List of Archived Posts

2006 Newsgroup Postings (01/01 - 02/01)

EREP , sense ... manual
Average Seek times are pretty confusing
Average Seek times are pretty confusing
PVM protocol documentation found
Average Seek times are pretty confusing
Page fault question (zero-filling)
UDP and IP Addresses
EREP , sense ... manual
How to restore VMFPLC dumped files on z/VM V5.1
How to restore VMFPLC dumped files on z/VM V5.1
How to restore VMFPLC dumped files on z/VM V5.1
Some credible documented evidence that a MVS or later op sys has ever been hacked
Zeroing core
sox, auditing, finding improprieties
VM maclib reference
Would multi-core replace SMPs?
S/360
Would multi-core replace SMPs?
{SPAM?} DCSS as SWAP disk for z/Linux
DCSS as SWAP disk for z/Linux
DCSS as SWAP disk for z/Linux
multiple firefox with different profiles
IBM up for grabs?
IBM up for grabs?
auto industry
IBM up for grabs?
DCSS as SWAP disk for z/Linux
IBM microwave application--early data communications
IBM microwave application--early data communications
DCSS as SWAP disk for z/Linux
IBM microwave application--early data communications
IBM microwave application--early data communications
Is VIO mandatory?
UMA vs SMP? Clarification of terminology
The new High Assurance SSL Certificates
UMA vs SMP? Clarification of terminology
Charging Time
Charging Time
The new High Assurance SSL Certificates
Is VIO mandatory?
What happens if CR's are directly changed?
All Good Things
Is VIO mandatory?
IBM 610 workstation computer
Sprint backs out of IBM outsourcing deal
IBM 610 workstation computer
IBM 610 workstation computer
Free to good home: IBM RT UNIX
"VAX" Tradename reused !
Early microcomputer (esp i8008) software

EREP , sense ... manual

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From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: EREP , sense ... manual
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers, listserv.bit.ibm-main
Date: Mon, 02 Jan 2006 09:06:33 -0700
freelance wrote:
Hi on what manual can I find an explanation for the "sense data" reported by EREP ?

some of the sense bits are generic ... most sense bits are device specific. there was a ios3270 version of 360 green card done long ago and far away.

ios3270 was part of a menua application package done by theo alkema at the uithoorne (EU) HONE system that also included the 3720 screen applications fulist and browse. HONE was the internal world-wide marketing, sales, and field support vm/370-based system.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#hone

many people may be familiar with ios3270 menu applications as the screens in the 3090 service processor (the 3090 service processor was actually a pair of 4361s running vm/370 with the service screens implemented in ios3270).

the 360/67 "blue" card included several panels that gave sense bit definitions for several devices. long ago and far away, I had updated gcard with sense data for several devices.

i recently did a very rudimentary implementation of the original gcard in html
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/gcard.html

the sense data panels at:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/gcard.html#17

it is still somewhat a work in progress since it still doesn't convey the feeling of the original gcard application.

misc. past fulist, browse, ios3270 postings
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/96.html#41 IBM 4361 CPU technology
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#60 Living legends
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#61 Living legends
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#108 IBM 9020 computers used by FAA (was Re: EPO stories (was: HELP IT'S HOT!!!!!))
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000b.html#50 VM (not VMS or Virtual Machine, the IBM sort)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000c.html#76 Is a VAX a mainframe?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001b.html#83 Z/90, S/390, 370/ESA (slightly off topic)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001f.html#8 Theo Alkema
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001f.html#9 Theo Alkema
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002e.html#5 What goes into a 3090?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002i.html#79 Fw: HONE was .. Hercules and System/390 - do we need it?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002o.html#25 Early computer games
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002p.html#40 Linux paging
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003f.html#20 Alpha performance, why?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003f.html#32 Alpha performance, why?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003l.html#12 Why are there few viruses for UNIX/Linux systems?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004f.html#23 command line switches [Re: [REALLY OT!] Overuse of symbolic
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004n.html#10 RISCs too close to hardware?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004q.html#63 creat
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005f.html#14 Where should the type information be: in tags and descriptors
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005t.html#39 FULIST
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005t.html#40 FULIST
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005t.html#41 FULIST
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005t.html#42 FULIST
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005t.html#43 FULIST
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005t.html#44 FULIST
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005t.html#45 FULIST
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005t.html#47 What is written on the keys of an ICL Hand Card Punch?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005t.html#48 FULIST
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005t.html#49 FULIST

Average Seek times are pretty confusing

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Average Seek times are pretty confusing
Newsgroups: comp.arch
Date: Mon, 02 Jan 2006 14:52:41 -0700
"cambpellster.john@gmail.com" writes:
I am trying to find the average seek time of the following single-platter disk. I know that the seek time is 1ms for every 100 tracks traversed. The total number of tracks on one side of the platter is 30,000. Then what is the average seek time? I think it is: 1ms/100 .... it makes sense, right?

you need to take the avg. of all the seek distances. many times the avg. seek distance is taken as half the maximum seek distance. given that you know the avg. seek distance, then you can calculate the avg. seek time (based on the avg. seek distance).

many disks have situation where it takes longer per track for short seek distances than for long seek distances (having at least to do with startup inertia and acceleration of the arm from rest).

there was once a couple high-school kids visiting this dam late at night (for the first time) ... and the driver turned onto the highway across the top of the dam and floored the gas pedal ... attempting to see peak speed across the top. as they were coming to the other end of the dam, one of the passengers mentioned that the driver should slow down ... and the driver said there was no problem that they would just coast thru the upcoming tunnel.

turns out that it wasn't a tunnel ... it was a garage where they parked a large crane ... with a solid concrete wall in the back. they barely avoided an extremely distructive instantaneous deaccleration what was the avg. speed across the top of the dam?

--
Anne & Lynn Wheeler | http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/

Average Seek times are pretty confusing

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From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Average Seek times are pretty confusing
Newsgroups: comp.arch
Date: Mon, 02 Jan 2006 22:08:14 -0700
"Bob" writes:
Doesn't this assume the disk is full? It also assumes that disk accesses are random, which is far from true in most real systems. Files that are written close together tend to be read close together.

when i was an undergraduate ... i reorganized a mainframe filesystem so that the avg. elapsed time for a standard job at the university improved by nearly a factor of three. the major thruput bottleneck was seek time ... significantly reducing avg. seek time resulted in a corresponding thruput increase (and decrease in elapsed time, from a little over 30 seconds to a little under 13 seconds).

ref. to past postings on a presentation i gave at fall '68 user group meeting in Atlantic City;
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/94.html#18 CP/67 & OS MFT14
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/94.html#20 CP/67 & OS MFT14
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/97.html#22 Pre S/360 IBM Operating Systems?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/98.html#21 Reviving the OS/360 thread (Questions about OS/360)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001f.html#26 Price of core memory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001k.html#37 Is anybody out there still writting BAL 370.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002c.html#45 cp/67 addenda (cross-post warning)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002m.html#3 The problem with installable operating systems
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002n.html#29 why does wait state exist?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003d.html#72 cp/67 35th anniversary
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004f.html#6 Infiniband - practicalities for small clusters
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005m.html#16 CPU time and system load

note, in the reference presentation in the above, there is several different items discussed.

one is the re-organizing of the mainframe batch filesystem and disk layout to significantly increase the thruput from well-over 30 seconds (in a default, standard, out-of-the-box organization) and the 12.9 seconds (in the re-organization).

the other work described in the presentation was significantly rewriting major pathlengths in the virtual machine cp/67 kernel.to reduce the cpu utilization (and the combined result of running the virtual machine cp/67 kernel in combination with the batch operating system).

not described in the presentation ... was that i had also rewritten portions of the disk i/o scheduling to introduced ordered arm seek scheduling (aka when there are multiple queued i/o requests for the same disk, the queue is re-ordered to sort the i/o requests for minimum arm seek distance). the change to ordered arm seek queueing (from FIFO) tended to further reduce the arg. arm seek distance under heavy load. with ordered arm seek queuing, the avg. seek distance tended to decrease as the load increased.

misc. past postings referring to changing implementation from F(IFO queueing to ordered seek queueing:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/93.html#0 360/67, was Re: IBM's Project F/S ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/98.html#17 S/360 operating systems geneaology
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001h.html#26 TECO Critique
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002e.html#0 Storage Virtualization
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002i.html#42 CDC6600 - just how powerful a machine was it?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002o.html#46 Question about hard disk scheduling algorithms
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004o.html#9 Integer types for 128-bit addressing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005j.html#51 Q ALLOC PAGE vs. CP Q ALLOC vs ESAMAP
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005s.html#22 MVCIN instruction

another change that i made in the paging implementation was slot chaining, when there was independent I/O requests for different records on the same "cylinder" (records on the same track or records on different tracks at the same arm position in multi-platter devices). this had some benefit in the thruput in the records processed per second on moveable arm disks ... but it showed even greater thruput in the numbers of records per second in "fixed-head" device (i.e. device that had a read/write head per track so there was no track-to-track arm motion). request chaining on the 2301 fixed-head device (used in cp/67 systems) increased the peak record transfer thruput from approx. 80 4k records per second to 300 4k records per second.

for moveable arm devices, request chaining somewhat increased the avg. seek distance ... since multiple independent zero seek requests are collapsed into a single, multiple-record request operation

misc. past posts on subject of request record chaining:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/95.html#12 slot chaining
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000d.html#7 4341 was "Is a VAX a mainframe?"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001d.html#49 VTOC position
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001d.html#68 I/O contention
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001g.html#29 any 70's era supercomputers that ran as slow as today's supercomputers?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001j.html#3 YKYGOW...
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002.html#14 index searching
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002b.html#44 PDP-10 Archive migration plan
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002i.html#42 CDC6600 - just how powerful a machine was it?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003g.html#25 303x, idals, dat, disk head settle, and other rambling folklore
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004b.html#32 The SOB that helped IT jobs move to India is dead!
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004n.html#22 Shipwrecks
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004o.html#9 Integer types for 128-bit addressing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005j.html#51 Q ALLOC PAGE vs. CP Q ALLOC vs ESAMAP
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005r.html#51 winscape?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005s.html#22 MVCIN instruction
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005s.html#25 MVCIN instruction
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005s.html#28 MVCIN instruction

finally here is collected postings on numerous changes to filesystem implementation code i made in the early 70s ... one of the changes was support for contiguous allocation which tried to allocate records for the same file at contiguous physical disk locations (increasing the ability to do mutliple request record chaining):
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#mmap

improving contiguous allocation can increase the effectiveness of multiple record chaining (i.e. multiple records transferred in a single operation). again this can result in the avg. seek distance increasing, since multiple request transfer may appear as a single seek request (depends oon how the infrastructure statistics treats zero arm motion operations and multiple record transfer operations).

--
Anne & Lynn Wheeler | http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/

PVM protocol documentation found

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From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: PVM protocol documentation found.
Newsgroups: bit.listserv.vmesa-l
Date: Tue, 03 Jan 2006 09:12:53 -0700
David Boyes writes:
Don't know whether anyone else may ever need this, but FYI: Appendix 1 of the PVM Admin and Operation manual does document the buffer layout and sequence of events for PVM link communications. There are also some examples of applications talking to PVM on the old SHARE mods tapes that were quite helpful.

Stay tuned. I should have some interesting results to present shortly.


old posting about a pair of applications; parasite that talked PVM and story that implemented HLLAPI screen-scraping functionality (before IBM/PCs and HLLAPI existed):
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001k.html#35 Newbie TOPS-10 7.03 question
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001k.html#36 Newbie TOPS-10 7.03 question

the above references have the story source header describing the story "language" and examples of story programs.

--
Anne & Lynn Wheeler | http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/

Average Seek times are pretty confusing

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From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Average Seek times are pretty confusing
Newsgroups: comp.arch
Date: Tue, 03 Jan 2006 13:41:42 -0700
Jeremy Linton writes:
Again, i did some benchmarking on a true "average" seek time for an application I was involved in writing a few years ago and was amazed that the average seek time for the application was a factor of 10 less than the average seek time published by the drive manufacture. So that number is really sort of an average "worse" case figure. Of course your mileage may vary...

an early full-track controller cache was 3880-13 for 3380 drives. a fairly typical 3380 configuration was ten 4k records per track. for sequential file reads ... the 3880-13 cache would do a miss on the 1st record read for track and the subsequent nine record reads would all then be "cache" hits. based on this characteristic there was 3880-13 marketing statements about having 90percent hit rate.

however, somebody pointed out that if the application was to do large buffering resulting in full-track sequential reads rather than individual record sequental reads ... the same, identical operation would drop from 90percent cache hit to zero percent cache hit (and run faster).

the avg. seek time is actually based on the avg. seek distance. real-life seek distances can have enormous variance. in many cases, avg. seek time based on some assumed seek distance distribution ... is more for comparison of different drives than accurately predicting exactly how a particular environment is going to operate.

avg. access time tends to be a combination of some assumed seek distance distribution and avg. rotational delay.

random past posts mentioning 3880-13/sheriff
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001.html#18 Disk caching and file systems. Disk history...people forget
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001b.html#61 Disks size growing while disk count shrinking = bad performance
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001c.html#17 database (or b-tree) page sizes
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001d.html#49 VTOC position
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001d.html#68 I/O contention
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001l.html#53 mainframe question
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001l.html#54 mainframe question
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001l.html#55 mainframe question
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001l.html#63 MVS History (all parts)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002d.html#55 Storage Virtualization
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002o.html#3 PLX
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002o.html#52 ''Detrimental'' Disk Allocation
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003b.html#7 Disk drives as commodities. Was Re: Yamhill
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003i.html#72 A few Z990 Gee-Wiz stats
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004g.html#13 Infiniband - practicalities for small clusters
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004g.html#17 Infiniband - practicalities for small clusters
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004g.html#20 Infiniband - practicalities for small clusters
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004g.html#21 Infiniband - practicalities for small clusters
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004g.html#22 Infiniband - practicalities for small clusters
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004l.html#29 FW: Looking for Disk Calc program/Exec
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005m.html#28 IBM's mini computers--lack thereof
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005t.html#50 non ECC

when i got in trouble pointing out to the disk division that the relative system thruput of disks had declined by a factor of ten over a 10-15 year period ... they assigned their performance & modeling organization to refute my statement. after a number of weeks, the group came back with the finding that I had actually understated the problem. part of this was that the other components of the system had performance increases much larger than the avg. access time performance increase (and/or other thruput measures) of disk technology.

random past refs:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/93.html#31 Big I/O or Kicking the Mainframe out the Door
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/94.html#43 Bloat, elegance, simplicity and other irrelevant concepts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/94.html#55 How Do the Old Mainframes Compare to Today's Micros?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/95.html#10 Virtual Memory (A return to the past?)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/98.html#46 The god old days(???)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#4 IBM S/360
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001b.html#38 Why SMP at all anymore?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001d.html#66 Pentium 4 Prefetch engine?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001f.html#62 any 70's era supercomputers that ran as slow as today's supercomputers?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001f.html#68 Q: Merced a flop or not?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001l.html#40 MVS History (all parts)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001l.html#61 MVS History (all parts)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001m.html#23 Smallest Storage Capacity Hard Disk?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002.html#5 index searching
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002b.html#11 Microcode? (& index searching)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002b.html#20 index searching
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002e.html#8 What are some impressive page rates?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002e.html#9 What are some impressive page rates?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002i.html#16 AS/400 and MVS - clarification please
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004n.html#15 360 longevity, was RISCs too close to hardware?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004p.html#39 100% CPU is not always bad
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005f.html#55 What is the "name" of a system?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005h.html#13 Today's mainframe--anything to new?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005k.html#53 Performance and Capacity Planning

--
Anne & Lynn Wheeler | http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/

Page fault question (zero-filling)

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Page fault question (zero-filling)
Newsgroups: comp.arch
Date: Wed, 04 Jan 2006 16:04:08 -0700
"ldb" writes:
To make matters worse, deep within the bowels of the memory-management code, linux basically has a line of code like this: if(in_interrupt()) do_slow_zeroing(); else do_fast_zeroing();

long ago and far away ... when cp67 was first delivered to the university, the method of zero filling was to have a special all zeros page on disk. address space virtual pages were all initialized to point to that page on disk (so on on the 1st fault, the special zeros page would be read from disk).

i changed that (when i was rewriting lots of other code) so that address space tables were initialized to a special zeros indication and then in the page fault handler, special code to do a (360) BXLE loop where i initialized a bunch of registers to zero and did a (360) STM/BXLE loop, clearing the page. at the time, on 360/67, it was the fastest way that I could come up with clearing a block of storage to zeros.

