainframe
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023f.html#83 360 CARD IPL
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023d.html#106 DASD, Channel and I/O long winded trivia
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023d.html#88 545tech sq, 3rd, 4th, & 5th flrs
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023d.html#32 IBM 370/195
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023c.html#73 Dataprocessing 48hr shift
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023.html#54 Classified Material and Security
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022h.html#31 IBM OS/360
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#95 Operating System File/Dataset I/O
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#57 CMS OS/360 Simulation
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#19 COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#12 Programming Skills
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2020.html#32 IBM TSS
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019b.html#51 System/360 consoles

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Other Silicon Valley

From: Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Other Silicon Valley
Date: 13 Jul, 2024
Blog: Facebook

aug1976, TYMSHARE
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tymshare
started offering its (VM370/)CMS-based online computer conferencing free to SHARE
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SHARE_(computing)
as VMSHARE ... archives here
http://vm.marist.edu/~vmshare
I cut a deal with TYMSHARE to get a monthly tape dump of all VMSHARE
files for putting up on internal systems and network.

SLAC was sponsoring monthly user group meetings and afterwards we
would usually adjourn to either the "O" or the "Goose". MD was buying
TYMSHARE in 1984 and I was brought in to evaluate GNOSIS for the
spinoff, also asked if I could find anybody in IBM to make Engelbart
an offer. SLAC was doing 168E & then 3081E with CERN .. emulate 360
sufficient to run FORTRAN, placed along the line to do initial data
reduction/analysis:
http://www.slac.stanford.edu/cgi-wrap/getdoc/slac-pub-3069.pdf
http://www.slac.stanford.edu/cgi-wrap/getdoc/slac-pub-3680.pdf
http://www.slac.stanford.edu/cgi-wrap/getdoc/slac-pub-3753.pdf
and then SLAC had 1st webserver in the US:
https://ahro.slac.stanford.edu/wwwslac-exhibit
https://ahro.slac.stanford.edu/wwwslac-exhibit/early-web-chronology-and-documents-1991-1994

posts mentioning TYMSHARE VMSHARE online computer conferencing,
Engelbart, Gnosis, SLAC
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023e.html#9 Tymshare
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018f.html#77 Douglas Engelbart, the forgotten hero of modern computing
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014d.html#44 [CM] Ten recollections about the early WWW and Internet
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012i.html#40 GNOSIS & KeyKOS
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012i.html#39 Just a quick link to a video by the National Research Council of Canada made in 1971 on computer technology for filmmaking

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Other Silicon Valley

From: Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Other Silicon Valley
Date: 14 Jul, 2024
Blog: Facebook

re:
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#77 Other Silicon Valley

Ann Hardy at Computer History Museum
https://www.computerhistory.org/collections/catalog/102717167

Ann rose up to become Vice President of the Integrated Systems
Division at Tymshare, from 1976 to 1984, which did online airline
reservations, home banking, and other applications. When Tymshare was
acquired by McDonnell-Douglas in 1984, Ann's position as a female VP
became untenable, and was eased out of the company by being encouraged
to spin out Gnosis, a secure, capabilities-based operating system
developed at Tymshare. Ann founded Key Logic, with funding from Gene
Amdahl, which produced KeyKOS, based on Gnosis, for IBM and Amdahl
mainframes. After closing Key Logic, Ann became a consultant, leading
to her cofounding Agorics with members of Ted Nelson's Xanadu project.

... snip ...

Ann Hardy
https://medium.com/chmcore/someone-elses-computer-the-prehistory-of-cloud-computing-bca25645f89

Ann Hardy is a crucial figure in the story of Tymshare and
time-sharing. She began programming in the 1950s, developing software
for the IBM Stretch supercomputer. Frustrated at the lack of
opportunity and pay inequality for women at IBM -- at one point she
discovered she was paid less than half of what the lowest-paid man
reporting to her was paid -- Hardy left to study at the University of
California, Berkeley, and then joined the Lawrence Livermore National
Laboratory in 1962. At the lab, one of her projects involved an early
and surprisingly successful time-sharing operating system.

... snip ...

If Discrimination, Then Branch: Ann Hardy's Contributions to Computing
https://computerhistory.org/blog/if-discrimination-then-branch-ann-hardy-s-contributions-to-computing/

past posts mention Ann Hardy
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#47 E-commerce
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024c.html#25 Tymshare & Ann Hardy
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023e.html#62 IBM Jargon
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023e.html#12 Tymshare
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023e.html#9 Tymshare
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023d.html#37 Online Forums and Information
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023d.html#16 Grace Hopper (& Ann Hardy)
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023c.html#97 Fortran
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023b.html#35 When Computer Coding Was a 'Woman's' Job
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022h.html#60 Fortran
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022g.html#92 TYMSHARE
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#92 Cobol and Jean Sammet
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#0 Women in Computing
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#71 book review:  Broad Band:  The Untold Story of the Women Who Made the Internet
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021h.html#98 CMSBACK, ADSM, TSM
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019d.html#27 Someone Else's Computer: The Prehistory of Cloud Computing

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Other Silicon Valley

From: Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Other Silicon Valley
Date: 14 Jul, 2024
Blog: Facebook

re:
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#77 Other Silicon Valley
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#78 Other Silicon Valley

Tymnet
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tymnet

In 1984 Tymnet was bought by the McDonnell Douglas Corporation as part
of the acquisition of Tymshare.[6] The company was renamed McDonnell
Douglas Tymshare, and began a major reorganization. A year later,
McDonnell Douglas (MD) split Tymshare into several separate operating
companies: MD Network Systems Company, MD Field Service Company, MD
RCS, MD "xxx" and many more. (This is sometimes referred to the
Alphabet Soup phase of the company). At this point, Tymnet had
outlived its parent company Tymshare.

... snip ...

Tymshare
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tymshare

McDonnell Douglas was acquired by Boeing. Consequently, rights to use
technology developed by Tymshare are currently held by Boeing, British
Telecom (BT), Verizon Communications, and AT&T Inc. due to the
acquisitions and mergers from 1984 through 2005.

... snip ...

Tymnet Sold off
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tymshare#MDC_Network_Systems_Company_sold_to_British_Telecom

On July 30, 1989, it was announced that British Telecom was purchasing
McDonnell Douglas Network Systems Company, and McDonnell Douglas Field
Service Company was being spun off as a start-up called
NovaDyne. McDonnell Douglas was later acquired by Boeing. British
Telecom (BT) wanted to expand and the acquisition of Tymnet which was
already a worldwide data network helped to achieve that goal. On
November 17, 1989 MDNSC officially became BT Tymnet with its
headquarters in San Jose, California. BT brought with it the idea of
continuous development with teams in America, Europe, and Asia-pacific
all working together on the same projects. BT renamed the Tymnet
services, Global Network Services (GNS).

... snip ...

... trivia: I had taken two credit hr intro to fortran/computer and
end of semester was hired to rewrite 1401 MPIO for 360/30. Univ was
getting 360/67 to replace 709/1401 and temporarily got 360/30
replacing 1401, pending delivery of 360/67. Within year, 360/67
arrived and I was hired fulltime responsible for OS/360 (tss/360
didn't come to production so 360/67 ran as 360/65). Before I graduate,
I was hired fulltime into small group in Boeing CFO office to help
with the formation of Boeing Computer Services (consolidate all
dataprocessing into independent business unit). I thought Renton
datacenter possibly largest in the world, 360/65s arriving faster than
they could be instaled, boxes constantly staged in hallways around the
machine room. Lots of politics between Renton director and CFO who
only has 360/30 up at Boeing field for payroll, although they enlarge
the machine room for a 360/67, for me to play with when I wasn't doing
other stuff. When I graduate, I join the IBM science center (instead
of staying with Boeing CFO).

Keeping in contact with Boeing, claims about aquisition of M/D, 2016,
one of the "The Boeing Century" articles was about how the merger with
MD has nearly taken down Boeing and may yet still (infusion of
military industrial complex culture into commercial operation)
https://issuu.com/pnwmarketplace/docs/i20160708144953115

The Coming Boeing Bailout?
https://mattstoller.substack.com/p/the-coming-boeing-bailout

Unlike Boeing, McDonnell Douglas was run by financiers rather than
engineers. And though Boeing was the buyer, McDonnell Douglas
executives somehow took power in what analysts started calling a
"reverse takeover." The joke in Seattle was, "McDonnell Douglas bought
Boeing with Boeing's money."

... snip ...

Crash Course
https://newrepublic.com/article/154944/boeing-737-max-investigation-indonesia-lion-air-ethiopian-airlines-managerial-revolution

Sorscher had spent the early aughts campaigning to preserve the
company's estimable engineering legacy. He had mountains of evidence
to support his position, mostly acquired via Boeing's 1997 acquisition
of McDonnell Douglas, a dysfunctional firm with a dilapidated aircraft
plant in Long Beach and a CEO who liked to use what he called the
"Hollywood model" for dealing with engineers: Hire them for a few
months when project deadlines are nigh, fire them when you need to
make numbers. In 2000, Boeing's engineers staged a 40-day strike over
the McDonnell deal's fallout; while they won major material
concessions from management, they lost the culture war. They also
inherited a notoriously dysfunctional product line from the
corner-cutting market gurus at McDonnell.

... snip ...

Boeing's travails show what's wrong with modern
capitalism. Deregulation means a company once run by engineers is now
in the thrall of financiers and its stock remains high even as its
planes fall from the sky
https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2019/sep/11/boeing-capitalism-deregulation

capitalism posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#capitalism

posts mentioning Boeing/MD "merger"
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024c.html#9 Boeing and the Dark Age of American Manufacturing
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024.html#56 Did Stock Buybacks Knock the Bolts Out of Boeing?
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023g.html#104 More IBM Downfall
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022h.html#18 Sun Tzu, Aristotle, and John Boyd
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#91 Short-term profits and long-term consequences -- did Jack Welch break capitalism?
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#117 Downfall: The Case Against Boeing
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#109 Not counting dividends IBM delivered an annualized yearly loss of 2.27%
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#69 'Flying Blind' Review: Downward Trajectory
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#40 Boeing Built an Unsafe Plane, and Blamed the Pilots When It Crashed
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018c.html#60 11 crazy up-close photos of the F-22 Raptor stealth fighter jet soaring through the air
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018c.html#26 DoD watchdog: Air Force failed to effectively manage F-22 modernization
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018c.html#21 How China's New Stealth Fighter Could Soon Surpass the US F-22 Raptor
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017k.html#58 Failures and Resiliency
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016e.html#20 The Boeing Century

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

IBM ATM At San Jose Plant Site

From: Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: IBM ATM At San Jose Plant Site
Date: 14 Jul, 2024
Blog: Facebook

after being blamed for online computer conferencing on the internal
network (larger than arpanet/internet from just about the beginning
until sometime mid/late 80s), I was transferred from san jose research
to yorktown ... but left in San Jose besides SJR office (but had to
commute to YKT a couple times a month), I got part of wing and labs
out in the Los Gatos lab (and when research moved to almaden, office
up there).

