List of Archived Posts

2001 Newsgroup Postings (08/17 - 09/02)

YKYGOW...
History of Microsoft Word (and wordprocessing in general)
Most complex instructions (was Re: IBM 9020 FAA/ATC Systems from 1960's)
Most complex instructions (was Re: IBM 9020 FAA/ATC Systems from 1960's)
YKYGOW...
YKYGOW...
YKYGOW...
YKYGOW...
YKYGOW...
Net banking, is it safe???
Net banking, is it safe???
YKYGOW...
Question about the 'U'
GETMAIN R/RU (was: An IEABRC Adventure)
IBM 9020 FAA/ATC Systems from 1960's
IBM 9020 FAA/ATC Systems from 1960's
Net banking, is it safe???
History of Microsoft Word (and wordprocessing in general)
History of Microsoft Word (and wordprocessing in general)
Very CISC Instuctions (Was: why the machine word size ...)
Very CISC Instuctions (Was: why the machine word size ...)
3745 and SNI
History of Microsoft Word (and wordprocessing in general)
Very CISC Instuctions (Was: why the machine word size ...)
Proper ISA lifespan?
Net banking, is it safe???
No Trusted Viewer possible?
History of Microsoft Word (and wordprocessing in general)
Proper ISA lifespan?
History of Microsoft Word (and wordprocessing in general)
IBM OS Timeline?
3745 and SNI
IBM OS Timeline?
Waterloo Interpreters (was Re: RAX (was RE: IBM OS Timeline?))
IBM OS Timeline?
Net banking, is it safe???
Net banking, is it safe???
IBM OS Timeline?
IBM OS Timeline?
IBM OS Timeline?
IBM OS Timeline?
Withdrawal Announcement 901-218 - No More 'small machines'
Question re: Size of Swap File
Withdrawal Announcement 901-218 - No More 'small machines'
Withdrawal Announcement 901-218 - No More 'small machines'
Withdrawal Announcement 901-218 - No More 'small machines'
Withdrawal Announcement 901-218 - No More 'small machines'
Withdrawal Announcement 901-218 - No More 'small machines'
Withdrawal Announcement 901-218 - No More 'small machines'
Withdrawal Announcement 901-218 - No More 'small machines'
I hate Compaq
DARPA was: Short Watson Biography
misc loosely-coupled, sysplex, cluster, supercomputer, & electronic commerce
Credit Card # encryption
Computer security: The Future
Computer security: The Future
E-commerce security????
E-commerce security????

YKYGOW...

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: YKYGOW...
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Fri, 17 Aug 2001 16:50:30 GMT
bhk@dsl.co.uk (Brian {Hamilton Kelly}) writes:
I hope you're not implicating Lynn Wheeler (@garlic) in this :-)

what!!! somebody casting aspersion on garlic!!!

i moved to south san jose in late '70s and started experiencing walking out in the morning being hit in the face with the wind blowing up valley from gilroy (garlic fields, the garlic capital of the world).

the ecology of the bay has hills/mountains on both sides and the gap at golden gate bridge. as the south valley heats up during the day, the air rises and creates a vacumm effect that results in pulling a lot of air thru the golden gate (wind blowing down valley south). This tends to keep san fran cool ... since the hotter it is, the faster that air tends to be pulled thru the golden gate.

during the night the land cools off faster than the bay ... so in the morning the air over the bay is rising ... and pulling air from south valley north (over the garlic fields).

you walk out in the morning and you are immediately hit in the face with the wind blowing up valley from the garlic fields.

--
Anne & Lynn Wheeler | lynn@garlic.com - http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/

History of Microsoft Word (and wordprocessing in general)

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From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: History of Microsoft Word (and wordprocessing in general)
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Sat, 18 Aug 2001 03:41:53 GMT
Tim Shoppa writes:
And in the minicomputer world, you of course have to start with TECO and talk about markup with Runoff... I'm sure that some IBM mainframers will chime in here about the markup languages used on their machines, which (as I understand it) evolved into SGML and HTML.

stu at cambridge scientific center did "script" in the '60s ... which had a runoff like syntax. Then in the early '70s the people at CSC added "GML" markup syntax to script .... although "script" could still be used in either runoff like syntax or markup syntax.

when ibm pc came out ... somebody did a port of the script ... effectively same formating that could be done on the mainframe.

and of course "GML" ... which people think stands for generalized markup language ... were actually the first letter of the last names of the three people that worked on it.

script wasn't a word-processor itself ... it handled document formating. script/gml documents used some other editor ... typically non-WYSIWYG. CMS had a number of editors ... starting with the standard CMS editor in the mid-60s, and in the 70s the were a whole slew of 3720 full-screen editors, edgar, ned, red, xedit, etc.

one of the big fullscreen battles in the early 70s was whether scroll-up & scroll-down commands were a reference point with respect to the document in the window or the human using the window to view the document). The "up" command tended to move the cursor up one line towards the top of the screen ... however "scroll-up" could mean that the document "moved up" (in which case the cursor & window would be moving towards the end of the document) or "scroll-up" could mean that the window (& cursor) moved up with respect to the document (towards the beginning of the document).

SGML User's Group history
http://www.oasis-open.org/cover/sgmlhist0.html

that is in addition to Goldfarb's history at:
http://www.sgmlsource.com/history/roots.htm
http://web.archive.org/web/20020221213354/http://www.sgmlsource.com/history/roots.htm

random refs:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/94.html#43 Bloat, elegance, simplicity and other irrelevant concepts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/94.html#55 How Do the Old Mainframes Compare to Today's Micros?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/96.html#24 old manuals
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/97.html#9 HELP! Chronology of word-processing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/97.html#26 IA64 Self Virtualizable?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/98.html#16 S/360 operating systems geneaology
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/98.html#21 Reviving the OS/360 thread (Questions about OS/360)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#42 Enter fonts (was Re: Unix case-sensitivity: how did it originate?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#43 Enter fonts (was Re: Unix case-sensitivity: how did it originate?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#91 Documentation query
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#197 Computing As She Really Is. Was: Re: Life-Advancing Work of Timothy Berners-Lee
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000.html#8 Computer of the century
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000.html#34 IBM 360 Manuals on line ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000c.html#30 internal corporate network, misc.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000d.html#30 Secure Operating Systems
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000e.html#0 What good and old text formatter are there ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000e.html#1 What good and old text formatter are there ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000e.html#23 Is Tim Berners-Lee the inventor of the web?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001b.html#50 IBM 705 computer manual
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001c.html#88 Unix hard links
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001d.html#42 IBM was/is: Imitation...
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001e.html#73 CS instruction, when introducted ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001g.html#54 DSRunoff; was Re: TECO Critique
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001h.html#9 VM: checking some myths.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001h.html#34 D
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001h.html#46 Whom Do Programmers Admire Now???

--
Anne & Lynn Wheeler | lynn@garlic.com - http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/

Most complex instructions (was Re: IBM 9020 FAA/ATC Systems from 1960's)

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From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Most complex instructions (was Re: IBM 9020 FAA/ATC Systems from 1960's)
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Sat, 18 Aug 2001 17:52:39 GMT
Frank McConnell writes:
DISP, and its disable/enable pair PSDB and PSEB. All privileged instructions, not intended for user code, although I have read and written privileged non-system code use PSDB/PSEB to stall the dispatcher. DISP effectively causes an interrupt (either when the DISP instruction is executed, or when a later PSEB returns the pseudo-disable count to 0), and that gets the actual MPE dispatcher code involved.

VAMPS was a multiprocessor version of 370/125. The 370/115 & 370/125 had somewhat unique internal architectures (for 370). They consisted of a 9port (370) memory bus and several microprocessor engines installed on the memory bus ports.

In the 370/115, all the microprocessors were identical ... they just had different programs loaded that were function specific ... i.e. emulate 370 processor, disk controller, unit record controller, tape controller, telecommunication controller, etc.

The 370/125 differed from the 115 in that the engine used for the 370 emulation was about 50% faster than the other engines.

VAMPS was a 370/125 project to install up to five "370 engines" in the same configuration (in max. 370 configuration, it only left four ports for controller engines).

For the VAMPS project, migrated the VM/370 dispatcher, much of the first level interrupt handlers, and much of the page I/O supervisor into "mirocode" of the various engines; and of course there were the corresponding (privilege) instructions to interface to these migrated functions ... i.e. add task to dispatching queue, add page request to page I/O queue, etc.

The 370 "engines" also had an enhanced version of VM microcode assist (in part because I was also concurrently working on ECPS for virgil/tully).

The 370 "microcode" engine would attempt to perform all functions ... including various microcode assist operations. If it found that it could not complete an operation and needed survices of the (software) kernel, it would check to see if any processor was already operating in kernel mode, if so it would just queue a light-weight request with sufficient information to invoke the necessary processing and go looking for some other work. If there was no processor already in kernel mode, it would just enter kernel mode.

The point was that 1) the then existing VM/370 kernel didn't have full symmetric multiprocessing support 2) the changes for the above amounted to relatively trivial number of lines of code in the kernel software, 3) the measured percent kernel time (based on the enhanced microcode assist) was much less than 20% (so a five engine configuration might have something like total max of 80% a single engine in kernel mode).

When the VAMPS project was terminated, in part because the processing power overlapped the virgil/tully configurations ... we adopted the microcode design to kernel software.

High-activity paths of the kernel that received control directly from the first level interrupt handlers were modified to support fine-grain locking symmetrical multiprocessing. However, the majority of the kernel (in terms of total code size, but not in terms of percent pathlength) was behind a single "kernel" lock.

The traditional IBM mainframe approach to symmetric multiprocessing up until that time was single "kernel" lock where a processor would "spin" on the kernel lock until it was available.

Adopting the VAMPS microcode dispatcher design to the software kernel, resulted instead something that I called a bounce lock; aka if the processor didn't obtain the "kernel" lock, it would queue a light-weight request for kernel lock/services and go off to the dispatcher to find some other work to do.

This implementation provided the absolute maximum symmetric multiprocessor thruput per line of SMP code modifications.

random refs:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#smp Multiprocessor, tightly-coupled, SMP, compare&swap
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#fairshare Performance and/or Scheduling

http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/95.html#5 Who started RISC? (was: 64 bit Linux?)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/95.html#6 801
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#149 OS/360 (and descendents) VM system?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000.html#11 I'm overwhelmed
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000.html#12 I'm overwhelmed
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000c.html#30 internal corporate network, misc.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000c.html#49 Does the word "mainframe" still have a meaning?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000c.html#68 Does the word "mainframe" still have a meaning?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000d.html#10 4341 was "Is a VAX a mainframe?"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000d.html#11 4341 was "Is a VAX a mainframe?"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000e.html#6 Ridiculous
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000e.html#7 Ridiculous
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000f.html#63 TSS ancient history, was X86 ultimate CISC? designs)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000g.html#7 360/370 instruction cycle time
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000g.html#8 360/370 instruction cycle time
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001b.html#40 John Mashey's greatest hits
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001c.html#2 Z/90, S/390, 370/ESA (slightly off topic)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001f.html#43 Golden Era of Compilers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001f.html#69 Test and Set (TS) vs Compare and Swap (CS)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001h.html#33 D
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001h.html#69 Very CISC Instuctions (Was: why the machine word size ...)

--
Anne & Lynn Wheeler | lynn@garlic.com - http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/

Most complex instructions (was Re: IBM 9020 FAA/ATC Systems from 1960's)

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From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Most complex instructions (was Re: IBM 9020 FAA/ATC Systems from 1960's)
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Sat, 18 Aug 2001 17:59:48 GMT
Anne & Lynn Wheeler writes:
The 370 "engines" also had an enhanced version of VM microcode assist (in part because I was also concurrently working on ECPS for virgil/tully).

oh yes, and some misc. ECPS, virgil/tully, microcode, etc refs:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#360mcode 370/370 m'code
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/94.html#21 370 ECPS VM microcode assist
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/94.html#27 370 ECPS VM microcode assist
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/94.html#28 370 ECPS VM microcode assist
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/94.html#51 Rethinking Virtual Memory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/95.html#3 What is an IBM 137/148 ???
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#7 IBM S/360
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#148 OS/360 (and descendents) VM system?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000.html#12 I'm overwhelmed
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000b.html#37 How to learn assembler language for OS/390 ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000c.html#50 Does the word "mainframe" still have a meaning?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000c.html#76 Is a VAX a mainframe?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000d.html#11 4341 was "Is a VAX a mainframe?"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000d.html#12 4341 was "Is a VAX a mainframe?"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000d.html#20 S/360 development burnout?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000e.html#6 Ridiculous
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000f.html#55 X86 ultimate CISC? No. (was: Re: "all-out" vs less aggressive designs)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000f.html#57 X86 ultimate CISC? No. (was: Re: "all-out" vs less aggressive designs)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000f.html#63 TSS ancient history, was X86 ultimate CISC? designs)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000g.html#7 360/370 instruction cycle time
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001b.html#29 z900 and Virtual Machine Theory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001b.html#69 Z/90, S/390, 370/ESA (slightly off topic)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001b.html#83 Z/90, S/390, 370/ESA (slightly off topic)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001c.html#2 Z/90, S/390, 370/ESA (slightly off topic)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001c.html#48 database (or b-tree) page sizes
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001d.html#26 why the machine word size is in radix 8??
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001d.html#54 VM & VSE news
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001e.html#73 CS instruction, when introducted ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001f.html#16 Wanted other CPU's
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001h.html#59 Blinkenlights

--
Anne & Lynn Wheeler | lynn@garlic.com - http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/

YKYGOW...

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: YKYGOW...
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Sat, 18 Aug 2001 20:00:38 GMT
jcmorris@mitre.org (Joe Morris) writes:
Must be rough on vampires in the Bay area...

Joe Morris


it isn't too bad as you move north/up valley ... but from the ibm plant site (say from cottle rd) south it can be really strong.

--
Anne & Lynn Wheeler | lynn@garlic.com - http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/

YKYGOW...

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From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: YKYGOW...
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Sun, 19 Aug 2001 15:21:49 GMT
Anne & Lynn Wheeler writes:
We managed to get a pc/rt with a 5081 into somebody's booth (not ibm) at Interop '88 running a demo copy of case's snmp. trivia question: what was causing the floor nets to crash & burn until the wee hrs of the morning before the start of the show?

besides the problem with the floor nets crashing & burning ... there were still the network management (as well as gosip) wars going on ... and case having a demonstratable snmp at interop '88 (in several booths) appeared to turn the tide. After that snmp really picked up momentum.

misc. refs (from old usenet postings):


From: OLE@CSLI.STANFORD.EDU (Ole J. Jacobsen)
Newsgroups: comp.protocols.tcp-ip
Subject: INTEROP 88: 3rd TCP/IP Conference and Exhibition
Message-ID: <585858698.0.OLE@CSLI.Stanford.EDU>
Date: 25 Jul 88 18:31:38 GMT
Date-Received: 28 Jul 88 06:57:52 GMT
Sender: daemon@ucbvax.BERKELEY.EDU
Organization: The Internet

INTEROP 88: The 3rd TCP/IP Interoperability Conference and Exhibition
will be held at the Santa Clara Convention Center and Doubletree Hotel
from September 26 through 30th, 1988.  The format is 2 days of tutorials
followed by 3 days of technical session (16 in all).  For the first time,
there will also be an Interoperability exhibition where vendors will show
TCP/IP systems on a "Show and Tel-Net" which additionally will be connected
to the Internet.

A number of vendors, known as the "Netman" group will be demonstrating
an experimental network management system based on the  ISO CMIP/CMIS
protocols.

For more information on the conference contact:

Advanced Computing Environments
480 San Antonio Road, Suite 100
Mountain View, CA 94040
(415) 941-3399
-------

& an extract in rfc 2441
The Internet protocols (mainly IP, TCP, UDP, FTP, Telnet, FTP, and even SNMP) were defined and documented in their RFCs. DoD adopted them and announced a date by which all of DoD units would have to use TCP/IP. They even translated RFC791 from Jon's English to proper Militarese.

However, all the other countries (i.e., their governments and PTTs) in the world joined the ISO wagon, the X.25 based suite of OSI protocols. The US government joined them and defined GOSIP. All the large computer companies (from IBM and DEC down) announced their future plans to join the GOSIP bandwagon. DoD totally capitulated and denounced the "DoD unique protocols" and was seeking ways to forget all about them, spending million of dollars on GOSIP and X.500.

Against them, on the Internet side, there was a very small group of young Davids. The OSI camp had its prestige, but we had working systems, a large community of devotees, and properly documented protocols that allowed integration of the TCP/IP suite into every UNIX system, such as in every SUN workstation.

Against the strict laws in Europe, their universities developed an underground of Internet connections. One could get from California to the university in Rome, for example, for example, by going first over the Internet across the US to the east coast, then to the UK, then using some private lines to France, then to CERN in Switzerland, and from there to Rome - while breaking the laws of all those countries with every packet.

Meanwhile, in the states, Academia, and the research communities, never knew about GOSIP.

The Internet, against all the conventional wisdom, grew without anyone being in charge, without central control, and without any central planning.