360/67 functional specification manual (gives detailed instruction timings):
http://www.bitsavers.org/pdf/ibm/360/funcChar/A27-2719-0_360-67_funcChar.pdf

--
Anne & Lynn Wheeler | http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/

UDP and IP Addresses

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: UDP and IP Addresses
Newsgroups: comp.protocols.tcp-ip
Date: Thu, 05 Jan 2006 10:58:21 -0700
"theinvisibleGhost" writes:
Thanks for your help, sorry for the slow reply I've not been around. I must be misunderstanding something still however. From what I read I thought that UDP datagrams were placed in the data area of the IP datagrams? Are you saying that UDP datagrams actually replaces the IP datagrams?

part of this is how you look at the implementation ... higher-level transmission frequently is encapsulated by headers/trailers as they proceed down the protocol stack (and then the outer layers are stripped off at reception as they proceed back up the protocol stack ... peeling an onion).

one of the long time network protocol performance issues has been do you copy the data from the higher level stack into your own buffer and then wrapper it with lower-level control information ... or can you use scatter/gather i/o techniques with i/o address pointers and avoid doing buffer copies as you proceed down&up the protocol stack.

scatter/gather would have a series of i/o addresses and lengths that are processed sequently by the i/o hardware moving the data along as a continuous stream (but from different, non-contiguous locations in memory). the protocol encapsulation as you proceed down the protocol stack ... instead of physically creating a new copy of the data with the lower-level protocol header/trailers ... just create a continuous stream of data in the correct logical order by the way you order the sequence of i/o addresses being processed by the i/o hardware.

a side issue somewhat raised by scatter/gather scenario has been header versis trailer error checking codes. if you use header error checking codes, the complete data stream has to be processed btfore you can fillin the error checking field in the header. in trailer error checking codes, the i/o hardware can keep a running calculation of the error checking code as the data streams thru and then fill-in the error checking field as the trailer passes by.

the headere/trailer error checking issue isn't directly tied to scatter/gather issues ... but if you aren't worried about doing the overhead of lots of buffer copies, then you likely aren't worried about the overhead of the preprocessing error checking overhead. if you are looking at scatter/gather to avoid buffer copy overhead ... then you may also be concerned about the overhead of calculating error checking field.

--
Anne & Lynn Wheeler | http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/

EREP , sense ... manual

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From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: EREP , sense ... manual
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers, listserv.bit.ibm-main
Date: Fri, 06 Jan 2006 08:19:30 -0700
R.S. wrote:
It was called 'OEMI' I forgot what I stands for, presumably Interface. This book descibes Bus&Tag infterface, including plug construction, signal characteristics, voltage levels etc. See GA22-6974

other equipment manufactureinterface ... or something similar ... synonym for pcm ... plug compatible manufacture. somewhere along the way, there had been some litigation by pcm vendors.

when i was an undergraduate, some guys from the science center (4th flr, 545tech sq, cambridge)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech

had come out and installed cp67 at the university. i got involved in rewriting large portions of the kernel ... creating dynamic adaptive, feedback scheduler (later customers would refer to it as fairshare scheduler ... since one of the resource management policies was fairshare), new paging algorithms, chain record, ordered seek queueing, fast path, etc. i gave a presentation on some of the work at fall 68 share meeting in Atlantic City (presentation also included extensive work done on os/360 mft14) ... part of that presentation:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/94.html#18 CP/67 & OS MFT14

cp67 shipped with 2741 and 1052 terminal support but the university had these m33 teletypes (ascii) terminals ... so i added tty/ascii terminal support. the cp67 2741/1052 support had dynamic terminal identification ... i.e. it would play sending various commands and playing with the 2702 sad command to dynamically identify the terminal. i figured what the heck, i could add tty/ascii support in similarly ... so that cp67 could do dynamic terminal identification for 2741/1052/tty.

i had this grandiose idea that you could have a single number on phone rotory and let all kinds of terminals dial the same number ... and the system would dynamically determine terminal type. well, it turned out that the dynamic terminal identification worked fine for 2741/1052 ... but there was a problem adding ty. while 2702 supported being able to associate any line-scanner with any port/line ... it had a restriction that the oscillator setting the baud rate for each line/port had to be hired-wired.

this sort of kicked off a project at the univ. to reverse engineer the 360 channel interface, build our own channel interface board and program an interdata/3 to emulate a 2702 controller (somebody even wrote an article blaming four of us for originating the pcm controller market). one of the things that was implemented in the interdata/3 was dynamic buad rate in the software line-scanner ... i.e. the software would strobe the signal rise/lower on the line to dynamically figure out the terminal baud rate. misc. past posts about 360 oem/pcm
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#360pcm

later, supposedly a major motivating factor for FS was oem/pcm controllers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#futuresys

specific article mentioning future system project by somebody that worked on it (The rise and fall of IBM, Jean-Jacques DUBY Scientific Director of UAP, Former Science & Technology Director of IBM Europe)
http://www.ecole.org/Crisis_and_change_1995_1.htm

quote from above:
IBM tried to react by launching a major project called the 'Future System' (FS) in the early 1970's. The idea was to get so far ahead that the competition would never be able to keep up, and to have such a high level of integration that it would be impossible for competitors to follow a compatible niche strategy. However, the project failed because the objectives were too ambitious for the available technology. Many of the ideas that were developed were nevertheless adapted for later generations. Once IBM had acknowledged this failure, it launched its 'box strategy', which called for competitiveness with all the different types of compatible sub-systems. But this proved to be difficult because of IBM's cost structure and its R&D spending, and the strategy only resulted in a partial narrowing of the price gap between IBM and its rivals.

... snip ...

by that time, i had gone to work at the science center ... and i would make some sarcastic comments about the similarity between FS project and a long-playing "cult" film playing down in central sq. (something about the inmates being in charge of the institution).

basically FS was going to completely replace 360 ... and was as radically different from 360 than 360 had been from prior generations. the focus on replacing 360 with FS somewhat dried up projects for 360 follow-ons ... so when FS was eventually killed there was a mad scramble to re-invigerate work on 370 products. by that time, you were starting to see plug-compatible processrs in addition to plug-compatible controllers.

i remember a seminar that amdahl gave at mit to a large audience in the early 70s. one of the questions was how did he justify getting investment for his company. he described an analysis of the hundreds of billions that customers had already invested in developing 360 software and stated that even if ibm was to totally walk away from 360 architecture, there would still be enough customer 360 software until at least the end of the century to keep him in business (at the time, the end of the century was still almost 30 years away).

How to restore VMFPLC dumped files on z/VM V5.1

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From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: How to restore VMFPLC dumped files on z/VM V5.1
Newsgroups: bit.listserv.vmesa-l
Date: Fri, 06 Jan 2006 10:21:35 -0700
Rich Greenberg writes:
One possibility is that VMFPLC only understands 800 byte block disks.

baiscally tape, vmfplc, and vmfplc2 put data on tape similarly; read the FST, write the FST to tape, open the file, modify the file characteristics to match the physical disk format ... file record reads and physical data blocks then are the same.

processing the tape, read fst and save it, read physical blocks from tape and write them to disk file (the file records then may, or may not be the same as the physical disk records), when finished reading each cms file on tape, close the file being written to disk and zap the FST for the new disk file with the FST information read from disk.

vmfplc2 was update to add misc. new function and also handle FSTs for both original filesystem (800 physical records) and EDF filesystem (1k, 2k, 4k physical records) ... but there were some FST format changes (and edf had filesystem call that avoided having to do some of the FST fiddling).

old (ibm-main) posting about VMFPLC2
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003b.html#42 VMFPLC2 tape format

in the above, the source code modification from vmfplc to vmfplc2 are identified as @V62B0H2.

i've even heard of peopledoing REXX code to handle old format tapes ... getting image copy of several physical blocks from tape is frequently enuf to figure out what to do in the REXX code.

--
Anne & Lynn Wheeler | http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/

How to restore VMFPLC dumped files on z/VM V5.1

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From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: How to restore VMFPLC dumped files on z/VM V5.1
Newsgroups: bit.listserv.vmesa-l
Date: Sat, 07 Jan 2006 10:27:49 -0700
Anne & Lynn Wheeler writes:
old (ibm-main) posting about VMFPLC2
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003b.html#42 VMFPLC2 tape format


i had done heavy modification of VMFPLC2 (for all sorts of reasons) and called it VMXPLC and used it to implement a backup/archive system. this was deployed at research, hone (vm/370 world-wide, sales, marketing, field-support operation)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#hone

and a couple other internal places.

this went thru a couple internal releases and then a project was started to make it available to customers. with numerous enhancements this eventually was released as workstation datasave ... i.e. it added agents on distributed machines to do backup/resotre data transfer. workstation datasave then morphed into ADSM and is now called TSM misc. past posts, workstation datasave, adsm, tsm, etc
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#backup

--
Anne & Lynn Wheeler | http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/

How to restore VMFPLC dumped files on z/VM V5.1

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From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: How to restore VMFPLC dumped files on z/VM V5.1
Newsgroups: bit.listserv.vmesa-l
Date: Sat, 07 Jan 2006 11:17:58 -0700
misc. refs:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005p.html#42 VMFPLC2 to load EREP PTFs
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006.html#8 How to restore VMFPLC dumped files on z/VM V5.1
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006.html#9 How to restore VMFPLC dumped files on z/VM V5.1

Anne & Lynn Wheeler writes:
i had done heavy modification of VMFPLC2 (for all sorts of reasons) and called it VMXPLC and used it to implement a backup/archive system. this was deployed at research, hone (vm/370 world-wide, sales,

much larger blocking was done ... and also combining the FST record with data records as single physical record (for small files you could have majority of the tape as inter-record gaps, combinting the FST record with the data block record would cut in half the inter-record gaps).

i had done page-mapped filesystem for cms way back in cp67 ... along with being able to define shared page stuff from the cms exectuable. i would map the original cms filesystem semantics ontop of page-mapped operations. later, i also modified the CMS edf filesystem semantics ontop of page-mapped operations. misc. cms paged mapped filesystem postings
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#mmap

if you had cms filesystem in a page mapped area ... and dealing with old applications (that didn't deal in page-sized records aligned on page boundaries) ... the implementation would push & pull the data around so that it was transparent to the application that it was dealing with a paged mapped filesystem. however, there were all sorts of thruput and performance things that went on if filesystem i/o happened to be in page record sizes and aligned on page boundaries. so part of the changes for VMXPLC included doing some of that.

note that the basic filesystem changes were never included as part of any mainframe shipped product (some of it was incorporated into some version of xt370).

in the morph from cp67 to vm370, the standard system mechanism for dealing with shared pages (shared segments) was to define them in a special kernel paging area. the definitions were specified in a kernel assembler module, DMKSYS. the process was to initialize an image in virtual address space and issue a (privileged) "SAVESYS" command to write an image from the virtual address space to the saved system area. Access to these "named" systems was by specifying the DMKSYS name in the CP IPL command.

the port of all the memory mapped stuff from cp67 to vm370 included a bunch of stuff about handling all sorts of virtual address space stuff ... shared segments, non-shared segments ... dynamically loaded, etc. While all the page mapped filesystem stuff wasn't picked up and shipped ... there was a small subset of the vm370 kernel changes picked up and released as DCSS (discontiguous shared segments). This allowed loading of sections of virtual memory from a DMKSYS named system w/o having to go thru the IPL command semantics.

one of the heavy users of the paged map stuff was HONE
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#hone

not so much because they needed the filesystem performance enhancements ... but they needed the capability of having shared segments w/o using the IPL command (that reset the whole virtual machine).

most of HONE applications (like configurators, as things evolved, eventually all mainframe orders had to be run thru a hone configurator before it was submitted) were implemented in APL ... and the systems were heavily processor limited. APL interpreter was large amount of code ... and prior to DCSS, the approach was to initialize a virtual address space with cms along with the APL interpreter and save it as something like CMSAPL named system. branch office logons would then have automatic IPL of CMSAPL throwing them directly into the HONE APL environment.

so all of that is standard system stuff ... except that they were starting to find possibly 100:1 performance improvement by recoding some of the APL stuff into compiled fortran. this required dropping out of APL, running a cms fortran program and then reentering the CMSAPL environment. this was a practical impossibility if the ipl command had to be issued by the branch sales people for the transition into and out of APL.

so the paged map filesystem support was installed at hone and rather than having an IPL named system CMSAPL defined in DMKSYS, the APL interpreter was a standard cms executable in cms page mapped filesystem (with the appropriate indicators for shared page operations ... which were added to GENMOD command, recorded in new module field and supported by LOADMOD). then dropping into and out of APL to run fortran applications became simple CMS application execution.

this was all before a subset of the shared page kernel changes were picked up for DCSS and remapped to DMKSYS named systems.

--
Anne & Lynn Wheeler | http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/

Some credible documented evidence that a MVS or later op sys has ever been hacked

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From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Some credible documented evidence that a MVS or later op sys has ever been hacked
Newsgroups: bit.listserv.ibm-main,alt.folklore.computers
Date: Mon, 09 Jan 2006 08:45:05 -0700
Gerard 46 wrote:
If there were holes in zVM, they'd be closed. After all, ZVM is designed to not let anyone out of their sandbox, even if you have access to the source (as it was in the good ole days), and even back then looking at the source, it was a hard thing to do. ____________________________Gerard S.

a little drift on the next, new, new (40 yr old) thing in security
http://web.archive.org/web/20090117083033/http://www.nsa.gov/research/selinux/list-archive/0409/8362.shtml

a lot of attacks on systems in the past have frequently been some sort of escalation of privileges. something has enuf privileges to place a file somewhere in the system that some other entity with more privileges will execute.

automatic execution of code arriving in email (trojans/viruses) could be classified this way. we actually had to look into a form of this in the 70s on the internal network
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#internalnet

... and formed some statements about automatic scripting of packages arriving over the network.

lots of infrastructures are attacked at other vulnerability points ... like harvesting of passwords for impersonation attacks. misc.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subintegrity.html#harvest

during FS project
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#futuresys

there was a security effort to make much of the documents only available electronicly online via special cms systems (considered more secure than having lots of paper flowing around). some of the people working on the effort once made the rash statement that even if I was in the machine room, "even" i wouldn't be able to access the documents. one of the few times i rose to the bait, i countered with it might take five minutes. turns out most of the time was spent disabling the machine from access outside the machine room; because i was about to flip a bit in kernel memory. the bit i flipped was in the branch instruction that followed the return from the authentication checking routine (everything was about to be taken as valid authentication).

sox, auditing, finding improprieties

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From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler 
Date: January 12, 2006 10:22:04 AM EST
To: dave@xxxxxxx
Cc: ip@xxxxxxx
Subject: Re: sox, auditing, finding improprieties
danial berniger wrote:
Dave,

I wrote a review of the new book by Vanguard founder Jack Bogle's for clients that may be of interest to readers of IP.

"The Battle for the Soul of Capitalism" argues most of the forces that produced the scandals among Enron, Worldcom, et al remain in place. This means investors should expect another wave of scandals even as the bad actors of the first wave go to trial.

Bogle believes the cycle will continue until investors get much more active in holding CEO's and the financial intermediaries accountable.


re:
http://www.interesting-people.org/archives/interesting-people/200601/msg00169.html

in principle, auditors are looking for inconsistencies between different information sources (which might be indication of fraud or other improprieties). auditing internal corporate books somewhat assumes that there are at least some that represent independent sources and therefor might have inconsistencies. modern IT technology can be leveraged to generate a complete consistent set of corporate books. in face of being able to leverage IT technology to generate complete consistency isn't going to be overcome by asking for more information from the same source (more doesn't necessarily imply independent)

looking for inconsistencies between independent sources then would imply that sources of information from non-corporate sources would have to be checked against corporate books (as opposed to assuming that inconsistencies might exist in purely internal corporate books, no matter how much the volume of information is specified).

that also somewhat has led to leveraging other sources of information about possible fraud or improprieties ... like inside informers.

Zeroing core

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Zeroing core.
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Fri, 13 Jan 2006 11:10:25 -0700
Robert Billing writes:
However I believe that there was a weird instruction which walked backwards through memory leaving zeros behind and finally consumed itself at address zero.

something similar ... was the MVCL instruction introduced on 370. the source and destination lengths were different and if the source length was less than the destination length ... there was a pad-fill value. so you could set the source length to zero, the destination length to all of memory and the pad-fill value to zero.

the was an early microcode bug on the 370/125 for the MVCL instruction. all 360 instructions would pretest start and ending addresses for valid and abort with approriate failure if either was a problem. MVCL was a new type of instruction introduced on 370 which incrementally executed and allowed restartable ... and that things like access to memroy checking was done incrementally as the instruction got to that address. 370/125 bug was that it did the pretesting rules from 360 ... instead of the 370 incremental testing rules. vm370 used the MVCL at boot to both clear and test for end of memory ... setting a destination length to max. 125 would abort w/o executing any of the instruction (doing pretest of ending address instead of testing each location as processed) ... so the result appeared as if the machine didn't have any memory.

theer was also story about

somewhere in the history ... somebody decided that the TR and TRT instructions had a bug. TR/TRT references a 256byte table ... the value of each character in the source is used to index the 256byte table. the 360 implementation did pretest on the starting address of the table and assumed the ending address was +256 (for pretest before starting the instruction). however, it is possible to use the instructions with "short" tables for situations where the source input is known to contain constrained values. one scenario is where the starting address plus 256 crosses a page boundary and might result in a page fault ... but the actual execution of short table wouldn't so the TR/TRT insturction implementation was changed so that it tests the +256 ending address and if there possibly is an access problem ... the instruction is then pre-executed testing each of the possible source character values to see if it results in a table address resulting in some sort of access issue ... like a page fault. instead of automatically taking an exception with access issue with +256 ending address ... it prechecks each possible source character processing (to see if it will result in calculated table position on the other side of the access boundary).

i have some vague recollection of different MVCL microcode bug on some machine when there was full 16mbytes of addressing memory (the 125 m'code bug i got involved in diagnosing, but this one i've just heard stories about). microcode had been dependent on getting an invalid memory address to stop the operation ... however with full 16mbytes of addressable memory, the address wrap from 16mbytes back to zero and kept going. the intention with 16mbyte length was to stop at end of memory as opposed to wrapping around and actually wiping all of memory.