Down in LSG basement there was still stuff from ATM development and
testing
https://groups.google.com/g/alt.folklore.computers/c/I-vj0q8jlko/m/uF9VEzGYAwAJ
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM_3624
https://www.ibm.com/history/atm

archive above a.f.c. post in google groups
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016e.html#13 Looking for info on IBM ATMs - 2984, 3614, and 3624

CMC posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#cmc
internal network posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#internalnet
hsdt posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#hsdt
801 posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#801

summary of payment protocol work
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/x959.html
post mentioning the work
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subpubkey.html#x959

posts mentioning internet council trials (including 2016e.html#13)
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#103 AADS Chip Strawman
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#17 Data Breach
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021h.html#74 "Safe" Internet Payment Products
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018f.html#97 America's janky payment system, explained
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018c.html#95 Tandem Memos
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017i.html#44 learning Unix, was progress in e-mail, such as AOL
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017e.html#76 Typesetting
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#92 Old hardware
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016e.html#13 Looking for info on IBM ATMs - 2984, 3614, and 3624
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016.html#100 3270 based ATMs
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016.html#66 Lineage of TPF
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015h.html#90 History--did relay logic (e.g. crossbar switch) need air conditioning?
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015h.html#1 FALSE: Reverse PIN Panic Code
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014l.html#55 LA Times commentary:  roll out "smart" credit cards to deter fraud
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014k.html#53 LA Times commentary:  roll out "smart" credit cards to deter fraud
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014g.html#37 Special characters for Passwords
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014f.html#17 Online Debit, Credit Fraud Will Soon Get Much Worse
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014e.html#64 How the IETF plans to protect the web from NSA snooping
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013j.html#21 8080 BASIC
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#61 PC industry is heading for more change
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012b.html#71 Password shortcomings
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011b.html#11 Credit cards with a proximity wifi chip can be as safe as walking around with your credit card number on a poster
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011.html#41 Looking for a real Fortran-66 compatible PC compiler (CP/M or DOSor Windows
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010k.html#28 taking down the machine - z9 series
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010k.html#14 taking down the machine - z9 series
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010h.html#69 Idiotic programming style edicts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010h.html#54 Trust Facade
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010f.html#27 Should the USA Implement EMV?
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010f.html#26 Should the USA Implement EMV?
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009r.html#16 70 Years of ATM Innovation
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009p.html#44 Nearly 500 People Fall Victim to ATM Skimming Scam
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009n.html#71 Sophisticated cybercrooks cracking bank security efforts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009n.html#4 Voltage SecureData Now Provides Distributed End-to-End Encryption of Sensitive Data
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009i.html#12 Latest Pilot Will Put Online PIN Debit to the Test for Credit Unions
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009g.html#64 What happened to X9.59?
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008p.html#69 ATM PIN through phone or Internet. Is it secure? Is it allowed by PCI-DSS?, Visa, MC, etc.?
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008p.html#31 FC5 Special Workshop CFP: Emerging trends in Online Banking and Electronic Payments
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008p.html#28 Can Smart Cards Reduce Payments Fraud and Identity Theft?
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aadsm14.htm#31 Maybe It's Snake Oil All the Way Down
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aadsm14.htm#28 Maybe It's Snake Oil All the Way Down
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aadsm12.htm#8 [3d-secure] 3D Secure and EMV
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aadsm12.htm#1 3D Secure GUI
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aepay11.htm#65 E-merchants Turn Fraud-busters (somewhat related)

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

APL and REXX Programming Languages

From: Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: APL and REXX Programming Languages
Date: 15 Jul, 2024
Blog: Facebook

long ago and far away, after graduating and joining IBM, one of my
hobbies was enhanced production operating systems for internal data
centers and HONE was long time customer. 23Jun1969 IBM unbundling
announcement started charging for SE (customer support) time, maint,
(application) software (managed to make the case that kernel software
was still free). Normal SE training included part of large group at
customer location, but they couldn't figure out how to NOT charge for
trainee time. Thus was born HONE, originally US CP67 datacenters with
branch office online access where SEs could practice with guest
operating systems running in virtual machines. The science center had
also ported APL\360 to CP67/CMS for CMS\APL, with fixes for running in
large, demand paged virtual memory and APIs for system services like
file I/O. HONE then started deploying CMS\APL-based branch office
online sales&marketing support applications which came to dominate all
HONE activity (SE practicing with guest operating systems withered
away). I was then asked to do some of the first non-US HONE
installations ... and then migration to VM370/CMS with HONE clone
installations (and their APL-bsed applications) propagating all over
the world (by far, largest use of APL in the world). Trivia: in
mid-70s, all US HONE datacenters were consolidated in silicon valley,
when FACEBOOK 1st moved into silicon valley, it was into new bldg
built next door to the former consolidated US HONE datacenter bldg.

not so long ago and far away (spring '82) ... before renamed and
released as rexx, I wanted to show it wasn't just another pretty
scripting language, demo was to redo a very large assembler program
(program failure and dump analysis) in three months elapsed time
working half time, with ten times the function and ten times the
performance (some hacks to have interpreted language running faster
than assembler); I finished early so decided to implement some
automated scripts that searched for common failure signatures.

I thought that it would be released to customers, but for whatever it
wasn't (even though nearly every PSR and internal datacenter was using
it, this was early in the OCO-wars, "object code only" ... customers
complaining that source would no longer be available). I did manage to
get approval to give user group presentations and how I did the
implementation ... and within a few months, similar implementations
started appearing. I eventually did get a request from the 3090
service processor (3092) group to release it on the service processor.
https://web.archive.org/web/20230719145910/https://www.ibm.com/ibm/history/exhibits/mainframe/mainframe_PP3090.html
some old email
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010e.html#email861031
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010e.html#email861223
int this archived post
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010e.html#32

HONE posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#hone
23jun1969, unbundling posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#unbundle
cambridge science center posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech
csc/vm posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#cscvm
dumprx posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#dumprx

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

APL and REXX Programming Languages

From: Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: APL and REXX Programming Languages
Date: 15 Jul, 2024
Blog: Facebook

re:
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#81 APL and REXX Programming Languages

a little internet content, member of science center responsible for
the science center CP/67-based wide-area network; account by one of
the GML inventors (invented 1969 at the science center)
https://web.archive.org/web/20230402212558/http://www.sgmlsource.com/history/jasis.htm

Actually, the law office application was the original motivation for
the project, something I was allowed to do part-time because of my
knowledge of the user requirements. My real job was to encourage the
staffs of the various scientific centers to make use of the
CP-67-based Wide Area Network that was centered in Cambridge.

... snip ...

science center wide-area network morphing into corporate network
(larger than arpanet/internet from inception as CP67-based wide-area
network, until sometime mid/late 80s) ... technology also used for the
corporate sponsored univ BITNET&EARN
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BITNET
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/European_Academic_and_Research_Network
https://earn-history.net/technology/the-network/

Edson
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edson_Hendricks

In June 1975, MIT Professor Jerry Saltzer accompanied Hendricks to
DARPA, where Hendricks described his innovations to the principal
scientist, Dr. Vinton Cerf. Later that year in September 15-19 of 75,
Cerf and Hendricks were the only two delegates from the United States,
to attend a workshop on Data Communications at the International
Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, 2361 Laxenburg Austria where
again, Hendricks spoke publicly about his innovative design which
paved the way to the Internet as we know it today.

... snip ...

SJMerc article about Edson (he passed aug2020) and "IBM'S MISSED
OPPORTUNITY WITH THE INTERNET" (gone behind paywall but lives free at
wayback machine)
https://web.archive.org/web/20000124004147/http://www1.sjmercury.com/svtech/columns/gillmor/docs/dg092499.htm
Also from wayback machine, some additional (IBM missed) references
from Ed's website
https://web.archive.org/web/20000115185349/http://www.edh.net/bungle.htm

science center posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech
internal network posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#internalnet
GML, SGML, HTML, etc posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#sgml
bitnet (& earn) posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#bitnet
internet posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#internet

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Continuations

From: Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Continuations
Newsgroups: comp.arch
Date: Mon, 15 Jul 2024 12:31:46 -1000

A little over a decade ago, I was asked if I could track down decision
to add virtual memory to all IBM 370s and found a former staff member
to executive making the decision. Basically OS/360 MVT storage
management was so bad that region sizes had to be specified four times
larger than used ... as a result only four concurrent regions could be
running concurrently on typical 1mbyte 370/165 system, insufficient to
keep system busy and justified.

Mapping MVT to a 16mbyte virtual address space (vs2/svs, similar to
running MVT in a CP67 16mbyte virtual machine), allowed concurrently
running regions increased by factor of four (limited to 15 with 4bit
storage protect keys, keeping regions isolated). However, as systems
increase, even fifteen weren't sufficient and they went to providing a
separate 16mbyte virtual address space for each region
(VS2/MVS). However OS/360 heavy pointer-passing API, resulted in
mapping a 8mbyte image of the MVS kernel into every virtual address
space (kernel API call would be able to access API parameters)
... leaving 8mbytes for application. Then because subsystems were also
placed in their own separate 16mbyte virtual address space ... for
subsystems access to caller's parameters, they mapped a 1mbyte "common
segment area" (CSA) into every virtual address space (leaving 7mbyes
for applications). However CSA space requirement was proportional to
concurrent executing applications and number of subsystems ... and
quickly became multi-mbyte "common system area". By 3033 time-frame
CSA was frequently 5-6mbytes (leaving 2-3mbytes for applications) and
threatening to become 8mbytes (leaving zero).