The war between the ISO and the TCP/IP camps never took place. One camp turned out to be a no show.


--
Anne & Lynn Wheeler | lynn@garlic.com - http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/

YKYGOW...

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From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: YKYGOW...
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Sun, 19 Aug 2001 16:34:39 GMT
Anne & Lynn Wheeler writes:
besides the problem with the floor nets crashing & burning ... there were still the network management (as well as gosip) wars going on ... and case having a demonstratable snmp at interop '88 (in several booths) appeared to turn the tide. After that snmp really picked up momentum.

took another year for snmp to get to equal footing ...

From: dcrocker@AHWAHNEE.STANFORD.EDU (Dave Crocker)
Newsgroups: comp.protocols.tcp-ip
Subject: Re:  DoD --> CMOT and SNMP
Date: 2 Sep 89 04:40:26 GMT
Organization: The Internet

(Sorry.  I intended to send this to the entire list. DHC)

From dcrocker Fri Sep  1 21:28:53 1989
From: Dave Crocker <dcrocker>
Subject: Re:  DoD --> CMOT and SNMP
To: mcsun!cernvax!cgch!wasc@uunet.uu.net

The Internet Activities Board has declared SNMP and CMOT to be co-equal
standards.  If effect, this means that they both have a stamp of approval
from a significant "standards" body.  (For the TCP/IP technology, the
IAB fills the kind of role that ISO and CCITT and ECMA do in various
parts of international communities.

So much for the stamp of approval.

Your question is more to the point and asks about actual support by
vendors.  (A nicely practical point to have concern for.)

A number of companies are currently shipping products that use SNMP.
Further, the NSFNet is managed using it.  It is my impression that virtually
all TCP/IP vendors have announced intent to support SNMP, if they are not
already doing so.

SNMP is unique to the TCP/IP community, although it uses the OSI ASN.1
encoding standard, for specifying the format of objects.  CMOT is derived
from the OSI CMOT standards effort, although I am told there are some
differences.  It is not clear to me that these differences are in the
management protocol, itself, it does run over a modified stack of
support protocols.  Most significantly, is uses TCP or, perhaps, UDP,
instead of an OSI transport.  Hence, CMOT gets you closer to the future
of OSI network management protocol details.

However, there does not appear to be any vendor that currently ships
CMOT and, therefore, there is no field (production network) experience
using it.  While a number of vendors have announced plans to support
CMOT, I am not aware of any official, announced, delivery dates from
these vendors.

A further point about the recent decision to make SNMP and CMOT co-equal
standards is that their use of the Management Information Base (MIB) was
entirely de-coupled.  While one should expect them to continue to use the
original 100 variable, there having additional variable in common is
problematic.  At the least, such sharing should be expected to organic or
accidental, rather than formally enforced.  (That should be "expected to
be organic..."  I am on a thin wire with a poor editor.)

As always, I trust that others will elaborate on, as well as correct,
the above.  Dive in!

Dave Crocker
Digital Equipment Corp.

P.S.  On review, I note that I did not respond to your query about
federal requirements for CMOT support:  There is strong governmental
pressure for moving to OSI.  This is embodied in the GOSIP document.
In general, however, the requirements are careful to allow use of
alternatives.  Perhaps the most extreme way of viewing this is that a
vendor certainly cannot consider ignoring the OSI CMOT.  I am less clear
about their ability to dodge CMOT (but am sure that someone out there in
tcp-land will chime in to clarify, please?)  Enough vendors have stated
intent to support CMOT and enough are working on it, that I would expect it
to start showing up in the future.

P.P.S.  I should use this opportunity to suggest a personal bias.  It is NOT
about which protocol I prefer.  In fact, the brouhaha has, in my opinion,
distracted us from worrying about how to manage multi-administration
inter-networks.  The chosen protocol is not irrelevant to this, but my
suspicion is that we could start with a hopelessly incomplete one and
still not know how to use it to its fullest.

That is, our general understanding and pursuit of specifying and
developing management (application) SERVICES has been quite limited
and that we would do well to focus on MIB enhancement and specification
of standard applications for management.  (I.e., focus on the bottom
and top of the management architecture.)

D/

--
Anne & Lynn Wheeler | lynn@garlic.com - http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/

YKYGOW...

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From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: YKYGOW...
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Mon, 20 Aug 2001 16:18:34 GMT
jcmorris@mitre.org (Joe Morris) writes:
Sounds like a history of VNET as well, no?

Joe Morris


there is this (likely true) folktale about some (networking) technical advisor associated with corporate hdqtrs, when he first came across VNET, wrote an opinion that it couldn't be true since a fully decentralized operational network required 100s of person years to design, implement and deploy (on par with the FS project); and he had access to executive level project allocation and expenses and no such project was listed; therefor it couldn't exist.

another folktale was of a reported presentation in the mid-80s to the corporate executive committee that if VNET wasn't converted to SNA, it would stop working (ignoring for the moment that if it had tried to have used SNA it would have never happened).

one of the brilliance of VNET was that from the start it divorced the link-level and much of the network-level from the higher levels and effectively had gateway function from the start (essentially late '60s). This didn't appear in the internet until the great cut-over in '83 (and was one of the reasons that the internal network was larger than the arpanet/internet from just about the beginning thru the mid-80s).

in the ibm batch world, one of the primary implementations was JES2 & NJE, which didn't share this characteristic and it was frequent that when two different releases of JES2/NJE attempted to diretly communicate it could result in a (total) system crash. As a result, on the internal network, JES2/NJE nodes were relegated to peripherial nodes with intermediate VNET nodes having line-drivers that handled the appropriate JES2/NJE header formating to minimize JES2 taking down the complete system (that it was running on).

the primary design and implementation effort was the work of one of the people at the cambridge scientific center (same center that virtual machines, a lot of ibm time-sharing, GML, etc came out of; pretty productive for a location that rarely had more than 40 people).

random refs:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/internet.htm
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subindex.html#network
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subindx2.html#network
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subpubkey.html#networking

--
Anne & Lynn Wheeler | lynn@garlic.com - http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/

YKYGOW...

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: YKYGOW...
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Mon, 20 Aug 2001 16:25:12 GMT
genew@shuswap.net (Gene Wirchenko) writes:
What vampire is going to be up in the morning?

the up-valley change in wind direction happened sometime the previous evening ... maybe sometime between 8-11pm.

the wind would then change to down-valley sometime late mid-morning. you would sometimes find san jose airport shutdown for 10 minutes or so around 11am for take-off/landings to reverse direction (majority of the time the pattern is south to north, but some mornings it would be the reverse and then have to change sometime mid-morning).

--
Anne & Lynn Wheeler | lynn@garlic.com - http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/

Net banking, is it safe???

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From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Net banking, is it safe???
Newsgroups: comp.security.misc
Date: Mon, 20 Aug 2001 17:15:07 GMT
eric@badtux.org (Eric Lee Green) writes:
Sorry, guy. I was talking about net banking using a web browser, not a special client. Web browsers do not work the way you mention. Believe me, I write web applications for a living at the moment, I wish they worked the way you mention :-}.

> If a user does not have a public/private key pair, then you are > correct that an SSL connection only authenticates the server. You are > also correct that in order for the client to authenticate the server, > the client must have special software. However, I do not agree with > your statement that such an approach is impractical. That special > client is ALREADY resident within Netscape and Internet Explorer! If

Care to share? The only way I've found to do this is via PKI, and PKI is not secure due to the possibility of a corrupted key server (see Bruce Schneir's newsletter for details, or better yet, recent events where a bogus Microsoft key was placed in one of the big names' key servers).


Netscape uses PKCS#11 ... and can be setup so that a file on the client machine can emulate a hardware token ... and a PIN can be required to "open" the (encrypted) file that houses the private key. It is also possible to load a PKCS#11 driver that talks to a real token/reader.

For instance, in netscape ... hit the security button and it brings up a window of all the security related information. One of the entries on the left is "passwords". If you click "passwords", you set something that while all the words say "certificates" ... it really refers to your private key. There is also an entry "certifictes" on the left, with subentries "yours", "people", "web sites", & "signers". If you click "yours", it will show you any public key certificates that correspond to your private key(s).

IE supports something similar using MSCAPI.

It does get tricky if you want to have a single web application that works/looks the same for both netscape and IE tho.

such things have been doen, it is possible to do something using certificate-less PKI ... for instance see (AADS) nacha references at
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/

It is also possible to upgrade radius to support public/private key authentication ... where a public key is stored in the radius database in lieu of a PIN/password (radius possibly handles 99.999% of the internet-related client-authentication events that go on in the world today ... although with PIN/passwords).

The administrative operation & business processes for managing the radius database stays the same (even with public key enhancement), the issue is that it eliminates the well-known problems with shared-secret authentication. It is also possible to do web-server "stubs" that interface to radius for client authentication; rather than the rather prevalent approach which is a local flat file with userid/passwords.

It is also possible to do an incremental transition, where a flat file userid/password is imported to radius, w/o changing the look & feel to the clients. Then on an account by account basis, conversion could be done to public key.

this approach can be done in a certificate-less PKI mode ... w/o resorting to the possibly better known certificate-based PKI (and all its problems).

random refs:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subpubkey.html#radius
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subpubkey.html#sslcerts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subpubkey.html#privacy
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subintegrity.html#fraud

in addition to some of bruce's comments ... also see
http://www.smu.edu/~jwinn/ Jane Winn's home page !! NOTE moved to !!
http://www.law.washington.edu/Faculty/Winn/Publications/The%20Emperor's%20New%20Clothes.htm
http://www.smu.edu/~jwinn/shocking-truth.htm shocking truth about !! NOTE moved to !!
http://www.law.washington.edu/Faculty/Winn/Publications/The%20Emperor's%20New%20Clothes.htm

digital signatures and internet commerce

--
Anne & Lynn Wheeler | lynn@garlic.com - http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/

Net banking, is it safe???

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From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Net banking, is it safe???
Newsgroups: comp.security.misc
Date: Mon, 20 Aug 2001 18:14:08 GMT
Anne & Lynn Wheeler writes:
Netscape uses PKCS#11 ... and can be setup so that a file on the client machine can emulate a hardware token ... and a PIN can be required to "open" the (encrypted) file that houses the private key. It is also possible to load a PKCS#11 driver that talks to a real token/reader.

pkcs#11 reference:
http://developer.netscape.com/docs/manuals/security/pkcs/index.htm
http://web.archive.org/web/20020210182557/http://developer.netscape.com/docs/manuals/security/pkcs/index.htm

for common support (both netscape & IE) ... we eventually had to do some magic java that talked directly to a token/reader driver.

--
Anne & Lynn Wheeler | lynn@garlic.com - http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/

YKYGOW...

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From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: YKYGOW...
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Mon, 20 Aug 2001 21:28:22 GMT
Sam Yorko writes:
Since I bicycle ride down Coyote valley during my "lunch" break, I am full aware of when the wind changes here; it can be around 1:00. Time it wrong, and I could be faced with a head wind in >both< directions...

in the early 80s, i periodically did some work at STL lab (on bailey). and did bicycle south in the morning and north in the afternoon and had strong head winds in both direction (before moving further south)

--
Anne & Lynn Wheeler | lynn@garlic.com - http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/

Question about the 'U'

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Question about the 'U'
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Mon, 20 Aug 2001 21:33:07 GMT
pamolo@indigo.ie (Paolo G. Cordone) writes:
I consulted some books I have and in fact some of them give the first meaning while some others the second. What's the scoop? Is there not an RFC that can confirm the term?

go to
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/rfcietff.htm

& click on term (term->RFC#)

& then click on "URI" in Acronym fastpath.

that will get you to long list of RFCs related to uniform resource

--
Anne & Lynn Wheeler | lynn@garlic.com - http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/

GETMAIN R/RU (was: An IEABRC Adventure)

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From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: GETMAIN R/RU (was: An IEABRC Adventure)
Newsgroups: comp.lang.asm370
Date: Mon, 20 Aug 2001 21:53:44 GMT
Wild Bill writes:
I'm not sure that 3033's had more than 16MB, Gilbert. I seem to recall problems with TSS and MVS IPLing on 470V/8's that had 16MB available to users. They run through memory, clearing as they go, and counting on the fact that they will 0C4 when they hit the end of memory. When the 0C4's weren't there, and the IPL would self-destruct, or worse!

3033s had >16mb real but only 24bit (instruction) addressing. the 16bit table page table entry had two available bits (4k pages, ... 12bit displacement, 12bit page number, 2 assigned bits, and 2 unused, reserved bits). The 2 unused/reserved bits were redefined on the 3033 to give 26bit addressing (64mbit real) and of course, IDALs have alwas been 31bit (so I/O into/out of >16meg was possible).

3033 also introduced dual address space.

specific refs:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000e.html#57 Why not an IBM zSeries workstation?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000e.html#58 Why not an IBM zSeries workstation?


IBM 3033          80-06 81-10 16  Ext. Addr.=32MB REAL ADDR.;MP ONLY
IBM D.Addr.Sp.    80-06 81-06 12  Dual Address Space for 3033
IBM 3033XF        80-06 81-06 12  OPTIONAL HW/FW PERF. ENHANCE FOR MVS/SP
IBM 3033 24MB     80-11 81-11 12  24MB REAL MEM. FOR 3033UP, AP

random (3033) refs:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/93.html#14 S/360 addressing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/94.html#7 IBM 7090 (360s, 370s, apl, etc)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/95.html#3 What is an IBM 137/148 ???
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/97.html#20 Why Mainframes?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/98.html#50 Edsger Dijkstra: the blackest week of his professional life
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#7 IBM S/360
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#74 Read if over 40 and have Mainframe background
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#75 Read if over 40 and have Mainframe background
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#103 IBM 9020 computers used by FAA (was Re: EPO stories (was: HELP IT'S HOT!!!!!))
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#110 OS/360 names and error codes (was: Humorous and/or Interesting Opcodes)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#112 OS/360 names and error codes (was: Humorous and/or Interesting Opcodes)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#187 Merced Processor Support at it again . . .
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#188 Merced Processor Support at it again . . .
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#190 Merced Processor Support at it again . . .
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000.html#78 Mainframe operating systems
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000b.html#65 oddly portable machines
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000c.html#35 What level of computer is needed for a computer to Love?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000c.html#44 WHAT IS A MAINFRAME???
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000c.html#75 Does the word "mainframe" still have a meaning?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000c.html#83 Is a VAX a mainframe?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000d.html#7 4341 was "Is a VAX a mainframe?"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000d.html#12 4341 was "Is a VAX a mainframe?"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000d.html#21 S/360 development burnout?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000d.html#61 "all-out" vs less aggressive designs (was: Re: 36 to 32 bit transition)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000d.html#82 "all-out" vs less aggressive designs (was: Re: 36 to 32 bit transition)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000e.html#57 Why not an IBM zSeries workstation?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000e.html#58 Why not an IBM zSeries workstation?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000g.html#11 360/370 instruction cycle time
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000g.html#28 Could CDR-coding be on the way back?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000g.html#29 Could CDR-coding be on the way back?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001.html#63 Are the L1 and L2 caches flushed on a page fault ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001b.html#37 John Mashey's greatest hits
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001b.html#69 Z/90, S/390, 370/ESA (slightly off topic)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001c.html#1 Z/90, S/390, 370/ESA (slightly off topic)

--
Anne & Lynn Wheeler | lynn@garlic.com - http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/

IBM 9020 FAA/ATC Systems from 1960's

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From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: IBM 9020 FAA/ATC Systems from 1960's
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Tue, 21 Aug 2001 14:07:27 GMT
"Chris Bigos" writes:
I've now checked and the standard and 9020 processors had the same ROS address space. Where did the room for the extra instructions come from? There must have been a lot of unused ROS addresses in the standard 360-65. I know there were a few in the 9020 (all zeroes with good parity).

360/65 (& /67) had all that 709x emulation ros. if you didn't have that (at least), there would be at least that room left over.

--
Anne & Lynn Wheeler | lynn@garlic.com - http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/

IBM 9020 FAA/ATC Systems from 1960's

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From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: IBM 9020 FAA/ATC Systems from 1960's
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Tue, 21 Aug 2001 14:10:30 GMT
"Chris Bigos" writes:
I've now checked and the standard and 9020 processors had the same ROS address space. Where did the room for the extra instructions come from? There must have been a lot of unused ROS addresses in the standard 360-65. I know there were a few in the 9020 (all zeroes with good parity).

plus the fact, the 65 had enuf ROS also for all the '67 stuff as well as extra instructions like search list.

--
Anne & Lynn Wheeler | lynn@garlic.com - http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/

Net banking, is it safe???