--
Anne & Lynn Wheeler | http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/

VM maclib reference

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From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: VM maclib reference
Newsgroups: bit.listserv.vmesa-l,alt.folklore.computers
Date: Sat, 14 Jan 2006 02:24:22 -0700
Steve Gentry writes:
I think the shared/saved/NSS/DCSS segments is a dead issue. We have also discussed the idea of using Virtual Disk and mapping a minidisk to expanded storage. XC and all that entails. We still have to keep in mind how each of these methods would be implemented and how much the change would impact the program(s). We're trying to make minimal changes to existing programs. i.e., The logic for table processing is already in the programs. Where the table resides, either above the line or below it are inconsequential. Changing the program logic to use mdisks, be it v-disk or dataspaces requires a lot more program change.

the original superset of DCSS, I had started on CP/67 and referred to it as virtual memory management (VMM) ... this included handling CMS disk i/o as paged mapped operations (as opposed to emulated real i/o with CCWs, locking & unlocking pages, etc) and various enhancements for sharing pages. recent posting
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006.html#10 How to restore VMFPLC dumped files on z/VM V5.1

part of the idea for my vmm work came from having been exposed to some tss/360 at the university ... and part from some of the multics stuff going on in the 5th floor ... science center and cp67 stuff was on the 4th floor
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech

the original r/o cms shared pages done on cp/67 was at the page level (not segment) and store protect was handled by fiddling the storage keys. cms didn't use storage keys ... so virtual machine with shared pages had the psw and storage keys fiddled; shared pages always had storage keys set to zero; if the virtual machine attempted to set storage key for shared page it was ignored, if the virtual machine attempted to set zero storage key for non-shared page it was redone to x'F'. if the virtual machine attempted to load a psw with a zero protect key, it was reset to x'F'.

for 370 virtual memory, there was all sorts of new hardware stuff defined, including r/o segment protect and selective invalidate instructions. for r/o segment protect, the segment table entry (in the virtual address space table) for a specific segment could have the r/o bit turned on. the segment table entry then pointed to a set of pages in a page table. the kernel could setup address space tables so that some of the page tables were the same across multiple address spaces (aka shared). however, whether or not a particular virtual address space had read/write or read/only access to a shared page table was set in the address space (segment) table (aka you could have a mix of address spaces with r/o and r/w sharing of the same page table).

for the cms morph to 370 ... the shared pages were reorganized into segment and was planning on using the new 370 r/o segment protect facility. however, before 370 virtual memory was announced an issue arose with 370/165 hardware support for virtual memory. an esacallation meeting in pok, the 165 engineers said that it would take an extra six months to implement segment protect and selective invalidates. the vs2 system people said that they had no need for segment protect and that their system would never do more than five page i/os per second and they could do batch page steal once a second for that many pages (so the different of doing a global PTLB once a second or doing five individual IPTEs once a second was negligable). It was only vm370 that came out for segment protect and high paging rates. the resolution was to drop the additional features from the 370 announcement so that virtual memory could support six months earlier.

this left cms in a bind ... the mechanism they were planning on using for protecting shared segments disappeared from the machines. they were forced to punt and return to the cp/67 mechanism of protecting individual shared pages.

not too long latter, virtual machine assist (VMA) microcode assist was introduced ... which included support for loading new PSWs in the hardware (rather than taking a privilege interrupt into the cp kernel and emulating the instruction). this and other VMA features represented thruput enhancement (by doing some of the virtual machine stuff directly in hardware rather than having to interrupt into the cp kernel for everything). for cms, the problem was that the VMA microcode assist didn't no about the fiddling rules for protect keys and so VMA couldn't be turned on for CMS virtual machines running with shared pages.

so coming up to vm/370 release 3, there was some work done to allow CMS virtual machines to run with VMA. basically since there was no way of actually protecting the shared pages ... the paradigm changed to allow shared pages to be modified ... but catching such modifications before any but the virtual machine making the change saw it. basically on every task switch ... dispatcher would check to see if it was going to stop running a virtual machine with shared pages. it would then scan that virtual machine's virtual pages for any shared pages that had been modified. if the dispatcher found any, it would unshare the shared system (for the virtual machine that made the modifications) and update the shared tables to indicate that the recently modified page(s) weren't in real memory and would have to be paged in from disk.

at this time, normal cms had a single shared segment with 16 shared pages. on the avg. running a cms workload with VMA saved X percent cpu ... and checking 16 shared pages on every task switch cost Y percen cpu ... where Y was normally less than X ... yielding an overall thrput improvement of X-Y.

however, for actual vm/370 release 3, it was decided to also pickup a subset of my VMM changes and release them as DCSS. Now part of the changes picked up was that I had modified some amount of additional CMS code to make it run in shared segment (rewritten part of the standard cms editor to make the code shareable as well as some amount of other code). so what shipped in release 3 was the DCSS changes where CMS now normally ran with 32 shared pages and with VMA turned on. However, doubling the number of shared pages, then doubled the avg. checking overhead to 2*Y ... and while nominally Y<X; 2*Y was nominally greater than X.

this was even further aggravated with shipping of multiprocessor support. The checking gimmick was predicated on treating the shared pages as private while a specific virtual machine was actually running ... and then catching and fixing any changes before switching to a different virtual machine. with 2-way smp support, you could now have two virtual machines running concurrently ... simultaneously accessing the same shared pages (violating the priniciples of the gimmick). so to perpetuate the fixup gimmick, real processor specific shared segments/pages were defined. now, in addition to checking whether the previous virtual machine had modified any shared pages ... before you went to run a new virtual machine, you had to check whether the new virtual machine had its virtual memory table entries pointing to the shared segments specific for the processor it was about to run on. Now, not only was 2*Y>X (i.e. overhead greater than savings from using VMA), but the processor specific page table pointer fiddling really blew it out of the water.

the posting reference above
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006.html#10 How to restore VMFPLC dumped files on z/VM V5.1

i had made the full vmm changes available internally before vm370 release 3, and they were running at places like HONE
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#hone

and was using it along with extensive use of the APL interpreter running with something like 64 shared pages. the release 3 gimmick for using VMA would mean that HONE was having to check nearly 100 shared pages on every task switch. furthermore, since they workload was heavily apl interpreter execution bound ... VMA assist provided them negligible thruput improvement.

other random past posts about dcss, dmksnt, loadsys, etc:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#149 OS/360 (and descendents) VM system?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000.html#75 Mainframe operating systems
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001c.html#2 Z/90, S/390, 370/ESA (slightly off topic)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001c.html#13 LINUS for S/390
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001i.html#20 Very CISC Instuctions (Was: why the machine word size ...)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002o.html#25 Early computer games
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003b.html#33 dasd full cylinder transfer (long post warning)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003e.html#12 Resolved: There Are No Programs With >32 Bits of Text
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003f.html#32 Alpha performance, why?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003g.html#27 SYSPROF and the 190 disk
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003n.html#5 "Personal Computer" Re: Why haven't the email bobmers been shut down
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003n.html#45 hung/zombie users ... long boring, wandering story
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003o.html#42 misc. dmksnt
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004c.html#35 Computer-oriented license plates
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004d.html#5 IBM 360 memory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004f.html#23 command line switches [Re: [REALLY OT!] Overuse of symbolic
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004l.html#6 Xah Lee's Unixism
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004o.html#9 Integer types for 128-bit addressing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004o.html#11 Integer types for 128-bit addressing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004p.html#8 vm/370 smp support and shared segment protection hack
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004q.html#72 IUCV in VM/CMS
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005b.html#8 Relocating application architecture and compiler support
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005g.html#30 Moving assembler programs above the line
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005j.html#54 Q ALLOC PAGE vs. CP Q ALLOC vs ESAMAP
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005t.html#39 FULIST

random past posts mentioning 165 problem with implementing the full 370 virtual memory architecture:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#7 IBM S/360
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#204 Core (word usage) was anti-equipment etc
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000f.html#35 Why IBM use 31 bit addressing not 32 bit?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001c.html#7 LINUS for S/390
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001c.html#17 database (or b-tree) page sizes
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001l.html#53 mainframe question
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002.html#31 index searching
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002m.html#2 Handling variable page sizes?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002n.html#10 Coherent TLBs
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002n.html#23 Tweaking old computers?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003g.html#19 Multiple layers of virtual address translation
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003g.html#20 price ov IBM virtual address box??
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003g.html#22 303x, idals, dat, disk head settle, and other rambling folklore
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004c.html#6 If the x86 ISA could be redone
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005b.html#62 The mid-seventies SHARE survey
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005f.html#1 System/360; Hardwired vs. Microcoded
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005f.html#45 Moving assembler programs above the line
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005p.html#45 HASP/ASP JES/JES2/JES3
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005r.html#51 winscape?

--
Anne & Lynn Wheeler | http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/

Would multi-core replace SMPs?

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From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Would multi-core replace SMPs?
Newsgroups: comp.arch
Date: Tue, 17 Jan 2006 15:55:27 -0700
hzmonte writes:
What I meant by "SMP" is the "traditional" SMP, the "pre-multicore" SMPs. That is, a computer with more than one sockets on its mothrboard and each socket houses a processor and each processor has one core. In other words, how does one compare a computer with 2 single-core processors with one that with one dual-core processor, for instance? Note that I am not comparing with two computers each with a single-core processor. How about a computer with a quad-core processor and a computer with 2 dual-core processors?

how 'bout the "traditional" SMP, the pre-LSI, pre-VLSI SMPs ... that is a computer that filled a whole room

how do you compare a computer made up of chip technology that had 4 circuits per chip? say a two-processor 370/168smp.

how do you compare a processor chip with off-chip cache that is shared with with another processor chip on the same board? possibly in a configuration with 8 such boards (16 processors) sharing memory?

how do you compare a chip with two independent processors sharing onchip cache as well as offchip cache.

logically ... the operational design may be identical ... differences are possibly latency and level of circuit integration.

how 'bout if you don't bother to slice & dice the wafer ... just leave all the chips in single piece of silicon wafer ... lets go for thousands of "cores" on single piece of silicon?

how 'bout hercules emulating a 370/168smp but is running on current dual-core processor.

--
Anne & Lynn Wheeler | http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/

S/360

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From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: S/360
Newsgroups: comp.lang.pl1,comp.lang.asm370
Date: Tue, 17 Jan 2006 16:37:33 -0700
"robin" writes:
FYI, our s/360 was slower than the machine that it replaced for small jobs -- yet the machine it replaced was 50 times slower (add time 64uS). When LCS was put on the S/360, it ran even slower, because the OS took up most of the fast memory, so that user programs were loaded into slow memory.

our 360/67 at the univ. had significantly worse thruput than the 709 (tube machine) that it replaced. the 360/67 had 8-byte wide 750ns memory (and instruction) cycle time (compared to 360/50 2-byte 2mic memory, and most LCS was 8mic). 360/67 was essentially a 360/65 that had virtual memory hardware bolted on.

a dominate workload was fortran student jobs ... there was 1401 front-end that handled unitrecord<->tape ... and you carried tapes between the 1401 and 709 (this was 40 yrs ago, 1966). the 709 fortran monitor ran student jobs (tape to tape) at a couple seconds per.

360/67 came in with os/360 and 2311 disks. job processing was synchronous with unit record process ... read the cards ... write stuff to disk, read stuff from disk, eventually execute ... print output ... do the next job. this was taking minutes per student job. most of the time 360/67 ran as non-virtual memory 360/65 with vanilla os/360. the 67 associative array hardware lookup (virtual to real address translation) did add 150ns to 750ns basic memory cycle (900ms total).

by os/mft11 release, the univ got HASP, which decoupled the unit record processing from the job execution. the other operating system gorp of moving lots of stuff back&forth between memory and disk was still resulting in student fortran job processing taking over 30 seconds.

i did a lot of detailed analysis and careful construction/placement of operating system stuff on disk for optimized arm seek operation and got the typical student fortran job elapsed time to a little under 12 seconds (still longer than they had run on 709) ... but almost three times faster than it had been taking.

it wasn't until we got watfor monitor from univ. of waterloo that student fortran job thruput started to exceed what it had been on the 709.

i gave talk at fall '68 share meeting in Atlantic City on both the optimization work on os/360 as well extensive kernel rewrites that i had done to cp/67 (i was still undergraduate) ... previous posting referencing part of that talk
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/94.html#18 CP/67 & OS MFT14
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/94.html#20 CP/67 & OS MFT14

for a little drift ... i had done some of the work on gcard ... an ios3270 version of the 360 green card ... and just recently did something of a rough conversion to html
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/gcard.html

and of course, the 360 functional characteristics documents game detailed machine timings ... several have been scanned and are available here (including 360/65, 360/67, 360/91, and 360/195):
http://bitsavers.org/pdf/ibm/360/funcChar/
http://www.bitsavers.org/pdf/ibm/360/funcChar/

--
Anne & Lynn Wheeler | http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/

Would multi-core replace SMPs?

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From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Would multi-core replace SMPs?
Newsgroups: comp.arch
Date: Thu, 19 Jan 2006 01:44:55 -0700
"Del Cecchi" writes:
Please look up SMP. It is a architectural term, not a term related to construction as you used it. Lynn tried to point that out to you in his own way, as did I. If you can't understand this then perhaps you need to do some studying. And for a newbie to tell someone who has been participating a while what to do is presumptuous. So please don't display your ignorance. Thank you for playing.

i was always told respect was something that had to be earned.

it used to be that the rash of newbie questions coincided with new semester ... kids getting access to newsgroups from some campus terminal for the first time ... and asking questions which frequently turned out to be some homework assignment. there may be all sort or newsgroups where novice and homework type questions are considered appropriate ... however, it isn't normally considered as such here (and was treated very unkindly ... trying to nip the disease in the bud so to speak, making an example tended to be a good thing).

misc. collected past postings on tightly-coupled, multiprocessor, smp, compare&swap, etc (including multiple references that compare&swap was chosen because we had to come up with something that stood for charlie's initials CAS):
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#smp

and various references to my pet VAMPS smp project (which was canceled before announcement, we were told because we could only forecast a $8-9b revenue over five years and the minimum requirement was $10b revenue over five years)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#bounce

previous posts in this thread:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006.html#14 Would multi-core replace SMPs?

there use to be a taxonomy of

tightly-coupled multiprocessing ... where SMP was either symmetrical multiprocessing or shared memory processing. in the past there were some genre of asymmetrical multiprocessors ... collections of shared memory processors but not all with i/o capability (thus the reference asymmetric, there were also sometimes called attached processors). then there is the numa variety of shared memory processing. a recent posting mentioning numa:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005v.html#0 DMV systems?

closely-coupled multiprocessing .... didn't tend to have cache consistency, but data and serialization could be done with memory access type semantics (but were all in software). say a collection of 3090-type processors that didn't share normal instruction/data memory but might have a shared extended-store type box. some similarities to numa ... but different.

loosely-coupled multiprocessing ... frequently referred to as clusters these day ... data sharing and serialization was achieved with io/message-passing semantics. also big in GRID.