This was part of the mad rush to 370/XA & MVS/XA with 31-bit
addressing and "access registers" (semi-privileged subsystem could
access caller's address space "as secondary address space"). As
temporary stop-gap, a subset of "access registers" were retrofitted to
3033 for MVS, as "dual-address space mode". However, kernel code was
still required to swap hardware address space pointers (subsystem
call, passing through kernel, moving caller's address space pointer to
secondary, and loading subsystems address space pointer as primary
... and then restoring on return). Then got hardware support with a
"program call" table ... entry for each subsystem and subsystem call
could be handled all by hardware, including the address space pointer
swapping (w/o overhead of kernel software).

"program transfer" ... more like continuation,

1983 370/XA Pinciples of Operation SSA22-7085
https://bitsavers.org/pdf/ibm/370/princOps/SA22-7085-0_370-XA_Principles_of_Operation_Mar83.pdf

pg3-5 Primary & Secondary Virtual Address
pg10-22 "Program Call"
pg10-28 "Program Transfer"

"program transfer" originally could also be used to restore CPU to state
saved by previous "Program Call" (aka return, programming notes pg10-30)

Principles of Operation SA22-7832-13 (May 2022)
https://publibfp.dhe.ibm.com/epubs/pdf/a227832d.pdf

pg3-23 "Address Spaces"
pg10-97 "Program Call"
pg10-110 "Program Return"
pg10-114 "Program Transfer"

posts mentioning "program call" and/or "dual address space"
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#69 IBM Mainframe market was Re: Approximate reciprocals
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#17 Versatile Cache from IBM
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#38 long-winded post thread, 3033, 3081, Future System
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#18 IBM assembler
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018.html#96 S/360 addressing, not Honeywell 200
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017i.html#57 64 bit addressing into the future
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016e.html#3 S/360 stacks, was self-modifying code, Is it a lost cause?
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013m.html#71 'Free Unix!': The world-changing proclamation made 30 years agotoday
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012p.html#26 Mainframes are still the best platform for high volume transaction processing
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012n.html#21 8-bit bytes and byte-addressed machines
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010d.html#81 LPARs: More or Less?
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010c.html#41 Happy DEC-10 Day
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008e.html#14 Kernels
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008d.html#69 Regarding the virtual machines
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006y.html#16 "The Elements of Programming Style"
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005p.html#18 address space
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004o.html#57 Integer types for 128-bit addressing
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004n.html#54 CKD Disks?
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004n.html#26 PCIe as a chip-to-chip interconnect
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004f.html#53 Infiniband - practicalities for small clusters
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004e.html#41 Infiniband - practicalities for small clusters
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003g.html#13 Page Table - per OS/Process
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003d.html#53 Reviving Multics
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002n.html#74 Everything you wanted to know about z900 from IBM
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002d.html#51 Hardest Mistake in Comp Arch to Fix
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001k.html#16 Minimalist design (was Re: Parity - why even or odd)
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000c.html#84 Is a VAX a mainframe?
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/98.html#36 What is MVS/ESA?

other recent posts mentioning common segment/system area
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#24 ARM is sort of channeling the IBM 360
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024c.html#91 Gordon Bell
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024c.html#67 IBM Mainframe Addressing
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024c.html#55 backward architecture, The Design of Design
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024b.html#58 Vintage MVS
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024b.html#49 Vintage 2250
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024b.html#27 HA/CMP
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024b.html#12 3033
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024.html#50 Slow MVS/TSO
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023g.html#77 MVT, MVS, MVS/XA & Posix support
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023g.html#48 Vintage Mainframe
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023g.html#29 Another IBM Downturn
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023g.html#2 Vintage TSS/360
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023f.html#26 Ferranti Atlas
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023d.html#36 "The Big One" (IBM 3033)
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023d.html#22 IBM 360/195
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023d.html#9 IBM MVS RAS
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023d.html#0 Some 3033 (and other) Trivia
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022h.html#27 370 virtual memory
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022f.html#122 360/67 Virtual Memory
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#93 Operating System File/Dataset I/O
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#55 CMS OS/360 Simulation
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#49 IBM 3033 Personal Computing
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#19 Channel I/O
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#70 165/168/3033 & 370 virtual memory
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#113 IBM Future System
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021h.html#70 IBM Research, Adtech, Science Center
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021b.html#63 Early Computer Use
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2020.html#36 IBM S/360 - 370

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

ATT/SUN and Open System Foundation

From: Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: ATT/SUN and Open System Foundation
Date: 16 Jul, 2024
Blog: Facebook

ATT/SUN and Open System Foundation
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open_Software_Foundation

It was intended as an organization for joint development, mostly in
response to a perceived threat of "merged UNIX system" efforts by AT&T
Corporation and Sun Microsystems.

... snip ...

Early 80s, IBM had 801/RISC ROMP chip originally targeted for
Displaywriter followon
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM_Displaywriter_System
when that got killed, they decided to retarget to the Unix workstation
market and hired the company that had done AT&T port for IBM/PC PC/IX,
to do part for the "PC/RT" which becomes AIX.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM_RT_PC

The IBM Palo Alto group was in the process of doing BSD port for IBM
370 ... and was then told to retarget for the PC/RT, which ships as
"AOS".

Then the follow-on 801/RISC chipset, RIOS was for the RS/6000 and lots
of BSDism was incorporated into AIX
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM_RS/6000

We had started the RS/6000 HA/6000 in 1989, originally for the NYTimes
to port their newspaper system (ATEX) from VAXCluster to RS/6000. I
then rename/rebrand it was HA/CMP when I start doing
numberic/scientific cluster scale-up with the national labs and
commercial cluster scale-up with RDBMS vendors (that had VAXCluster
support in the same source base with UNIX, I even do a distributed
lock manager supporting VAXcluster API semantics to simplify the
port).

RS/6000 AIX ran BSD RENO/TAHOE TCP/IP and I wanted to do IP-address
"take-over" as part of HA/CMP fault recovery. However, found
RENO/TAHOE was major TCP/IP support on lots of different unix vendor
clients. The problem found was that while the DNS cache and ARP cache
had time-out, but found a "fastpath" where the immediately previous IP
MAC address was saved and if next packet was same IP address, it would
use the saved MAC (not checking the ARP cache) ... impacting scenarios
where all client traffic (for long periods) was from the (same)
server. Had to come up with server hack to keep track of client
ip-addresses and as part of take-over, had to send "ping" with
different ip-address to each (saved) client, forcing their check of
their ARP cache.

801/risc, iliad, romp, rios, pc/rt, rs/6000, power, power/pc, etc
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#801
HA/CMP posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#hacmp

some posts mentioning HA/CMP distributed lockmanager
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#52 Cray
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024c.html#105 Financial/ATM Processing
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024c.html#18 CP40/CMS
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024b.html#80 IBM DBMS/RDBMS
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024b.html#70 HSDT, HA/CMP, NSFNET, Internet
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024b.html#55 IBM Token-Ring
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024b.html#29 DB2
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024b.html#22 HA/CMP
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024.html#93 IBM, Unix, editors
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024.html#82 Benchmarks
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024.html#71 IBM AIX
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023e.html#86 Relational RDBMS
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022e.html#103 John Boyd and IBM Wild Ducks
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#73 lock me up, was IBM Mainframe market
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#63 What's different, was Why did Dennis Ritchie write that UNIX was a modern implementation of CTSS?
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#68 ARPANET pioneer Jack Haverty says the internet was never finished
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#62 IBM DB2
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#112 GM C4 and IBM HA/CMP
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014k.html#40 How Larry Ellison Became The Fifth Richest Man In The World By Using IBM's Idea
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009h.html#26 Natural keys vs Aritficial Keys
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009b.html#43 "Larrabee" GPU design question
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002f.html#1 Blade architectures

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

ATT/SUN and Open System Foundation

From: Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: ATT/SUN and Open System Foundation
Date: 16 Jul, 2024
Blog: Facebook

re:
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#84 ATT/SUN and Open System Foundation

trivia: IBM Palo Alto was also working with UCLA Locus people and
while the 370 BSD work got redirected to PC/RT, they did port of Locus
to 370 ... which becomes AIX/370 (and AIX/386).

... lots of topic drift that includes some NSFNET, when I 1st joined
IBM it was in the cambridge science center (some of the MIT CTSS/7094
people had gone to do MULTICS on the 5th flr and others went to the
science center on the 4th flr) in 545 tech sq (blds since remodeled
and renumbered). Late 70s some number of us transferred to San Jose
... I was in San Jose Research. I got blamed for online computer
conferencing in the late 70s and early 80s, it really took off
spring1981, when I distributed a trip report of visit to Jim Gray at
Tandem (folklore is when corporate executive committee was told, 5of6
wanted to fire me). One of the outcomes was I was transferred to YKT
(aka Watson), left to live in San jose with office in Research and
part of wing in Los Gatos lab, but had to commute to YKT a couple
times a month. I was also told with most of the corporate executive
committee wanted to fire me, they would never approve me for a fellow,
but if I kept my head down, money could be steered my way and have
projects almost as if I was a fellow.

One was HSDT, T1 and faster computer links (both terrestrial and
satellite) ... one of the first was T1 satellite between Los Gatos lab
and Clementi's
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enrico_Clementi
E&S lab in Kinston (had a bunch of FPS boxes, some with 40mbyte/sec
disk arrays)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Floating_Point_Systems

Cornell University, led by physicist Kenneth G. Wilson, made a
supercomputer proposal to NSF with IBM to produce a processor array of
FPS boxes attached to an IBM mainframe with the name lCAP.

... snip ...

Then had a custom built TDMA satellite system with a transponder on
SBS4 and three satellite dishes, 4.5M dishes in Los Gatos and YKT and
a 7M dish in Austin. There was an EVE hardware logic simulator in SJ
and claim was RIOS chip designs (in Austin) being able to use EVE
simulator via satellite link help bring the RIOS chips in a year
early.

