List of Archived Posts

2019 Newsgroup Postings (01/01 - 03/20)

How Harvard Business School Has Reshaped American Capitalism
As a grocery chain is dismantled, investors recover their money. Worker pensions are short millions
The rise and fall of IBM
Network names
Noncompliant: A Lone Whistleblower Exposes the Giants of Wall Street
One Giant Step for a Chess-Playing Machine
Fwd: It's Official: Open-Plan Offices Are Now the Dumbest Management Fad of All Time | Inc.com
10 Years With Tux
Network names
Balanced Federal Budget
Employees Come First
When 'Trashing Our Allies' Was All the Rage
Employees Come First
China's African debt-trap ... and US Version
The PDP11 and subsequent influences
TARP Funds and Noncompliant
Netscape: The Fire That Filled Silicon Valley's First Bubble
Dancing Elephant
IBM assembler
IBM assembler over the ages
Trump CFPB Plans Obscene Change to Payday Lender Rule
Financial Engineering
The American Military Sucks at Cybersecurity; A new report from US military watchdogs outlines hundreds of cybersecurity vulnerabilities
A Deep Dive Inside The Market's Toxic "Liquidity-Volatility-Flows" Feedback Loop
JOHN BOYD AND THE "OODA" LOOP
Are we all now dinosaurs, out of place and out of time?
Where's the fire? | Computerworld Shark Tank
The American Military Sucks at Cybersecurity; A new report from US military watchdogs outlines hundreds of cybersecurity vulnerabilities
Army Releases a Critical History of the War in Iraq
Unreadable code
DIA Chinese Military Power Report
An Epidemic Is Killing Thousands Of Coal Miners. Regulators Could Have Stopped It
Cluster Systems
Cluster Systems
The Rise of Leninist Personnel Policies
The Myth of Capitalism
The Drillmaster of Valley Forge: The Baron de Steuben and the Making of the American Army
Democracy in Chains
long-winded post thread, 3033, 3081, Future System
The Russian Way of War (& Math Anxiety)
Indian Wars
Family of Secrets
Army Special Operations Forces Unconventional Warfare
Billionaire warlords: Why the future is medieval
People are Happier in Social Democracies Because There's Less Capitalism
Jeffrey Skilling, Former Enron Chief, Released After 12 Years in Prison
IBM Mainframe Z14
Astronomy topic drift
Iran Payments
Pentagon harbors culture of revenge against whistleblowers
Rating agencies
3090/3880 trivia
Series/1 NCP/VTAM
IBM/PC Uptake
IBM bureaucracy
Bureaucracy and Agile
Economic Mess
This Paper Map Shows The Extent Of The Entire Internet In 1973
Bureaucracy and Agile
This Paper Map Shows The Extent Of The Entire Internet In 1973
Grant (& Conkling)
Employees Come First
instruction clock speed
instruction clock speed
23june1969 unbundling
23june1969 unbundling
Token-Ring
Economic Mess
23june1969 unbundling
Digital Planes
CICS Product 50 Years Old
Family of Secrets
Token-Ring
Backwards compatibility
21 random but totally appropriate ways to celebrate the World Wide Web's 30th birthday
21 random but totally appropriate ways to celebrate the World Wide Web's 30th birthday
How many years ago?
How many years ago?
370 virtual memory
How many years ago?
LUsers
LUsers
The Sublime: Is it the same for IBM and Special Ops?
The Sublime: Is it the same for IBM and Special Ops?
IBM 5100
LUsers
Trump's tax law threatens charities. The poor will pay
LUsers
Economic Mess
16 years ago, the US invaded Iraq -- CIA agents already on the ground knew it would be a disaster

How Harvard Business School Has Reshaped American Capitalism

Refed: **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: How Harvard Business School Has Reshaped American Capitalism
Date: 01 Jan 2019
Blog: Facebook
How Harvard Business School Has Reshaped American Capitalism
https://www.nytimes.com/2017/04/24/books/review/golden-passport-duff-mcdonald.html

How Harvard Business School Wrecked the World
https://agorafinancial.com/2018/12/10/how-harvard-business-school-wrecked-the-world/

lots of quotes:
From there... it's only a small leap to the attitude there's no right or wrong.

The most revealing anecdote in McDonald's article is told by John LeBoutillier, the former congressman and longtime Newsmax columnist. He was HBS classmates during the 1970s with Jeffrey Skilling -- who went on to oversee the epic late-1990s fraud known as Enron. (Skilling was released to a halfway house earlier this year).