...

my wife did get con'ed into doing a stint in pok in charge of loosely-coupled architecture where she came up with peer-coupled shared data architecture
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#shareddata

then again, she also got con'ed into doing a stint as manager in rios/6000 engineering architecture in austin. misc. 801, romp, rios, power, 6000, fort knox, etc postings
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#801

we used some of this background when we came up with 3-tier architecture
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#3tier

and later when we were doing the ha/cmp (high availability, cluster multiprocessing) product
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#hacmp

then again ... some of the 3-tier architecture and ha/cmp was also outgrowth of the high-speed backbone
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#hsdt

we operated on the internal network:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#internalnet

minor reference:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/internet.htm#0

of course it was also very valuable when we were working with this small client/server startup that wanted to do payment transactions on their server ... and there was a need for something called a payment gateway on the internet
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aadsm5.htm#asrn2
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aadsm5.htm#asrn3

--
Anne & Lynn Wheeler | http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/

{SPAM?} DCSS as SWAP disk for z/Linux

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From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: {SPAM?} DCSS as SWAP disk for z/Linux
Newsgroups: bit.listserv.vmesa-l
Date: Thu, 19 Jan 2006 15:30:18 -0700
Rob van der Heij writes:
From a pure technical point of view, swapping to DCSS is much more elegant because you copy a page under SIE and don't step out to CP to interpret a channel program. But the drawback is that the DCSS is relatively small and requires additional management structures in the Linux virtual machine memory. I see some goodness for very small virtual machines, I think.

in one sense it is like extended memory on 3090 ... fast memory move operations. however, real extended memory was real storage. dcss is just another part of virtual memory. in theory you could achieve similar operational characteristics just by setting up linux to have larger virtual memory by the amount that would have gone to dcss ... and having linux rope it off and treat that range of memory the same way it might treat a range of dcss memory. minor drift, recent post mentiond 3090 expanded memory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006.html#16 Would multi-core replace SMPs?

the original point of dcss was having some virtual memory semantics that allowed definition of some stuff that appeared in multiple virtual address spaces ... recent post discussing some of the dcss history
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006.html#10 How to restore VMFPLC dumped files on z/VM V5.1

if the virtual space range only occupies a single virtual address space ... for most practical purposes, what is the difference between that and just having equivalent virtual space range as non-DCSS (but treated by linux in the same way that you would treat a DCSS space).

note that in the originally virtual memory management implementation ... only a small subset was picked up for the original DCSS implemenation, a virtual machine could arbitrarily changes its allocated segments (contiguous or non-contiguous) ... so long as it didn't exceed its aggregate resource limit. however, the original implementation also included support for extremely simplified api and veriy high performance page mapped disk access (on which page mapped filesystem was layered)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#mmap

... and sharing across multiple virtual address spaces could be done as part of the page mapped semantics (aka create a module on a page mapped disk ... and then the cms loading of that module included directives about shared segment semantics).

note that one of the issues in unix-based infrastructure ... is that the unix-flavored kernels may already be using 1/3 to 1/2 of their (supposedly) real storage for various kinds of caching (which basically gets you very quickly into 3-level paging logic ... the stuff linux is using currently, the stuff it has decided to save in its own cache, and the total stuff that vm is deciding to keep in real storage). for linux operation in constrained virtual machine memory sizes, you might get as much or better improvement by tuning its own internal cache operation.

one of the things i pointed out long ago and far away about running a lru-algorithm under a lru-algorithm ... is that that things can get into pathelogical situations (back in the original days of mft/mvt adding virtual memory for original vs1 & vs2). the cp kernel has selected a page for replacement based on its not having been used recently ... however, the virtual machine page manager also discovers that it needs to replace a page and picks the very same page as the next one to use (because both algorithms are using the same "use" criteria). the issue is that both implementations are using the least used characteristic for the basis for replacement decision. the first level system is removing the virtual machine page because it believes it is not going to be used in the near future. however, the virtual machine is choosing the least recently used page to be the next page that is used (as opposed to be the next page not to be used).

running a LRU page replacement algorithm under a LRU page replacement aglorithm is not just an issue of processing overhead ... there is also the characteristic that LRU algorithm doesn't recurse gracefully (i.e. a virtual LRU algorithm starts to take on characteristics of an MRU algorithm to the 1st level algorithm ... i.e. the least recently used page is the next most likely to be used instead of the least likely to be used). misc. past stuff about page replacement work ... originally done as undergraduate for cp67 in the 60s
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#wsclock

some specific past posts on LRU algorithm running under LRU algorithm
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/94.html#01 Big I/O or Kicking the Mainframe out the Door
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/94.html#46 Rethinking Virtual Memory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/94.html#49 Rethinking Virtual Memory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/94.html#51 Rethinking Virtual Memory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/95.html#2 Why is there only VM/370?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/96.html#10 Caches, (Random and LRU strategies)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/96.html#11 Caches, (Random and LRU strategies)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000g.html#3 virtualizable 360, was TSS ancient history
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000g.html#30 Could CDR-coding be on the way back?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001f.html#54 any 70's era supercomputers that ran as slow as today's supercomputers?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001g.html#29 any 70's era supercomputers that ran as slow as today's supercomputers?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002p.html#4 Running z/VM 4.3 in LPAR & guest v-r or v=f
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003c.html#13 Unused address bits
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003j.html#25 Idea for secure login
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004l.html#66 Lock-free algorithms
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005c.html#27 [Lit.] Buffer overruns
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005n.html#21 Code density and performance?

with respect to this particular scenario or 2nd level disk access ... one of the characteristics of this long ago and far away page mapped semantics for high performance disk access (originally done on cp/67 base) was that it could be used by any virtual machine for all of their disk accesses (at least those involving page size chunks) whether it was filesystem or swapping area.

--
Anne & Lynn Wheeler | http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/

DCSS as SWAP disk for z/Linux

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From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: DCSS as SWAP disk for z/Linux
Newsgroups: bit.listserv.vmesa-l
Date: Fri, 20 Jan 2006 16:43:33 -0700
Adam Thornton writes:
Yes. You save a few megabytes per image.

It makes maintenance more difficult, though.


in the original virtual memory mapped paged-map implementation (that predated DCSS, vm/370 release 3 just picked up a small subset), the source of the system was on standard virtual machine accessed disk that was accessed using page mapped semantics. infrastructure layered on top could be standard filesystem semantics ... and the object loaded could be managed with standard filesystem operation (the load command specified both the mapping between paged mapped disk and virtual address space as well as any sharing options ... with various kinds of integrity rules applied).

the issue for cms then easily becomes having multiply managed kernel image ... you create a new kernel image at a new location and update the boot information to point to the latest kernel image location. people booting cms after the boot pointer change get the new image, people that had the earlier kernel image have the previous kernel image.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#mmap

in theory, linux kernel images and maint. could be handled in a similar way ... just create a new boot image in a new location.

translated to conventional dcss methodology ... this requires multiple, similarly named (say linux01-linux-05), systems. maint process cycles thru the different names.

virtual machines then are modified to load a named system ... say linuxredirect ... which is just a trivial piece of redirection code which does the actual loading of named systems. the redirection code is updated after some maint. process and the appropriate images have been saved to available place.

--
Anne & Lynn Wheeler | http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/

DCSS as SWAP disk for z/Linux

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From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: DCSS as SWAP disk for z/Linux
Newsgroups: bit.listserv.vmesa-l
Date: Fri, 20 Jan 2006 22:08:06 -0700
Rick Troth writes:
Sounds a lot like XIP, which is based on EXT2. Define a partition of the same size as the intended DCSS (or slightly less), put your stuff there, unmount it, use 'dd' or something like it to grab a snap-shot, and store.

there was science center
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech

report done on the initial port of vmm from cp67 to vm370
L. Wheeler, CSC VM/370 Extended II: Virtual Memory Management, IBM Science Center Report ZZ20-6002, July 1974, 19 pp., shared segments, migration.

the dcss subset of vmm
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#mmap

was then done for vm/370 release 3, 30 years ago.

vmm also included a lot of work on address independent code:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#adcon

mmap support allowed the use of the kernel paging support to directly read/write any standard disk area. it eliminated a lot of the overhead of simulating virtual i/o (among other things).

a little drift, i included some part of "migration" in the resource manager.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001e.html#45 VM/370 Resource Manager

from above (taken from the "blue" letter):
Enhancements are made to VM/370 in these areas:

Scheduling ALgorithm. A fair share approach to distribute the resources of the system equally among the users with improved interactive performance on trivial commands.

Page Migration. Designation of preferred paging areas on DASD with migration to other devices is based on how long the pages are unused.

Swaptable Migration. Seldom used segment tables are swapped to DASD thereby freeing up main storage.

Reset Pages and Time Stamp Segments. The working set algorithm improves page selection, while time stamping facilitates page migration and swaptable migration.

Working Set Estimate. Dynamically adjusted multiprogramming levels are achieved by periodic evaluation of total system performance based on feedback control.

Fast Redispatch Extension. The number of cases where fast redispatch implementation is used after privileged instruction simulation and I/O interruptions are increased.

Enable Window. It increases the extent to which VM/370 runs enabled and thus can accept I/O and external interruptions

Set Favored Extension. The specification of multiple users with the set favored percent option is provided.

Indicate Command Extension. Additional performance status data is made available to the systems performance evaluation routine.

Selective Path Length Reductions.


--
Anne & Lynn Wheeler | http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/

multiple firefox with different profiles

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: multiple firefox with different profiles
Newsgroups: netscape.public.mozilla.browser
Date: Sat, 21 Jan 2006 09:06:12 -0700
firefox 1.5.0.1, 200601011

i have two machines, firefox is running on both. if i x-windows from one machine to another via ssh tunnel, and try and start a 3rd firefox, it aborts after saying something about already present.

if i kill firefox on the target machine and try and restart firefox, it says the same thing. if i have firefox running on the target machine and not on the x-windows machine ... and do a firefox (profile) start ... i can run two different firefox simulataneously on the same machine (with different profiles) as long as the windows are on different x-window displays.

at startup, there seems to be some early checking for window display with the same name(?) ... even before it checks for -profilemanager option.

--
Anne & Lynn Wheeler | http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/

IBM up for grabs?

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From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: IBM up for grabs?
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers,bit.listserv.ibm-main
Date: Mon, 23 Jan 2006 08:50:14 -0700
bob.shannon@ibm-main.lst (Bob Shannon) writes:
You didn't say where. IBM sold its Cottle Road facility in San Jose. I can't imagine how much it sold for, but given the value of property in Silicon Valley, and given the potential cost of cleanup after 50 years of disk manufacturing, they probably made out pretty well. I believe the employees moved to SVL.

before they sold the cottle rd facility (to hitachi)
http://www.hitachigst.com/portal/site/sanjosesite/menuitem.fc9e54fd8b6d6fa7b8c22714bac4f0a0/
http://www.hitachigst.com/portal/site/en/?epi_menuItemID=58b0ea6df4571f8056fb11f0aac4f0a0&epi_menuID=3d0cb215112b6934ab937c27aac4f0a0&epi_baseMenuID=3d0cb215112b6934ab937c27aac4f0a0
http://www.hoovers.com/hitachi-global-storage/--ID__107188--/freeuk-co-factsheet.xhtml

... when 85 cut thru the middle of the property, the plant rec area came up on the other side of 85 ... as a result they had to put in a special underpass between the main facility and the rec area. shortly afterwards they sold off the rec area for development and it turned into apts/condos ... and they filled in the underpass. in the same time they sold off los gatos lab. (along with something like 200 acres of open land) ... which got torn down and turned into housing development.

more recently, hitachi cutting site from 332 acres to 150 acres
http://evergreentimes.com/100705/hitachi.htm

earlier, there had been consolidation of a number of a off-site leased bldgs adjacent to main plant site (bldgs, 86, 96, 97, 98, etc which also came up on the other side of hiway 85 when it was built).

in the mid-80s there was a predication that ibm world-wide business was going to double ($60b/annuum to $120b/annum) and there was a massive manufacturing facility construction program. one of those was large (disk manufacturing) bldg. 50 on the main plant site. in the later downsizing from the offsite bldgs, some were consolidated into offices in bldg. 50 and others to santa teresa lab (bldg. 90, some 10 miles to the south). slightly related
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005j.html#32 IBM Plugs Big Iron to the College Crowd
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005s.html#16 Is a Hurricane about to hit IBM ?

one of the groups that got moved into bldg. 50 was the adsm group (much of the organizations had previously been in bldg. 98). adsm had morphed from workstation datasave faciilty (and has now been renamed tsm). workstation datasave facility had grown out of a backup/archive system i had written and deployed internally.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#backup

santa teresa lab has been renamed silicon valley lab:
http://www.ajnordley.com/IBM/Air/SVL/

in the photos from the above ... you can sort of see that the lab. was built on a marsh that got extremely wet during the rainy season from run-off (both surface and sub-surface) off the nearby hills. the datacenter is below ground and when it was first built ... they had significant water seepage problems into the machine room (separate from the later flooding problems mentioned in the above). I found the problem somewhat interesting since during college, I had a summer job as foreman on a construction project that was located on similar terrain ... large surface and sub-surface drains had been installed to divert the water flow around the site.

past postings about the naming of the santa teresa lab.:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000b.html#56 South San Jose (was Tysons Corner, Virginia)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000e.html#20 Is Al Gore The Father of the Internet?^
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001g.html#34 Did AT&T offer Unix to Digital Equipment in the 70s?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001g.html#37 Thread drift: Coyote Union (or Coyote Ugly?)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001i.html#11 YKYGOW...
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002j.html#6 HONE was .. Hercules and System/390 - do we need it?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002n.html#66 Mainframe Spreadsheets - 1980's History
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002o.html#11 Home mainframes
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002o.html#69 So I tried this //vm.marist.edu stuff on a slow Sat. night,
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003b.html#63 When/why did "programming" become "software development?"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003e.html#60 reviving Multics -- Computer Museum
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003i.html#25 TGV in the USA?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003m.html#14 Seven of Nine
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003o.html#10 IS CP/M an OS?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003p.html#32 Mainframe Emulation Solutions
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004c.html#31 Moribund TSO/E
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004e.html#12 Pre-relational, post-relational, 1968 CODASYL "Survey of Data Base Systems"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004m.html#6 a history question
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005.html#25 Network databases
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005m.html#21 Old Computers and Moisture don't mix - fairly OT
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005m.html#22 Old Computers and Moisture don't mix - fairly OT

past postings about filling up stl and having to move something like 300 from the ims group to "new" offsite bldgs. 96/97
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/94.html#23 CP spooling & programming technology
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/96.html#14 mainframe tcp/ip
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000c.html#65 Does the word "mainframe" still have a meaning?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000d.html#12 4341 was "Is a VAX a mainframe?"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000f.html#30 OT?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001.html#22 Disk caching and file systems. Disk history...people forget
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001g.html#33 Did AT&T offer Unix to Digital Equipment in the 70s?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001g.html#34 Did AT&T offer Unix to Digital Equipment in the 70s?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001k.html#46 3270 protocol
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001n.html#3 News IBM loses supercomputer crown
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002.html#10 index searching
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002j.html#67 Total Computing Power
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002j.html#74 Itanium2 power limited?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003c.html#72 OT: One for the historians - 360/91
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003d.html#23 CPU Impact of degraded I/O
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003d.html#24 CPU Impact of degraded I/O
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003g.html#22 303x, idals, dat, disk head settle, and other rambling folklore
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003h.html#15 Mainframe Tape Drive Usage Metrics
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003k.html#22 What is timesharing, anyway?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005e.html#13 Device and channel
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005e.html#21 He Who Thought He Knew Something About DASD
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005r.html#10 Intel strikes back with a parallel x86 design
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005r.html#12 Intel strikes back with a parallel x86 design
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005r.html#14 Intel strikes back with a parallel x86 design
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005s.html#45 winscape?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005t.html#45 FULIST
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005u.html#22 Channel Distances
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005u.html#23 Channel Distances

IBM up for grabs?

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From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: IBM up for grabs?
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers,bit.listserv.ibm-main
Date: Mon, 23 Jan 2006 10:49:29 -0700
Anne & Lynn Wheeler wrote:
in the mid-80s there was a predication that ibm world-wide business was going to double ($60b/annuum to $120b/annum) and there was a massive manufacturing construction program. one of those was large bldg. 50 on the main plant site. in the later downsizing from the offsite bldgs, some were consolidating into offices in bldg. 50 and others to santa teresa lab (bldg. 90, some 10 miles to the south).

ref:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006.html#21 IBM up for grabs?

some other pictures from site referenced in previous article ... cottle road site:
http://www.ajnordley.com/IBM/Air/SSD/index.html

in the plant site picture from the air .... hiway 85 crosses the picutre from top left center ... to mid-left edge. the railroad and old hiway 101 (monterey rd) is from right center edge to bottom middle.

you can just make out cottle rd overpass on hiway 85, horizontal towards the top of the picture. most of the "old" plant site is top half of the picture along cottle. including bldg. 10, 12, 14, 15, 26, etc. various stories about disk engineering work in bldg. 14 & 15
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#disk

and the "old" sjr bldg 28 ... where the original relational/sql work was done (bracketed by the intersection of cottle & hiway 85):
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#systemr

this was before new almaden research facility was built up the hill
http://www.ajnordley.com/IBM/Air/ARC/index.html

if cottle road were to be extended straight up the hill ... it would almost intersect the almaden facility (but cottle terminates at the bottom of the hill). to get to almaden research (from cottle rd facility) ... you take the bernal rd thru santa teresa county park (the other access is via harry rd from the almaden valley side). in the right middle and bottom left pictures, harry road is seen heading down into almaden valley (towards the top of the pictures) and bernal road heading off to the right

in the cottle rd image
http://www.ajnordley.com/IBM/Air/SSD/index.html

the large bldg. in the left center of the image is bldg. 50 built in the mid-80s (as part of the huge manufacturing expansion) for disk manufacturing. in the later downsizing, the offices in 50 was used to absorb some number of the people from off-site leased bldgs.

auto industry

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From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: auto industry
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Mon, 23 Jan 2006 15:55:25 -0700
news report today claimed that auto industry restructuring includes remaking them more competive and agile, trying to reduce elapsed time from concept to showroom to 3yrs.

in the late 80s, there were statements about leveraging IT (and other technology) for remaking themselves more competitive and agile, reducing elapsed time from concept to showroom to 18-36 months ... compareable to that of some of the foreign imports (zoom forward 15+ yrs and the objective is now only 3yrs).

sometime around 1980, there was an article in east coast paper (washington post?) proposing 100% unearned profit tax on the auto industry. supposedly the foreign auto import quotas were to provide the american auto industry breathing room to restructure and remake themselves more competitive (and agile?) ... the article said instead, they were taking the increased profits (that they were making in the wake of the import quotas) and paying it out in dividends, bonuses, and salaries (rather than investing in restructuring). of course, agility is major boyd & OODA-loop theme
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subboyd.html#boyd
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subboyd.html#boyd2

past posts mentioning c4, import quotas, 100% unearned profit tax, etc.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000f.html#41 Reason Japanese cars are assembled in the US (was Re: American bigotry)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000f.html#43 Reason Japanese cars are assembled in the US (was Re: American bigotry)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001d.html#43 Economic Factors on Automation
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002d.html#7 IBM Mainframe at home
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003i.html#61 TGV in the USA?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003k.html#61 The Incredible Shrinking Legacy Workforces
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004b.html#52 The SOB that helped IT jobs move to India is dead!
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004c.html#51 [OT] Lockheed puts F-16 manuals online
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004e.html#22 Pre-relational, post-relational, 1968 CODASYL "Survey of Data Base Systems"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004h.html#22 Vintage computers are better than modern crap !
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005s.html#2 Internet today -- what's left for hobbiests

--
Anne & Lynn Wheeler | http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/

IBM up for grabs?