Was also working with NSF director and was suppose to get $20M to
interconnect the NSF supercomputer centers, then congress cut the
budget, some other things happened and finally a RFP was released (in
part based on what we already had running). Preliminary Announcement:
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002k.html#12

The OASC has initiated three programs: The Supercomputer Centers
Program to provide Supercomputer cycles; the New Technologies Program
to foster new supercomputer software and hardware developments; and
the Networking Program to build a National Supercomputer Access
Network - NSFnet.

... snip ...

... IBM internal politics was not allowing us to bid (possibly
contributing was being blamed for online computer conferencing). The
NSF director tried to help by writing the company a letter (3Apr1986,
NSF Director to IBM Chief Scientist and IBM Senior VP and director of
Research, copying IBM CEO) with support from other gov. agencies
... but that just made the internal politics worse (as did claims that
what we already had operational was at least 5yrs ahead of the winning
bid, awarded 24Nov87)

1989 HA/6000 was pitched to Nick Donofrio (see above) and he approved
it. Early Jan1992, had a meeting with Oracle CEO and staff where IBM
AWD/Hester said HA/CMP would have 16processor clusters by mid92 and
128processor clusters by ye92 ... also updated IBM FSD about cluster
scale-up work with national labs. Somebody must of told the IBM
Kingston Supercomputer Group because by the end of Jan92, cluster
scale-up was transferred for announce as IBM Supercomputer
(technical/scientific *ONLY*) and we were told we couldn't work on
anything with more than four processors. We leave IBM a few months
later. Some IBM press:
https://archive.org/details/sim_computerworld_1992-02-17_26_7
also 17feb92
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001n.html#6000clusters1
11May92 press
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001n.html#6000clusters2

trivia: with regard to "surprise comment", a decade earlier, branch
office cons me into doing benchmark on engineer IBM 4341 I had access
to, for a national lab that was looking at getting 70 for a compute
farm (sort of leading edge of the coming cluster supercomputing
tsunami).

Besides technical/scientific cluster scaleup with national labs
... also had been working with LLNL having their LINCS/Unitree
supercomputer filesystem ported to HA/CMP and with NCAR having their
Mesa Archival supercomputer filesystem ported to HA/CMP.

15Jun92 press
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001n.html#6000clusters3

trivia: with respect to comment about IBM 32-microprocessor 370 (end
jul92 last day at IBM). In first half of the 70s, IBM had the Future
System project to completely replace 370 (during which time internal
politics was killing off 370 efforts, claim is that lack of new 370s
during the period was responsible for the clone 370 makers getting
their market foothold). When that implodes there was mad rush to get
stuff back into the 370 product pipelines, including kicking off quick
and dirty 3033&3081 efforts in parallel.

I also get roped into helping with a 16-processor SMP 370 that
everybody thought was great until somebody tells the head of POK that
it could be decades before POK's favorite son operating system (aka
MVS) had (effective) 16-processor support (MVS documentation at the
time was that a 2processor SMP got only 1.2-1.5 times the throughput
of single processor ... and its SMP software overhead increased as the
number of processors increased).  POK doesn't ship a 16processor SMP
until nearly 25yrs later after the turn of the century. As aside, Old
15Mar1985 email about being scheduled to present to NSF director and
YKT wants me to spend the week there, in meeting discussing how many
processor chips could be crammed into rack (and how many racks can be
tied together).
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007d.html#email850315

science center posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech
online computer conferencing posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#cmc
HSDT posts
http://www.garliic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#hsdt
NSFNET posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#nsfnet
801/risc, iliad, romp, rios, pc/rt, rs/6000, power, power/pc posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#801
HA/CMP posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#hacmp
future system posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#futuresys
SMP, tightly-coupled multiprocessor posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#smp

some recent posts mentioning Palo Alto, BSD, UCLA Locus, aix/370
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024.html#95 IBM AIX
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024.html#70 IBM AIX
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024.html#13 THE RISE OF UNIX. THE SEEDS OF ITS FALL
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023f.html#43 IBM Vintage Series/1
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023.html#39 IBM AIX
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#79 ROMP
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022c.html#30 Unix work-alike
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#8 DEC VAX, VAX/Cluster and HA/CMP
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#64 1973 Holmdel IBM 370's
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#63 1973 Holmdel IBM 370's
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#27 MS/DOS for IBM/PC
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#29 IBM AIX
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#45 not a 360 either, was Design a better 16 or 32 bit processor
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021e.html#83 Amdahl
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021d.html#83 IBM AIX
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021b.html#51 CISC to FS to RISC, Holy wars of the past - how did they turn out?
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019e.html#109 ROMP & Displaywriter

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

ATT/SUN and Open System Foundation

From: Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: ATT/SUN and Open System Foundation
Date: 17 Jul, 2024
Blog: Facebook

re:
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#84 ATT/SUN and Open System Foundation
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#85 ATT/SUN and Open System Foundation

ROMP chip was joint research/office products 801/risc for
displaywriter followon ... 801/risc CPr operating system programmed in
PL.8. didn't need traditional hardware supervisor/problem states
... claim was pl.8 would only generate correct programs and cp.r would
only load/execute correct programs ... "privileged" code could be
invoked directly. retarget to unix required more traditional system.

Also austin needed something to do with their 200 CPr PL.8
programmers. They come up with VRM, abstract virtual machine
and tell everybody that doing VRM and AIX to VRM interface is less
resources than just doing AIX directly to PC/RT bare hardware. Note:
when Palo Alto does BSD to PC/RT bare machine (for "AOS"), it is much
fewer people and much less elapsed time than either VRM or AIX.

801/risc, iliad, romp, rios, pc/rt, rs/6000, power, power/pc posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#801

posts mentioning 801/risc, VRM, AIX, and BSD/AOS
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024.html#72 IBM AIX
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#79 ROMP
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#45 not a 360 either, was Design a better 16 or 32 bit processor
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021d.html#83 IBM AIX
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011c.html#38 IBM "Watson" computer and Jeopardy
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008e.html#10 Kernels
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008d.html#83 Migration from Mainframe to othre platforms - the othe bell?
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005u.html#61 DMV systems?
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004n.html#30 First single chip 32-bit microprocessor
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003d.html#54 Filesystems
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002i.html#81 McKinley Cometh

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Benchmarking and Testing

From: Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Benchmarking and Testing
Date: 17 Jul, 2024
Blog: Facebook

re:
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#9 Benchmarking and Testing

more tank trivia: Doing some work with former Marine that was pushing
open source for battle commanders. One point he made was the Marines
were forced to accept M1 Abrams at 65-70tons (in order to achieve
quantity discount from the manufacturer for the Army) even though 95%
of Marine mission profiles involved places that had 35ton load
limits. Claims that Abrams were designed for tank slug test in Europe
and US underwrote the cost of bridge, roads, infrastructure upgrades
in Germany (to handle Abrams weight).

some past posts mentioning Abrams weight
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018b.html#81 What the Gulf War Teaches About the Future of War
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017h.html#31 Disregard post (another screwup; absolutely nothing to do with computers whatsoever!)
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012n.html#38 Jedi Knights
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012h.html#9 Monopoly/ Cartons of Punch Cards
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011n.html#21 Goodbye, OODA-Loop
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011m.html#58 computer bootlaces

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Computer Virtual Memory

Refed: **, - **, - **
From: Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Computer Virtual Memory
Date: 17 Jul, 2024
Blog: Facebook

I had started in the 70s claiming that original 360 had made design
trade-offs with abundant I/O resources and scarce real memory and CPU
resources but by mid-70s that had started to invert and by the early
80s wrote a tome that disk relative system throughput had declined by
an order of magnitude (disks got 3-5 times faster while systems got
40-50 times faster). A disk division executive took exception and
assigned the division performance group to refute the claim. After a
couple weeks they basically came back and said I had slightly
understated the situation. They then respun the analysis for how to
configure disks for system throughput (16Aug1984, SHARE 63, B874). As
mismatch between disk throughput and system throughput increased,
systems needing increasingly larger number of concurrently executing
programs.

from long ago and far away (about gov. use CP67 in 60s&70s, separating
different users)
https://web.archive.org/web/20090117083033/http://www.nsa.gov/research/selinux/list-archive/0409/8362.shtml
melinda's VM history
http://www.leeandmelindavarian.com/Melinda#VMHist
other TYMSHARE started offering its VM370/CMS-based online computer
conferencing to (user group) SHARE as VMSHARE in Aug1976, archives
here http://vm.marist.edu/~vmshare

A little over a decade ago, I was asked if I could track down decision
to add virtual memory to all 370s and found a former staff member to
executive making the decision. Basically OS/360 MVT storage management
was so bad that region sizes had to be specified four times larger
than used ... as a result only four concurrent regions could be
running concurrently on typical 1mbyte 370/165 system, insufficient to
keep system busy and justified.

archived post with pieces of email exchange about decision to add
virtual memory to all 370s
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011d.html#73

Mapping MVT to a 16mbyte virtual address space (vs2/svs, similar to
running MVT in a CP67 16mbyte virtual machine), allowed concurrently
running regions increased by factor of four (limited to 15 with 4bit
storage protect keys, keeping regions isolated). However, as systems
increase, even fifteen weren't sufficient and they went to providing a
separate 16mbyte virtual address space for each region
(VS2/MVS). However OS/360 heavy pointer-passing API, resulted in
mapping a 8mbyte image of the MVS kernel into every virtual address
space (kernel API call would be able to access API parameters)
... leaving 8mbytes for application. Then because subsystems were also
placed in their own separate 16mbyte virtual address space ... for
subsystems access to caller's API parameters, they mapped a 1mbyte
"common segment area" (CSA) into every virtual address space (leaving
7mbyes for applications). However CSA space requirement was
proportional to concurrent executing applications and number of
subsystems ... and CSA quickly became multi-mbyte "common system
area". By 3033 time-frame CSA was frequently 5-6mbytes (leaving
2-3mbytes) and threatening to become 8mbytes (leaving zero for
applications).