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From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Net banking, is it safe???
Newsgroups: comp.security.misc
Date: Tue, 21 Aug 2001 14:46:53 GMT
graperdude@aol.com (Graper) writes:
Yes, a PKI is sort of what I'm getting at. As for the "possibility" of a corrupted key server, I never said that this is 100% safe. As for PKI compromise, it is significantly reduced when the certification and key exchange is done out of band face-to-face. A banking approach is the best way to do this. The bank acts as its own certification authority, and the initial "hand shake" is performed face to face. You hand over an electronic public key and a physical "record" copy to the bank. The bank signs the key right then and there, face to face, and gives you the signed key back. Your public key fingerprint is also provided and will be printed on all of your statements.

a lot of the issues/problems with PKIs are based on certificates from "TTPs" (aka trusted third parties) and all the unknowns that can happen when you introduce totally extraneous parties into your business operations.

the AADS certificate-less scenerio (like what NACHA used in the ATM debit network trials)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aadsm6.htm#aadsatm

&/or the enhancement to RADIUS
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subpubkey.html#radius

just continue to use all the existing business infrastructures with the benefit that the technology has been upgraded from shared-secret to public key.

The benefit is that all the short-comings of shared-secret technology has been removed w/o introducing any new business process exposures.

The standard PKI with TTPs introduce a whole lot of new business and technology processes that can fail in new and inexplicable ways.

It is one-thing to do simple technology upgrade of an existing business process infrastructure to address the shared-secret short-comings; it is quite a different thing to pay a lot of money to some brand new business entity over which there may no direct control of their business operations.

A case in point is the SSL domain server certificates.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subpubkey.html#sslcerts

Quite a few people thing that they eliminate the domain name infrastructure vulnerabilities by some new magic mumbo-jumbo. Without SSL certificates, a client could depend on the domain name infrastructure to correctly resolve the domain name to ip-address, and then perform some other form of key-exchange to setup an encrypted session. With SSL certificates, the client "trusts" that the certificate corrects all domain name infrastructure short-comings and always correctly identifies the real domain name owner (as well as assists in the key-exchange for an excrypted session).

However, what is it that a TTP does in the case of domain name certificate? The authoritative agency for who actually owns what domain name is the domain name structure. The proccess that PKI TTPs use for a certificate ... is that they "certify" that they have verified the information in a certificate with the authoritative agency responsible for the information being certified. In the case of domain name information, that is the authoritative agency for domain name ownership; the domain name infrastructure (the very same agency that supposedly has integrity problems and gives rise to the whole SSL domain server certificates in the first place).

The issue for certificate TTP PKIs isn't that they don't "fix" the shared-secret problem, but that they are subject to all the security shortcomings that an in-house business operation is subject to (i.e. they aren't magic panecia).

Furthermore, a certificate TTP PKI doesn't eliminate requiring security for in-house business operations; all that continues to exist; so in effect a TTP PKI duplicates security and expense of the in-house business operations (and the more pieces, the more likelyhood there is a security failure point that happens someplace).

There have been a couple places that financial institutions have done certificate-based PKI ... but in almost everyone that I'm aware of, there were essentially relying-party-only certificates ... where a certificate may have been used at an initial portal and then the "real" verification occured based on the banks account record.

In all of those scenerios, it is trivial to show that the actual certificate is extraneous, redundant, and superfluous and that the "real" public-key authentication can be done directly from the account record (where the real verification occurs anyway).

For an extended discussion of such scenerios
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/ansiepay.htm#aadsnwi2

where either 1) the certificate is shown to be redundant and superfluous since the account record is always accessed or 2) the certificate can be compressed to zero-bytes (using compression philosiphy from x9.68).

random refs:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subpubkey.html#radius
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subpubkey.html#sslcerts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subpubkey.html#privacy

http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aadsm3.htm#cstech3 cardtech/securetech & CA PKI
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aadsm3.htm#kiss1 KISS for PKIX. (Was: RE: ASN.1 vs XML (used to be RE: I-D ACTION :draft-ietf-pkix-scvp- 00.txt))
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aadsm3.htm#kiss6 KISS for PKIX. (Was: RE: ASN.1 vs XML (used to be RE: I-D ACTION :draft-ietf-pkix-scvp- 00.txt))
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aadsm4.htm#6 Public Key Infrastructure: An Artifact...
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aadsm4.htm#9 Thin PKI won - You lost
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aadsm5.htm#x959 X9.59 Electronic Payment Standard
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aadsm5.htm#shock revised Shocking Truth about Digital Signatures
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aadsmore.htm#client4 Client-side revocation checking capability
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aepay3.htm#aadsrel2 AADS related information ... summary
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aepay3.htm#x959discus X9.59 discussions at X9A & X9F
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000b.html#93 Question regarding authentication implementation
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000e.html#41 Why trust root CAs ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000f.html#3 Why trust root CAs ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000f.html#15 Why trust root CAs ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001c.html#57 PKI and Non-repudiation practicalities
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001c.html#58 PKI and Non-repudiation practicalities
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001e.html#35 Can I create my own SSL key?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001f.html#79 FREE X.509 Certificates
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001g.html#65 PKI/Digital signature doesn't work

--
Anne & Lynn Wheeler | lynn@garlic.com - http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/

History of Microsoft Word (and wordprocessing in general)

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From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: History of Microsoft Word (and wordprocessing in general)
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Tue, 21 Aug 2001 18:46:22 GMT
mwilson@the-wire.com (Mel Wilson) writes:
I'm typing this through KEDIT. YARN will save it in my email folder and in a while, vsoup will put it on the Internet.

as an aside, KEDIT is a XEDIT knock-off ... I have a KEDIT V1 manual in box someplace.

from prior posting (in this thread)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001i.html#1
stu at cambridge scientific center did "script" in the '60s ... which had a runoff like syntax. Then in the early '70s the people at CSC added "GML" markup syntax to script .... although "script" could still be used in either runoff like syntax or markup syntax.

when ibm pc came out ... somebody did a port of the script ... effectively same formating that could be done on the mainframe.

and of course "GML" ... which people think stands for generalized markup language ... were actually the first letter of the last names of the three people that worked on it.

script wasn't a word-processor itself ... it handled document formating. script/gml documents used some other editor ... typically non-WYSIWYG. CMS had a number of editors ... starting with the standard CMS editor in the mid-60s, and in the 70s the were a whole slew of 3720 full-screen editors, edgar, ned, red, xedit, etc.


--
Anne & Lynn Wheeler | lynn@garlic.com - http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/

History of Microsoft Word (and wordprocessing in general)

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From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: History of Microsoft Word (and wordprocessing in general)
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Wed, 22 Aug 2001 02:06:40 GMT
ab528@FreeNet.Carleton.CA (Heinz W. Wiggeshoff) writes:
Knock-off?? After using XEDIT on a 3270 hooked to VM/CMS, KEDIT just blew me away! Every key was programable, and was acted upon immediately - not at screen refresh time.

which is something that can't be done on 3270 ... having an intelligent processor monitoring keys was a significant improvement.

--
Anne & Lynn Wheeler | lynn@garlic.com - http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/

Very CISC Instuctions (Was: why the machine word size ...)

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From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Very CISC Instuctions (Was: why the machine word size ...)
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Wed, 22 Aug 2001 02:15:20 GMT
Bruce Tomlin <bruceNS+usenet8@fanboy.net> writes:
Well, the reverse has sort of been done. IBM once implemented the 370 (or was it the 360?) instruction set in microcode on a pair of 68K CPU core chips (the second CPU chip was for the more CISCy instructions that wouldn't fit in the microcode store of the first one). IIRC, it was called the PC/370 and was sold as a card inside an otherwise bog-standard PC/AT.

the first one was called XT/370 ... it was hard fitting into a couple 20mbyte hard disks with something like 140ms access time (i may have an early performance document around someplace, disk was 100+ms plus latency passing I/O requests back & forth between the 370 processing and cp/88 running on the XT's 8088). I got accused of delaying "washington" first customer ship (FCS) by six months when I benchmarked early versions and pointed out the difficulty of fitting VM/CMS & applications into 384kbytes (370 storage). They reworked the board to get an extra 128kbytes memory so the thing eventually shipped with 512kbyte (370 storage) and some of my performance enhancements for constrained storage.

improvement later was the a74 with 4mbytes of memory.

random refs:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/94.html#46 Rethinking Virtual Memory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/96.html#23 Old IBM's
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#120 atomic History
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000.html#5 IBM XT/370 and AT/370 (was Re: Computer of the century)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000.html#29 Operating systems, guest and actual
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000.html#75 Mainframe operating systems
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000e.html#52 Why not an IBM zSeries workstation?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000e.html#55 Why not an IBM zSeries workstation?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000e.html#56 Why not an IBM zSeries workstation?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001c.html#89 database (or b-tree) page sizes
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001d.html#43 Economic Factors on Automation
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001f.html#28 IBM's "VM for the PC" c.1984??
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001g.html#53 S/370 PC board

--
Anne & Lynn Wheeler | lynn@garlic.com - http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/

Very CISC Instuctions (Was: why the machine word size ...)

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From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Very CISC Instuctions (Was: why the machine word size ...)
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Wed, 22 Aug 2001 02:34:33 GMT
Anne & Lynn Wheeler writes:
20mbyte hard disks with something like 140ms access time (i may have an early performance document around someplace, disk was 100+ms plus

something that I happened to trip across (from an old letter i wrote) .. washington was the "pre-relase" product name for xt/370:
Washington Performance

In discussions with people that are currently actively working on the Washington project, it is obvious that there is a severe lack of real storage for CMS to execute in. The situation is very similar to the small VM work I did in the early to mid-70s. One of the things that came out of that activity was the 1.5 bit page replacement algorithm which would consistently outperform the normal VM algorithm. It was especially beneficial in core constrained environments. Furthermore, in detailed simulation studies of page replacement algorithms, the 1.5 bit algorithm was able to outperform a true LRU algorithm (i.e. exact Least Recently Used algorithm implemented used a full instruction trace).

Other activity from that era which should be beneficial to Washington is the use of VS/Repack for doing module rearrangement to minimize page faults. Both the CMS nucleus and most commonly used application programs would benefit from using VS/Repack.

During the 73-74 time period, I invented the precursor to what is now called Discontiguous Shared Segments. The majority of the CMS code was used directly as is by the development group. Unfortunately, the CP group only implemented a subset of the function resulting in the current limited application of Discontiguous Shared Segments.

At the same time, I also developed a paged access method (PAM) for CMS. PAM contains numerous performance advantages over the conventional file system. One of the more obvious advantages is the ability to support asynchronous DASD I/O activity. A standard feature of PAM is to immediately begin program execution after initiation of program loading. Page faults will occur to synchronize execution activity when references are made to program pages that are not currently resident.

PAM and the full shared segment implementation are standard features of the production San Jose Research VM system (which is also available as the IBM San Jose Common VM system). Adapting the PAM support to the Washington implementation would appear to offer significant performance advantages. For more discussion on the related performance issues of the changes there are a couple of research reports.

It would appear that Washington performance would gain extensive benefits from the PAM/Shared segment changes (in addition to any page replacement and/or VS/Repack activity).


===================================================================== =====================================================================

.... something from a recent email (regards vs/repack product)
a similar ... but different project that i worked in the early '70s was the data capture part of something that was released as a product called "vs/repack".

basically it captured storage traces and attempted to do program re-organization for virtual memory efficiency.

part of the output was a storage use map plotted against instructions. for proper display, it required a special TN train that had some bar characters. A typical configuration was 2000 instructions per column of 132character print width with storage running down the page. Would typically try and configure storage so that it fit in about six foot length of printer paper. At various times, halls of 4th floor 545 tech. sq had walls nearly completed paper with such output. Take each six foot strip and hang it from the top of the wall ... and you could walk down the hall corresponding to the program executing and watch the program reference memory (storage use was both instruction fetch as well as data store/fetch).

It was used early on to rewrite the garbage collection of APL for virtual memory environment. It was also used by a number of IBM product groups for execution hot-spot detection ... independent of storage use/organization optimization.

D. Hatfield & J. Gerald, Program Restructuring for Virtual Memory, IBM Systems Journal, v10n3, 1971

random other refs:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/93.html#4 360/67, was Re: IBM's Project F/S ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/93.html#5 360/67, was Re: IBM's Project F/S ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/94.html#7 IBM 7090 (360s, 370s, apl, etc)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/97.html#4 Mythical beasts (was IBM... mainframe)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#20 APL/360.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#68 The Melissa Virus or War on Microsoft?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000g.html#30 Could CDR-coding be on the way back?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001b.html#83 Z/90, S/390, 370/ESA (slightly off topic)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001c.html#10 Memory management - Page replacement
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001c.html#31 database (or b-tree) page sizes
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001c.html#33 database (or b-tree) page sizes
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001d.html#18 Drawing entities


--
Anne & Lynn Wheeler | lynn@garlic.com - http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/

3745 and SNI

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From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: 3745 and SNI
Newsgroups: bit.listserv.ibm-main
Date: Wed, 22 Aug 2001 11:52:32 GMT
hollywiz@PACBELL.NET (Norman Hollander) writes:
There was also an IBM Presentation called Replacing NCPs. But it's over 2MB and your server rejected it.

Connectivity Options for

VTAM/NCP Subarea Networks

PART II:

Replacing NCP Subarea Connections

in SNI Networks


I once worked on a project to replace 37xx & NCPs ... but got blind sided by CPD in some internal politics. Of course I also was part of a 4 person team as undergraduate (long ago and far away) that built the first PCM control unit (and credited with originating the ibm plug compatible control unit business) ...
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#360pcm

and might also be credited with prompting the original VTAM/NCP design

parts of presentation I gave in Raleigh at an SNA architecture review board meeting (in the mid-80s):
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#67

small extract:
System verses 3725NCP System:

Higher availability More reliable More function Improved Useability Non-IBM Host Support Much better connectivity Much better performance Fewer components Easier to tune Easier to tailor Easier to manage Less expensive


also:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#70

PCM relaed postings:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#360pcm First 360 PCM/OEM Controller

misc. random refs:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#63 System/1 ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#64 Old naked woman ASCII art
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#66 System/1 ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#67 System/1 ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#70 Series/1 as NCP (was: Re: System/1 ?)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#106 IBM Mainframe Model Numbers--then and now?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#239 IBM UC info
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000.html#64 distributed locking patents
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000.html#72 Difference between NCP and TCP/IP protocols
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000b.html#29 20th March 2000
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000b.html#66 oddly portable machines
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000b.html#79 "Database" term ok for plain files?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000b.html#87 Motorola/Intel Wars
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000c.html#43 Any Series/1 fans?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000c.html#53 Any Series/1 fans?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000c.html#54 WHAT IS A MAINFRAME???
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001.html#4 Sv: First video terminal?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001.html#62 California DMV
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001.html#65 California DMV
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001.html#68 California DMV
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001.html#72 California DMV
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001b.html#75 Z/90, S/390, 370/ESA (slightly off topic)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001e.html#8 Blame it all on Microsoft
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001e.html#55 Pre ARPAnet email?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001f.html#22 Early AIX including AIX/370
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001f.html#30 IBM's "VM for the PC" c.1984??
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001f.html#33 IBM's "VM for the PC" c.1984??
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001f.html#42 Golden Era of Compilers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001f.html#44 Golden Era of Compilers

--
Anne & Lynn Wheeler | lynn@garlic.com - http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/

History of Microsoft Word (and wordprocessing in general)

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: History of Microsoft Word (and wordprocessing in general)
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Wed, 22 Aug 2001 15:43:45 GMT
jcmorris@mitre.org (Joe Morris) writes:
I would call it more of a port than a knock-off; "knock-off" sounds more like it was swiped. (I was happy to see it appear; I had been looking at writing an XEDIT-like editor for the PC but never got around to doing anything about it.)

of course you are correct, I should have used "port" instead of "knock-off"

--
Anne & Lynn Wheeler | lynn@garlic.com - http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/

Very CISC Instuctions (Was: why the machine word size ...)

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Very CISC Instuctions (Was: why the machine word size ...)
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Wed, 22 Aug 2001 15:47:21 GMT
Anne & Lynn Wheeler writes:
part of the output was a storage use map plotted against instructions. for proper display, it required a special TN train that had some bar characters. A typical configuration was 2000 instructions per column of 132character print width with storage running down the page. Would typically try and configure storage so that it fit in

the "bar" characters on this particular TN train were also used by chip design groups to print large wall-size chip layout images (not as good quality as wide-plotters can do, but gives some idea of the structure).

--
Anne & Lynn Wheeler | lynn@garlic.com - http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/

Proper ISA lifespan?

Refed: **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Proper ISA lifespan?
Newsgroups: comp.arch
Date: Wed, 22 Aug 2001 15:53:55 GMT
cecchi@signa.rchland.ibm.com (Del Cecchi) writes:
It has been over 20 years, two decades. And the plan changed a number of times in the mid 70's, when S/38 was being designed. But the MI running on IMPI hardware was there from the first S/38 announced in the late 70's. The IMPI, internal micro program interface, was a horizontally microprogrammed interface implemented in about 20,000 bipolar gates. It in turn emulated a higher level interface, MI or Machine Interface, by means of VMC Vertical Micro Code. There have been at least three major implementation migrations, the last being the CISC to RISC transition, driven among other reasons by a desire for more commonality across what is now the i and p series. This commonality was very successful. The current line of 64 bit pseries machines are made from parts developed by the people formerly known as AS400 developers in Rochester.