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From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: IBM up for grabs?
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers,bit.listserv.ibm-main
Date: Wed, 25 Jan 2006 08:43:09 -0700
Joe Morris writes:
Sigh...when did this happen? I've never been to Santa Teresa, but I've got fond memories of its name, courtesy of the SHARE button that John Ehrman created many years ago:

Santa Teresa Ora pro nobis


and there is the story about renaming Santa Teresa Lab at the last moment.

i was on trip to DC the week before smithsonian air & space museum (and santa teresa lab) were to open. normal corporate naming process was for the closest post office. however, the week before the opening, there was a demonstration on the steps of the capital by a group of working ladies from san francisco who belonged to coyote organization (which happened to also be the name of the closest post office to the new facility). santa teresa is the name of the closest cross-street.

refs:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006.html#21 IBM up for grabs
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006.html#22 IBM up for grabs

way back when, when i needed to do some stuff at stl, i would periodically ride my bike from cottle to stl ... on santa teresa (closest north/south street).

i objected to there being a head wind going south in the morning and also a head wind coming back north in the afternoon. especially during the summer there is interesting wind pattern between the hills on both sides of the valley. in the morning the hotter air rising over the bay pulls air from the south valley. By the afternoon, sun heating in the south valley reverses the wind pattern (with the hotter rising air in the south valley pulling air from the bay). the hills also form a narrowing of the valley about half way between cottle and bailey ... the constriction accentuating the wind.

in the summer, the morning wind also can bring the strong smell of the garlic fields around gilroy ("garlic" capital of the world).

--
Anne & Lynn Wheeler | http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/

DCSS as SWAP disk for z/Linux

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From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: DCSS as SWAP disk for z/Linux
Newsgroups: bit.listserv.vmesa-l,alt.folklore.computers
Date: Thu, 26 Jan 2006 01:00:33 -0700
The following is from a presentation made on 86.10.07 at the SEAS meeting on Jersey. List of SEAS meetings:
http://www.daube.ch/share/seas01.html#places

It describes a series of test on production VM/370 release 6 system comparing PAM/CDF, PAM/EDF, and 4k/EDF. Lots of past PAM references
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#mmap


Comparison of PAM, CDF and EDF

pam/cdf         pam/edf        4k/edf
runl     2.89/39l0/33.   3.28/4103/4l.   3 72/1978/95.
run2     2.90/3768/49.   3.32/4ll5/54.   3.65/1965/79.
run3     3.01/3749/47.   3.35/4l23/8l.   3.66/1932/77.
runq     2.94/4033/34.   3.46/3975/46.   3.66/1920/63.
run5     3.0l/3472/36.   3.62/3884/68.   3.75/1948/85.
run6     3.08/3776/70.   3.46/3784/60.   3.79/1986/84.
run7     3.l3/3740/57.   3.37/3979/46.   3.75/1977/84
run8     2.99/3868/87.   3.4l/3836/52..  3.77/1958/88.

system     CPU      I/O    elapsed
           avg.     avg.    avg.
4k/EDF    3.72     1958      81.
PAM/EDF   3.4l     3836      56.
PAM/CDF   3.02     3790      52.

(min.)   (min.)   (min.)
4k/EDF    3.66     1920      63.
PAM/EDF   3.28     3784      41.
PAM/CDF   2.89     3472      33.

4k/EDF is the EDF CMS filesystem introduced in VM/370 release 6 used with 4k block option.

PAM/CDF is the original CMS filesystem modified to use 4K records rather than 800 and page-map interface.

PAM/EDF is the EDF CMS filesystem modified to use the page-map interface.

CPU is total (combination of virtual and supervisor).

The test was run on standard production system with other activity. A run consisted of doing the same exact operations involving pam/cdf filesystem, then pam/edf filesystem, then 4k/edf filesystem. This was repeated eight times and the avg. values and the minimum values used.

There is not a direct comparison between 4k/edf i/o and pam i/o. For 4k/edf, I/O is reported as the number of virtual i/o operations (independent of number of records transferred). There is slight variability in 4k/edf i/o based on state of the filesystem and the number of contiguous records that might be involved for operation. For pam i/o, reported is the number of 4k page transfers (which might also include other paging operations for the virtual machine during the period and doesn't directly indicate the number of physical i/o operations).

Both PAM test performed better than 4k/edf because of 1) reduced CP overhead for supporting the operation, 2) better CP logic for chaining multiple 4k transfers in single I/O,

The minimum values are going to be closest to base operation excluding interferance from other workload on the system. pam/cdf is nearly twice as fast and approx. 1/4 less cpu for the workload compared to the same workload running on 4k/edf filesystem.

When the science center
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech

eventually replaced its 360/67 with 370/155, there was a port of a lot of local modifications from cp67 to vm370. another page from the same SEAS presentation
Release 2.15 CSC/VM

• Relocatable (floating) Shared Segments
• Paging Access Method (PAM)
• CP/67 Feedback controls
• CP/67 Working Set controls
• CP/67 Global LRU Page Replacement
• CP/67 Fastpath
• Restructured Page Supervisor
• Page and Swaptable Migration
• Q3
• Scheduling based on resource objectives
• Resource objectives either fixed or fairshare


note that much of this, I subsequently released in the resource manager ... blue letter reference in recent posting
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006.html#19 DCSS as SWAP disk for z/Linux

a small subset of the cms & cp relocatable (floating) shared segments
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#adcon

(w/o paged-map support) had been released as DCSS (prior to the resource manager release).

a couple other posts in this thread:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006.html#17 {SPAM?} DCSS as SWAP disk for z/Linux
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006.html#18 DCSS as SWAP disk for z/Linux

--
Anne & Lynn Wheeler | http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/

IBM microwave application--early data communications

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From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: IBM microwave application--early data communications
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Thu, 26 Jan 2006 09:33:33 -0700
"Tim Shoppa" writes:
It's at 41st and Wisconsin in NW DC. It is still standing. Although the concrete tower is dwarfed by the big metal towers in the area around it, it looks like the concrete structure could withstand anything but a direct nuclear blast. Some of the ancillary buildings around the tower have been torn down/rebuilt in the past decade.

The neighborhood that the tower is in is dominated by TV and radio stations. The industrial warehouses and workshops on Wisconsin have generally been converted into retail use over the past couple of decades (although there are still a few car dealerships in that neighborhood.)

AT&T had a microwave tower built from concrete on a high point in my old neighborhood. It was later replaced by a steel tower. Indeed, given the changes in the telecom world, I wonder if it is still there.

It looks to me that the concrete WU tower may be too hard to tear down :-).


isn't there a big unfinished half-built tower off of connecticut(?) somewhere around friendship hills(?) ... behind a whole foods(?) store.

sometime in the early 70s(?, late 60s?), san jose had put in (microwave) T3 (44mbits) collins digital radio. roof of bldg. 12 (on the main plant site) had dishes to a repeater tower on the hill above santa teresa lab (and down to STL) and to a repeater tower above los gatos lab (and down to bldg. 29). there were a number of subchannels split on T3. this is standard c-band ... when (elevated section) 85 was built, some number of people noted radar detectors being tripped when passing line-of-site between bldg. 12 and the tower above STL (tower above lsg went when that site was sold off for housing development).

when almaden was built, something like six fiber pairs were run from main plant site up the hill (instead of doing microwave), i believe the drivers were initially oc3.

recent postings on main plant site, stl, almaden
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006.html#21 IBM up for grabs?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006.html#22 IBM up for grabs?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006.html#24 IBM up for grabs?

when ibm formed sbs (with comsat and aetna), there were something like a dozen or two 10m dishes put into major sites around the US that ran T3, this was also c-band. there was some runs-ins with the MIB when the data aggregator (aggravator) was built and installed on the network (doing bulk T3 encryption).

misc. past posts mention collins digital radio
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000b.html#57 South San Jose (was Tysons Corner, Virginia)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000c.html#65 Does the word "mainframe" still have a meaning?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001e.html#76 Stoopidest Hardware Repair Call?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002q.html#45 ibm time machine in new york times?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003k.html#3 Ping: Anne & Lynn Wheeler
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004c.html#31 Moribund TSO/E
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005n.html#17 Communications Computers - Data communications over telegraph

when big part of the ims group was moved out of STL to off-site (leased) bldgs (96 & 97), instead of doing traditional remote 3270 for access back into stl datacenter (really, really slow and tortuous), we put in T1 channel extenders (using HYPERChannel) and ran "local" 3270s at the site (subchannel over the T3 stl/bldg12 and the microwave tail-circuit from bldg12 to bldg98 (and wires into the two adjacent bldgs). detailed discussion:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005u.html#22 Channel Distances

this was essentially one of the first hsdt (high-speed data transport) projects.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#hsdt

we also did a number of terrestrial and satellite high-speed links. in conjunction with sbs, hsdt designed a new tdma earth station and put in an three-node satellite dish network with lots of high-speed terrestrial circuits. it had 4.5m dishes at los gatos lab and ykt research and a 7m dish in austin. this used a ku-band transponder on sbs-4.

misc. past posts mentioning hsdt & ku-band on sbs-4:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/93.html#28 Log Structured filesystems -- think twice
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/94.html#25 CP spooling & programming technology
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000b.html#27 Tysons Corner, Virginia
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002p.html#28 Western Union data communications?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003j.html#29 IBM 3725 Comms. controller - Worth saving?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003j.html#76 1950s AT&T/IBM lack of collaboration?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003k.html#3 Ping: Anne & Lynn Wheeler
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003k.html#14 Ping: Anne & Lynn Wheeler
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005h.html#21 Thou shalt have no other gods before the ANSI C standard
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005q.html#17 Ethernet, Aloha and CSMA/CD -

--
Anne & Lynn Wheeler | http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/

IBM microwave application--early data communications

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: IBM microwave application--early data communications
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Thu, 26 Jan 2006 11:02:22 -0700
"Tim Shoppa" writes:
That is the site exactly. Although from my usual perspective it's in front of the whole foods. Several of the warehouses have been converted into big-box stores in the past year-and-a-half.

re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006.html#26 IBM microwave application--early data communications

random trivia drift ... the 7m hsdt tdma dish in austin was about a mile up (north) burnet (several miles south of round rock and dell) from the orignal whole foods at the intersection of burnet and 183

it was more like a medium sized health food store ... the big guys like HEB had already started the super sized store craze.

--
Anne & Lynn Wheeler | http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/

DCSS as SWAP disk for z/Linux

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From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: DCSS as SWAP disk for z/Linux
Newsgroups: bit.listserv.vmesa-l,alt.folklore.computers
Date: Thu, 26 Jan 2006 11:23:27 -0700
Anne & Lynn Wheeler writes:
The following is from a presentation made on 86.10.07 at the SEAS meeting on Jersey. List of SEAS meetings:
http://www.daube.ch/share/seas01.html#places


re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006.html#26 DCSS as SWAP disk for z/Linux

i couldn't find softcopy for my presentation ... so last night, i scanned the hardcopy. the pdf isn't bad, but the ocr processing was only about 80-90percent correct, i had to manually correct 10-20 percent of it.

I did find softcopy of the vm project agenda.

my talk was suppose to be on the history of vm performance ... dating back to spring of '68 when i was an undergraduate (38 years now). I had an hour and 60+ foils. i managed to only get thru the first couple foils ... so we scheduled a bof during scids that night ... and i talked from 6pm to midnight (room off scids, with interruptions for refreshments).


SEAS OCT 6-10 1986, JERSEY, VM PROJECT.
_______________________________________

*----------------------------------------------------------*
| Monday 6th |1400-1445 | Introduction                     |
| October    |  and     | to the VM project                |
|            |1450-1535 |     Steve Bouch BT               |
|            |          |      (project chairman)          |
|            | 1.4V     | Show and Tell                    |
|            |  and     | VM-related announcements since   |
|            | 1.5V     | SM86                             |
|            |          |     Adrian Walmsley, IBM UK      |
|            |          | VM/SP Entry User experiences     |
|            |          |     Vlady Priplata               |
|            |----------+----------------------------------|
|            |1600-1645 | XA I/O Architecture Overview     |
|            |  and     |  functions used by VM and MVS    |
|            |1650-1735 |  IOCP and sysgen                 |
|            |          |  Adrian Walmsley, IBM UK         |
|            | 1.6V     |                                  |
|            |  and     | VM XA SF preferred guest planning|
|            | 1.7V     |  configuration, performance tools|
|            |          |  recovery                        |
|            |          |  Gisela Lotringer,               |
|            |          |                IBM South Africa  |
|            |          |  (joint with MVS project)        |
*----------------------------------------------------------*

*----------------------------------------------------------*
| Tuesday 7th|1400-1445 | IBM announcements                |
| October    |  and     |  Bob Knaus IBM Endicott          |
|            |1450-1535 | CMS Update                       |
|            |2.4V, 2.5V|  Dave Getson IBM Endicott        |
|            |----------+----------------------------------|
|            |1600-1645 | CMS Free Storage Management      |
|            | 2.6V     |   Stuart McRae                   |
|            |          |     Systems and Telecomms, UK    |
|            |----------+----------------------------------|
|            |1650-1735 | Using 7171s                      |
|            | 2.7V     |     nn, User                     |
*----------------------------------------------------------*

SEAS Oct 6-10 1986, Jersey, VM Project.                    1

*----------------------------------------------------------*
| Weds 8th   |1400-1445 | Electronic Mail                  |
| October    |          |   Stuart McRae                   |
|            |  3.4V    |     Systems and Telecomms        |
|            |          |   Dave Barker                    |
|            |          |     Rutherford Lab (?)           |
|            |          | (joint with OA project)          |
|            |----------+----------------------------------|
|            |1450-1535 | VM SECURE User experiences       |
|            |          |   Graham Taplin,                 |
|            |          |   Watson Calculating             |
|            |  3.5V    |   (joint with IM project)        |
|            |----------+----------------------------------|
|            |1660-1645 | Page mode printing on VM         |
|            |          |     Mike Kay                     |
|            |  3.6V    |     IBM Almaden  Research        |
|            |----------+----------------------------------|
|            |1650-1735 |  Business Session                |
|            |  3.7V    |  including IBM responses to      |
|            |          |  resolutions                     |
|            |          |      Bob Knaus IBM Endicott      |
*----------------------------------------------------------*

*----------------------------------------------------------*
| Thurs 9th  |1400-1445 | VM VTAM User Experiences         |
| October    |  4.4V    |    John Wilshaw, Metier          |
|            |----------+----------------------------------|
|            |1450-1535 | Automating Operations in VM      |
|            |  4.5V    |    nn, User  (BT ?)              |
|            |----------+----------------------------------|
|            |1600-1645 | Tape staging                     |
|            |  4.6V    |   nn, CERN, Geneva               |
|            |----------+----------------------------------|
|            |1650-1735 | Highly available VM systems      |
|            |  4.7V    |   Al Griefer, IBM Almaden Res.   |
*----------------------------------------------------------*

SEAS Oct 6-10 1986, Jersey, VM Project.                    2

*----------------------------------------------------------*
|         VM New Users sessions                            |
|----------------------------------------------------------|
|            |          |                                  |
| Monday 6th |1600-1645 | Introduction                     |
| October    |  and     | to REXX                          |
|            |1650-1735 |     Jeff Silcock                 |
|            |1.6Y,1.7Y |      Scottish College of Textiles|
|------------+----------+----------------------------------|
| Tuesday 7th|1600-1645 | Faster VM with no mods           |
| October    |  2.6Y    |     nn, User                     |
|            |----------+----------------------------------|
|            |1650-1735 | Introduction to using VMAP       |
|            |          |    Per Kristensen,               |
|            |  2.7Y    |       IBM UK                     |
*----------------------------------------------------------*

*----------------------------------------------------------*
|         General Sessions proposed by VM project          |
|----------------------------------------------------------|
|            |          | TOOLS - a Disk and Conference    |
| Tuesday    | 2.22     |         Manager                  |
| 7th October|          |   Mike Cowlishaw,                |
|            |          |       IBM UK Scientific Centre   |
|            |          |       Winchester                 |
|------------+----------+----------------------------------|
| Tuesday    | 2.32     | History of VM performance        |
| 7th October|          |   Lynn Wheeler,                  |
|            |          |    IBM Almaden  Research         |
*----------------------------------------------------------*