This was part of the mad rush to 370/XA & MVS/XA with 31-bit
addressing and "access registers" (semi-privileged subsystem could
access caller's address space "as secondary address space"). As
temporary stop-gap, a subset of "access registers" were retrofitted to
3033 for MVS, as "dual-address space mode". However, kernel code was
still required to swap hardware address space pointers (subsystem
call, passing through kernel, moving caller's address space pointer to
secondary, and loading subsystems address space pointer as primary
... and then restoring on return). Then got hardware support with a
"program call" table ... entry for each subsystem and subsystem call
could be handled all by hardware, including the address space pointer
swapping (w/o overhead of kernel software).

1983 370/XA Pinciples of Operation SSA22-7085
https://bitsavers.org/pdf/ibm/370/princOps/SA22-7085-0_370-XA_Principles_of_Operation_Mar83.pdf

pg3-5 Primary & Secondary Virtual Address
pg10-22 "Program Call"
pg10-28 "Program Transfer"

... snip ...

Principles of Operation SA22-7832-13 (May 2022)
https://publibfp.dhe.ibm.com/epubs/pdf/a227832d.pdf

pg3-23 "Address Spaces"
pg10-97 "Program Call"
pg10-110 "Program Return"
pg10-114 "Program Transfer"

... snip ...

Other trivia: In late 70s I'm working with Jim Gray and Vera Watson on
original SQL/relational implementation (System/R) at San Jose Research
and in fall of 1980 Jim Gray leaves IBM for TANDEM and palms off some
stuff on me. A year later, at Dec81 ACM SIGOPS meeting, Jim asked me
to help a TANDEM co-worker get his Stanford PHD that heavily involved
GLOBAL LRU (and the "local LRU" forces from 60s academic work, were
heavily lobbying Stanford to not award a PHD for anything involving
GLOBAL LRU). Jim knew I had detailed stats on the CP67
Cambridge/Grenoble global/local LRU comparison (showing global
significantly outperformed local). Early 70s, IBM Grenoble Science
Center had a 1mbyte 360/67 (155 4k pageable pages) running 35 CMS uses
and had modified "standard" CP67 with working set dispatcher and local
LRU page replacement ... corresponding to 60s academic papers. I was
then at Cambridge which had 768kbyte 360/67 (104 4k pageable pages,
only 2/3rds the number of Grenoble) and running 80 CMS users, similar
kind of workloads, similar response, better throughput (with twice as
many users) running my "standard" CP67 that I had originally done as
undergraduate in the 60s. I had loads of Cambridge
benchmarking&performance data, in addition to the Grenoble APR73 CACM
article and lots of other detailed performance data from Grenoble.

I went to send reply with detailed data, but company executives block
sending for nearly a year (I hoped they viewed it as punishment for
being blamed for online computer conferencing on the internal network
... and not that they were meddling in an academic dispute).

More trivia: long ago and far away OS2 group were being told that
VM370 did a much better job than OS2. They set an email to Endicott
asking for information, Endicott sends it to Kingston, and Kingston
sends it to me ... some old email
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007i.html#email871204
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007i.html#email871204b

posts mentioning virtual memory and page replacement algorithms
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#clock
posts mentioning dynamic adaptive resource management and
dispatching/scheduling
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#fairshare
cambridge science center posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech
csc/vm posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#cscvm
benchmakring posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#benchmark

recent posts mentioning observing relative system disk throughput had declined
by order of magnitude between 60s & 80s
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#32 ancient OS history, ARM is sort of channeling the IBM 360
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#24 ARM is sort of channeling the IBM 360
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024c.html#109 Old adage "Nobody ever got fired for buying IBM"
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024c.html#55 backward architecture, The Design of Design
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023g.html#32 Storage Management
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023e.html#92 IBM DASD 3380
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023e.html#7 HASP, JES, MVT, 370 Virtual Memory, VS2
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023b.html#26 DISK Performance and Reliability
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023b.html#16 IBM User Group, SHARE
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023.html#33 IBM Punch Cards
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023.html#6 Mainrame Channel Redrive
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022h.html#36 360/85
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022g.html#88 IBM Cambridge Science Center Performance Technology
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022g.html#87 CICS (and other history)
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022g.html#84 RS/6000 (and some mainframe)
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022f.html#0 Mainframe Channel I/O
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022e.html#49 Channel Program I/O Processing Efficiency
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#48 360&370 I/O Channels
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#22 COMPUTER HISTORY: REMEMBERING THE IBM SYSTEM/360 MAINFRAME, its Origin and Technology
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#77 Channel I/O
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#92 Processor, DASD, VTAM & TCP/IP performance
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#70 165/168/3033 & 370 virtual memory
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#131 Multitrack Search Performance
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#108 IBM Disks
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#105 IBM CKD DASD and multi-track search
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021j.html#78 IBM 370 and Future System
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021i.html#23 fast sort/merge, OoO S/360 descendants
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021g.html#44 iBM System/3 FORTRAN for engineering/science work?
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021f.html#53 3380 disk capacity
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021e.html#33 Univac 90/30 DIAG instruction
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021.html#79 IBM Disk Division
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021.html#59 San Jose bldg 50 and 3380 manufacturing
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021.html#17 Performance History, 5-10Oct1986, SEAS

posts mentioning decision to add virtual memory to all 370s:
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#83 Continuations
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#24 ARM is sort of channeling the IBM 360
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024c.html#91 Gordon Bell
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024c.html#55 backward architecture, The Design of Design
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024b.html#108 IBM 360 Announce 7Apr1964
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024b.html#107 IBM 360 Announce 7Apr1964
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024b.html#65 MVT/SVS/MVS/MVS.XA
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024b.html#58 Vintage MVS
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024b.html#49 Vintage 2250
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024b.html#12 3033
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024.html#50 Slow MVS/TSO
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023g.html#77 MVT, MVS, MVS/XA & Posix support
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023g.html#6 Vintage Future System
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023f.html#26 Ferranti Atlas
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023d.html#9 IBM MVS RAS
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023d.html#0 Some 3033 (and other) Trivia
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022f.html#122 360/67 Virtual Memory
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#93 Operating System File/Dataset I/O
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022d.html#55 CMS OS/360 Simulation
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#70 165/168/3033 & 370 virtual memory
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021k.html#113 IBM Future System
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021h.html#70 IBM Research, Adtech, Science Center
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021b.html#63 Early Computer Use
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019b.html#94 MVS Boney Fingers
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#38 long-winded post thread, 3033, 3081, Future System
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#18 IBM assembler
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018c.html#23 VS History
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018.html#92 S/360 addressing, not Honeywell 200
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#8 BSAM vs QSAM
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016.html#78 Mainframe Virtual Memory
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015g.html#90 IBM Embraces Virtual Memory -- Finally

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

John Boyd and IBM Wild Ducks

From: Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: John Boyd and IBM Wild Ducks
Date: 18 Jul, 2024
Blog: Facebook

John Boyd and IBM Wild Ducks
https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/john-boyd-ibm-wild-ducks-lynn-wheeler/

I had been introduced to John Boyd in the early 80s and use to sponsor
his briefings at IBM. The Commandant of Marine Corp (recently passed
this spring) had leveraged Boyd for a Corps "make-over" (about the
same time that IBM was desparately in need of a make-over). There was
then a parady about the reformers versus the attrtionists appears in
the Marine Corps Gazette. I was once sitting next to anonymous author
at MCU meeting, seem to have gone 404, but lives on at wayback machine
https://web.archive.org/web/20160326155408/https://www.mca-marines.org/gazette/attritionist-letters-archives

We have had a group of Marines, who I have allowed to remain
anonymous, compile epistolary articles they have titled " The
Attritionist Letters." They write provocatively about what they see as
the ongoing clash between maneuver warfare advocates and
attritionists.  It is our hope that they will engender a spirited
debate over the next several months as we publish their letters.  I do
not agree with every thing that they assert, but they also make points
that are valid and well worth considering.  One of the most important
points I discovered soon after becoming the editor of the Gazette was
that you will have the opportunity to publish points that you may or
may not agree with and hope that the readers will take up the debate.

... snip ...

also archived here
https://fabiusmaximus.com/2011/05/11/27461

Boyd posts and web URLs
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subboyd.html
IBM downturn/downfall/breakup posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#ibmdownfall

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Computer Virtual Memory

From: Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Computer Virtual Memory
Date: 18 Jul, 2024
Blog: Facebook

re:
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#88 Computer Virtual Memory

I did a talk at OCT86 (user group) SEAS (EU SHARE) ... and "recently"
repeated it at Mar2011 (DC user group) HILLGANG
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/hill0316g.pdf

from recent Ferranti Atlas posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024b.html#39 Tonight's tradeoff
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024b.html#95 Ferranti Atlas and Virtual Memory
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024b.html#96 Ferranti Atlas and Virtual Memory

Melinda Varian's history
http://www.leeandmelindavarian.com/Melinda#VMHist
http://www.leeandmelindavarian.com/Melinda/neuvm.pdf
from above, Les Comeau has written (about TSS/360)

Since the early time-sharing experiments used base and limit registers
for relocation, they had to roll in and roll out entire programs when
switching users....Virtual memory, with its paging technique, was
expected to reduce significantly the time spent waiting for an
exchange of user programs.

What was most significant was that the commitment to virtual memory
was backed with no successful experience. A system of that period that
had implemented virtual memory was the Ferranti Atlas computer, and
that was known not to be working well.  What was frightening is that
nobody who was setting this virtual memory direction at IBM knew why
Atlas didn't work.35

... snip ...

Atlas  reference (gone 403?, but lives free at wayback):
https://web.archive.org/web/20121118232455/http://www.ics.uci.edu/~bic/courses/JaverOS/ch8.pdf

Paging can be credited to the designers of the ATLAS computer, who
employed an associative memory for the address mapping [Kilburn, et
al., 1962]. For the ATLAS computer, |w| = 9 (resulting in 512 words
per page), |p| = 11 (resulting in 2024 pages), and f = 5 (resulting in
32 page frames). Thus a 220-word virtual memory was provided for a
214- word machine. But the original ATLAS operating system employed
paging solely as a means of implementing a large virtual memory;
multiprogramming of user processes was not attempted initially, and
thus no process id's had to be recorded in the associative memory. The
search for a match was performed only on the page number p.

... snip ...