64 bit or 65 bit? ... I remember that a lot of 620/americas meetings being constantly taken up with arguments about rochester needing a 65th bit (although wasn't used for addressing).

--
Anne & Lynn Wheeler | lynn@garlic.com - http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/

Net banking, is it safe???

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From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Net banking, is it safe???
Newsgroups: comp.security.misc
Date: Wed, 22 Aug 2001 16:25:25 GMT
graperdude@aol.com (Graper) writes:
The hacker's job becomes much more difficult if the Private Key stays on a tamper resistant Token and all authentication signing is done on a processor inside the Token (i.e. the Key is never memory resident on the PC). Of course, as always, the hacker can find ways around this as well.

it eliminates harvesting large numbers of shared-secrets at one time and being able to subsequently use them in fraudulent transactions (aka various news stories about copying merchant credit card files) and so significantly reduces the cost/benefit of fraud.

other fraud possibilities would still exist ... but having much lower return per cost; most of these are attacks on individual machines. Whole class of these are addressed by the european union finread directive; namely an independent secure device that supports both secure pin-entry and secure transaction display.

typical hardware tokens require PIN/passwords of various sorts. While these PIN/passwords are physically similar to PIN/passwords used to access system services ... they have a significantly different threat model not being shared-secrets and potential subject to mass harvestings aka the PIN/password is only known by the owner of the hardware token. This can be extended to biometrics where instead of using biometrics as a shared-secret (i.e. transmitting to an institution for comparison with something on file) it is only used between the owner and their hardware token.

the european union finread has secure pin entry to avoid the exploit of keystroke evesdropping ... i.e. pin-entry thru standard keyboard and PC (there has been a lot recently about keystroke capture programs, by employers monitoring employees, by parents monitoring children and by viruses automatically transmitting capture keystrokes to select sites).

The other part of the finread is secure display of the transaction being signed (i.e. virus can display one thing on the screen and send something totally different to the token to be signed).

Tokens w/o PINs/passwords can have arbritrary messages sent to them for signing with no ability on the owner's part to securely validate what is being signed and/or if something is being signed.

Tokens used in insecure PIN/passwords evironment can have messages signed w/o the owner's knowledge by capture the PIN/password and transmitting it w/o the token owner's participation.

Tokens used in secure PIN/password environment may require owner's knowledge of something that is being signed, but what is displayed as being signed is different that what is actually signed.

The european union finread work has both 1) secure PIN/password entry environment so there is high probability that only the token owner is entering the PIN/password and 2) secure message display so there is high probability that the token owner has the token sign what they believe should be signed.

And of course, all of this can operate in either a CADS (certification authority digital signature) environment or a AADS (account authority digital signature, or certificate-less) environment.

misc. references on finread &/or certificate-less
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aadsm3.htm#cstech3 cardtech/securetech & CA PKI
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aadsm3.htm#kiss1 KISS for PKIX. (Was: RE: ASN.1 vs XML (used to be RE: I-D ACTION :draft-ietf-pkix-scvp- 00.txt))
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aadsm3.htm#kiss2 Common misconceptions, was Re: KISS for PKIX. (Was: RE: ASN.1 vs XML (used to be RE: I-D ACTION :draft-ietf-pkix-scvp-00.txt))
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aadsm5.htm#spki Simple PKI
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aadsm5.htm#spki2 Simple PKI
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aadsm6.htm#aadsatm (certificate-less) digital signatures can secure ATM card payments on the internet
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aadsmore.htm#hcrl1 Huge CRLs
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001g.html#57 Q: Internet banking
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001g.html#60 PKI/Digital signature doesn't work
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001g.html#61 PKI/Digital signature doesn't work
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001g.html#62 PKI/Digital signature doesn't work
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001g.html#64 PKI/Digital signature doesn't work
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001h.html#53 Net banking, is it safe???
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001i.html#9 Net banking, is it safe???
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001i.html#16 Net banking, is it safe???

other refs:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subpubkey.html#radius client and radius authentication
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subpubkey.html#sslcerts sll domain name server certificates
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subpubkey.html#privacy x9.59, identity, authentication and privacy
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subintegrity.html#fraud risk, fraud, exploits

--
Anne & Lynn Wheeler | lynn@garlic.com - http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/

No Trusted Viewer possible?

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From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: No Trusted Viewer possible?
Newsgroups: comp.security.misc,comp.security.pgp.discuss
Date: Wed, 22 Aug 2001 16:48:55 GMT
"Andreas Siglreithmayr" writes:
it is said that digital signatures should be equal to paper signatures. In some country it already is, e.g in Germany. But is it really as secure as paper signature? You can send somebody a contract in a digital form and want him to digital sign it if he/she agrees with the terms.

the hardware token housing a private key can have the ultimate hardware protection (E4 high) ... but it is still 1-factor authentication ... aka something you have.

the european union finread program attempts to address of the environment for secure digital signatures.

a hardware token can sign a message w/o the owner's knowledge a hardware token can sign a message different than what the owner thinks is being signed.

it is slightly more difficult in the paper signature case for a signature to be done w/o the owner's knowledge (but of course counterfeits can happen).

and of course there is always complicated language that results in a person signing something different than what they think they are signing.

however, lets say it is a trivial payment transaction which basically says the token owner is paying a specific person a specific amount.

without a secure signing environment (more than the use of a E4 high token), transactions could be signed w/o the token owner's knowledge and/or transactions could be signed that has different amounts than what the token owner believed were involved.

basically finread dictates a secure device that includes secure pin/password entry as well as secure display.

implicit is that the token owner has to do something for the signature to even take place in the first place (i.e. PC sending arbritrary number of messages to the token for signing w/o the token owner's knowledge).

then a secure pin/password entry avoids the keystroke capture problem, i.e. pin/password entered with standard pc keyboard (all the news about keystroke capture programs, employers monitoring employees, parents monitoring children, viruses sending catpured keystrokes to unknown internet addresses). A virus that has captured token pin/password keystrokes could send an abritrary large number of messages to the token for signing w/o the token owner's knowledge.

finally a secure display avoids the substituted message problem, i.e. a virus displays one transaction value on the screen while sending a totally different transaction value to be signed.

the basic problem is that there is a significantly larger disconnect between a hardware token performing some mathematical operation on a string of bits (i.e. digital signature) ... something that the token owner has no way of directly verifying ... compared to somebody executing a signature on a piece of paper.

misc finread postings
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001g.html#57 Q: Internet banking
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001g.html#60 PKI/Digital signature doesn't work
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001g.html#61 PKI/Digital signature doesn't work
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001g.html#62 PKI/Digital signature doesn't work
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001g.html#64 PKI/Digital signature doesn't work

misc. other refs:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subintegrity.html#fraud

--
Anne & Lynn Wheeler | lynn@garlic.com - http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/

History of Microsoft Word (and wordprocessing in general)

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: History of Microsoft Word (and wordprocessing in general)
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Wed, 22 Aug 2001 18:28:06 GMT
Eric Sosman writes:
The challenge (for our software) was that the resulting document was considered a single huge document and not just a collection of separate booklets. In order to give anyone a hope of finding anything in such a vast collection, the whole business had to be indexed and organized in just about every conceivable way, and these indices cut right across all the different bits prepared by all those thousands of different contributors.

a similar ... but different indexing challenge is capture & representation of UMLS used by the national library of medicine.

some old postings
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/94.html#26 Misc. more on bidirectional links
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001c.html#67 What ever happened to WAIS?

--
Anne & Lynn Wheeler | lynn@garlic.com - http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/

Proper ISA lifespan?

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Proper ISA lifespan?
Newsgroups: comp.arch
Date: Wed, 22 Aug 2001 18:47:08 GMT
cecchi@signa.rchland.ibm.com (Del Cecchi) writes:
The S/38 had a tag bit per 4 bytes as I recall. The PowerPC/AS has a 65th bit, or tag bit for every 8 bytes. How could they argue about needing it?

620, wasn't that the abortive attempt to make a processor that was both Power and X86? To run the Workplace OS?


from some older web sites

http://perso.club-internet.fr/febcm/english/power_pc_products.htm
Temporary conclusion

The PowerPC deal did not go as smoothly as contemplated at the beginning of 1992. Bull reduced its commitment in the PowerPC microprocessor, by taking only a token presence in Somerset design center in Austin, and by not buying derivative rights on the architecture. A second blow happened when IBM Rochester decided to make its own version of the PowerPC instead of model 620 as initially contemplated. Michael Armstrong, who have been the chief IBM instrumentor of the agreement leaved IBM for Hughes and eventually AT&T. Lou Gerstner decided to stop the centrifugal startegy of his predecessor and to recenter IBM on mainframes, significantly decreasing the Austin hopes of seeing the PowerPC as the IBM core architecture. The disappointing sales of Apple, close to be driven away from the hardware market until 1998 iMac, also hurted the future of the PowerPC.

The strategy changes inside IBM and the Motorola's withdrawal modified somewhat the Bull AIX offer that added in 1998 IBM servers using the Rochester processors (under AIX only).



http://www.zdnet.com/pcmag/issues/1418/pcm00071.htm
Scaling up the performance ladder from the PowerPC 604 is the PowerPC 620, the only 64-bit PowerPC CPU yet announced. With most of the PC world only now making the transition from 16-bit to 32-bit code, however, it's not clear that the ability to run 64-bit code will provide an immediate benefit to most users. The PowerPC 620 will remain backward-compatible with 32-bit PowerPC code.

The consortium has also hinted at a PowerPC 630 chip that will succeed the PowerPC 620, but will not yet disclose details about the chip's architecture except to indicate that it will roughly double the performance of the PowerPC 620. The PowerPC 630 is due in 1997.



http://www.mot.com/SPS/PowerPC/library/ppc_faq/ppc_faq.html
PowerPC 601

The very first PowerPC. It was designed as a bridge between the POWER architecture and the PowerPC architecture. For this reason, it incorporates the user-level POWER instructions which were eliminated from the PowerPC specification.

PowerPC 601v

This is a 601, implemented in a 0.5u CMOS 2.5V process. This effectively means that it runs faster and draws less power. (Originally called the "601+".)

PowerPC 602

A processor aimed at consumer electronics (set-top boxes, game consoles, etc.), PDAs, and embedded controller applications.

PowerPC 603

A low-power processor, intended for portable applications, e.g., notebook computers. Performance is roughly comparable to the 601 (see below for benchmarks).

PowerPC 603e

A higher-performance 603 with a faster clock and bigger caches. (Originally called the "603+".)

PowerPC 603ev

A lower-voltage, faster-clock version of the 603e.

PowerPC 604

A higher-performance processor, intended for high-end desktop systems.

PowerPC 604e

A 604 with larger caches.

PowerPC 620

An even higher-performance processor, aimed at high-end systems and multiprocessors. The 620 is the first 64-bit PowerPC implementation.

G3 Series

The "next generation" of PowerPC processors, expected to ship in 1997.

G4 Series

Expected in 1999.

The 601 is manufactured by IBM and sold by both IBM and Motorola. The 603 and 603e are manufactured by both IBM and Motorola.



http://historia.et.tudelft.nl/wggesch/geschiedenis/microprocessor/1991/
http://web.archive.org/web/20020613112019/http://historia.et.tudelft.nl/wggesch/geschiedenis/microprocessor/1991/
IBM and Motorola announce and introduce the prototype of the PowerPC 620 processor, operating at 133-MHz.


http://www.fh-augsburg.de/~mc68/Crions_PowerCompilation/ppc1.html
http://web.archive.org/web/20020309063235/http://www.fh-augsburg.de/~mc68/Crions_PowerCompilation/ppc1.html
The PowerPC 604(tm) and PowerPC 604e(tm) microprocessors are 32-bit implementations of the PowerPC architecture designed for use in high performance desktop, workstation, and symmetric multiprocessing computer systems. The PowerPC 604 and PowerPC 604e are software and bus compatible with the PowerPC 601, PowerPC 603, and PowerPC 603e microprocessors. The PowerPC 604 features separate 16-Kbyte, physically addressed instruction and data caches, while the 604e offers 32-Kbyte instruction and data caches.

The PowerPC 620(tm) microprocessor is a 64-bit implementation of the PowerPC architecture providing high levels of performance for technical and scientific workstations, application and LAN servers and symmetric multiprocessing computer systems.


--
Anne & Lynn Wheeler | lynn@garlic.com - http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/

History of Microsoft Word (and wordprocessing in general)

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: History of Microsoft Word (and wordprocessing in general)
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Wed, 22 Aug 2001 18:52:52 GMT
Charles Richmond writes:
IIRC, the B-1 was finally built by the Regan administration...it was made sub-sonic to save money. The B-2 might have been called the B-2 because each one costs two billion dollars. (;-))

rockwell? I seem to remember going to some conference and getting a coffee cup that had a B1 on a radar screen ... and when you poured hot coffee into it, the B1 disappeared (and possibly appeared on the other side of the cup).

you couldn't put it in the microwave since it destroyed whatever heat sensitive material was involved.

--
Anne & Lynn Wheeler | lynn@garlic.com - http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/

IBM OS Timeline?

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From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: IBM OS Timeline?
Newsgroups: bit.listserv.ibm-main,alt.folklore.computers
Date: Thu, 23 Aug 2001 17:05:57 GMT
Larry.Tuinstra@FINGERHUT.COM (Tuinstra, Larry) writes:
I remember OS/360 as MVT. Your memory is much better than mine. I can recall firing up TSO for a demo. People watched me enter data, then TSO crashed and all the data was lost. They much preferred their keypunch machines for quite a while.

I remember OS/360 as PCP (release 6?) and it took nearly an hour to assemble a 2000 card program (on a 360m30, you could see the lights when it hit a DCB macro ... which would take 5-6 minutes per, & with 5-6 DCB macros, that accounted for 30-40 minutes of total elapsed time all by itself). A later, possibly folktale was that the guy doing the opcode decode was told he had to do it all in something like 256(?) bytes ... and so stored the table on disk, which had to be reread for each op-code. That was eventually fixed.

TSS/360, TSO, VS/PC (online for vs1, was originally going to be PCO, but somebody checking international conflicts decided it needed changing) were all equally bad. TSO was frequently so bad that they campaigned for a long time that sub-second response wasn't a necessary goal of human factors.

Then there was the infamous TSO/VMCMS bake-off done by CERN in the early '70s (CERN ... the place that HTML came out of). The TSO numbers were so bad that internally within IBM the copy of the report was classified "Confidential, Restricted" (even tho it was a customer report and available at places like share, Confidential, Restricted is need to know only ... 2nd highest security classification after Registered Confidential).

As an undergraduate at the university, Starting with release 11, I developed a manual process for taking the output from stage1 (aka stage2) and re-organizing it into individual jobs so that it could be run in a production job stream. The sequencing of both the jobs and the major move/copy statements were organized so that datasets and members within PDS were optimally placed to minimize arm motion

A test job that might take 30 seconds elapsed time on a vanilla generated system could run three times faster on an "optimized" system. The problem was that normal PTF activity (over a six month period) doing member replacement in svclib & linklib could result in lengthing elapsed time to double that on a freshly generated system.

For a MVT18/HASP system, I tore out the 2780 RJE support in HASP (to obtain some addressability and reduce storage requirements) and replaced it with an implementation of a CMS editor syntax support 2741, tty, and 1052 terminals ... for an early CRJE/TSO like implementation.