In class one day, the students discussed what they would do if they were the CEO of a company and they discovered the firm was making a product that might kill its customers. "I'd keep making and selling the product," LeBoutillier recalls Skilling saying. "My job as a businessman is to be a profit center and to maximize return to the shareholders. It's the government's job to step in if a product is dangerous."

... snip ...

The Golden Passport: Harvard Business School, the Limits of Capitalism, and the Moral Failure of the MBA Elite
https://www.amazon.com/Golden-Passport-Harvard-Business-Capitalism-ebook/dp/B01JFYB12W/
The Great Deformation: The Corruption of Capitalism in America
https://www.amazon.com/Great-Deformation-Corruption-Capitalism-America-ebook/dp/B00B3M3UK6/
One Nation Under God (capitalism had got such bad for the depression and supporting Nazi Germany, they authorized major propaganda campaign to equate capitalism with Christianity).
https://www.amazon.com/One-Nation-Under-God-Corporate-ebook/dp/B00PWX7R56/
Nocompliant
https://www.amazon.com/Noncompliant-Whistleblower-Exposes-Giants-Street-ebook/dp/B079L5MMSP/

The Real Reason Wages Have Stagnated: Our Economy Is Optimized For Financialization
http://www.zerohedge.com/news/2017-09-08/real-reason-wages-have-stagnated-our-economy-optimized-financialization
Meet the Economist Behind the One Percent's Stealth Takeover of America
https://www.nakedcapitalism.com/2018/05/meet-economist-behind-one-percents-stealth-takeover-america.html

How Economists Turned Corporations into Predators
https://www.nakedcapitalism.com/2017/10/economists-turned-corporations-predators.html
Since the 1980s, business schools have touted "agency theory," a controversial set of ideas meant to explain how corporations best operate. Proponents say that you run a business with the goal of channeling money to shareholders instead of, say, creating great products or making any efforts at socially responsible actions such as taking account of climate change. Many now take this view as gospel, even though no less a business titan than Jack Welch, former CEO of GE, called the notion that a company should be run to maximize shareholder value "the dumbest idea in the world." Why did Welch say that?
... snip ...

The Price of Inequality: How Today's Divided Society Endangers Our Future (Joseph E. Stiglitz)
https://www.amazon.com/Price-Inequality-Divided-Society-Endangers-ebook/dp/B007MKCQ30/
pg35/loc1169-73:
In business school we teach students how to recognize, and create, barriers to competition -- including barriers to entry -- that help ensure that profits won't be eroded. Indeed, as we shall shortly see, some of the most important innovations in business in the last three decades have centered not on making the economy more efficient but on how better to ensure monopoly power or how better to circumvent government regulations intended to align social returns and private rewards
... snip ...

inequality posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#inequality
ENRON posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#enron

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

As a grocery chain is dismantled, investors recover their money. Worker pensions are short millions

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: As a grocery chain is dismantled, investors recover their money. Worker pensions are short millions
Date: 01 Jan 2019
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018f.html#120 As a grocery chain is dismantled, investors recover their money. Worker pensions are short millions

former AMEX president leaves as CEO of IBM to become head of large private equity fund ... was specializing in buying government contractors and beltway bandits (including one that will employ Snowden). Agencies can't lobby congress and companies can't use gov. contract funds to lobby congress, but PE owners appear to be under no such restrictions ... hiring prominent politicians to lobby congress to outsource business to their companies. Companies in PE-mill are under intense pressure to cut corners in order to service heavy debt load and push profits up to their owners
http://www.motherjones.com/politics/2007/10/barbarians-capitol-private-equity-public-enemy/
Lou Gerstner, former ceo of ibm, now heads the Carlyle Group, a Washington-based global private equity firm whose 2006 revenues of $87 billion were just a few billion below ibm's. Carlyle has boasted George H.W. Bush, George W. Bush, and former Secretary of State James Baker III on its employee roster.
... snip ...

enormous uptic in outsourcing last decade, intelligence: 70% of budget and over half the people:
http://www.investingdaily.com/17693/spies-like-us

and significantly speeding up the spreading success of failure culture, lots more money for companies in PE-mills with a series of failures (analogous to military-industrial complex "perpetual war").
http://www.govexec.com/excellence/management-matters/2007/04/the-success-of-failure/24107/

private equity posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#private.equity
gerstner posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#gerstner
success of failure posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#success.of.failure