... referencing ATLAS used paging for large virtual memory ... but not
multiprogramming (multiple concurrent address spaces). Cambridge had
modified 360/40 with virtual memory and associative lookup that
included both process-id and page number.
http://www.leeandmelindavarian.com/Melinda/JimMarch/CP40_The_Origin_of_VM370.pdf

CP40 morphs into CP67 when 360/67 becomes available, standard with
virtual memory. As an undergraduate in 60s, I had been hired fulltime
for OS/360 running on 360/67 (as 360/65, originally was suppose to be
for TSS/360). The univ shutdown datacenter on weekends and I would
have it dedicated (although 48hrs w/o sleep made Monday classes
difficult). CSC then came out to install CP/67 (3rd after CSC itself
and MIT Lincoln Labs) and I mostly played with it during my dedicated
time ... spent the 1st six months or so redoing pathlengths for
running OS/360 in virtual machine. OS/360 benchmark was 322secs
on bare machine, initially 856secs in virtual machine (CP67 CPU
534secs), got CP67 CPU down to 113secs (from 534secs).

I redid scheduling&paging algorithms and added ordered seek for
disk i/o and chained page requests to maximize transfers/revolution
(2301 fixed-head drum from peak 70/sec to peak 270/sec). CP67 page
replacement to global LRU (at a time when academic literature
was all about "local LRU"), which I also deployed at Cambridge after
graduating and joining IBM. IBM Grenoble Scientific Center modified
CP67 to implement "local" LRU algorithm for their 1mbyte 360/67 (155
page'able pages after fixed memory requirements). Grenoble had very
similar workload as Cambridge but their throughput for 35users (local
LRU) was about the same as Cambrige 768kbyte 360/67 (104 page'able
pages) with 80 users (and global LRU) ... aka global LRU
outperformed "local LRU" with more than twice the number of users and
only 2/3rds the available memory.

... clip ...

posts mentioning virtual memory and page replacement algorithms
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#clock

other posts mentioning Ferranti Atlas
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2023f.html#25 Ferranti Atlas
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022h.html#44 360/85
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022h.html#21 370 virtual memory
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#54 IBM History
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#20 CP-67
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017j.html#71 A Computer That Never Was: the IBM 7095
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015c.html#47 The Stack Depth
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012l.html#37 S/360 architecture, was PDP-10 system calls
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011d.html#81 Multiple Virtual Memory
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007u.html#79 IBM Floating-point myths
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007u.html#77 IBM Floating-point myths
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007t.html#54 new 40+ yr old, disruptive technology
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007r.html#64 CSA 'above the bar'
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007r.html#51 Translation of IBM Basic Assembler to C?
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007e.html#1 Designing database tables for performance?
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006i.html#30 virtual memory
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005o.html#4 Robert Creasy, RIP
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003b.html#1 Disk drives as commodities. Was Re: Yamhill
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003b.html#0 Disk drives as commodities. Was Re: Yamhill
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003.html#72 Disk drives as commodities. Was Re: Yamhill
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002.html#42 a.f.c history checkup... (was What specifications will the standard year 2001 PC have?)
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001h.html#10 VM: checking some myths.
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000f.html#78 TSS ancient history, was X86 ultimate CISC? designs)

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Computer Virtual Memory

From: Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Computer Virtual Memory
Date: 18 Jul, 2024
Blog: Facebook

re:
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#88 Computer Virtual Memory
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#90 Computer Virtual Memory

in the late 70s at SJR, implemented a super efficient record I/O trace
... which was used monitoring and to feed configuration models,
including cache modeling that compared file i/o caching for disk level
caches, controller level caches, channel level caches and system level
caches (aka processor memory for staging data, DBMS caches, etc). For
a fixed amount of electronic store, system level cache always beat
dividing it up and spreading around at lower level (which is
effectively the same results I found in the 60s for global LRU
beating "local LRU", i.e. partitioning cache always required
increasing the total amount of electronic store). Easy for CMS
activity ... but also used for production MVS systems running in
virtual machines.

A side effect of the record level trace analysis ... realized that
there were also file collections that had "bursty" activity
... i.e. weekly/monthly reports, etc. ... many of the files weren't
otherwise needed except for the collective periodic use; found useful
later in things like ADSM.

however, one of the early record I/O monitor/trace results was getting
into conflicts with Tucson over the 3880 controller caches, aka
Ironwood & Sheriff for 3380 disks, i.e. 3880-11 8mbyte 4kbyte/page
record cache and 3880-13 8mbyte full track cache

Also issue about 3880 controller compared to 3830, while 3880 had
hardware path for 3mbyte data transfer, the rest was (slow) vertical
microcode microprocessor (compared to 3830 superfast horizontal
microcode), except for 3380 data transfer ... all other 3880
operations had much higher channel busy (than 3830). The 3090 group
had sized the number channels based on 3880 was same as 3830 (but with
3mbyte/sec transfer). When they found out how bad the 3880 was, they
realized that they needed to greatly increase the number of channels
(to achieve system target throughput) offsetting the increased channel
busy. The extra channels required an extra TCM and 3090 group
semi-facetiously joked that they would bill the 3880 group for the
increased 3090 manufacturing cost. Eventually marketing respun the big
increase in channels as wonderful I/O machine (when in fact was
required to offset the slow 3880 controller channel busy increase).

Then from long ago and far away (POK wanted to make some of the
trace/monitoring and reports available to the field for customers)
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007.html#email800807
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007.html#email800807b

In 1980, STL (since renamed SVL) is bursting at the seams and 300
people w/3720s, from the IMS group are being transferred to offsite
bldg (about half-way between STL & SJR) with dataprocessing back to
STL datacenter. They had tried "remote 3270" but found the human
factors unacceptable. I get con'ed into doing channel-extender support
so they can install channel-attached 3270 controllers in the offsite
bldg and there is no perceptible human factors difference between
between offsite and in STL. A side-effect is that the STL 168s for the
offsite group have 10-15% improvement in system throughput. The
channel-attached 3270 controllers had been previously been spread
across all the channels shared with disk controllers and the
(relatively) slower 3270 controller channel busy was interfering with
disk I/O. The channel-extender boxes were faster than even the disk
controllers, drastically reducing the channel busy for 3270 traffic
(improving disk and system throughput). There was even talk about
placing all STL 3270 controllers behind channel-extender boxes just to
improve all systems throughput. The hardware vendor then tries to get
IBM to release my support, but there is a group in POK playing with
some serial stuff and they get that vetoed. In 1988, IBM branch office
asks if I could help LLNL standardize some stuff they are playing
with, which quickly becomes fibre channel standard (including some
stuff I had done in 1980), "FCS" initially 1gbit full-duplex,
aggregate 200mbytes/sec. Then POK gets their stuff released with
ES/9000 as ESCON (when it is already obsolete). Then some POK
engineers get involved with FCS and define a heavy-weight protocol
that radically reduces native throughput that eventually ships as
FICON. Latest, public benchmark I can find is z196 "Peak I/O" that
gets 2M IOPS with 104 FICON. About the same time a FCS is announced
for E5-2600 server blades claiming over million IOPS (two such FCS
have higher throughput than 104 FICON). Note IBM pubs have SAPs
(system assist processors that do actual I/O) be held to 70% CPU
... which would be about 1.5M IOPS.

SMP, tightly-coupled, multiprocessor posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#SMP
CSC/VM posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#cscvm
playing disk engineer posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#disk
HONE posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#hone
channel-extender posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#channel.extender
FICON and FCS posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#ficon

posts mentioning DMKCOL
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022b.html#83 IBM 3380 disks
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022.html#83 165/168/3033 & 370 virtual memory
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013d.html#11 relative mainframe speeds, was What Makes an Architecture Bizarre?
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#47 nested LRU schemes
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011.html#71 Speed of Old Hard Disks
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011.html#70 Speed of Old Hard Disks
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010i.html#18 How to analyze a volume's access by dataset
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007.html#3 The Future of CPUs: What's After Multi-Core?
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006y.html#35 The Future of CPUs: What's After Multi-Core?

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Computer Virtual Memory

From: Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Computer Virtual Memory
Date: 18 Jul, 2024
Blog: Facebook

re:
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#88 Computer Virtual Memory
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#90 Computer Virtual Memory
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#91 Computer Virtual Memory

trivia: about the same time as I/O monitor/trace, I had also
implemented CMSBACK (used in numerous internal datacenters, including
large single-system image, loosely-coupled US online branch office
sales&marketing support HONE complex up in Palo Alto). More than
Decade later PC and workstation clients were added and released as
WSDF, which morphs into ADSM, then TSM. Current IBM history has
precursor to WSDF originating in 1988, however this ibm-main
references Melinda's history that it was at least 1983, and I
reference that it was already in ver 3 or 4 by 1983:
https://groups.google.com/g/bit.listserv.ibm-main/c/M94FF7teoE4/m/sZ4H74XQsqIJ
Melinda's history here (revision 08/17/92) pg.65
http://www.leeandmelindavarian.com/Melinda#VMHist
Late 70s, I had done the original version, then co-worker helped with
the next couple versions. He left IBM and did archive & backup
implementations for a VM software company that was chosen by IBM
Endicott to remarket ... while support was taken over in 1983 by the
two mentioned people in pg65/pg66 of Melinda's history (and references
to earlier work expunged, since then expunged again and date reset to
1988). Some old CMSBACK related email
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/lhwemail.html#cmsback

backup posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#backup

move trivia: Shortly after joining IBM, one of my hobbies was enhanced
production operating systems for internal datacenters and HONE was
long time customer. In the morph of CP67->VM370 they dropped and/or
simplified lots of features (including dropping tightly-coupled
multiprocessor). In 1974, I started migrating lots of CP67 features to
VM370 (including kernel reorg for multiprocessor, but not actual
support itself). About this time, all the US HONE datacenters were all
consolidated up in Palo Alto and enhanced with single-system-image,
loosely-coupled, shared DASD with load balancing and fall-over across
the complex. In 1975, I moved multiprocessor support to VM370,
initially for HONE so they could add a second processor to every
system (and with some slight of hand getting twice the throughput from
each system, this was in period where MVS documentation was claiming
two processor systems only had 1.2-1.5 times throughput of single
processor).