This was also during the period when I discovered some of the limitations of the 2702 and the limitations with associating any line-scanner with any line (aka automatic terminal & speed recognition). This was the direct reason why we started our own terminal control unit project (building our own channel adapter board, etc) to support automatic terminal type and speed recognition. This turned out to be the genesis of the IBM PCM control unit business.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#360pcm

random refs:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/93.html#0 360/67, was Re: IBM's Project F/S ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/93.html#1 360/67, was Re: IBM's Project F/S ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/93.html#2 360/67, was Re: IBM's Project F/S ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/93.html#18 location 50
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/93.html#23 MTS & LLMPS?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/93.html#25 MTS & LLMPS?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/94.html#00 Big I/O or Kicking the Mainframe out the Door
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/94.html#0 Multitasking question
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/94.html#1 Multitasking question
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/94.html#2 Schedulers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/94.html#4 Schedulers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/94.html#12 360 "OS" & "TSS" assemblers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/94.html#18 CP/67 & OS MFT14
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/94.html#20 CP/67 & OS MFT14
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/94.html#33 short CICS story
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/94.html#46 Rethinking Virtual Memory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/94.html#47 Rethinking Virtual Memory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/94.html#49 Rethinking Virtual Memory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/94.html#53 How Do the Old Mainframes
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/94.html#54 How Do the Old Mainframes
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/95.html#1 pathlengths
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/95.html#2 Why is there only VM/370?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/96.html#4a John Hartmann's Birthday Party
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/96.html#7 Why Do Mainframes Exist ???
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/96.html#12 IBM song
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/96.html#26 System/360 Model 30
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/97.html#12 OSes commerical, history
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/97.html#22 Pre S/360 IBM Operating Systems?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/97.html#28 IA64 Self Virtualizable?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/98.html#10 OS with no distinction between RAM a
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/98.html#11 S/360 operating systems geneaology
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/98.html#12 S/360 operating systems geneaology
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/98.html#13 S/360 operating systems geneaology
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/98.html#17 S/360 operating systems geneaology
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/98.html#18 Reviving the OS/360 thread (Questions about OS/360)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/98.html#21 Reviving the OS/360 thread (Questions about OS/360)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/98.html#28 Drive letters
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/98.html#29 Drive letters
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/98.html#33 ... cics ... from posting from another list
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/98.html#47 Multics and the PC
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#2 IBM S/360
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#7 IBM S/360
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#37 why is there an "@" key?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#39 Internet and/or ARPANET?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#41 A word processor from 1960
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#58 When did IBM go object only
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#63 System/1 ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#64 Old naked woman ASCII art
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#76 Mainframes at Universities
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#77 Are mainframes relevant ??
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#93 MVS vs HASP vs JES (was 2821)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#94 MVS vs HASP vs JES (was 2821)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#95 Early interupts on mainframes
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#109 OS/360 names and error codes (was: Humorous and/or Interesting Opcodes)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#119 Computer, supercomputers & related
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#126 Dispute about Internet's origins
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#127 Dispute about Internet's origins
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#131 early hardware
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#142 OS/360 (and descendents) VM system?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#155 checks (was S/390 on PowerPC?)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#174 S/360 history
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#209 Core (word usage) was anti-equipment etc.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#237 I can't believe this newsgroup still exists.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000.html#1 Computer of the century
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000.html#64 distributed locking patents
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000.html#68 Mainframe operating systems
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000.html#71 Mainframe operating systems
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000.html#76 Mainframe operating systems
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000.html#91 Ux's good points.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000.html#92 Ux's good points.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000b.html#44 20th March 2000
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000b.html#54 Multics dual-page-size scheme
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000b.html#61 VM (not VMS or Virtual Machine, the IBM sort)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000b.html#87 Motorola/Intel Wars
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000c.html#8 IBM Linux
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000c.html#10 IBM 1460
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000c.html#18 IBM 1460
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000c.html#34 What level of computer is needed for a computer to Love?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000c.html#35 What level of computer is needed for a computer to Love?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000c.html#42 Domainatrix - the final word
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000c.html#45 Does the word "mainframe" still have a meaning?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000c.html#50 Does the word "mainframe" still have a meaning?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000c.html#60 Disincentives for MVS & future of MVS systems programmers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000c.html#79 Unisys vs IBM mainframe comparisons
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000d.html#4 Share - lodging (MTA)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000d.html#30 Secure Operating Systems
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000d.html#36 Assembly language formatting on IBM systems
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000d.html#44 Charging for time-share CPU time
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000d.html#50 Navy orders supercomputer
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000f.html#18 OT?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000f.html#52 TSS ancient history, was X86 ultimate CISC? designs)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000f.html#53 360 Architecture, Multics, ... was (Re: X86 ultimate CISC? No.)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000f.html#56 TSS ancient history, was X86 ultimate CISC? designs)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000f.html#63 TSS ancient history, was X86 ultimate CISC? designs)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000f.html#78 TSS ancient history, was X86 ultimate CISC? designs)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000g.html#0 TSS ancient history, was X86 ultimate CISC? designs)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000g.html#2 TSS ancient history, was X86 ultimate CISC? designs)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000g.html#3 virtualizable 360, was TSS ancient history
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000g.html#4 virtualizable 360, was TSS ancient history
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000g.html#6 virtualizable 360, was TSS ancient history
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000g.html#11 360/370 instruction cycle time
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000g.html#12 360 Architecture, Multics, ... was (Re: X86 ultimate CISC? No.)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000g.html#27 Could CDR-coding be on the way back?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001.html#26 Disk caching and file systems. Disk history...people forget
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001.html#62 California DMV
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001.html#63 Are the L1 and L2 caches flushed on a page fault ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001b.html#0 Java as a first programming language for cs students
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001b.html#18 Linux IA-64 interrupts [was Re: Itanium benchmarks ...]
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001b.html#29 z900 and Virtual Machine Theory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001b.html#35 John Mashey's greatest hits
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001b.html#42 John Mashey's greatest hits
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001b.html#80 Disks size growing while disk count shrinking = bad performance
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001c.html#68 IBM Glossary
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001c.html#76 Unix hard links
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001d.html#1 SSL question
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001d.html#14 on-card key generation for smart card
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001d.html#28 Very CISC Instuctions (Was: why the machine word size ...)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001d.html#48 VTOC position
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001d.html#49 VTOC position
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001d.html#54 VM & VSE news
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001d.html#56 Pentium 4 Prefetch engine?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001d.html#77 Pentium 4 Prefetch engine?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001e.html#19 SIMTICS
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001e.html#69 line length (was Re: Babble from "JD" <dyson@jdyson.com>)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001f.html#2 Mysterious Prefixes
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001f.html#20 VM-CMS emulator
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001f.html#22 Early AIX including AIX/370
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001f.html#23 MERT Operating System & Microkernels
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001f.html#26 Price of core memory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001f.html#30 IBM's "VM for the PC" c.1984??
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001f.html#33 IBM's "VM for the PC" c.1984??
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001f.html#47 any 70's era supercomputers that ran as slow as today's supercomputers?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001f.html#48 any 70's era supercomputers that ran as slow as today's supercomputers?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001f.html#49 any 70's era supercomputers that ran as slow as today's supercompu
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001f.html#68 Q: Merced a flop or not?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001g.html#22 Golden Era of Compilers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001g.html#24 XML: No More CICS?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001g.html#29 any 70's era supercomputers that ran as slow as today's supercomputers?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001g.html#33 Did AT&T offer Unix to Digital Equipment in the 70s?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001g.html#35 Did AT&T offer Unix to Digital Equipment in the 70s?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001g.html#45 Did AT&T offer Unix to Digital Equipment in the 70s?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001g.html#48 The Alpha/IA64 Hybrid
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001h.html#9 VM: checking some myths.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001h.html#10 VM: checking some myths.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001h.html#11 checking some myths.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001h.html#12 checking some myths.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001h.html#14 Installing Fortran
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001h.html#17 IBM 9020 FAA/ATC Systems from 1960's
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001h.html#26 TECO Critique
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001h.html#34 D
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001h.html#46 Whom Do Programmers Admire Now???
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001h.html#59 Blinkenlights
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001h.html#76 Other oddball IBM System 360's ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001i.html#2 Most complex instructions (was Re: IBM 9020 FAA/ATC Systems from 1960's)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001i.html#3 Most complex instructions (was Re: IBM 9020 FAA/ATC Systems from 1960's)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001i.html#13 GETMAIN R/RU (was: An IEABRC Adventure)

--
Anne & Lynn Wheeler | lynn@garlic.com - http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/

3745 and SNI

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From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: 3745 and SNI
Newsgroups: bit.listserv.ibm-main,alt.folklore.computers
Date: Thu, 23 Aug 2001 19:16:11 GMT
Anne & Lynn Wheeler writes:
parts of presentation I gave in Raleigh at an SNA architecture review board meeting (in the mid-80s):
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#67


about the same time I gave presentation at SNA ARB in Raleigh, CPD non-concurred on announcing APPN (networking!, SNA don't need no stinking networking!). There was something like a two month lapse while the various executives esculated and then a very carefully crafted APPN announcement letter came out that avoided saying that SNA and APPN and/or networking were in any way related.

the above reference talk was about a fully-redundant peer-to-peer robust packet infrastructure (initially on S/1 ... but with migration to RIOS) which then flowed encapsulated RUs and dropped back to SNA reduced function emulation at the required boundary interfaces. All of the VTAM SSCPs were told that the resources were cross-domain with a different SSCP owner ... when in fact, resource "ownership" was actually fully distributed with no single point of failure.

random refs:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/94.html#33a High Speed Data Transport (HSDT)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#70 Series/1 as NCP (was: Re: System/1 ?)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000.html#3 Computer of the century
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000.html#50 APPC vs TCP/IP
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000.html#51 APPC vs TCP/IP
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000.html#53 APPC vs TCP/IP
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000.html#90 Ux's good points.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000b.html#78 "Database" term ok for plain files?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000b.html#79 "Database" term ok for plain files?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000b.html#89 "Database" term ok for plain files?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000c.html#45 Does the word "mainframe" still have a meaning?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000c.html#54 WHAT IS A MAINFRAME???
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000d.html#32 S/360 development burnout?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000d.html#78 When the Internet went private
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000e.html#56 Why not an IBM zSeries workstation?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001b.html#49 PC Keyboard Relics
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001e.html#8 Blame it all on Microsoft
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001f.html#49 any 70's era supercomputers that ran as slow as today's supercompu
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001g.html#32 Did AT&T offer Unix to Digital Equipment in the 70s?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001g.html#49 Did AT&T offer Unix to Digital Equipment in the 70s?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001i.html#7 YKYGOW...

--
Anne & Lynn Wheeler | lynn@garlic.com - http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/

IBM OS Timeline?

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: IBM OS Timeline?
Newsgroups: bit.listserv.ibm-main,alt.folklore.computers
Date: Thu, 23 Aug 2001 21:37:38 GMT
Anne & Lynn Wheeler writes:
I remember OS/360 as PCP (release 6?) and it took nearly an hour to assemble a 2000 card program (on a 360m30, you could see the lights when it hit a DCB macro ... which would take 5-6 minutes per, & with 5-6 DCB macros, that accounted for 30-40 minutes of total elapsed time all by itself). A later, possibly folktale was that the guy doing the opcode decode was told he had to do it all in something like 256(?) bytes ... and so stored the table on disk, which had to be reread for each op-code. That was eventually fixed.

some random other history URLs:


http://www.llnl.gov/vcm/interviews/norman_hardy_1.html
http://web.archive.org/web/20021221044432/http://www.llnl.gov/vcm/interviews/norman_hardy_1.html
http://ftp.arl.mil/~mike/comphist/
http://os390-mvs.hypermart.net/mvshist.htm
http://www.brouhaha.com/~eric/retrocomputing/ibm/stretch/
http://www.nfrpartners.com/comphistory/
http://people.cs.clemson.edu/~mark/acs.html
http://wvnvm.wvnet.edu/EVENTS.HTML
http://people.cs.clemson.edu/~mark/acs_technical.html
http://www.leeandmelindavarian.com/Melinda/
http://wb4huc.home.texas.net/pds2pds/ibm_370.htm
http://vzone.virgin.net/chris.houghton/comp/index.html
http://homepages.kcbbs.gen.nz/nbree/saga.html
http://www.clock.org/~jss/work/mts/30years.html
http://www.clock.org/~jss/work/mts/index.html
http://www.computerhistory.org/
http://web.archive.org/web/20010218005108/http://www.isham-research.freeserve.co.uk/chrono.txt
http://www.computerhistory.org/timeline/topics/components.page
http://web.archive.org/web/20030813223021/www.cs.ncl.ac.uk/events/anniversaries/40th/images/ibm360_67/index.html
http://www.mcjones.org/System_R/
http://www.multicians.org/thvv/360-67.html
http://web.archive.org/web/20030813224124/www.cs.ncl.ac.uk/events/anniversaries/40th/images/ibm360_672/index.html
http://web.archive.org/web/20030419023518/www.cs.ncl.ac.uk/events/anniversaries/40th/images/unclassified2/print03.html
http://web.archive.org/web/20031121232747/www.cs.ncl.ac.uk/events/anniversaries/40th/webbook/photos/index.html
http://accl.grc.nasa.gov/archives/index.html
http://www.cs.utk.edu/~shuford/terminal/ibm.html
http://www.cs.uiowa.edu/~jones/cards/codes.html
http://homes.cs.washington.edu/~lazowska/frontiers/progress/
http://www.212.net/business/jargon.htm
http://web.archive.org/web/20020601123619/http://www.212.net/business/jargon.htm

--
Anne & Lynn Wheeler | lynn@garlic.com - http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/

Waterloo Interpreters (was Re: RAX (was RE: IBM OS Timeline?))

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From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Waterloo Interpreters (was Re: RAX (was RE: IBM OS Timeline?))
Newsgroups: bit.listserv.ibm-main,alt.folklore.computers
Date: Fri, 24 Aug 2001 03:01:24 GMT
"John R. Grout" writes:
Student interpreters. Under JES2, student programs would be submitted as joblets for interpretive execution by WATFOR (or WATFIV) running as an execution batch monitor (XBM). Until the mid-1990's (when IBM ripped them out of JES2), XBMs were an excellent way to cut job and step setup and teardown overhead to the bone (they were tricky to write, though... the one I wrote in the late 1980's was more than enough for me).

university we were at had 709 with ibsys and 1401 front-end that did unit record<->tape and small seconds per fortran job. it was replaced with 360/67 and mft and student jobs went to minute or so per job. Add HASP and reduced it to maybe 30seconds per job (standard 3step fortran g compile link edit and go).

Lots of places wrote various kinds on one step monitors that would handle things like fortran g, link edit & go as one step ... which resulted in student jobs being 10-15 seconds per ... still slower than the 709. we had ibm working on a one step monitor for handling multiple student jobs. One weekend (summer after my sophmore year i got a programming job ... they would let me have the whole machine room from 8am sat. until 8am monday), I duplicated and "interpreted" (aka standard punch didn't print so had to have it run thru something that "printed" the characters on the cards) his deck ... and then spent part of the weekend fixing it. I left both decks for the ibm guy. IBM made a big fuss for a while ... until I showed them all the bugs that i had fixed.

we got watfor sometime in 1967 ... which would batch compile & execute multiple student jobs in single step. Typical runs would wait until there was about a tray of student jobs checked in ... say 2500 or so cards (possibly 40-50 student jobs) ... slap watfor jcl on front and run it as one job step. I believe that watfor did something like 20,000 cards/min compile on 360m65/m67 (which typically was all that student jobs were).

With both hasp and watfor ... we had student jobs finally being processed faster than they had been on the 709.

--
Anne & Lynn Wheeler | lynn@garlic.com - http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/

IBM OS Timeline?

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From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: IBM OS Timeline?
Newsgroups: bit.listserv.ibm-main,alt.folklore.computers
Date: Fri, 24 Aug 2001 03:35:54 GMT
Anne & Lynn Wheeler writes:

http://os390-mvs.hypermart.net/mvshist.htm


note the following from the above reference:
"I remember a large COBOL program that ran for six hours doing fairly little since it produced a lot of printed output and spent most of its time waiting for the 1403. It was also interesting to place an off-tuned radio near the CPU and run sonmething with lots of loops, like the Link Editor. The sounds the radio picked up could be very danceable. My understanding is that PCP metamorphosed into CMS in the VM world, almost intact." (Martin Wills works for MVS Solutions Inc., the home of ThruPut Manager.)

note that CMS was originally the "cambridge monitoring system" on cp/40 & cp/67 ... which changed its name to "conversational monitoring system" with VM/370. It metamorphosed from CTSS ... i.e. several of the people that worked on CP/40 and CMS in 65/66 time-frame had come over from CTSS. CP/40 was a virtual machine system running on a custom modified 360m40 for virtual memory. When 360m67 finally became available, CP/40 was ported to the 67 and became CP/67. See more of the history at melinda's pages:
http://www.leeandmelindavarian.com/Melinda/

Around '68 or so, somebody at Union Carbide (north? south? carolina) did something called online/os. It basically was PCP with an "interactive" application that talked to the operator's 1052-7 (and specifically targeted for running under CP/67). This was an attempt to CMS'ize PCP (as opposed to morph'ing PCP into CMS).

CMS did run most of the standard OS/360 compilers (fortg, forth, apl, pli), etc. To do this, the cambridge/CMS group wrote something like a 30kbyte OS SVC simulator i.e. they wrote sufficient OS/360 SVC simulation code so that most OS/360 compilers and applications programs would execute under CMS (this was about 30kbytes or so of code necessary to emulate OS/360).