SEAS Oct 6-10 1986, Jersey, VM Project.                    3

--
Anne & Lynn Wheeler | http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/

IBM microwave application--early data communications

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From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: IBM microwave application--early data communications
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Thu, 26 Jan 2006 12:56:54 -0700
Anne & Lynn Wheeler writes:
random trivia drift ... the 7m hsdt tdma dish in austin was about a mile up (north) burnet (several miles south of round rock and dell) from the orignal whole foods at the intersection of burnet and 183

ref:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006.html#26 IBM microwave application--early data communicat
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006.html#27 IBM microwave application--early data communicat

other hsdt posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#hsdt

and for some drift in another direction ... the austin/lsg hsdt link was credited helping with bringing in the original rios (rs/6000) chipset a year early (by providing high-speed access to lsm logic simulator at the lsg vlsi lab).

the lsm was one of the first and included clock (most of the later boxes assumed constant/uniform clock cycle). including clock allowed simulation of asynchronous clock chips as well as digital chips with analog circuits.

an early application was the thinfilm/floating disk heads.

misc. past lsm, yse, eve postings:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002d.html#3 Chip Emulators - was How does a chip get designed?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002g.html#55 Multics hardware (was Re: "Soul of a New Machine" Computer?)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002j.html#26 LSM, YSE, & EVE
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002p.html#38 20th anniversary of the internet (fwd)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003.html#31 asynchronous CPUs
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003b.html#10 Disk drives as commodities. Was Re: Yamhill
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003k.html#14 Ping: Anne & Lynn Wheeler
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003o.html#38 When nerds were nerds
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004j.html#16 US fiscal policy (Was: Bob Bemer, Computer Pioneer,Father of ASCII,Invento
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004o.html#25 CKD Disks?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004o.html#65 360 longevity, was RISCs too close to hardware?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005c.html#6 [Lit.] Buffer overruns
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005d.html#33 Thou shalt have no other gods before the ANSI C standard
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005q.html#17 Ethernet, Aloha and CSMA/CD -

for drift in another direction, floating disk head air bearing simulation work:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001n.html#39 195 was: Computer Typesetting Was: Movies with source code
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002j.html#30 Weird
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002n.html#63 Help me find pics of a UNIVAC please
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002o.html#74 They Got Mail: Not-So-Fond Farewells
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003b.html#51 Disk drives as commodities. Was Re: Yamhill
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003b.html#52 Disk drives as commodities. Was Re: Yamhill
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003j.html#69 Multics Concepts For the Contemporary Computing World
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003m.html#20 360 Microde Floating Point Fix
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003n.html#45 hung/zombie users ... long boring, wandering story
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004.html#21 40th anniversary of IBM System/360 on 7 Apr 2004
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004b.html#15 harddisk in space
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004o.html#15 360 longevity, was RISCs too close to hardware?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004o.html#25 CKD Disks?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005.html#8 [Lit.] Buffer overruns
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005f.html#4 System/360; Hardwired vs. Microcoded
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005f.html#5 System/360; Hardwired vs. Microcoded
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005o.html#44 Intel engineer discusses their dual-core design

--
Anne & Lynn Wheeler | http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/

IBM microwave application--early data communications

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From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: IBM microwave application--early data communications
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Thu, 26 Jan 2006 13:21:06 -0700
Anne & Lynn Wheeler writes:
when ibm formed sbs (with comsat and aetna), there were something like a dozen or two 10m dishes put into major sites around the US that ran T3, this was also c-band. there was some runs-ins with the MiB when the data aggregator (aggravator) was built and installed on the network (doing bulk T3 encryption).

ref:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006.html#26 IBM microwave application--early data communications
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006.html#27 IBM microwave application--early data communications
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006.html#29 IBM microwave application--early data communications

one of the things that i worked on as part of HSDT
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#hsdt

... was design a replacement encryptor .. that i could build for under $100 and that could potentially change key on every packet (with the header/address in the clear, i.e. level2 rather than a lavel1/link encryptor).

misc. public key posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subindx4.html#publickey

of course it had to operate at significantly (enormously) higher rates than the box mentioned in the attached ... from somewhere long ago and far away:

Date: 1 July 1985, 08:17:15
To: wheeler

Lynn, re: your questions about the public key encryption unit

The Racal-Milgo Datacryptor III uses a AMD DES chip plus some proprietary logic for exchanging master keys using a public key approach. The master keys are then used to encrypt the working keys which are actually used for data encryption. I have run the off the shelf units at 128kb full duplex through the V.35 interfaces contained in the unit. They cost about $3,200 each, single unit price.

I have to emphasize they are link level encryptors (e.g. level 1) rather than level 2 (e.g. only the data encrypted with addressing in the clear). They won't do you much good for "session" or "file" encryption.

The public key synopsis goes something like this -

1. At install time, two 60 digit prime numbers are acquired and retained in storage. The 'seeds' are developed by a combination of an operator pressing a button to sample a clock source along with internal logic.

2. When a operator wants to move a master key online, he asks the remote end for a one-time E key (56 bits plus 8 parity bits).

3. The remote end uses the two 60 digit prime numbers (with their 120 digit product) to create a E key and a D key. They are "mathematically related to the prime numbers and to each other" to quote the Racal documentation.

4. The E key can't be used for decryption and the D key can only decrypt what has been encrypted with the E key.

5. The remote end retains the D key and sends the E key to the 'requestor'.

6. The local end generates a new master key, encrypts it with the E key he just received, and sends it to the remote end.

7. The remote end decrypts the transfer with the D key he retained, they exchange a test message for verification, and exchange a new working key.

8. The E/D pair of keys are not reused. Each exchange of a master key causes a new pair to be created. The E/D pair never leave the boxes, and can't be read out or displayed. It takes about 8 seconds for the hardware to do the decryption of the received master key using the D key previously retained.


... snip ... top of post, old email index

--
Anne & Lynn Wheeler | http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/

Is VIO mandatory?

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From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Is VIO mandatory?
Newsgroups: bit.listserv.ibm-main,bit.listserv.vmesa-l
Date: Thu, 26 Jan 2006 19:18:26 -0700
gilmap@ibm-main.lst wrote:
I wonder about teD's statement that there remains a performance edge for VIO. I understand the paths for paging are highly optimized. But with modern buffered and virtual DASD the difference ought to be shrinking. And there's the offsetting overhead of emulating CKD protocol in virtual memory.

the original prototype for the move from MVT to VS2 ... involved crafting cp/67's CCWTRANS into the side of MVT (excp processing). the problem is simulating real i/o operations in a virtual memory environment.

basically excp/svc pointed to channel program. CCWTRANS was called to scan the passed CCWs, creating a shadow channel program that was actually going to be executed. each CCW from the original channel program was copied into the shadow channel program, any referenced virtual addresses had the associated virtual page fetched (if necessary) and fixed in real memory, the real address of the virtual page was then stuffed into the shadow ccw. when CCWTRANS was complete, the shadow channel program (rather than the passed excp channel program) was scheduled for execution (the virtual pages were pinned at real storage so they wouldn't move until after the shadow channel program ... with real addresses ... had finished)

at completion of the I/O operation, the shadow channel program was rescanned ... and each virtual page that was pinned in the CCWTRANS pass was then unpinned.

one of the savings in V=R is that the passed excp channel program could be executed directly since all of the addresses are "real" and already pinned.

LPARs are essentially a subset of virtual machine ... with nearly everything in hardware/microcode. LPAR support can get around the shadow CCW stuff by slight hack to the hardware i/o support ... and having all the memory for a LPAR contiguous. then the microcode just has to handle base/bound relocation of every I/O address (i.e. rather than having to translate every 4k virtual page to a real address, a fixed offset address just needs to be added to every LPAR i/o address).

i had originally implemented page mapped filesystem for cms for cp/67 and then ported it to vm/370
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#mmap

there were all sorts of savings for the page mapped interface ... eliminating the scan, shadowed ccws, page fixing, schedule real i/o, rescan, and unfix, etc (even for cms disk i/o which already had a fastpath version of CCWTRANs that i had originally done on cp/67 as an undergraduate).

recent posting on some old comparisons of paged-mapped versus emulating CCWs ... from a presentation that I had given at the fall '86 SEAS meeting
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006.html#25 DCSS as SWAP for z/Linux

the topic in this particular thread is similar to VIO discussion
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006.html#17 (SPAM?) DCSS as SWAP disk for z/Linuz
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006.html#18 DCSS as SWAP disk for z/Linux
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006.html#19 DCSS as SWAP disk for z/Linux

random past postings referring to the original MVT->VS2 work using CP/67's CCWTRANS
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000c.html#34 What level of computer is needed for a computer to Love?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001b.html#18 Linux IA-64 interrupts [was Re: Itanium benchmarks ...]
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001i.html#37 IBM OS Timeline?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001i.html#38 IBM OS Timeline?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001l.html#36 History
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002l.html#65 The problem with installable operating systems
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002l.html#67 The problem with installable operating systems
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002p.html#49 Linux paging
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002p.html#51 Linux paging
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003k.html#27 Microkernels are not "all or nothing". Re: Multics Concepts For
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004e.html#40 Infiniband - practicalities for small clusters
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005b.html#49 The mid-seventies SHARE survey
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005f.html#47 Moving assembler programs above the line
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005p.html#45 HASP/ASP JES/JES2/JES3
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005s.html#25 MVCIN instruction
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005t.html#7 2nd level install - duplicate volsers

UMA vs SMP? Clarification of terminology

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From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: UMA vs SMP? Clarification of terminology
Newsgroups: comp.arch
Date: Fri, 27 Jan 2006 08:40:26 -0700
Ketil Malde <ketil+news@ii.uib.no> writes:
Perhaps a distinction of exclusivity can be made, caches that only contain copies of the "real" memory is different from local memory that is just faster to access for local CPUs.

another taxonomy ... from recent post
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006.html#16 Would multi-core replace SMPs?

• tightly-coupled ... traditional shared memory • closely-coupled ... some memory semantics, typically for exchanging data, but not instruction execution • loosely-coupled ... clusters using i/o semantics

we had sort of a 16-way tightly-coupled project in the mid-70s that didn't have cache consistency (was killed before announced/shipped). much later rs/6000 had "oak" ... which was 4-way single chip rios w/o cache consistency (single chip rios or rios.9 ... original power/rios was six-chip set ... i have paper weight on my desk with the chips).

there was some amount of work done on closely-coupled for "lock memory" ... basically loosely-coupled configuration but had special memory box with memory semantics for lock protocols across the complex. special memory had some amount of special fault characteristics. current parallel sysplex stuff now has inherited a lot of that work. overview
http://www-03.ibm.com/servers/eserver/zseries/pso/sysover.html

long ago and far away, my wife had been con'ed into serving a stint in pok in charge of loosely-coupled architecture. while there, she developed peer-coupled shared data architecture
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#shareddata

except for ims hot-standby ... it didn't see much uptake until parallel sysplex.

a similar but different implementation was extended memory introduced on 3090 ... basically a variation on numa to address distance latency issues with physical packaging. it could be considered part of multi-level store with software management. there was a special 4k memory copy instruction into and out of "extended" memory.

--
Anne & Lynn Wheeler | http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/

The new High Assurance SSL Certificates

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From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: The new High Assurance SSL Certificates
Newsgroups: netscape.public.mozilla.crypto
Date: Fri, 27 Jan 2006 09:13:16 -0700
pgut001@cs.auckland.ac.nz (Peter Gutmann) writes:
I think a better way of doing this (which I mentioned on the PKIX list recently) is to not use policy OIDs (which are meaningless to 99.9% of all users) but to indicate in the cert how much the cert owner paid for it. Someone who paid $495 for their cert is obviously more serious about it than someone who paid $9.95, and since HA certs are just a way for CAs to charge more for their certs, the end effect will be "more expensive == more HA" anyway.

when we were doing this thing for the original payment gateway
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aadsm5.htm#asrn2
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aadsm5.htm#asrn3

one of the things that we looked at was higher assurance certifications. the issue is that certification is basically providing trust issue for parties (aka consumers) that don't otherwise have a basis for trust.

one problem was that the e-commerce activity was highly skewed ... a few big merchants with the majority of the transactions and business. their position was that they already had trust via other mechanisms like brand, repeat business, etc.

the vast majority of the merchants ... and the most in need of certified trust establishment ... only accounted for very small amount of business. they had a difficult time with cost justification for any really significant trust certification (fbi background checks on employees, physical audits of their operations, strict manadatory security processes ... both physical and dataprocessing, etc).

another problem was that the market niche was already occupied by credit card rules that tended to re-imburse consumers if anything went wrong ... aka merchants recoup expenses by the price they charge consumers ... they were already paying premium on credit card transactions to help support risk mitigation for customers. the certified trust requirements are somewhat proportional to risk ... if risk has been significantly bounded already ... there is much less requirement for expensive trust mechanism.

it was in that early time period that we coined the phrase merchant comfort certificates.

now you might talk about the certificates themselves being high assurance ... as opposed to the certification process that the certificates are supposed to represent. think of it as having a diploma that is printed on absolutely tamper proof paper ... that has been issued by some diploma mill that doesn't require the graduate to have met any requirements other than paying for the diploma.

misc. past posts mentioning comfort certificates and/or really serious certification processes:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aadsm2.htm#mcomfort Human Nature
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aadsm2.htm#mcomf3 Human Nature
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aadsm2.htm#useire2 U.S. & Ireland use digital signature
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aadsm3.htm#kiss5 Common misconceptions, was Re: KISS for PKIX. (Was: RE: ASN.1 vs XML (used to be RE: I-D ACTION :draft-ietf-pkix-scvp- 00.txt))
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aadsm3.htm#kiss7 KISS for PKIX. (Was: RE: ASN.1 vs XML (used to be RE: I-D ACTION :draft-ietf-pkix-scvp- 00.txt))
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aepay4.htm#comcert Merchant Comfort Certificates
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aepay4.htm#comcert2 Merchant Comfort Certificates
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aepay4.htm#comcert3 Merchant Comfort Certificates
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aepay4.htm#comcert4 Merchant Comfort Certificates
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aepay4.htm#comcert5 Merchant Comfort Certificates
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aepay4.htm#comcert6 Merchant Comfort Certificates
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aepay4.htm#comcert7 Merchant Comfort Certificates
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aepay4.htm#comcert8 Merchant Comfort Certificates
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aepay4.htm#comcert9 Merchant Comfort Certificates
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aepay4.htm#comcert10 Merchant Comfort Certificates
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aepay4.htm#comcert11 Merchant Comfort Certificates
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aepay4.htm#comcert12 Merchant Comfort Certificates
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aepay4.htm#comcert13 Merchant Comfort Certificates
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aepay4.htm#comcert14 Merchant Comfort Certificates
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aepay4.htm#comcert15 Merchant Comfort Certificates
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aepay4.htm#comcert16 Merchant Comfort Certificates
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aepay4.htm#comcert17 Merchant Comfort Certificates
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aepay6.htm#dspki use of digital signatures and PKI
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000c.html#32 Request for review of "secure" storage scheme
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001c.html#62 SSL weaknesses
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001j.html#5 E-commerce security????
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001j.html#54 Does "Strong Security" Mean Anything?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003l.html#43 Proposal for a new PKI model (At least I hope it's new)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004b.html#39 SSL certificates
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004c.html#43 why and how VeriSign, thawte became a trusted CA?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004i.html#4 New Method for Authenticated Public Key Exchange without Digital Certificates
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005l.html#1 The Worth of Verisign's Brand
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005t.html#34 RSA SecurID product
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005u.html#9 PGP Lame question
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005v.html#4 ABN Tape - Found

--
Anne & Lynn Wheeler | http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/

UMA vs SMP? Clarification of terminology

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From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: UMA vs SMP? Clarification of terminology
Newsgroups: comp.arch
Date: Fri, 27 Jan 2006 09:42:27 -0700
ref:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006.html#16 Would multi-core replace SMPs?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006.html#32 UMA vs SMP? Clarification of terminology

the multiprocessor 360s in the 60s were touted as being fully independent. while they could be configured with shared memory (processors having uniform access to all memory) ... the processors had private i/o. the machines could be partitioned ... each having portion of real storage as private dedicated memory.

i/o multiprocessing was emulated by configuring device controllers with multiple interfaces to the processor specific i/o interfaces.

a shared-memory multiprocessor could have the memory cleaved and the resulting configuration could operate as loosely-coupled (shared i/o) w/o having tightly-coupled shared-memory.

the exception was the 360/67 ... which not only had support for virtual memory, but also had something called a "channel controller" which allowed for allowing all processors shared access to all i/o interfaces ... however, the channel controller could be configured to cleave the configuration into independent units with dedicated memory and dedicated i/o interfaces.

the science center
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech

while waiting for delivery of 360/67, took a standard 360/40 and added custom virtual memory hardware and used it to build the original virtual machine operating system (cp/40). when their 360/67 was delivered, they ported the software calling it cp/67.

at the science center, charlie was doing multiprocessor work on cp/67 and invented the compare&swap instruction ... which showed up on 370 machines (in the early 70s). it wasn't originally compare&swap instruction ... however charlie's initial are CAS and so we had to come up with an instruction mnemonic that matched his initials. misc. past smp related posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#smp

--
Anne & Lynn Wheeler | http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/

Charging Time

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From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Charging Time
Newsgroups: bit.listserv.vmesa-l
Date: Fri, 27 Jan 2006 11:02:15 -0700
"Schuh, Richard" writes:
As others have pointed out, accessing an active SFS directory can be a big contributor. I confirmed this by letting a machine sit idle for 2 hours while it had such a directory accessed. After 2 hours, I released the directory and it was disconnected 15 minutes later. In this case, I would expect to see VTIME incrementing because CMS is accepting the interrupts. If they are IUCV interrupts, that measure is blown out the door, too. Is there no such thing as an idle user anymore?

cp kernel time charge to the virtual machine ... can be anything that the kernel does on behalf of the process.