"Barbarians at the Capitol" take-off on "Barbarians at the Gate". AMEX & KKR were in competition for PE, LBO take-over of RJR and KKR won. KKR then ran into problems and hired away president of AMEX to help turn it around.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barbarians_at_the_Gate:_The_Fall_of_RJR_Nabisco

Then IBM ran into problems and hired away the former president of AMEX to help turn it around ... using some of the same techniques used at RJR.
http://www.ibmemployee.com/RetirementHeist.shtml

Note that the industry had gotten such a bad reputation during the S&L crisis that they change the industry name to private equity and "junk bonds" become "high-yield bonds".

S&L crisis posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#s&l.crisis

More recently PE has moved into medical practices, hospitals and health care companies.
https://www.advisory.com/daily-briefing/2018/06/20/private-equity
Globally, the value of private equity agreements in health care increased 17% from $36.4 billion in 2016 to $42.6 billion in 2017, according to a Bain & Co. report. The number of deals between private equity firms and health care firms increased about 29% from 206 in 2016 to 265 in 2017.
... snip ...

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

The rise and fall of IBM

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: The rise and fall of IBM
Date: 01 Jan 2019
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018f.html#34 The rise and fall of IBM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018f.html#37 The rise and fall of IBM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018f.html#79 Is LINUX the inheritor of the Earth?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018f.html#99 The rise and fall of IBM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018f.html#112 The Post-IBM World
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018f.html#118 The Post-IBM World

"The rise and fall of IBM", by former IBM executive
https://www.ecole.org/en/session/49-the-rise-and-fall-of-ibm
After 40 years of unrivalled success, IBM is now in serious trouble. What has happened? Jean-Jacques Duby explains how the company's values and the cogs and wheels of its internal management system doomed IBM to failure, in the light of long developments in the technical, economic and commercial environment. But why there should have been such a sudden shock remains a mystery. Perhaps IBM's mighty power had delayed its downfall, making this all the more brutal as a result, like the earthquake which follows the sudden encounter of two continental plates.
... snip ...

.. FS was countermeasure to clone controllers (but then the internal FS politics and lack of 370 products during this period, gave clone processors market foothold)
https://www.ecole.org/en/65/CM200195-ENG.pdf
IBM tried to react by launching a major project called the 'Future System' (FS) in the early 1970's. The idea was to get so far ahead that the competition would never be able to keep up, and to have such a high level of integration that it would be impossible for competitors to follow a compatible niche strategy. However, the project failed because the objectives were too ambitious for the available technology. Many of the ideas that were developed were nevertheless adapted for later generations. Once IBM had acknowledged this failure, it launched its 'box strategy', which called for competitiveness with all the different types of compatible sub-systems. But this proved to be difficult because of IBM's cost structure and its R&D spending, and the strategy only resulted in a partial narrowing of the price gap between IBM and its rivals.
... snip ...

About year after taking two semester hour introduction to computing/fortran class, I was hired fulltime to be responsible for academic and administration production OS/360 system. Last week of Jan1968, three people from IBM Cambridge Science Center came out to install CP67/CMS at the univ. (3rd install after science center and MIT Lincoln Labs). The univ. shutdown the datacenter on weekends which gave me time to play with CP67 (as well as OS/360 work) ... although 48hrs w/o sleep sometimes made Monday morning classes a little hard. CP67 shipped with 2741 & 1052 terminal support (with auto terminal type recognition). The university had some TTY/ASCII terminals and I had to add support for those terminals (including merging in the auto terminal type recognition).

I then wanted to have single telephone dial-in number ("hunt group") for all terminals, but it wouldn't quite work. While IBM controller allowed the terminal type line/port scanner to be changed, line speeds were hard wired for each port (2741 & 1052 terminals were same speed, but TTY terminals were slower speed). This was part of motivation for the university to start a clone terminal controller project; implement our own channel interface board for Interdata/3 programmed to emulate IBM terminal controller ... but also being able to do dynamic line speed. This was later enhanced with Interdata/4 for the channel interface and cluster of Interdata/3s for port/line interfaces. Interdata (and later Perkin-Elmer) sells this as IBM clone terminal controller. Four of us get written as responsible for (some part of) IBM clone controller business.