Note, also in the above regarding early MVT, there is mention 360m65 MP in 1968. The 360m67 multiprocessor was at least a year earlier (originally for tss/360). The OS/MP support on the 360m65 was global kernel/supervisor lock. The 360m67 had channel director, independent paths to memory for I/O and the processors and other features that weren't seen until possibly the 3084. Charlie's work (at Cambridge) on fine-grain locking for CP/67 resulted in the compare and swap instruction (mnemonic that are charlie's initials CAS).

random mp, compare&swap, etc
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#smp

random CTSS references:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/93.html#0 360/67, was Re: IBM's Project F/S ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/93.html#23 MTS & LLMPS?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/93.html#25 MTS & LLMPS?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/94.html#0 Multitasking question
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/94.html#1 Multitasking question
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/94.html#2 Schedulers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/94.html#54 How Do the Old Mainframes
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/97.html#12 OSes commerical, history
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/97.html#22 Pre S/360 IBM Operating Systems?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/98.html#10 OS with no distinction between RAM a
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/98.html#13 S/360 operating systems geneaology
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/98.html#17 S/360 operating systems geneaology
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/98.html#47 Multics and the PC
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#37 why is there an "@" key?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#39 Internet and/or ARPANET?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#41 A word processor from 1960
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#76 Mainframes at Universities
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#119 Computer, supercomputers & related
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#126 Dispute about Internet's origins
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#127 Dispute about Internet's origins
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#130 early hardware
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#142 OS/360 (and descendents) VM system?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000.html#81 Ux's good points.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000c.html#30 internal corporate network, misc.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000d.html#30 Secure Operating Systems
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000e.html#0 What good and old text formatter are there ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000e.html#16 First OS with 'User' concept?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000f.html#30 OT?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000f.html#58 360 Architecture, Multics, ... was (Re: X86 ultimate CISC? No.)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000f.html#66 360 Architecture, Multics, ... was (Re: X86 ultimate CISC? No.)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000f.html#78 TSS ancient history, was X86 ultimate CISC? designs)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000g.html#12 360 Architecture, Multics, ... was (Re: X86 ultimate CISC? No.)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001e.html#69 line length (was Re: Babble from "JD" <dyson@jdyson.com>)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001h.html#9 VM: checking some myths.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001h.html#10 VM: checking some myths.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001h.html#26 TECO Critique
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001h.html#34 D
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001h.html#46 Whom Do Programmers Admire Now???

--
Anne & Lynn Wheeler | lynn@garlic.com - http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/

Net banking, is it safe???

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From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Net banking, is it safe???
Newsgroups: comp.security.misc
Date: Fri, 24 Aug 2001 04:04:35 GMT
eric@badtux.org (Eric Lee Green) writes:
So a blue-haired grandma wants to check her account balance via the web, and you want her to do WHAT? With WHAT? What kind of whacky weed are you smoking? :-).

Fact of the matter is that if it requires physical media to change hands, OR it requires more than about 25 characters to be typed into the computer, it's too complicated for most users. I've worked technical support. We're talking about people who have difficulty with the fact that floppy disks go into the drive one way, and one way only (true story!). If it's more complicated than "Type this URL into your web browser, and here's the password and user ID", it's too expensive to support. Technical support is expensive, and banks are businesses. If an approach requires too much support overhead, they aren't going to do it.


it is possible to put chips into magstrip (debit or credit) cards and have a card slot similar to an ATM ... and in fact, make the PC effectively emulate the look & fell of an ATM machine (stick the card in the slot, type pin, etc).

the issue in the current (real) ATM world is that the magstripe & (shared-secret) PIN works in a secure financial network. Translation to an insecure network requires elimination of the shared-secret (possible with public key and the PIN just is known by the hardware token/card).

You obviously wouldn't want to supply this to people that find real ATMs incomprehensible. However, for the population that are able to deal with ATMs ... a PC with hardware token that had an ATM look&feel wouldn't be difficult (i.e. it is possible to also have all kinds of stories about people that are unable to deal with real ATMs).

--
Anne & Lynn Wheeler | lynn@garlic.com - http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/

Net banking, is it safe???

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From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Net banking, is it safe???
Newsgroups: comp.security.misc
Date: Fri, 24 Aug 2001 04:20:09 GMT
eric@badtux.org (Eric Lee Green) writes:
I don't have any problem with that. Communication between user and server is the problem. Telling a user "type this url, here's your user ID and password pair" works. Anything more is a technical support nightmare. This is why there are virtually no web applications that do what you're talking about.

the issue of public key along with hardware token is that various online service operations are claiming that close to number one or two service call expense are related to (shared-secret) password issues.

This is further aggravated that anybody with any online presence at all has multiple online relationships each with their own unique (shared-secret) password ... which becomes a personal nightmare (as well as an infrastructure nightmare).

one of the issues with regards to RADIUS that on an account by account basis, the account authentication by be selected ... userid/password where appropriate and public key (possibly implemented with hardware token) where appropriate.

Being able to have a single (non-shared-secret) PIN for a hardware token ... and the same hardware token used to authenticated all online relationships is significantly easier than unique userid/passwords for each.

So the issue is user friendly software that hides all the public key gorp from the person. Very straight-forward is to hide all the browswer public key stuff inside some applet (whether software or hardware token). Some of the customer support costs that I've seen associated with passwords problems easily support such an applet, and in some cases support both an applet as well as the cost of a hardware token.

following is from postings
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aepay3.htm#passwords
Password problems account for 20-50% of all calls to help desks, costing about a million dollars per year for a typical mid-sized company. About time we start taking the human factors of security seriously.

Passwords don't work: except for certain circus performers, nobody can remember a large number of random strings. And yet, how many security groups include a usability expert? (New York Times article: access requires free registration.). (August 5)


random password refs:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aadsm2.htm#inetpki A PKI for the Internet (was RE: Scale (and the SRV
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aadsm2.htm#account A different architecture? (was Re: certificate path
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aadsm2.htm#straw AADS Strawman
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aadsm2.htm#keyl4 On leaving the 56-bit key length limitation
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aadsm2.htm#pkikrb PKI/KRB
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aadsm3.htm#cstech cardtech/securetech & CA PKI
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aadsm3.htm#cstech2 cardtech/securetech & CA PKI
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aadsm3.htm#cstech4 cardtech/securetech & CA PKI
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aadsm3.htm#cstech5 cardtech/securetech & CA PKI
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aadsm3.htm#cstech6 cardtech/securetech & CA PKI
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aadsm3.htm#cstech8 cardtech/securetech & CA PKI
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aadsm3.htm#cstech10 cardtech/securetech & CA PKI
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aadsm3.htm#cstech13 cardtech/securetech & CA PKI
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aadsm3.htm#kiss1 KISS for PKIX. (Was: RE: ASN.1 vs XML (used to be RE: I-D ACTION :draft-ietf-pkix-scvp- 00.txt))
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aadsm3.htm#kiss2 Common misconceptions, was Re: KISS for PKIX. (Was: RE: ASN.1 vs XML (used to be RE: I-D ACTION :draft-ietf-pkix-scvp-00.txt))
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aadsm3.htm#kiss3 KISS for PKIX. (Was: RE: ASN.1 vs XML (used to be RE: I-D ACTION :draft-ietf-pkix-scvp- 00.txt))
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aadsm3.htm#kiss8 KISS for PKIX
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aadsm3.htm#kiss9 KISS for PKIX .... password/digital signature
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aadsm4.htm#00 Is The Public Key Infrastructure Outdated?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aadsm5.htm#shock2 revised Shocking Truth about Digital Signatures
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aadsm5.htm#spki Simple PKI
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aadsm5.htm#spki4 Simple PKI
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aadsmore.htm#keytext proposed key usage text
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aadsmore.htm#killer1 Killer PKI Applications
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aadsmore.htm#biosigs biometrics and electronic signatures
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aadsmore.htm#client4 Client-side revocation checking capability
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aepay2.htm#privrule3 U.S. firms gird for privacy rules
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aepay3.htm#passwords Passwords don't work
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aepay4.htm#dnsinteg1 Domain Name integrity problem
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aepay6.htm#ecml Electronic Commerce Modeling Language
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aepay7.htm#ssexploit Shared-Secret exploit
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/ansiepay.htm#privacy more on privacy
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/ansiepay.htm#ifraud Internet Fraud
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#52 Enter fonts (was Re: Unix case-sensitivity: how did it originate?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#172 checks (was S/390 on PowerPC?)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#173 checks (was S/390 on PowerPC?)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#235 Attacks on a PKI
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000.html#33 SmartCard with ECC crypto
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000.html#47 TLS: What is the purpose of the client certificate request?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000.html#57 RealNames hacked. Firewall issues.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000b.html#14 Will Radius be obsolute if implement 2-token authentications?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000b.html#29 20th March 2000
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000b.html#46 Simple authentication protocol: any good?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000b.html#53 Digital Certificates-Healthcare Setting
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000b.html#90 Question regarding authentication implementation
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000b.html#92 Question regarding authentication implementation
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000c.html#32 Request for review of "secure" storage scheme
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000d.html#70 When the Internet went private
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000f.html#1 Why trust root CAs ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000f.html#4 Why trust root CAs ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001c.html#8 Server authentication
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001c.html#9 Server authentication
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001c.html#30 PKI and Non-repudiation practicalities
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001c.html#39 PKI and Non-repudiation practicalities
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001c.html#42 PKI and Non-repudiation practicalities
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001c.html#45 PKI and Non-repudiation practicalities
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001c.html#65 Key Recovery System/Product
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001d.html#20 What is PKI?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001d.html#21 What is PKI?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001d.html#51 OT Re: A beautiful morning in AFM.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001d.html#52 OT Re: A beautiful morning in AFM.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001d.html#53 April Fools Day
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001d.html#62 OT Re: A beautiful morning in AFM.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001d.html#73 Rational basis for password policy?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001e.html#32 Blame it all on Microsoft
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001e.html#52 Pre ARPAnet email?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001e.html#81 Passwords
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001g.html#1 distributed authentication
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001g.html#11 FREE X.509 Certificates
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001g.html#38 distributed authentication
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001g.html#40 Self-Signed Certificate
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001h.html#7 PKI/Digital signature doesn't work
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001h.html#75 Net banking, is it safe???
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001i.html#9 Net banking, is it safe???
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001i.html#25 Net banking, is it safe???
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001i.html#26 No Trusted Viewer possible?

--
Anne & Lynn Wheeler | lynn@garlic.com - http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/

IBM OS Timeline?

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From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: IBM OS Timeline?
Newsgroups: bit.listserv.ibm-main,alt.folklore.computers
Date: Fri, 24 Aug 2001 15:41:34 GMT
Anne & Lynn Wheeler writes:
I remember OS/360 as PCP (release 6?) and it took nearly an hour to assemble a 2000 card program (on a 360m30, you could see the lights when it hit a DCB macro ... which would take 5-6 minutes per, & with 5-6 DCB macros, that accounted for 30-40 minutes of total elapsed time all by itself). A later, possibly folktale was that the guy doing the opcode decode was told he had to do it all in something like 256(?) bytes ... and so stored the table on disk, which had to be reread for each op-code. That was eventually fixed.

university i was at was also beta-test side for (the original ibm) CICS (project was one of those library projects funded by ONR). there were some number of bugs ... effectively configurations/environments that hadn't been used previously.

One bug I remember having to shoot & fix was OPEN failure on BDAM file ... the BDAM options were just slightly different than anything that they had previously used.

later after I joined ibm, i remember being in pok (705?) machine room 3rd shift with don ludlow testing initial work on SVS. He had cobbled together an MVT system with a version of CCWTRANS from CP/67 (CCWTRANS was the CP/67 module that handled the virtual->real CCW translation, page fixing for I/O transfers, etc ... aka a lot of the work involved in adding virtual memory support to OS/MVT involved copying and/or integrating code from CP/67).

random refs;
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/94.html#21 370 ECPS VM microcode assist
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/94.html#33 short CICS story
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/94.html#35 mainframe CKD disks & PDS files (looong... warning)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/96.html#9 cics
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/97.html#6 IBM Hursley?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/97.html#8 Ancient DASD
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/97.html#30 How is CICS pronounced?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/98.html#33 ... cics ... from posting from another list
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/98.html#34 ... cics ... from posting from another list
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#58 When did IBM go object only
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#130 early hardware
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#218 Mainframe acronyms: how do you pronounce them?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000.html#68 Mainframe operating systems
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000b.html#41 How to learn assembler language for OS/390 ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000c.html#34 What level of computer is needed for a computer to Love?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000c.html#35 What level of computer is needed for a computer to Love?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000c.html#45 Does the word "mainframe" still have a meaning?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000c.html#52 Does the word "mainframe" still have a meaning?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000c.html#54 WHAT IS A MAINFRAME???
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000f.html#69 TSS ancient history, was X86 ultimate CISC? designs)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001.html#51 Competitors to SABRE?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001.html#62 California DMV
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001b.html#18 Linux IA-64 interrupts [was Re: Itanium benchmarks ...]
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001d.html#56 Pentium 4 Prefetch engine?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001d.html#69 Block oriented I/O over IP
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001f.html#2 Mysterious Prefixes
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001g.html#24 XML: No More CICS?

--
Anne & Lynn Wheeler | lynn@garlic.com - http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/

IBM OS Timeline?

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: IBM OS Timeline?
Newsgroups: bit.listserv.ibm-main,alt.folklore.computers
Date: Fri, 24 Aug 2001 15:41:34 GMT
Anne & Lynn Wheeler writes:
I remember OS/360 as PCP (release 6?) and it took nearly an hour to assemble a 2000 card program (on a 360m30, you could see the lights when it hit a DCB macro ... which would take 5-6 minutes per, & with 5-6 DCB macros, that accounted for 30-40 minutes of total elapsed time all by itself). A later, possibly folktale was that the guy doing the opcode decode was told he had to do it all in something like 256(?) bytes ... and so stored the table on disk, which had to be reread for each op-code. That was eventually fixed.

university i was at was also beta-test side for (the original ibm) CICS (project was one of those library projects funded by ONR). there were some number of bugs ... effectively configurations/environments that hadn't been used previously.

One bug I remember having to shoot & fix was OPEN failure on BDAM file ... the BDAM options were just slightly different than anything that they had previously used.

later after I joined ibm, i remember being in pok (705?) machine room 3rd shift with don ludlow testing initial work on SVS. He had cobbled together an MVT system with a version of CCWTRANS from CP/67 (CCWTRANS was the CP/67 module that handled the virtual->real CCW translation, page fixing for I/O transfers, etc ... aka a lot of the work involved in adding virtual memory support to OS/MVT involved copying and/or integrating code from CP/67).

random refs;
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/94.html#21 370 ECPS VM microcode assist
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/94.html#33 short CICS story
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/94.html#35 mainframe CKD disks & PDS files (looong... warning)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/96.html#9 cics
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/97.html#6 IBM Hursley?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/97.html#8 Ancient DASD
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/97.html#30 How is CICS pronounced?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/98.html#33 ... cics ... from posting from another list
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/98.html#34 ... cics ... from posting from another list
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#58 When did IBM go object only
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#130 early hardware
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#218 Mainframe acronyms: how do you pronounce them?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000.html#68 Mainframe operating systems
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000b.html#41 How to learn assembler language for OS/390 ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000c.html#34 What level of computer is needed for a computer to Love?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000c.html#35 What level of computer is needed for a computer to Love?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000c.html#45 Does the word "mainframe" still have a meaning?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000c.html#52 Does the word "mainframe" still have a meaning?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000c.html#54 WHAT IS A MAINFRAME???
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000f.html#69 TSS ancient history, was X86 ultimate CISC? designs)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001.html#51 Competitors to SABRE?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001.html#62 California DMV
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001b.html#18 Linux IA-64 interrupts [was Re: Itanium benchmarks ...]
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001d.html#56 Pentium 4 Prefetch engine?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001d.html#69 Block oriented I/O over IP
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001f.html#2 Mysterious Prefixes
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001g.html#24 XML: No More CICS?

--
Anne & Lynn Wheeler | lynn@garlic.com - http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/

IBM OS Timeline?

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: IBM OS Timeline?
Newsgroups: bit.listserv.ibm-main,alt.folklore.computers
Date: Fri, 24 Aug 2001 21:17:09 GMT
gah@ugcs.caltech.edu (glen herrmannsfeldt) writes:
And they didn't do the BUILD macro, which seems to do a LINK to a very simple program. Maybe one of the simpler macros.

what do you expect for full-blown OS system services in 30k bytes? I believe that if it wasn't used by any of the compilers then they didn't get around to implementing it.

remember, for most of its lifetime, cambridge was about 35 people, during the cp/40, cp/67 days maybe only 20.

they did cp/40, cms, cp/67, the stuff that was the internal network (largest network in the world until internet started to overtake it in the middle to late '80s), script, gml (which morphed into sgml, and then at cern, html, and now xml), editors, word processing, timesharing, multiprocessing support, the compare&swap instruction, apl ported to virtual memory environment (including rewrite of apl storage mechanism for virtual memory), early performance tuning work, some of the earliest work on transition of performance tuning into capacity planning, the performance perdictor (tool on HONE, that field used that profiled customer configuration, application, operationgs, & workload, and was able to do what-if questions regarding changes, new hardware, etc).

by comparison, both tss/360 and various flavors of OS/360 numbered in the thousands (I think i once heard that tss/360 at mohansic and other places may have totaled 1200).

random refs:
http://www.leeandmelindavarian.com/Melinda/
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#wsclock
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#fairshare
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#smp
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#hone
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#mmap
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#360pcm
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#360mcode
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#disk
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#internet
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/internet.htm

--
Anne & Lynn Wheeler | lynn@garlic.com - http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/

IBM OS Timeline?

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: IBM OS Timeline?
Newsgroups: bit.listserv.ibm-main,alt.folklore.computers
Date: Sat, 25 Aug 2001 04:00:21 GMT
gah@ugcs.caltech.edu (glen herrmannsfeldt) writes:
And they didn't do the BUILD macro, which seems to do a LINK to a very simple program. Maybe one of the simpler macros.