science center posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech
CSC/VM posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#cscvm
HONE posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#hone

even more trivia: when I transferred to SJR, I got to wander around
datacenters in silicon valley, including disk engineering & product
test (bldgs 14&15 across the street). They were doing 7x24,
pre-scheduled, stand-alone test and said that they had recently tried
MVS, but it had 15min mean-time-between failure (in that
environment). I offered to rewrite I/O supervisor, making it bullet
proof and never fail so they could do any amount of on-demand,
concurrent testing. Downside, there got into habit of blaming my
software for any problem and I had to spend increasing amount of time
playing disk engineer diagnosing their hardware problems. I then wrote
internal research report on the I/O reliability changes and happend to
mention the MVS MTBF, bringing wrath of MVS group on my head (no
question about validty, not allowed to expose MVS issues to upper IBM
management). Just before 3880 was about ready to ship to customers, FE
had 57 simiulated errors they expected to occur. In all 57 cases, MVS
was failing (requiring manual re-ipl) and in 2/3rds of the cases there
was no indication of what caused the failure (I didn't feel sorry).

getting to play disk engineer in bldgs14&15 posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#disk

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Why Bush Invaded Iraq

From: Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Why Bush Invaded Iraq
Date: 19 Jul, 2024
Blog: Facebook

Why Bush Invaded Iraq
https://lonecandle.medium.com/why-bush-invaded-iraq-c033e01eb18b

Primarily, Bush was motived by security. Bush feared what Saddam would
do with weapons of mass destruction (WMD). In the context of 9/11, an
attack on the U.S. homeland that killed thousands of people, American
leaders were on edge and didn't want to take any chance that there
would be a second attack, especially a second attack with weapons of
mass destruction.

... snip ...

... well, cousin to White House Chief of Staff Card ... was dealing
with Iraq in the UN and given proof that the WMDs (tracing back to US
in the Iran/Iraq war) had been decomissioned ... and provided the
proof to (cousin) Card and others. Then was locked up in military
hospital. Eventually let out and in 2010 published a book on the (US)
decommisioned WMDs.
https://www.amazon.com/EXTREME-PREJUDICE-Terrifying-Story-Patriot-ebook/dp/B004HYHBK2/

Four years later NYTimes had articles that the decommossioned WMDs had
been found early in the invasion, but the information was classified
for a decade.
http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2014/10/14/world/middleeast/us-casualties-of-iraq-chemical-weapons.html

note the military-industrial complex had wanted a war so badly that
corporate reps were telling former eastern block countries that if
they voted for IRAQ2 invasion in the UN, they would get membership in
NATO and (directed appropriation) USAID (can *ONLY* be used for
purchase of modern US arms, aka additional congressional gifts to MIC
complex not in DOD budget). From the law of unintended consequences,
the invaders were told to bypass ammo dumps looking for WMDs, when
they got around to going back, over a million metric tons had
evaporated (showing up later in IEDs)
https://www.amazon.com/Prophets-War-Lockheed-Military-Industrial-ebook/dp/B0047T86BA/

... from truth is stranger than fiction and law of unintended
consequences that come back to bite you, much of the radical Islam &
ISIS can be considered our own fault, VP Bush in the 80s
https://www.amazon.com/Family-Secrets-Americas-Invisible-Government-ebook/dp/B003NSBMNA/
pg292/loc6057-59:

There was also a calculated decision to use the Saudis as surrogates
in the cold war. The United States actually encouraged Saudi efforts
to spread the extremist Wahhabi form of Islam as a way of stirring up
large Muslim communities in Soviet-controlled countries. (It didn't
hurt that Muslim Soviet Asia contained what were believed to be the
world's largest undeveloped reserves of oil.)


... snip ...

Saudi radical extremist Islam/Wahhabi loosened on the world ... bin
Laden & 15of16 9/11 were Saudis (some claims that 95% of extreme Islam
world terrorism is Wahhabi related)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wahhabism

Mattis somewhat more PC (political correct)
https://www.amazon.com/Call-Sign-Chaos-Learning-Lead-ebook/dp/B07SBRFVNH/
pg21/loc349-51:

Ayatollah Khomeini's revolutionary regime took hold in Iran by ousting
the Shah and swearing hostility against the United States. That same
year, the Soviet Union was pouring troops into Afghanistan to prop up
a pro-Russian government that was opposed by Sunni Islamist
fundamentalists and tribal factions. The United States was supporting
Saudi Arabia's involvement in forming a counterweight to Soviet
influence.

... snip ...

The Danger of Fibbing Our Way into War. Falsehoods and fat military
budgets can make conflict more likely
https://web.archive.org/web/20200317032532/https://www.pogo.org/analysis/2020/01/the-danger-of-fibbing-our-way-into-war/
The Day I Realized I Would Never Find Weapons of Mass Destruction in
Iraq
https://www.nytimes.com/2020/01/29/magazine/iraq-weapons-mass-destruction.html

Note In 80s, (father) VP Bush supporting Saddam/Iraq in Iran/Iraq war,
then in early 90s (as president), Sat. photo recon analyst tells White
House that Saddam was marshaling forces to invade Kuwait. White House
says that Saddam would do no such thing and proceeds to discredit the
analyst. Later the analyst informs the White House that Saddam was
marshaling forces to invade Saudi Arabia, now the White House has to
choose between Saddam and the Saudis.
https://www.amazon.com/Long-Strange-Journey-Intelligence-ebook/dp/B004NNV5H2/

military-industrial(-congressional) complex posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#military.industrial.complex
perpetual war posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#perpetual.war
WMD posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#wmds

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Mainframe Integrity

Refed: **, - **, - **
From: Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Mainframe Integrity
Date: 19 Jul, 2024
Blog: Facebook

Since around turn of century, i86 server blade have tended to have ten
times the processing power of max. configured mainframe and a large
cloud operation will have at least a dozen megadatacenters around the
world, each one will have half million (or more) such server blades
(megadatacenters have enormous automation, processor equivalent of
millions of max configured mainframes managed with 70-80 staff).

Last product we did at IBM was HA/CMP, started out as HA/6000 for
NYTimes to move their newspaper system from VAXCluster to RS/6000. I
rename it HA/CMP when I start doing scientific/technical cluster
scale-up with national labs and commercial cluster scale-up with RDBMS
vendors (Oracle, Sybase, Informix, Ingres) that have VAXCluster
support in same source base with Unix (I do a distributed lock manager
with VAXCluster semantics to ease ports). Early Jan1992, in meeting
with Oracle CEO and staff, IBM AWD/Hester tells them that we would
have 16processor clusters by mid92 and 128processor clusters by
ye92. Somebody must have told Kingston supercomputer group because by
end of Jan92, cluster scale-up is transferred for announce as IBM
supercomputer (for technical/scientific *ONLY*) and we are told we
can't work on anything with more than four processors; we leave IBM a
few months later. Contributing may have been mainframe DB2 group
complaining if we were allowed to proceed it would be years ahead of
them (trivia: in late 70s I had worked on System/R, original
SQL/relational implementation, precursor to DB2).


1993: eight processor ES/9000-982 : 408MIPS, 51MIPS/processor
1993: RS6000/990 : 126MIPS; 16-way: 2016MIPS, 128-way: 16,128MIPS


RS6000 RIOS didn't have coherent cache for SMP (so scale-up purely
cluster) Somerset/AIM doing Power/PC 1993 announcement includes
coherent cache for SMP (so can do cluster, multiprocessor, and
clusters of multiprocessors)

note by turn of century, i86 processors had hardware layer that
translated i86 instructions into RISC micro-ops for execution,
negating gap between CISC & RISC.

https://www.cecs.uci.edu/~papers/mpr/MPR/19991025/131403.pdf

1999 IBM PowerPC 440 Hits 1,000MIPS (>six times z900 processor)
1999, Intel Pentium III hits 2,054MIPS (13times z900 processor)

2003, z990 32 processor 9BIPS (281MIPS/proc)
2003, Pentium4 hits 9,726MIPS, faster than 32 processor z990

More recent mainframe numbers are taking from IBM pubs about increase
of newer model compared to previous

z900, 16 processors, 2.5BIPS (156MIPS/proc), Dec2000
z990, 32 processors, 9BIPS, (281MIPS/proc), 2003
z9, 54 processors, 18BIPS (333MIPS/proc), July2005
z10, 64 processors, 30BIPS (469MIPS/proc), Feb2008
z196, 80 processors, 50BIPS (625MIPS/proc), Jul2010
EC12, 101 processors, 75BIPS (743MIPS/proc), Aug2012
z13, 140 processors, 100BIPS (710MIPS/proc), Jan2015
z14, 170 processors, 150BIPS (862MIPS/proc), Aug2017
z15, 190 processors, 190BIPS* (1000MIPS/proc), Sep2019
• pubs say z15 1.25 times z14 (1.25*150BIPS or 190BIPS)
z16, 200 processors, 222BIPS* (1111MIPS/proc), Sep2022
• pubs say z16 1.17 times z15 (1.17*190BIPS or 222BIPS)


z196/jul2010, 50BIPS, 625MIPS/processor
z16/sep2022, 222BIPS, 1111MIPS/processor

12yrs, Z196->Z16, 222/50=4.4times total system BIPS; 1111/625=1.8times
per processor MIPS.

2010 E5-2600 server blade benchmarked at 500BIPS, 10 times max
configured 2010 z196 and >twice 2022 z16

large cloud operation can have dozen or more megadatacenters around
the world, each with half million or more high-end blades
... aggregate a few million TIPS aka million million MIPS (TIPS:
thousand BIPS, million MIPS) ... enormous automation, a megadatacenter
with 70-80 staff.

trivia: max configured z196 went for $30M ($600,000/BIPS) compared to
IBM's base list price for E5-2600 server blade of $1815
($3.63/BIPS). Shortly later there was server chip press that they were
shipping at least half their product directly to cloud megadatacenters
(where they assemble their own systems for 1/3rd cost of brand name
servers) ... and IBM unloads its server blade business.

more trivia: In 1980, STL (since renamed SVL) is bursting at the seams
and 300 people w/3720s, from the IMS group are being transferred to
offsite bldg (about half-way between STL & SJR) with
dataprocessing back to STL datacenter. They had tried "remote 3270"
but found the human factors unacceptable. I get con'ed into doing
channel-extender support so they can install channel-attached 3270
controllers in the offsite bldg and there is no perceptible human
factors difference between between offsite and in STL.