I had originally done the pageable kernel stuff on cp/67 (as an undergraudate) ... by creating a dummy virtual machine id (called system) with dummy virtual address space tables ... into which were mapped all the kernel code. the end of the fixed kernel was identified and then everything else was was allowed to "page". this wasn't shipped as part of cp/67 but was picked up as part of vm370.

when I did the swaptable migration ... i created an abbreviated psuedo virtual address space for each virtual machine ... primarily so that the paging subsystem could be leveraged for moving data to/from disk. basically nearly all control blocks could be copied into this dummy virtual address space ... leaving only a small stub left in real storage. at least one of the vm370-based time-sharing service bureaus got very aggresive with this technique in the amount of resources that an idle virtual machine had left behind in real storage:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#timeshare

when idle virtual machine was found, the kernel overhead for moving various control blocks out of storage to disk would be charged against that virtual machine. however, it wouldn't be ongoing ... unless the virtual machine was being periodically woken up for other reasons (and the control blocks had to be brought back and then again removed later).

i shipped this as part of the vm370 resource manager. recent post referencing resource manager announcement letter:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006.html#19 DCSS as SWAP disk for z/Linux

--
Anne & Lynn Wheeler | http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/

Charging Time

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Charging Time
Newsgroups: bit.listserv.vmesa-l
Date: Fri, 27 Jan 2006 15:02:37 -0700
Anne & Lynn Wheeler writes:
when I did the swaptable migration ... i created an abbreviated psuedo virtual address space for each virtual machine ... primarily so that the paging subsystem could be leveraged for moving data to/from disk. basically nearly all control blocks could be copied into this dummy virtual address space ... leaving only a small stub left in real storage. at least one of the vm370-based time-sharing service bureaus got very aggresive with this technique in the amount of resources that an idle virtual machine had left behind in real storage:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#timeshare


ref:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006.html#35 Charging Time

as real storage has gotten larger and larger ... there is less of a need to use control block migration to address constrained real storage limitations (unless really humongous amount of real storage is involved for idle activity).

note however, once there is a really aggresive implementation of moving all control blocks to secondary storage ... it was no longer necessary to bring the virtual machine back into the same real processor as it started with (in a loosely-coupled environment).

as some of the early vm370-based time-sharing service bureaus went 7-24 with world-wide customers ... they started to encounter issues with scheduled maint. downtime. at least one of them used really aggressive control block migration as basis for moving everything off a processor that had scheduled pm downtime to another processor complex in the same configuration (w/o customers seeing any service disruption).

some recent posts mentioning loosely-coupled:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006.html#16 Would multi-core replace SMPs?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006.html#32 UMA vs SMP? Clarification of terminology
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006.html#34 UMA vs SMP? Clarification of terminology

--
Anne & Lynn Wheeler | http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/

The new High Assurance SSL Certificates

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From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: The new High Assurance SSL Certificates
Newsgroups: netscape.public.mozilla.crypto
Date: Sat, 28 Jan 2006 08:18:51 -0700
Anne & Lynn Wheeler writes:
now you might talk about the certificates themselves being high assurance ... as opposed to the certification process that the certificates are supposed to mention. think of it as having a diploma that is printed on absolutely tamper proof paper ... that has been issued by some diploma mill that doesn't require the graduate to have met any requirements other than paying for the diploma.

ref:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006.html#33 The new High Assurance SSL Certificates

aka, nominally a license/credential/certificate/diploma type document is the representation of something ... as opposed to being considered the something itself. there are somewhat separate issues involved with the integrity/assurance of the document ... and the integrity/assurance of the information the document is suppose to represent.

so whether or not you have a counterfeit driver's license is somewhat separate from whether or not the information in a valid driver's license is correct. although, it is possible to make the case that if counterfeit driver's licenses are common place ... then there isn't much point in worrying about the validity of information in valid driver's licenses. this possibly contributes to it now being common place for officers to do real-time, online checks in almost any circumstance (license's starting to be a vehicle for carrying an index to the real, online information ... as opposed to being expected to have all the real, real-time information).

one of the issues that came up in an high assurance discussion is what are some of the fundamental high assurance issues in public key operations.

some of the most fundamental assurance issues (that nearly all other operations are scaffold on) are

1) assurance/integrity level of the crypto 2) assurance/integrity level of the keygen process 3) assurance/integrity level of the environment protecting the private key 4) assurance/integrity level of the environment that digital signatures occur in

for digital certificates, this would apply to both the assurance issues related to the certification authority as well as the assurance issues related to the entity that a digital certificate has been issued for. to build an assurance infrastructure ... you first start with certifying those fundamental aspects for both the certification authority as well as the entity to which a digital certificate has been issued.

so if somebody was designing a public key digital certificate from scratch, that was supposed to certify something and represent some level of assurance ... they would include at least the assurance/integrity levels for the above four characteristics for both the certification authority as well as the entity for which the digital certificate has been issued.

oops, i forgot, there is something of a chicken & egg situation. the 4th item is a real-time characteristic ... and it seems frequently that the common PKI impression is that you can't do a digital signature until you have a digital certificate ... but if you have a digital certificate before you do a digital signature ... it is difficult for the digital certificate to be able to indicate the environment that all future digital signatures happen in.

so one of the things allowed for in the x9.59 financial standard
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/x959.html#x959

is for co-signatures. common signing environments, like point-of-sale terminals or (EU standard) finread terminals
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subintegrity.html#finread

would have certified security modules and certified modes of operation. after the authenticating entity digitally signs the transaction, the terminal then would co-sign the operation (attesting to the environment that the operations are occuring in).

with those basic, underlying fundamental assurance issues delt with, then it would be possible to add assurance/integrity information related to the information that is supposedly being certified (and for which certificate/license/credential/diploma documents are suppose to be a representation of ... unless you are in transition to online, realtime system ... like driver's license and other importion operation).

so i would start by asserting that any "high assurance" digital certificate would begin by giving assurance/integrity levels for the environment that keygen occured in and the assurance/integrity level used for private key protection (for the entity that the digital certificate is being issued to).

if the certification authority is running any software, they might throw in things like the certified process that their software was developed in i.e. has the certification authority's software been developed with trusted software practices ... one of my favorite web pages
http://www.software.org/quagmire/

say the right-hand section of above ... 2167A, 498, 12207.

of course, these assurance issues are somewhat orthogonal to whether any of the other information being certified provides any incremental trust for the eventual relying parties (in the common e-commerce scenario, the consumer).

various postings on assurance
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subintegrity.html#assurance

--
Anne & Lynn Wheeler | http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/

Is VIO mandatory?

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From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Is VIO mandatory?
Newsgroups: bit.listserv.vmesa-l,bit.listserv.ibm-main,alt.folklore.computers
Date: Sun, 29 Jan 2006 10:00:15 -0700
Ed Gould wrote: > I think the 2314 was the original suggestion by IBM.

2314 (29 mbytes) and 2301 (paging drum, 4mbytes) were contemporaries on 360/67 (early 360/67s tended to have 2311 7mbytes before 2314s were available). there were two drum models, 2303 and 2301. the 2303 read/wrote single head. the 2301 was nearly identical but read/wrote four heads in parallel (for four times the data transfer rate).

table of some old capacity
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/95.html#8 3330 Disk Drives

the above gives both nominal access/sec/drive as well as normalizing the access rate by capacity ... giving access/sec/mbyte ... i.e. a 3380 limited to just 40mbyte gives approx. the same access/sec/mbyte as fully loaded 2314.

"early ibm disk history" (from wikipedia)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM_350

also, if any remembers additional code names, they may be able to help complete this table
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001l.html#63 MVS History (all parts)

370s (especially after virtual memory was announced) tended to have 3330-1 (100mbytes) and 2305 (12mbytes, fixed head disk). there were actually two 2305 models; one with 12mbytes and one with 6mbytes. the 6mbyte model had same number of heads as 12mbyte model but "ganged" and offset 180degrees (and 1/2 the tracks). it only read/wrote a single head ... but chose the first head that encountered the desired record (and therefor had 1/2 the avg. rotational delay).

around 1980, a lot of internal sites got "1655". these were emulated 2305s built by a memory chip vendor that used memory chips that had failed some standard memory chip test. There were enuf usable bits in the chip that the "1655" controller circuitry was able to compensate for various failures (at least in i/o transfer operations).

the 3350 had a couple cylinders that could have a fixed-head option. in the late 70s, i was trying to get a feature added that would provide a separate "exposure" address to any fixed-head region (to avoid having fixed-head i/o blocked by 3350 arm motion i/o). this ran into politics with a POK group that was planning something called vulcan ... basically something similar to (later) 1655 ... or imagine something like 3090 expanded store but with i/o semantics. they felt that such an enhanced 3350 fixed-head option for paging would compete with vulcan (vulcan was canceled before announce).

the first kernel to run virtual memory on 370 was a modified version of cp67. there was a joint project between endicott and cambridge
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech

to implement 370 virtual machines (which were similar to 360/67 but differed in the virtual memory hardware architecture). the basic csc/vm production cp67 (running on cambridge's 360/67) was "cp67l". the joint endicott/cambridge project modifications to provide 370 virtual machines was "cp67h".

the cp67h system rarely ran on the real hardware. the issue was that the cambridge machine also provided various kinds of time-sharing system to people at educational institutions in the boston area (had mit, bu, harvard, etc students). 370 virtual memory hadn't been announced and there was a real security issue if the cp67h system ran on the real hardware, 370 virtual memory details might leak. as a result cp67h tended to only run in a 360/67 virtual machine under cp67l production system.

once cp67h was operational, then there were modifications to create a cp67 that ran on 370 virtual memory called "cp67i". a year before the first 145 engineering model with virtual memory hardware, cp67i was regularly running in 370 virtual machines under cp67h (which was running in 360/67 virtual machines under cp67l).

there is old story about when the endicott engineers felt that they finally had 145 virtual memory hardware ready to test and there was a trip to endicott with a copy of cp67i. the first boot failed. after a little diagnoses, it turned out that the engineers had reversed two of the new "B2xx" op-codes. the kernel was quickly patched to correspond to the (incorrect) hardware and the system successfully booted.

after that there was period when most of the internal 370s (with virtual memory support) ran with cp67i (both before and after 370 virtual memory was announced). early on, there were three disk engineers that came out from san jose and added the support for 3330 and 2305 ... including supporting RPS (lots of early 145s had been running with 2314s). cp67i with 3330 & 2305 support was frequently referred to as cp67sj.

old "cp67i" stories
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002h.html#50 crossreferenced program code listings
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004.html#44 OT The First Mouse
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004b.html#31 determining memory size
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004d.html#74 DASD Architecture of the future
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004h.html#27 Vintage computers are better than modern crap !
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005c.html#59 intel's Vanderpool and virtualization in general
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005d.html#58 Virtual Machine Hardware
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005h.html#18 Exceptions at basic block boundaries
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005i.html#39 Behavior in undefined areas?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005p.html#27 What ever happened to Tandem and NonStop OS ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005p.html#45 HASP/ASP JES/JES2/JES3

the early VS2 prototype started out with a version of MVT with virtual memory software support hacked onto the side incorporating a cribbed version of CP67's CCWTRANS to do the virtual->real channel program translation.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006.html#31 Is VIO mandatory

past posts mentioning the vs2 effort starting with CCWTRANS
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000c.html#34 What level of computer is needed for a computer to Love?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001b.html#18 Linux IA-64 interrupts [was Re: Itanium benchmarks ...]
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001i.html#37 IBM OS Timeline?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001i.html#38 IBM OS Timeline?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001l.html#36 History
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002l.html#65 The problem with installable operating systems
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002l.html#67 The problem with installable operating systems
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002p.html#49 Linux paging
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002p.html#51 Linux paging
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003k.html#27 Microkernels are not "all or nothing". Re: Multics Concepts For
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004e.html#40 Infiniband - practicalities for small clusters
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005b.html#49 The mid-seventies SHARE survey
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005f.html#47 Moving assembler programs above the line
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005p.html#45 HASP/ASP JES/JES2/JES3
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005s.html#25 MVCIN instruction
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005t.html#7 2nd level install - duplicate volsers

adding virtual memory hardware to 370/165 was holding up the whole 370 virtual memory announcement. there was a resolution meeting where the 165 engineers proposed dropping some of the 370 virtual memory features, which would cut six months off their effort. when this was accepted, all existing implementations on other models needed the dropped features deleted.

past posts mentioning difficulty of adding virtual memory to 370/165.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#7 IBM S/360
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#204 Core (word usage) was anti-equipment etc
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000f.html#35 Why IBM use 31 bit addressing not 32 bit?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001c.html#7 LINUS for S/390
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001k.html#8 Minimalist design (was Re: Parity - why even or odd)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002m.html#2 Handling variable page sizes?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002n.html#10 Coherent TLBs
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002n.html#23 Tweaking old computers?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004c.html#6 If the x86 ISA could be redone
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004p.html#8 vm/370 smp support and shared segment protection hack
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005b.html#62 The mid-seventies SHARE survey
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005e.html#53 System/360; Hardwired vs. Microcoded
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005f.html#45 Moving assembler programs above the line
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005h.html#10 Exceptions at basic block boundaries
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005h.html#18 Exceptions at basic block boundaries
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005j.html#39 A second look at memory access alignment
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006.html#13 VM maclib reference

What happens if CR's are directly changed?

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From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: What happens if CR's are directly changed?
Newsgroups: bit.listserv.ibm-main,alt.folklore.computers
Date: Sun, 29 Jan 2006 17:56:02 -0700
Edward E. Jaffe wrote:
Getting back to basics: What Binyamin has asked for is the ability to have the AX for one TCB/RB in an address space be different than the AX of another TCB/RB in the same address space. On the surface, that seems like a reasonable "wish list" item to me. We've established that this function doesn't exist given the current cross-memory architecture, developed decades ago -- even before XA/370, but that doesn't invalidate the merits of the idea. Does it?

what does cross-memory architecture and itanium have in common?

some hints
http://www.hpl.hp.com/news/2001/apr-jun/worley.html
http://www.hpl.hp.com/news/2001/apr-jun/itanium.html

a current itanium reference
http://www.tgdaily.com/2006/01/27/itanium_alliance_10b_bet/

and had to go to the wayback machine for this one:
http://web.archive.org/web/20000415125122/http://www.hpl.hp.com/features/bill_worley_interview.html

and for additional drift in the above reference, various 801 related posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#801

collected dual-address space and cross-memory posts/references:

http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/95.html#11a Crashproof Architecture
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/98.html#6 OS with no distinction between RAM and HD ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/98.html#11 S/360 operating systems geneaology
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000c.html#35 What level of computer is needed for a computer to Love?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000c.html#83 Is a VAX a mainframe?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000c.html#84 Is a VAX a mainframe?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000e.html#57 Why not an IBM zSeries workstation?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000g.html#28 Could CDR-coding be on the way back?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002e.html#32 What goes into a 3090?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002p.html#13 Multics on emulated systems?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002p.html#43 cost of crossing kernel/user boundary
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003.html#13 FlexEs and IVSK instruction
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003j.html#65 Cost of Message Passing ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003m.html#29 SR 15,15
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003n.html#45 hung/zombie users ... long boring, wandering story
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004c.html#6 If the x86 ISA could be redone
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004e.html#41 Infiniband - practicalities for small clusters
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004k.html#26 Timeless Classics of Software Engineering
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005m.html#55 54 Processors?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005p.html#18 address space
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005p.html#19 address space
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006.html#32 UMA vs SMP? Clarification of terminology

All Good Things

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From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: All Good Things
Newsgroups: bit.listserv.vmesa-l,alt.folklore.computers
Date: Sun, 29 Jan 2006 20:30:00 -0700
"Gordon Wolfe, Ph.D." writes:
For those who are interested, my position will be opening up. Boeing will actually have 2 positions in VM Systems opening, as soon as we fill the position of Delivery Systems Manager. My last two managers quit within three months of each other. Maybe it's my deodorant? I don't know when the position(s) will open up. I doubt that hiring will be an immediate priority for the new manager. But go to http://www.boeing.com, at the top select 'employment', and at the right select 'Job Search'. This is 'Information Technology' or possibly 'Computing Delivery Systems', 'Salaried Non-Management', state of Washington, 'Experienced'. The job title is 'System Design Integration Specialist', which might be abbreviated 'Syst Desn Intgr Spec'. Search keywords 'VM' or 'ESS' or 'LINUX', and maybe on the job classification BCBDP4. This might be filled at a P3 or even a P2, so check those too. I'd check once a week. These reg's don't stay open very long when they do open up. The last time we opened a req, we got 88 applications, interviewed 6 and hired none of them. The position is still open.

i did much of the original virtual machine install at boeing.

three people from cambridge science center
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech

had come out to the university the last week in jan. '68 to install cp/67. I did extensive modifications on cp/67 (as well as os/360) during that spring and summer and got to make a presentation on a lot of the os/360 and cp/67 work at the fall '68 SHARE meeting in Atlantic City.