I think that for VM/370 ... the os simulation code doubled in size to almost 64kbytes. There used to be this joke about MVS taking (at least) 8mbytes of code to pretend to be os/360 while CMS took only 64kbytes of code to pretend to be os/360.

--
Anne & Lynn Wheeler | lynn@garlic.com - http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/

Withdrawal Announcement 901-218 - No More 'small machines'

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Withdrawal Announcement 901-218 - No More 'small machines'
Newsgroups: bit.listserv.ibm-main,alt.folklore.computers
Date: Sat, 25 Aug 2001 13:32:35 GMT
rhawkins@SINGNET.COM.SG (Ron & Jenny Hawkins) writes:
I am not trying to downplay how elegant and beneficial Sysplex and WLM can be. However, in the context of a small to medium site, these facilities and their hard/software come at a premium that does not always stack up to the business benefit.

For a site in the SUN E6K or HP V-class category, you can get almost all the facilities of GDPS using Veritas Geographic Cluster Manager, with a choice of software or storage based Remote Copy that is mainframe class. This is complete with GDPS style automatic recovery. Same is true on NT and Win2K using the same software and storage.

I remain an OS390 bigot, but please don't go thinking that Unix/Windows are anything like they were when Dyadic was a buzzword. This is what OS390 sales people do, and this is why they look like monkeys in a zoo... (G D & R)


as an aside ... my wife did a tour in POK where she was responsible for loosely couple architecture and invented & wrote peer-coupled shared data architecture which was eventually basis for ims hot standby and sysplex.

later we ran skunk works responsible for HSDT and HA/CMP ... we also coined the term disaster survivability (as opposed to disaster recovery) and geographic survivability for geographic clusters (all pre-dating the other unix clusters). During this period we got to co-author part of the corporate continuous availability strategy document ... but both rochester and POK non-concurred on the section we wrote.

during our early days of working on ha/cmp ... various of current prime proponets of clusters were some of our staunchest adversaries.

random refs:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/95.html#13
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#71
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001.html#33
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001g.html#46

http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#hacmp
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#hone
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#hsdt
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#fairshare

--
Anne & Lynn Wheeler | lynn@garlic.com - http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/

Question re: Size of Swap File

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From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Question re: Size of Swap File
Newsgroups: alt.security.pgp,alt.computer.security
Date: Sat, 25 Aug 2001 13:59:17 GMT
"Robert J. Hansen" writes:
Black magic. Wave a dead chicken over your PC a few times, then have six triple espressos, chase it down with some stale pizza, stay up for three days until you're hallucinating from sleep deprivation, and the answer will come to you.

some older discussion
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/93.html#12 managing large amounts of vm
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/93.html#13 managing large amounts of vm
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/94.html#9 talk to your I/O cache
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000d.html#13 4341 was "Is a VAX a mainframe?"

one of the issues is dup or no-dup algorithm. many algorithms effectively duplicate pages in memory and on disk. on large number of big memory systems, a no-dup algorithm can be useful; whenever a page is brought in, it is removed from disk allocation. The downside of a no-dup algorithm is whenever a page is selected for replacement ... it always is written to (a new) disk location. A "dup" algorithm, when a page has been selected for replacement and it hasn't been changed since it was last read from disk ... it doesn't have to be written back to disk.

Say you have 1gbyte of real storage and 1.5gbyte of allocated virtual memory in various running applications. In a "dup" strategy, you need at least 1.5gbyte of disk space to hold total virtual memory of all your concurrently active applications. In a no-dup strategy, you would only need enuf disk space to hold the virtual pages that weren't currently resident in memory aka 1.5gbyte total minus (about) 1gbyte of virtual pages resident in storage ... or about 500mbytes.

basically, some of the guidelines assume some rule about the number of concurrently active applications might be proportional to the amount of real storage (and a "duplicate" allocation algorithm). However, real environments can vary from total amount of virtual storage is less than real storage (in which case a no-dup strategy wouldn't require any allocated space on disk) to ten times or more the amount of real storage. In actual fact, the total amount of virtual storage in concurrently active applications can have little correlation to the amount of real storage.

and of course ... application/system storage cancers in operations that stay up for long periods of time w/o rebooting can result in constantly increasing amount of disk storage requirements for virtual memory

--
Anne & Lynn Wheeler | lynn@garlic.com - http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/

Withdrawal Announcement 901-218 - No More 'small machines'

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From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Withdrawal Announcement 901-218 - No More 'small machines'
Newsgroups: bit.listserv.ibm-main,alt.folklore.computers
Date: Sat, 25 Aug 2001 14:30:11 GMT
Anne & Lynn Wheeler writes:

http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#hone


during the '80s, possibly the largest geographic survivability cluster was the US HONE complex ... basically the Hands-On Networking Environment which was the time-sharing support infastructure for all the sales & service (it was a world-wide offering, but "surivivability" was only across the US "components").

I think starting with the 370m115 & 370m125, machines couldn't be ordered w/o first being run thru a HONE "configurator".

HONE was a massive, world-wide VM/370 infrastructure with the majority of the applications starting out cms\apl and then ported to apl\cms.

The first HONE environment was CP/67 running on 360m67s for all US field people. In addition to various apl and fortran applications, it also provided various flavors of the "H" system ... specifically modified version of CP/67 that provided both non-relocate and relocate virtual machines (i.e. CP/67 modified to simulate new 370 instructions and architecture).

There were several (US) HONE locations, but in 1977 they were all consolidated in Palo Alto (largest single-system operation in the world, effectively an early "sysplex" type operation with advanced workload & recovery management across the complex). Then starting around 1979, the Palo Alto complex was replicated in Dallas and Boulder for disaster survivability.

When EMEA hdqtrs moved to La Defense in the early '70s, I hand-carried a copy of HONE and installed it. I also hand-carried & installed initial HONE operation in Tokyo and some number of other locations.

as above URL refs
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#hone

--
Anne & Lynn Wheeler | lynn@garlic.com - http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/

Withdrawal Announcement 901-218 - No More 'small machines'

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Withdrawal Announcement 901-218 - No More 'small machines'
Newsgroups: bit.listserv.ibm-main,alt.folklore.computers
Date: Sat, 25 Aug 2001 14:56:52 GMT
Anne & Lynn Wheeler writes:
HONE was a massive, world-wide VM/370 infrastructure with the majority of the applications starting out cms\apl and then ported to apl\cms.

cambridge science center had taken APL/360 from the phili science center and redid it for cms\apl. This included rewriting garbage collection for virtual memory environment ... really large workspaces i.e. instead of 16kbyte or 32kbyte workspaces in apl/360, cms\apl offered up to 16mbyte workspaces. A lot of corporate forecasting and planning people soon acquired userids on the cambridge cp/67 system to run large financial models (effectively a lot of stuff that is being done on spreadsheet-based technology today).

For cms\apl, cambridge also added a bunch of system call operators. This violated the purity of APL and there was big arguments about cms\apl (but you could write applications that munged real-world data). Possibly, one of the biggest changes going to apl\cms was the "shared variables" which was able to encapsulate all system infrastructure characteristics ... but in an APL pure way.

The CSC CP/67 time-sharing service (as opposed to the CSC system research & development, word/document processing research & development, etc ... especially since this was still all included in the 20-35 total headcount at CSC) became an interesting operation with a user community that spanned MIT students, researchers, and corporate planners. The forecasting and planning data for the corporate financial models was possibly among the highest guarded data in the company. Being able to provide that level of security and still allow relative free use by MIT students and researchers was an interesting challenge.

random refs:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001i.html#30 IBM OS Timeline?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001i.html#32 IBM OS Timeline?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001i.html#34 IBM OS Timeline?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001i.html#37 IBM OS Timeline?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001i.html#38 IBM OS Timeline?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001i.html#39 IBM OS Timeline?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001i.html#40 IBM OS Timeline?

--
Anne & Lynn Wheeler | lynn@garlic.com - http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/

Withdrawal Announcement 901-218 - No More 'small machines'

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Withdrawal Announcement 901-218 - No More 'small machines'
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Sat, 25 Aug 2001 15:54:57 GMT
ab528@FreeNet.Carleton.CA (Heinz W. Wiggeshoff) writes:
... Back in 1969, it was spelled APL\360 B-)

only if you had an apl\360 typeball ... otherwise it was apl360 or apl/360.

intro to apl\360 user's manaul, 1968 (I found in one of my boxes)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001.html#2 A new "Remember when?" period happening right now

:-)

--
Anne & Lynn Wheeler | lynn@garlic.com - http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/

Withdrawal Announcement 901-218 - No More 'small machines'

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From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Withdrawal Announcement 901-218 - No More 'small machines'
Newsgroups: bit.listserv.ibm-main,alt.folklore.computers
Date: Sat, 25 Aug 2001 16:43:28 GMT
Anne & Lynn Wheeler writes:
during the '80s, possibly the largest geographic survivability cluster was the US HONE complex ... basically the Hands-On Networking Environment which was the time-sharing support infastructure for all the sales & service (it was a world-wide offering, but "surivivability" was only across the US "components").

HONE, besides email, configurators (i.e. fill-in the order for mainframes starting the early '70s no longer could be done manually by a salesman from the sales manual), document&word processing (essentially all customer proposals, answers to RFI/RFP, contracts, etc) ... also had performance models in APL. The original one was also written at cambridge ... for performance predictors ... i.e. field people could enter customer workload, configuration, and other information and then be able to ask "what-if" questions about more real storage, faster cpu, more disk arms, etc.

The single-system image workload manager for palo alto had to worry about the large disk farm as well as cpu resources. One of the big issues in workload manager across a large number of processors was disk arm contention ... with disk intensive applications.

All requests for a specific disk arm within the same CEC (processors sharing the same real memory) could have the ordering optimize to maximize disk thruput. However with a large number of CECs all sharing the same disk farm, disk arm optimization could degenerate to random ... because of large number of interleaving disk requests from a large number of different CECs (i.e. disk arm queuing was performed at the CEC level not at the controller or disk level).

Even tho APL applications tended to be serverly CPU constrained (for various implementation efficiency reasons as well as the nature of many of the applications) ... there were still a quite a bit of heavy disk intensive operations in a HONE complex.

As a result, the workload manager had to trade-off clustering majority of users that tended to have clustered disk access to the similar set of disk arms (to maximize disk arm optimization) against CPU utilization workload distribution across different CECs. This was further aggravated by the time-zone working effect i.e. all of the US was sharing the same complex, however there tended to be very distinct daytime workload peaks by timezone. The sales, branch and field people in the same region might have similar disk arm clustering access patterns but would also peak their cpu utilization at similar times of the day ... so the workload manager was faced with trade-off between load-balancing cpu utilization against the downside of non-optimal disk arm thruputs.

--
Anne & Lynn Wheeler | lynn@garlic.com - http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/

Withdrawal Announcement 901-218 - No More 'small machines'

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Withdrawal Announcement 901-218 - No More 'small machines'
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Sat, 25 Aug 2001 16:45:45 GMT
ab528@FreeNet.Carleton.CA (Heinz W. Wiggeshoff) writes:
Ah, so you remember the 2741s? (And took your ball with you when you left the terminal?)

careful ... my 2741 APL typeball was in the same box with the manual (aka I still have my 2741 APL typeball)

--
Anne & Lynn Wheeler | lynn@garlic.com - http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/

Withdrawal Announcement 901-218 - No More 'small machines'

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Withdrawal Announcement 901-218 - No More 'small machines'
Newsgroups: bit.listserv.ibm-main,alt.folklore.computers
Date: Sat, 25 Aug 2001 18:31:19 GMT
jcmorris@mitre.org (Joe Morris) writes:
Can you share with us what you put into the paper, and what Rochester and POK didn't like?

basically at the time we were working on real geographic survivability .. and rochester/POK effectively said that they wouldn't have it for at least another five years ... so they didn't want anything in the corporate continuous availability strategy document that they didn't have a solution for.

we also slightly tweaked the system/88 (i.e. logo'ed stratus) folks .. since they were also single site availability ... and at the time non-clustered and the operating system was non-hot-servicable; aka the 1-800 system had guideline of 5 minutes of downtime per year (around five nines) and had been s/88 (or status) ... but any operating system service required minimum of 30 minute outage.

the SS7 already had fully redundant hardware and replicated T1s coming out of the back to the 1-800 service (along with logic that would drive a request down the alternate T1 to mask things like T1/communications failures). Putting a replicated clustered configuration on the back of the SS7 T1s ... would rely on the SS7 T1-fault masking logic to also mask backend fault ... and it would allow operating system, database & application "hot" serviceability. At the time, system/88 would have needed replicated boxes on the back of the T1s to support hot operating system maintenance ... but there was little total system availability difference between a pair of replicated ha/cmp boxes and a pair of system/88 boxes (in the 1-800 scenerio) .... aka taking advantage of the fault-masking logic in the SS7 effectively made much of the s/88 redundancy superfluous.

--
Anne & Lynn Wheeler | lynn@garlic.com - http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/

Withdrawal Announcement 901-218 - No More 'small machines'

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From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Withdrawal Announcement 901-218 - No More 'small machines'
Newsgroups: bit.listserv.ibm-main,alt.folklore.computers
Date: Sat, 25 Aug 2001 19:06:56 GMT
Anne & Lynn Wheeler writes:
basically at the time we were working on real geographic survivability .. and rochester/POK effectively said that they wouldn't have it for at least another five years ... so they didn't want anything in the corporate continuous availability strategy document that they didn't have a solution for.

from some long ago random tidbit ... names have been changed to protect the innocent. note1: Tuxedo was also transaction manager in the period (camelot was supposedly going to be a contender if you asked the CMU ... eventually transarc people), note2: also as total aside, really long ago and far away ... i was undergraduate and worked on the original IBM CICS beta-test, note3: in hong kong we were doing an ha deployment for a telecom company and talking to various financial institutions.

HAWMS Status report - October 18, 1991

The HAWMS Study team met at 9am EDT on October 18, 1991
to review the status of the project.

Attending:    Stu Vwx
Abc Def (by phone from LaGaude)
Ghi Jkl (by phone from LaGaude)
Mno Pqr

Vwx covered the results of Xyz-san's meeting with the RS/6000 product
owner in Japan.  (See text of Vwx's note at the bottom of this note.)
The main point to come out of the meeting is the that HA/6000 is not
seen as a viable solution for the OLTP marketplace without CICS/AIX.

Vwx also asked the other members of the team to assess the new version
of the AP Continuous Availability Major Comparisons chart which has
been expanded to include the HA/6000 in addition to the ES/9000, S/88,
and Tandem.

Def met with Bgo earlier this week and Bgo's comments were similar to
those of the RS/6000 product owner in Japan.  He stated that the Fault
Tolerant marketplace is mainly an OLTP market and that the HA/6000
must have a transaction manager such as CICS/AIX in order to compete.

The meeting with Lynn Wheeler will be held in Gaithersburg the week
of November 11.  Lynn will be in Hong Kong the week of October 28, and
in Australia the week of November 4.  The exact date and location of
this meeting will be included in next week's report.

The next checkpoint will be taken on October 25 at 9am EDT.

--
Anne & Lynn Wheeler | lynn@garlic.com - http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/

I hate Compaq

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: I hate Compaq
Newsgroups: comp.arch
Date: Sun, 26 Aug 2001 20:04:53 GMT
nmm1@cus.cam.ac.uk (Nick Maclaren) writes:
It is possible that some states of the USA have diverted from this, but I have been told by some reliable sources that most have not done so - though, as always, the boundaries of the law are murky. Please note that "diverted from" - this is common law, and long predates the rebellion of the disloyal North American colonies, who nevertheless mostly continued with English law and precedent. Louisiana etc. may differ.

at one time we looked at doing some work in lexis/nexis (when it was still owned by meade). one of the issues is that country common law precedent differs by state ... effectively the country of origin of the early settlers (some number of mid-west states have common law precedent of various scandinavian countries ... not england). So legal research on lexis needed to serve up appropriate references/information based on not only specific state law ... but also specific country common law that could differ by state.

however, as far as contracts ... most states have aligned themselves with UCC (uniform commercial code).

http://www.law.cornell.edu/ucc/ucc.table.html
ARTICLE 1. GENERAL PROVISIONS

ARTICLE 2. SALES

ARTICLE 2A. LEASES

ARTICLE 3. NEGOTIABLE INSTRUMENTS

ARTICLE 4. BANK DEPOSITS AND COLLECTIONS

ARTICLE 4A. FUNDS TRANSFERS

ARTICLE 5. LETTERS OF CREDIT

ARTICLE 6. BULK TRANSFERS and [REVISED] - BULK SALES

ARTICLE 7. WAREHOUSE RECEIPTS, BILLS OF LADING AND OTHER DOCUMENTS OF TITLE

ARTICLE 8. INVESTMENT SECURITIES

ARTICLE 9. SECURED TRANSACTIONS; SALES OF ACCOUNTS AND CHATTEL PAPER



http://www.law.cornell.edu/ucc/3/3-303
3-303. VALUE AND CONSIDERATION.