Note later, the extremely complex and baroque interface between host VTAM and 37x5 NCP can be construed as left over from the FS effort. Roll-forward to mid-80s, I was asked to take a baby bell implementation of combined VTAM/NCP implementation on Series/1 that had significant better function, performance and price/performance than CPD's implementation and turn it out as TYPE-1 IBM product (simulated cross-domain ownership of resources to real host VTAMs). What CPD did next to block the effort can only be described as truth is stranger than fiction (and CPD wasn't any more happy about it than they were doing the original clone terminal controller). part of old series/1 vtam/ncp presentation
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#67 System/1 ?
and
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#70 Series/1 as NCP (was: Re: System/1 ?)

future system posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#futuresys
clone controller posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#360pcm
science center posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech

other recent "rise & fall" posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016.html#41 1976 vs. 2016?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016b.html#77 Qbasic - lies about Medicare
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016e.html#14 Leaked IBM email says cutting 'redundant' jobs is a 'permanent and ongoing' part of its business model
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016f.html#26 British socialism / anti-trust
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016h.html#30 IBM project discussions
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#85 The ICL 2900
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#86 The ICL 2900
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017e.html#62 [CM] What was your first home computer?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017g.html#47 The rise and fall of IBM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017g.html#56 What is the most epic computer glitch you have ever seen?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017h.html#21 IBM ... the rise and fall
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018c.html#42 S/360 announce 4/7/1964, 54yrs
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018d.html#22 The Rise and Fall of IBM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#97 The (broken) economics of OSS
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#118 IBM today

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Network names

From: lynn@GARLIC.COM (Anne & Lynn Wheeler)
Subject: Re: Network names
Newsgroups: bit.listserv.ibm-main
Date: 2 Jan 2019 11:35:42 -0800
smetz3@GMU.EDU (Seymour J Metz) writes:
Well, at one time I expected
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Government_Open_Systems_Interconnection_Profile
(GOSIP) to displace SNA, but the Feds went TCP/IP despite the mandate and that was all she wrote.


Part of GOSIP was mandate to eliminate tcp/ip and internet. At Interop '88 there were some number of OSI application booths (even tho it was an internet conference) ... supposedly vendors trying to appeal to expected government customers. However both OSI & SNA didn't have internet layer (SNA also didn't have a network layer).

The market went TCP/IP ... and government agencies went with the market (government in the 80s started increasingly going COTS, which was whatever the market was doing).

trivia: there was joke about ISO & OSI compared to IETF & TCP/IP. IETF required at least two interoperable implementations before progressing in the standards process ... while ISO didn't even require a specification to be implementable to be made a standard. In some sense I was part of TCP/IP forces that couldn't see how OSI could ever prevale, regardless of the Federal mandates. I had IBM equipment in booth at Interop 88 (but not in the IBM booth).

Interop 88 posts:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#interop88

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Noncompliant: A Lone Whistleblower Exposes the Giants of Wall Street

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Noncompliant: A Lone Whistleblower Exposes the Giants of Wall Street
Date: 03 Jan 2019
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018f.html#116 Trump asking advisers if he can legally fire Fed chief
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#0 How Harvard Business School Has Reshaped American Capitalism

Noncompliant: A Lone Whistleblower Exposes the Giants of Wall Street
https://www.amazon.com/Noncompliant-Whistleblower-Exposes-Giants-Street-ebook/dp/B079L5MMSP/

pg57/loc779-81:
The newspaper articles about the three transactions I had read in preparation for this meeting painted a picture that seemed consistent with their pre-BSC reputation. Which is to say that four years after becoming a bank, Goldman seemed to not have done much beyond promising to change.
... snip ...

After the take-over of CITI in the 90s, in violation of Glass-Steagall, Greenspan gave them an exemption while they lobbied congress to get it repealed ... which was eventually added to the list of things in GLBA. Part of the outcome of the 30s Pecora hearings into the '29 crash was FDIC insurance and Glass-Steagall. Glass-Steagall required that FDIC insured institutions couldn't participate (and/or use public money) for activities outside strict FDIC regulatory practices.

The original rhetoric on the floor of congress about the purpose of GLBA was that if you were already had a bank charter (i.e. FDIC insured depository financial institution), you got to keep the charter, but if you didn't already have a charter, you couldn't get one, specifically calling out WalMart and Microsoft (i.e. keeping new institutions from competing with FDIC insured institutions).