BCS was formed around dec(?). '68. BCS was to take over most of the data processing at boeing and had made some decision to do some amount of work with virtual machines (i think part of the idea was that BCS could sell services not only inside boeing but also to other customers). IBM and Boeing talked me into teaching a one week (40hr) cp/67 class at the univ. to the (then small) BCS technical staff.during spring break. BCS was still starting up and the core was located at BGS dataprocessing corporate hdqtrs across from Boeing field. They had a 360/30 for doing Boeing payroll. A "simplex" (uniprocessor) 360/67 was brought into the same machine room for cp/67.

I was hired as a full-time BCS employee (even tho I was still an undergraduate) for that summer (69) at some level that gave me a badge allowing me to park in the management parking lot next to the bldg. (as opposed to the large parking lot behind it where most of the assembly workers parked). BCS hdqtrs people were still in discussions about absorbing the other datacenters (like the big one down in Renton).

Everett was still starting up and "003" 747 was flying FAA certification test in the skies around Seattle that summer. When I first arrived, I was taken on tour of a number of facilities. One that I still remember was a mockup of a 747 interior and being told that the 747 were so large and carried so many people that they would never be served with fewer than four jetways (for passenger loading/unloading). What is the percentage of time that you've seen a wide-body with even two jetways (instead of just one)?

For the summer, I was renting the basement from one of the engineers working on 747. They had remodeled their house and the basement was now its own apartment. He had stories about some sobotage that was occuring that summer on the 747 project in Everett.

BCS also managed to latch onto a two-processor 360/67 multiprocessor that was down at Boeing Huntsville and have it moved to Seattle. It had been running a highly modified version of os/mvt release 13 supporting a lot of 2250 graphics work. The 2250 graphics work was long running jobs and MVT had significant memory fragmentation problems with long running jobs. Basically it was running 360/65 SMP code with a small modification to turn on the 67s virtual memory. There was no paging going on ... the virtual memory support was purely being used to re-organize memory allocation into contiguous locations (workaround for the underlying memory fragmentation).

that summer at boeing one of the things I managed to do was rework some of the internal CP67 kernel linkage. I had previously done a lot of specific pathlength rewrites and fastpath work ... some of which were mentioned in the 68 Atlantic City share presentation. the original cp67 had all linkage using svc8 for calls and svc12 for returns. I had analyzed a number of high useage, short pathlength subroutines that could benefit from BALR linkages (i.e. the svc call/return pathlength was frequently as long as the subroutine pathlength). I modified call/return macro to do the BALR linkage convention (instead of SVC) for the selectively modified routines.

Also that summer, I had done the first implementation for pageable kernel structure (again with a hack in the call/return for the selective routines). I had started with specific (lower useage) functions/features in the console module ... which was a single large routine. One of the things that I first needed to do was break it into multiple 4k sized chunks for the portions that were going to be paged. Breaking "console" into multiple 4k chunks created a lot of additional external entries which then caused a problem with the stand-alone loader used for cp67 system generation. The cp67 loader had started out life as standard "BPS" card loader with minor modifications. It had a limit of 255 external entries. The breakup of console pushed the number of entries in the cp67 kernel over 255, which in turn broke the loader. While every other piece of cp67 was shipped as source code, there was no source code for the laoder. It was a real pain in the rear to work around this problem.

balr leakage stuff eventually shipped in cp67 ... but the pageable kernel stuff didn't show up in the product until vm370.

random refs to the 68 Atlantic City share meeting:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/94.html#18 CP/67 & OS MFT14
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/94.html#20 CP/67 & OS MFT14
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/97.html#22 Pre S/360 IBM Operating Systems?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/98.html#21 Reviving the OS/360 thread (Questions about OS/360)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001f.html#26 Price of core memory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001k.html#37 Is anybody out there still writting BAL 370.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002c.html#45 cp/67 addenda (cross-post warning)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002m.html#3 The problem with installable operating systems
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002n.html#29 why does wait state exist?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003d.html#72 cp/67 35th anniversary
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004f.html#6 Infiniband - practicalities for small clusters
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005m.html#16 CPU time and system load

misc. past posts mentioning bps loader:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/94.html#11 REXX
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/98.html#9 ** Old Vintage Operating Systems **
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#135 sysprog shortage - what questions would you ask?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000b.html#32 20th March 2000
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001b.html#23 Linux IA-64 interrupts [was Re: Itanium benchmarks ...]
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001b.html#26 HELP
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001b.html#27 HELP
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002f.html#47 How Long have you worked with MF's ? (poll)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002h.html#35 Computers in Science Fiction
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002i.html#2 Where did text file line ending characters begin?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002n.html#62 PLX
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002n.html#71 bps loader, was PLX
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002n.html#72 bps loader, was PLX
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003f.html#26 Alpha performance, why?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004g.html#45 command line switches [Re: [REALLY OT!] Overuse of symbolic constants]
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005f.html#10 Where should the type information be: in tags and descriptors
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005f.html#16 Where should the type information be: in tags and descriptors
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005g.html#52 Software for IBM 360/30
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005s.html#50 Various kinds of System reloads

--
Anne & Lynn Wheeler | http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/

Is VIO mandatory?

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From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Is VIO mandatory?
Newsgroups: bit.listserv.ibm-main
Date: Mon, 30 Jan 2006 00:19:22 -0700
shmuel+ibm-main@ibm-main.lst (Shmuel Metz , Seymour J.) writes:
However, MVS did not[1] support drums, so they weren't an option for VIO.

if 2314 support could have been left over from mvt ... i don't see why 2301 and 2303 support couldn't have also been left over as well (although possibly not in any paging code?).

i was supporting mft/mvt at the univ. on 360/67 that spent quite a bit of its time in 360/65 mode. it had been ordered for tss/360 with a 2301 drum. i had sys1.svclib on the 2301 drum.

--
Anne & Lynn Wheeler | http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/

IBM 610 workstation computer

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From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: IBM 610 workstation computer
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers,misc.transport.road
Date: Tue, 31 Jan 2006 11:20:05 -0700
David Scheidt writes:
There are a fair number of installations where the computer doesn't change much. Point-of-Sale systems don't change very fast, for instance. Neither do telco switches. Or lots of other things where the general-purpose computing ability of the computer isn't the main goal of the system. Sure, you can use the 3B20 in a 5ESS to do things other than control the switching modules, but why? Many of these things have installed lifespans of decades.

I've referred before to issue in the mid to late 70s about internal availability of 327x terminal requiring vp sign-off approval for each terminal. we did a business analysis that the 3year amortized costs of 327x terminal was about the same as business phone on desks ... which was taken as matter of course ... and didn't require vp approval for each phone.

note however, many 327x terminals eventually saw lifetime service of a decade or more (i had 3277 terminal for nearly 20 years).

for tax purposes ... lots of stuff use to have 7-10 year (or more) depreciation. as the rate of technology change increased ... you started to see things like 3year write-offs.

the rate of change sort of leads to recent (slightly related automobile) topic drift about recent press conference mentioning trying to reduce concept to show room time down to 3yrs (this is not quite the same as 1990 auto industry effort trying to reduce concept to show room time from 7 years down to 18-36months to put in on level with foreign competition). recent post:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006.html#23 auto industry

POS terminals are now under lots of pressure. a couple months ago, i stayed at an inn where the manager complained that he had recently been forced to pay over $500 for a new terminal ... which didn't even have support for any of the new chip stuff ... and the new chip stuff will require another new terminal in a year or so.

--
Anne & Lynn Wheeler | http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/

Sprint backs out of IBM outsourcing deal

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From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Sprint backs out of IBM outsourcing deal
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Tue, 31 Jan 2006 13:53:25 -0700
HMerritt@ibm-main.lst (Hal Merritt) writes:
One just *has* to wonder if the outsourcing was mostly a ploy to deal with an out of control culture. You transfer all management to a third party. Let them 'retrain' the troops. Then you bring it back under new management with new marching orders.

frequently the executive experience for managing IT organization is totally different than executive experience required for operating the rest of the business.

this can lead to out of control IT organization. this can also lead to a very political (and potentially unprofessional) relationship between the rest of the organization and the IT organization (i.e. lack of binding legal contracts, inadequate service level agreement contracts, etc).

IT services can also significantly suffer ... if the IT organization is viewed as purely a cost center ... and people making budget decisions have little concept about adequate needs for providing quality (and possibly even necessary) IT service ... vis-a-vis budget allocation for the rest of the organization.

to some extent this has also accounted for some of the datacenter to desktop transitions; you turned everybody into their own system administrator ... initially eliminating dedicated head count in the (IT) cost center (obviously it cost less if everybody was doing it for themselves).

another approache for dealing with some of the issues has been to turn IT into independent company (moving from an internal cost center to a profit center) .... recent posting regarding the early days of BCS (boeing computer services):
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006.html#40 All Good Things

outsourcing works fairly well during periods of long term stability. however, in periods of great change ... the ability of an organization to quickly adapt to changing conditions (agility) can be inhibited by arms' length legal agreements. Unanticipated and/or rapid changes in IT services are probably not provided for in the outsourcing contract. Agility and rapid adaptation frequently also involve some amount of experimentation aka trying new stuff for the first time; unless you can perfectly predict the future, not all experimentation regarding unknowns will be successful.

of course this then always starts down the boyd and OODA-loop path
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subboyd.html#boyd
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subboyd.html#boyd2

and here is a recent OODA-loop reference somebody just forwarded to me
http://www.affordablehousinginstitute.org/blogs/us/2005/10/doing_the_gover_1.html

boyd's briefs had numerous examples from military history about agility being deciding factor in conflicts ... along with some tying agility to modern business conflicts

C4 was a 1990 project in the automobile industry that was almost all IT-related with an attempt to get time from concept to showroom down from seven years to 18-36 months (putting it on level with foreign competition). recent posting mentioning auto industry agility
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006.html#23 auto industry
another minor reference
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006.html#42 IBM 610 workstation computers

IBM 610 workstation computer

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From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: IBM 610 workstation computer
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Tue, 31 Jan 2006 17:03:21 -0700
greymaus writes:
Some groups here got into big trouble leasing equipment that outdated more quickly that their write-off periods. (Specially with M$ bringing out 'new' OS every 5 years or so).. The great bulk of equipment here, Ireland, is leased, and this can have serious consequences if mistakes are made by the accountants..

Re: faster introduction of new models by foreigners, is this because of better integration of the production process?.. or are they just more committed ?


possibly at least both? ... in some cases they were reducing elapsed time from concept to showroom to as little as 18 months.

in approx. the same time frame, similar foreign companies were reducing elapsed time between consumer electronics models to 90 days. this was introducing some interesting distribution issues since leaving manufacturing, getting into containers, onto ships, into US ports and out to distribution centers might represent significant part of that time (and tracking discontinued models and introduction of new models became issues).

the acceleration in the speed of change ... also starts to impact things like long standing, traditional business processes gated by annual fall budget planning. things are smoother if change isn't happening faster than the annual planning cycle. however, all bets are off when change starts happening faster than the annual planning cycle.

the auto industry reference ... and URLs pointed to in that posting, have references of period back to at least 1980.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006.html#23 auto industry

with respect to the outsourcing posting also mentioning other aspects, the c4 auto scenario involved some issues that were somewhat the revserse ... a large auto company had purchased a large system integrator/outsourcing company and there were public statements about turning over all internal IT operations to that organization.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006.html#43 Sprint backs out of IBM outsourcing deal

that marriage was possibly less than totally succesful.

--
Anne & Lynn Wheeler | http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/

IBM 610 workstation computer

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From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: IBM 610 workstation computer
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Tue, 31 Jan 2006 18:02:18 -0700
in the mid-80s, i had an issue with paying nearly $20k for some computer specific hardware with technology that wasn't as good as I could get from $300 cdrom drive (and was starting to predict that consumer electronics was going to become common in even fairly high-end computer equipment).

the late 80s saw some this issue show up in some commerce dept. sponsored meetings regarding hdtv. some old posts mentioning hdtv issue:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000e.html#11 Is Al Gore The Father of the Internet?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001.html#73 how old are you guys
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001b.html#2 FCC rulemakings on HDTV
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001j.html#23 OT - Internet Explorer V6.0
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005k.html#25 The 8008

--
Anne & Lynn Wheeler | http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/

Free to good home: IBM RT UNIX

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Free to good home: IBM RT UNIX
Newsgroups: comp.sys.ibm.pc.rt,comp.unix.aix,alt.folklore.computers
Date: Tue, 31 Jan 2006 18:18:29 -0700
Andrew writes: <
Greetings.

THE GOOD
========
Moving again, and it's time to face the reality that I'm never going to get around to this project. Thus, I am giving away free to a good home (you pick up in Portland, OR, or pay actual cost to ship) one IBM RT, "an early workstation from IBM, based on the IBM '032' or ROMP CPU", "also known as the model 6150, 6151, and 6152." If you don't know what this is, you probably don't want it. It was basically a precursor to the RS/6000, manufactured circa 1986. It will run AIX UNIX, or AOS (a 4.3BSD derivative). I have tons of parts and extra cards for this beast. Extra CPUs, a number of ESDI disk drives, a monitor, a very cool old-school IBM two-button mouse, a tape drive, etc. It's all there. I do not have part numbers or pictures of this stuff, but if there is any interest I will be glad to photograph everything.


does it have a megapel display? i had gotten an rt with megapel display into a booth at '88 interop ... (kitty-corner mext to case's snmp ... and case was talked into getting snmp up and running on the machine for the show. old interop '88 postings
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#interop

lots of collected 801, romp, rios, etc postings
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#801

--
Anne & Lynn Wheeler | http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/

"VAX" Tradename reused !

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From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: "VAX" Tradename reused !
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Wed, 01 Feb 2006 09:36:45 -0700
Nick Spalding writes:
VAX /vaks/ n.

1. [from Virtual Address eXtension] The most successful minicomputer design in industry history, possibly excepting its immediate ancestor, the PDP-11. Between its release in 1978 and its eclipse by killer micros after about 1986, the VAX was probably the hacker's favorite machine of them all, esp. after the 1982 release of 4.2 BSD Unix (see BSD). Esp. noted for its large, assembler-programmer-friendly instruction set -- an asset that became a liability after the RISC revolution. 2. A major brand of vacuum cleaner in Britain. Cited here because its sales pitch, "Nothing sucks like a VAX!" became a sort of battle-cry of RISC partisans. It is even sometimes claimed that DEC actually entered a cross-licensing deal with the vacuum-Vax people that allowed them to market VAX computers in the U.K. in return for not challenging the vacuum cleaner trademark in the U.S.


vax shipments sliced & diced, by us, non-us, model, year, etc
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002f.html#0 Computers in Science Fiction

the 4341 was in the same market segment (780, not micro-vax), about the same performance, shipped more, better price/performance, etc. ... reference to somebody commenting that 11k of the vax shipments should have been 4341s.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001m.html#15 departmental servers

--
Anne & Lynn Wheeler | http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/

Early microcomputer (esp i8008) software

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From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Early microcomputer (esp i8008) software
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Wed, 01 Feb 2006 09:47:43 -0700
"Tim Shoppa" writes:
The Intel PL/M compiler that generates i8008 code is out there on the net. It used to be on the oak.oakland.edu ftp site in the CP/M directory, but while that archive is gone I'm convinced that it must be still out there.

I think Gary Kildall was probably the actual author of that compiler. The compiler itself is in somewhat portable Fortran IV. (Hollerith strings IIRC, making those portable is actually a lot of work). It compiled and worked out-of-the-box on VAX Fortran and also I think the PDP-11 Fortrans, and while those were nominally Fotran 77 compilers they also did a very good job supporting dusty-deck Fortran code.

Modern Fortran compilers (including the GNU toolchain and f77 on most commercial unix platforms) are not nearly so good about supporting dusty-deck code.

The 8008 is not exactly your ideal target for a compiler. Stack and math operations exist but not in the same way you'd expect on a modern target (or even say a PDP-11 target). But they made it work quite well (PL/M is actually a pretty well-targeted language for typical embedded microcontroller stuff, unlike say C).

Much of CP/M was written in PL/M (ignore those disassemblies which make it appear as if it were authored in assembler) and if IIUC the very earliest versions of CP/M actually ran on 8008's.


reference to cp/m name coming from cp/67 ... reference to gary working on cp/cms at npg in the early 70s.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004e.html#38 [REALLY OT!] Overuse of symbolic constants
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004h.html#40 Which Monitor Would You Pick??????

misc. old kildall threads
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001b.html#52 Kildall "flying" (was Re: First OS?)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001b.html#53 Kildall "flying" (was Re: First OS?)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001b.html#60 monterey's place in computing was: Kildall "flying" (was Re: First OS?)

--
Anne & Lynn Wheeler | http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/




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