(a) An instrument is issued or transferred for value if: (1) the instrument is issued or transferred for a promise of performance, to the extent the promise has been performed; (2) the transferee acquires a security interest or other lien in the instrument other than a lien obtained by judicial proceeding; (3) the instrument is issued or transferred as payment of, or as security for, an antecedent claim against any person, whether or not the claim is due; (4) the instrument is issued or transferred in exchange for a negotiable instrument; or (5) the instrument is issued or transferred in exchange for the incurring of an irrevocable obligation to a third party by the person taking the instrument.

(b) "Consideration" means any consideration sufficient to support a simple contract. The drawer or maker of an instrument has a defense if the instrument is issued without consideration. If an instrument is issued for a promise of performance, the issuer has a defense to the extent performance of the promise is due and the promise has not been performed. If an instrument is issued for value as stated in subsection (a), the instrument is also issued for consideration.


--
Anne & Lynn Wheeler | lynn@garlic.com - http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/

DARPA was: Short Watson Biography

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From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: DARPA was: Short Watson Biography
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Mon, 27 Aug 2001 03:14:29 GMT
eugene@cse.ucsc.edu (Eugene Miya) writes:
But where IBM (and Microsoft) have problems are their decisions on the economic implications of research. I've seen in San Jose/Almaden, Yorktown Heights, PARC, and Redmond: a few really neat things, but these researchers are unable to get past their higher management because of inbred corporate biases (I remember a really cool (had potential back then) system in San Jose, but the problem was that it used Tektronix hardware: kiss of death [this is not a computer]).

unrelated, but ibm did produce a 3277 graphics display (3277ga or 618) product in the late '70s ... that was basically a tektronics storage tube driven off the side of a 3277 terminal at ibm channel speeds

past ref from this newsgroup:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000e.html#32 Tektronic Storage Tube Terminal

it was produced in POK by the same guy responsible for the A74
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000e.html#55 Why not an IBM zSeries workstation?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000e.html#56 Why not an IBM zSeries workstation?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001i.html#19 Very CISC Instuctions (Was: why the machine word size ...)

--
Anne & Lynn Wheeler | lynn@garlic.com - http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/

misc loosely-coupled, sysplex, cluster, supercomputer, & electronic commerce

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From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: misc loosely-coupled, sysplex, cluster, supercomputer, & electronic commerce
Newsgroups: bit.listserv.ibm-main,alt.folklore.computers
Date: Mon, 27 Aug 2001 23:54:03 GMT
misc. connections between loosely-coupled, sysplex, cluster, supercomputer, and electronic commerce

loosely-coupled & sysplex
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/98.html#30 Drive letters
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/98.html#35a Drive letters
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/98.html#37 What is MVS/ESA?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/98.html#40 Comparison Cluster vs SMP?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#71 High Availabilty on S/390
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#100 Why won't the AS/400 die? Or, It's 1999 why do I have to learn how to use
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#128 Examples of non-relational databases
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000.html#13 Computer of the century
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000f.html#30 OT?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000f.html#37 OT?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001b.html#73 7090 vs. 7094 etc.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001c.html#69 Wheeler and Wheeler
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001d.html#71 Pentium 4 Prefetch engine?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001e.html#2 Block oriented I/O over IP
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001g.html#44 The Alpha/IA64 Hybrid
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001g.html#46 The Alpha/IA64 Hybrid
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001h.html#76 Other oddball IBM System 360's ?

loosely-coupled, cluster & supercomputer
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/95.html#13 SSA
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/96.html#15 tcp/ip

loosely-coupled, cluster & electronic commerce
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aadsm5.htm#asrn2 assurance, e-commerce, and some x9.59 ... fyi
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aadsmore.htm#dctriv digital commerce trivia question
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/95.html#13 SSA
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aadsm5.htm#asrn3 assurance, e-commerce, and some x9.59 ... fyi

misc posts wife doing stint in POK responsible for (mainframe) loosely-coupled (cluster) architecture
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#shareddata

misc posts related to ha/cmp product
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#hacmp

misc. old email on cluster scaleup
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/lhwemail.html#medusa

misc. posts availability, disaster survivability, geographic survivability, continuous availability
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#available

misc. post assurance
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subintegrity.html#assurance

misc other, availability
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aadsm2.htm#availability A different architecture? (was Re: certificate path
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aadsm5.htm#asrn4 assurance, X9.59, etc
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aadsmail.htm#mfraud AADS, X9.59, security, flaws, privacy
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aepay2.htm#cadis disaster recovery cross-posting
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/93.html#28 Log Structured filesystems -- think twice
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/94.html#16 Dual-ported disks?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/94.html#33a High Speed Data Transport (HSDT)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/95.html#13 SSA
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/96.html#15 tcp/ip
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/96.html#31 Mainframes & Unix
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/96.html#33 Mainframes & Unix
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/96.html#34 Mainframes & Unix
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/96.html#36 Mainframes & Unix (and TPF)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/97.html#5 360/44 (was Re: IBM 1130 (was Re: IBM 7090--used for business or
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/98.html#23 Fear of Multiprocessing?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/98.html#35a Drive letters
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/98.html#37 What is MVS/ESA?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/98.html#40 Comparison Cluster vs SMP?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/98.html#49 Edsger Dijkstra: the blackest week of his professional life
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/98.html#57 Reliability and SMPs
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#54 Fault Tolerance
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#67 System/1 ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#145 Q: S/390 on PowerPC?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#184 Clustering systems
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#219 Study says buffer overflow is most common security bug
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000b.html#45 OSA-Express Gigabit Ethernet card planning
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000b.html#85 Mainframe power failure (somehow morphed from Re: write rings)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000e.html#22 Is a VAX a mainframe?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000f.html#30 OT?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000f.html#31 OT?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000g.html#27 Could CDR-coding be on the way back?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001.html#33 Where do the filesystem and RAID system belong?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001.html#34 Competitors to SABRE?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001.html#41 Where do the filesystem and RAID system belong?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001c.html#66 KI-10 vs. IBM at Rutgers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001c.html#69 Wheeler and Wheeler
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001d.html#71 Pentium 4 Prefetch engine?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001e.html#2 Block oriented I/O over IP
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001e.html#4 Block oriented I/O over IP
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001e.html#41 Where are IBM z390 SPECint2000 results?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001g.html#23 IA64 Rocks My World
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001g.html#44 The Alpha/IA64 Hybrid
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001g.html#46 The Alpha/IA64 Hybrid
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001i.html#31 3745 and SNI
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001i.html#41 Withdrawal Announcement 901-218 - No More 'small machines'
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001i.html#43 Withdrawal Announcement 901-218 - No More 'small machines'
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001i.html#46 Withdrawal Announcement 901-218 - No More 'small machines'
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001i.html#48 Withdrawal Announcement 901-218 - No More 'small machines'
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001i.html#49 Withdrawal Announcement 901-218 - No More 'small machines'

--
Anne & Lynn Wheeler | lynn@garlic.com, http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/

Credit Card # encryption

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From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Credit Card # encryption
Newsgroups: sci.crypt
Date: Wed, 29 Aug 2001 15:36:11 GMT
"David Thompson" writes:
(corrected to Instruction) To be really pedantic, only the exPIData portion (PI-OILink) is encrypted (for PIDualSigned), the cross-hash and signature are clear so the merchant can (and must) verify, although that doesn't really buy anything since the acquirer, in consultation with the issuer, is authoritative anyway.

This does prevent a merchant (or key) that was once valid but has been compromised and reported from getting PANs. SET does not revoke cardholder or merchant certs, it relies instead on the issuer or acquirer respectively rejecting txns for them. The acquirer/pgwy will not return any good response, with or without PANToken, to a "revoked" merchant.


the way it was explained to me by one of the primary authors of the original & current SET documents was that encrypting the PAN on the way in ... delays providing the merchant with the PAN until after the gateway has validated that it is dealing with a valid merchant. However, there are a bunch of post-transaction credit card business processes that require the merchant to have access to the PAN ... and as stated by the SET author ... there was not even the remotess consideration given to not providing the PAN to (valid) merchant.

..... as per
It was never even a minor purpose of the SET specification work to eliminate credit card numbers from being known by the merchant.

The fact that the merchant does not see the account number on the way to the payment gateway was touted by some as a benefit of the system, but it was a side effect of the design. There was never a stated (or even implied) requirement to hide the account number from the merchant.


posted Fri, 7 May 1999, 14.59.11 -0700 to ansi-epay@lists.commerce.net by tlewis@xxxxxxxx

random refs
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aepay7.htm#nonrep5
http://lists.commerce.net/archives/ansi-epay/199905/msg00009.html
http://web.archive.org/web/20020225023945/http://lists.commerce.net/archives/ansi-epay/199905/msg00009.html
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001h.html#38
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001h.html#61 security proportional to risk
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subpubkey.html#publickey

--
Anne & Lynn Wheeler | lynn@garlic.com, http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/

Computer security: The Future

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From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Computer security: The Future
Newsgroups: sci.crypt
Date: Thu, 30 Aug 2001 18:36:15 GMT
Simon.Johnson6@btinternet.com (Simon Johnson) writes:
Things are pretty bleak. I live in england, I sent a letter to paliment requesting data on the act involving digital signatures. The research my MP made was quite intresting. Some goverment research concluded that 8/9 system administrators have _no_ digital security policy. This is not suprising.

one could make the claim that part of current security problems has been obfuscated by TTPs attempting to sell (digital signature) certificates as part of the "true" security solution. However, for the most part, manufactured (digital signature) certificates involve intricate business issues ... frequently totally orthongonal to the mechanics of (digital signature) strong authentication (which is an integral building block of strong security).

past issues from long ago and far way are network scripting exploits (i.e. like various current browser and email vulnerabilities) that I believe we identified/tracked-down sometime in the early to mid-70s.

prior to the current flurry of scripting exploits (and continuing) are the buffer overrun exploits which we claimed has been severely exhaserbated (possibly by two orders of magnitude) by the string length handling conventions in the C lanugage (compared to similar environments with better string length handling conventions).

random refs:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subintegrity.html#fraud Risk, Fraud, Exploits.

random aside ... various (security, payment, financial) glossaries
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/index.html#glossary

--
Anne & Lynn Wheeler | lynn@garlic.com, http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/

Computer security: The Future

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From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Computer security: The Future
Newsgroups: sci.crypt,comp.security.misc
Date: Sat, 01 Sep 2001 16:05:35 GMT
Mok-Kong Shen <mok-kong.shen@t-online.de> writes:
My knowledge of OS is largely entirely out of date. But isn't it that there was a MULTICS project attempting to be secure and there were later certifications of OS of different security classes (C-something or the like) and there were even projects to verify the correctness of OS?

there were a couple systems done at 545 tech sq. ... both of them used in a number of highly secure environment. multics was one of them.
http://www.multicians.org/

another was cp/67 & vm/370. random 545 comments
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech

the C-somethings have now been replaced with protection profiles and common criteria

security glossary merged from (including rainbow books)
Terms merged from: AFSEC, AJP, CC1, CC2, FCv1, FIPS140, IATF IEEE610, ITSEC, Intel, JTC1/SC27/N734, KeyAll, MSC, NCSC/TG004, NIAP, RFC1983, RFC2504, RFC2828, TCSEC, TDI, TNI, and misc. Updated 20010729 with glossary from IATF V3.


http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/secure.htm

misc refs:
http://www.software.org/quagmire/frampapr/frampapr.html Framework quagmire
http://web.archive.org/web/20020220162911/http://www.software.org/pub/darpa/erd/erdpv010004.html
http://www.software.org/pub/darpa/erd/erdpv010004.html
http://www.ncca.navy.mil/software/mil-std.htm MIL-STD-498 versus DOD-STD-2167A ISSUE PAPER
http://www.radium.ncsc.mil/tpep/
http://www.radium.ncsc.mil/tpep/library/ccitse/index.html
http://www.radium.ncsc.mil/tpep/library/rainbow/
http://www.radium.ncsc.mil/tpep/library/rainbow/5200.28-STD.html
http://www.radium.ncsc.mil/tpep/whatsnew.html

random other ref:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subintegrity.html#fraud

--
Anne & Lynn Wheeler | lynn@garlic.com, http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/

E-commerce security????

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: E-commerce security????
Newsgroups: comp.security,comp.security.pgp,alt.computer.security,alt.security,comp.security.unix,comp.security.linux
Date: Sun, 02 Sep 2001 02:16:17 GMT
Norm writes:
There are many ways to have security. Unfortunately most of them are contrary to "business requirements". Since getting business people to understand security is like herding cats, it is rarely accomplished.

Security is possible, the truth is out there.


note that prior to the internet with electronic commerce ... by far the largest amount of fraud was insider fraud ... and there was lots of attention attempting to address insider fraud. since electronic commerce internet activity ... there is a lot of focus on handling outsider exploits. potentially that will get addressed and get back to the state of security issues of 15-20 years ago.

digital commerce trivia question
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aadsmore.htm#dctriv digital commerce trivia question

misc connections
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001i.html#52 misc. connections

random refs:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subintegrity.html#fraud

--
Anne & Lynn Wheeler | lynn@garlic.com, http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/

E-commerce security????

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: E-commerce security????
Newsgroups: comp.security,comp.security.pgp,alt.computer.security,alt.security,comp.security.unix,comp.security.linux
Date: 02 Sep 2001 09:27:17 -0600
Norm writes:
Yes, and people used to run credit cards on carbon paper and throw the carbon in the trash. The carbon had a picture perfect reverse image of everything you needed to complete a transaction. If you did a little dumpster diving you would get the days receipts (or weeks, depending on when the trash man came.) However, today, with databases, you could conceivably get every credit card of every person who's ever done business with the company. If the store owner is a crook, then there is little you can do to protect yourself, other than not do business with him. The company employees can of course steal your credit card info during the process of taking it for a purchase. The Internet has made it faster and up'd the scale of the amount of credit card numbers you can get a hold of. It is scale and pervasiveness of the information that is the problem and what makes it lucrative to break into e-commerce sights. The risk is low and the rewards are high, especially if the perpetrator is in a foreign country.

the problem is that current infrastructure effectively makes the account number a shared-secret ... since harvesting the account number is sufficient to generate a valid transactions (and therefor account numbers have to be treated as shared-secrets). Financial standard for all account-based electronic payments changes that ... so that transactions are authenticated and account numbers no longer are an exploit. For lots of references about X9.59 standard for all account-based electronic payments:

http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/

for some ancillary discussion about harvesting of credit card account number files:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001h.html#61 security proportional to risk

misc. discussions about account number harvesting:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aadsm5.htm#asrn4 assurance, X9.59, etc
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aadsm6.htm#websecure merchant web server security
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aepay6.htm#harvest harvesting of credit card numbers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aepay6.htm#harvest2 shared-secrets, CC#, & harvesting CC#
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aepay6.htm#erictalk Announce: Eric Hughes giving Stanford EE380 talk this
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aepay7.htm#nonrep0 non-repudiation, was Re: crypto flaw in secure mail standards
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aepay7.htm#nonrep1 non-repudiation, was Re: crypto flaw in secure mail standards
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aepay7.htm#nonrep3 non-repudiation, was Re: crypto flaw in secure mail standards
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aepay7.htm#nonrep4 non-repudiation, was Re: crypto flaw in secure mail standards
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aepay7.htm#nonrep5 non-repudiation, was Re: crypto flaw in secure mail standards
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aepay7.htm#nonrep6 non-repudiation, was Re: crypto flaw in secure mail standards
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aepay7.htm#ssexploit Shared-Secret exploit
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aepay7.htm#netbank net banking, is it safe?? ... power to the consumer
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001c.html#42 PKI and Non-repudiation practicalities
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001c.html#54 PKI and Non-repudiation practicalities
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001c.html#59 PKI and Non-repudiation practicalities
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001c.html#73 PKI and Non-repudiation practicalities
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001d.html#19 [Newbie] Authentication vs. Authorisation?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001f.html#24 Question about credit card number
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001f.html#25 Question about credit card number
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001f.html#31 Remove the name from credit cards!
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001f.html#52 any 70's era supercomputers that ran as slow as today's supercomputers?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001f.html#54 any 70's era supercomputers that ran as slow as today's supercomputers?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001f.html#55 any 70's era supercomputers that ran as slow as today's supercomputers?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001f.html#57 any 70's era supercomputers that ran as slow as today's supercomputers?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001g.html#0 FREE X.509 Certificates
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001g.html#11 FREE X.509 Certificates
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001g.html#63 PKI/Digital signature doesn't work
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001h.html#5 PKI/Digital signature doesn't work
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001h.html#7 PKI/Digital signature doesn't work
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001h.html#37 Credit Card # encryption
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001h.html#53 Net banking, is it safe???
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001h.html#58 Net banking, is it safe???
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001h.html#68 Net banking, is it safe???
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001h.html#70 Net banking, is it safe???
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001i.html#25 Net banking, is it safe???
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subpubkey.html#privacy X9.59, Identity, Authentication, and Privacy
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subintegrity.html#fraud Risk, Fraud, Exploits

--
Anne & Lynn Wheeler | lynn@garlic.com, http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/




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