A side-effect is that the STL 168s for the offsite group have 10-15%
improvement in system throughput.  The channel-attached 3270
controllers had been previously been spread across all the channels
shared with disk controllers and the (relatively) slower 3270
controller channel busy was interfering with disk I/O. The
channel-extender boxes were faster than even the disk controllers,
drastically reducing the channel busy for 3270 traffic (improving disk
and system throughput). There was even talk about placing all STL 3270
controllers behind channel-extender boxes just to improve all systems
throughput. The hardware vendor then tries to get IBM to release my
support, but there is a group in POK playing with some serial stuff
and they get that vetoed.

In 1988, IBM branch office asks if I could help LLNL standardize some
stuff they are playing with, which quickly becomes fibre channel
standard (including some stuff I had done in 1980), "FCS" initially
1gbit full-duplex, aggregate 200mbytes/sec.  Then POK gets their stuff
released with ES/9000 as ESCON (when it is already obsolete). Then
some POK engineers get involved with FCS and define a heavy-weight
protocol that radically reduces native throughput that eventually
ships as FICON. Latest, public benchmark I can find is z196 "Peak I/O"
that gets 2M IOPS with 104 FICON. About the same time a FCS is
announced for E5-2600 server blades claiming over million IOPS (two
such FCS have higher throughput than 104 FICON). Note IBM pubs have
SAPs (system assist processors that do actual I/O) be held to 70% CPU
... which would be about 1.5M IOPS.

(cloud) megadatacenter posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#megadatacenter
ha/cmp posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#hacmp
channel-extender posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#channel.extender
FCS and FICON posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#ficon

recemt posts mentioning mainframe and non-mainframe throubhput
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024b.html#98 IBM 360 Announce 7Apr1964
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024b.html#53 Vintage Mainframe
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024.html#81 Benchmarks

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Mainframe Integrity

From: Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Mainframe Integrity
Date: 20 Jul, 2024
Blog: Facebook

re:
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#94 Mainframe Integrity

see previous/above reference to having worked on FCS standard in 1988,
IBM then releases ESCON in the 90s (when it is already obsolete).
Eventually IBM becomes involved in FCS and defines heavy weight
protocol for FCS that gets released as FICON. Published benchmark z196
"Peak I/O" gets 2M IOPS with 104 FICON (on 104 FCS) when FCS announced
for e5-2600 blades claiming over million IOPS (two FCS have higher
throughput than 104 FICON). However IBM pubs recommend holding SAPs to
70% CPU which would be 1.5M IOPS.

IBM claims about mainframe I/O machine somewhat from 3090 when they
had to significantly increase number of channels because of 3880
controller had significantly increased channel busy overhead (compared
to previous disk 3830 disk controller) ... marketing respun the huge
increase in number of channels as 3090 be wonderful I/O machine (when
it was really needed to compensate for the huge 3880 channel busy
overhead). The huge increase in 3090 channels also required an
additional TCM and the 3090 group semi-facetiously said they were
going to bill the 3880 group for the increase in 3090 manufacturing
costs.

I've commented before about when transferred to IBM SJR I got to
wander around datacenters in silicon valley, including disk
engineering and product test across the street (bldgs14&15) ... at the
time they were running pre-scheduled, 7x24, stand-alone mainframe
testing; they mentioned that they recently had tried MVS, but MVS had
15min mean-time-between failure (in that environment). I offered to
rewrite I/O supervisor so it was bullet proof and never fail, allowing
any amount of concurrent, on-demand testing, greatly improving
productivity. At same time as greatly improving reliability and
integrity, I also radically cut pathlength (compared to MVS) ... I
joked that big reason for SSCH stuff in 370/xa (and later the SAPs)
was because MVS I/O pathlength was so bad.

One of the reasons that large cloud operations use (free) linux and
use free DBMS ... is cost (aka large cloud operation having dozens of
megadatacenters with each megadatacenter having millions and tens of
millions of cores). Turn of century IBM financials had mainframe
hardware a few percent of revenue and dropping (when in the 80s
mainframe hardware was majority of revenue). About a decade ago,
mainframe hardware was couple percent of revenue and still dropping,
but the mainframe group was 25% of revenue (and 40% of profit)
... nearly all software and services.

Enormous optimization had significantly dropped system costs, people
costs, software costs ... so that power/energy was becoming major cost
and lots of attention was being paid to getting chip makers to
optimize energy/BIPS. To put pressure on i86 chip vendors they've been
testing ARM chips (because of the energy/processing optimization done
for battery operation). Folklore is AIM/Somerset (aka joint apple,
ibm, motorola) was to move apple to power/pc, then because AIM wasn't
keeping up with energy/processing, they switched to i86, and then
because i86 wasn't keeping up with energy/processing they have
switched to their own ARM designed chips,

FCS & FICON posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#ficon
getting to play disk engineer in bldg14&15 posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#disk
cloud megadatacenter posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#megadatacenter

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Mainframe Integrity

From: Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Mainframe Integrity
Date: 20 Jul, 2024
Blog: Facebook

re:
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#94 Mainframe Integrity
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#95 Mainframe Integrity

Late 80s, senior disk engineer got talk scheduled at communication
group internal, world-wide, annual conference supposedly on 3174, but
opened the talk that the communication group was going to be
responsible for the demise of the disk division. The disk division was
seeing data fleeing datacenters to more distributed computing friendly
platforms, with a drop in disk sales. The disk division had come up
with a number of solutions but were constantly vetoed by the
communication group (with their corporate strategic ownership of
everything that crossed datacenter walls and fiercely fighting off
client/server and distributed computing trying to preserve their dumb
terminals paradigm). It wasn't just disks and a couple years later,
IBM has one of the largest losses in the history of US companies and
was being reorganized into the 13 "baby blues" in preparation for
breaking up the company:
https://web.archive.org/web/20101120231857/http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,977353,00.html
https://content.time.com/time/subscriber/article/0,33009,977353-1,00.html
we had already left IBM but get a call from the bowels of Armonk
(corporate hdqtrs) asking if we could help with the breakup of the
company. Before we get started, the board brings in the former
president of AMEX that (somewhat) reverses the breakup (although it
wasn't long before the disk division is gone).

... other trivia: disk division vp of software partial countermeasure
to communication group was investing in distributed computing startups
that would use IBM disks ... and would periodically ask us to visit
his investments to see if we could provide any help

mention periodically 360 i/o with lots of trade-offs because
technology from period ... little storage capacity ... everything back
in processor memory with. half-duplex channel, enormous protocol
chatter between controller and processor memory over half-duplex
channel.

for 1980 channel-extender went to full-duplex links .. allowed
streaming concurrently in both directions ... local memory at
controller end ... minimizing enormous protocol latency ... as
transfer speeds went to gbits, gbytes, tens gbytes .... protocol
chatter latency becomes dominate (especially if half-duplex) ... in
3880 case very slow processor worsening chatter protocol
latency. bldg14&15, disk engineers complained bitterly about bean
counter executives forcing cheap, slow control microprocessor for
3880.

currently there has been no CKD disks made for decades ... all being
simulated on industry standard fixed-block devices ... CKD i/o besides
slow FICON protocol also has CKD simulation overhead (3380 starting to
be fixed-block, can be seen in records/track formulas with record
length having to be rounded up to cell size).  about same time being
asked to help LLNL with FCS standardization, father of 801/RISC asks
me if I can help him with disk "wide-head" ... 3380 originally had
20track spacing between each data track, it was then cut to 10track
spacing ... doubling capacity and number of cylinders-tracks ... then
cut again for triple capacity. "wide-head" would format 16 closely
spaced data tracks and servo track; wide-head would follow
servo-tracks on each side ... data transfer in parallel on all 16
tracks. Problem was mainframe channels couldn't handle 50mbyte/sec
(similar to RAID transfer rates)

channel-extender posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#channel.extender
IBM downturn/downfall/breakup posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#ibmdownfall
getting to play disk engineer in bldg14&15 posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#disk
DASD, CKD, FBA, multi-track search, etc, posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#dasd
FCS and FICON posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#ficon

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Mainframe Integrity

From: Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Mainframe Integrity
Date: 20 Jul, 2024
Blog: Facebook

re:
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#94 Mainframe Integrity
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#95 Mainframe Integrity
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2024d.html#96 Mainframe Integrity

Not long after leaving IBM, I was brought in as consultant to small
client/server startup. Two of former Oracle employees that we had
worked with on HA/CMP cluster scale-up were there responsible for
something they called "commerce server" and they wanted to be able to
do payment transactions, the startup had also invented this technology
they called "SSL" they wanted to use, it is now frequently called
"electronic commerce". I had responsibility for everything between
ecommerce servers and the financial payment networks. Afterwards I put
together a talk on "Why Internet Wasn't Business Critical
Dataprocessing" (that the Internet Standards RFC editor, Postel
sponsored at ISI/USC) based on the work I had to do, multi-level
security layers, multi-redundant operation, diagnostics, process and
procedural software and documents.

trivia: when doing HA/CMP had to do fault and exploit/vulnerability
resistant/resilient. Jim Gray in 1984 had published study of
availability/outages and found hardware was getting more reliable and
outages were shifting to people mistakes and environmental (tornadoes,
hurricanes, floods, earthquakes, power outages, etc) and so was also
doing a lot on people operation and geographically separated operation
(coining disaster survivability and geographic survivability
when out marketing) ... and the IBM S/88 product administrator started
taking us around to their customers and also asked me to do a section
for the corporate continuous availability product document (but
it got pulled because Rochester/AS400 and POK/mainframe complained
that at the time they couldn't meet the requirements).
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/grayft84.pdf

HA/CMP posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#hacmp
availability posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#available
"e-commerce" paymnet gateway posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#gateway
internet posts
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#internet

a couple posts referring to "why internet isn't business critical
dataprocessing", postel, ha/cmp
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022g.html#26 Why Things Fail
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2022e.html#105 FedEx to Stop Using Mainframes, Close All Data Centers By 2024
https://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2021e.html#74 WEB Security

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970


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