In the early part of the century there were comments about operational practices at CITI, that career (FDIC insured, depository institution) bankers were being replaced with other kinds of people that had totally different operating practices (very similar to accounts in "Nocompliant"). In the wake of the economic mess and the Federal Reserve doing the real "bailout" behind the scenes, the FED gave out banking charters to some of their friends (theoretically in violation of GLBA), which theoretically required them to meet the operational standards required by FDIC insured institution. "Noncompliant" talks about similar problems at these institutions as described earlier about CITI at the turn of the century.

There is some overlap with "We the Corporations: How American Businesses Won Their Civil Rights"
https://www.amazon.com/We-Corporations-American-Businesses-Rights-ebook/dp/B01M64LRDJ/

pg36/loc726-28:
On this issue, Hamiltonians were corporationalists--proponents of corporate enterprise who advocated for expansive constitutional rights for business. Jeffersonians, meanwhile, were populists--opponents of corporate power who sought to limit corporate rights in the name of the people.
... snip ...

where corporate institutions were original restricted to only operating in the public interest. Then there was lots of lobbying to allow institutions that didn't operate in the public interest to be also setup as corporations ... and then to be treated as "people" and claim constitutional rights. This goes back to Jefferson/Hamilton battles ... frequently portrayed as battles over size of government, but frequently was about Jefferson opposing Federal government giving private individuals and institutions special privileges without requiring them to operate in the public interest.

Short History Of Corporations
https://newint.org/features/2002/07/05/history
Thomas Jefferson: The Art of Power
https://www.amazon.com/Thomas-Jefferson-Power-Jon-Meacham-ebook/dp/B0089EHKE8/

loc5080-83:
Hamilton wanted the bank to be funded by federal deposits but run, in part, for the benefit of private investors. Jefferson and Madison objected. 29 They feared that the Hamiltonian program would enable financial speculators to benefit from commercial transactions made possible by government funds.
... snip ...

Trivia: Jan2009 (a decade after being asked to help try and prevent the coming economic mess), I was asked to HTML'ize the Pecora Hearings (30s Senate hearings into the '29 crash, resulting in Glass-Steagall, FDIC-insurance, etc) with lots of internal HREFs and URLs between what happened this time and what happened then (comments that the new congress might have an appetite to do something). I work on it for awhile and then get a call saying it won't be needed after all (references to enormous piles of wallstreet money totally burying capital hill, possibly only two honest members left in congress).

economic mess posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#economic.mess
'29 crash, Pecora Hearings, FDIC insured and/or Glass-Steagall posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#Pecora&/orGlass-Steagall
Fed chairman posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#fed.chairman
ZIRP posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#zirp
TBTF (too big to fail, too big to prosecute, too big to jail) posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#too-big-to-fail
Whistleblower posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#whistleblower

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

One Giant Step for a Chess-Playing Machine

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: One Giant Step for a Chess-Playing Machine
Date: 03 Jan 2019
Blog: Facebook
One Giant Step for a Chess-Playing Machine
https://www.nytimes.com/2018/12/26/science/chess-artificial-intelligence.html

There are analogous stories about computer programmers that were proficient in programming language (analogous to people that are proficient in natural language, think, dream, breath that language) ... trying to explain things to people that thought only in some natural language ... who when working on computer programs had to constantly translate from some natural language (like English) into programming instructions (they didn't actually think in a programming language, so had completely different frames of reference when performing programming tasks)

... and from a different frame of reference:

How Toyota Turns Workers Into Problem Solvers
http://hbswk.hbs.edu/item/how-toyota-turns-workers-into-problem-solvers
To paraphrase one of our contacts, he said, "It's not that we don't want to tell you what TPS is, it's that we can't. We don't have adequate words for it. But, we can show you what TPS is."

We've observed that Toyota, its best suppliers, and other companies that have learned well from Toyota can confidently distribute a tremendous amount of responsibility to the people who actually do the work, from the most senior, experienced member of the organization to the most junior. This is accomplished because of the tremendous emphasis on teaching everyone how to be a skillful problem solver.

... snip ...

recent posts mentioning Toyota reference
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017g.html#54 Boyd's OODA-loop
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017g.html#59 Deconstructing the "Warrior Caste:" The Beliefs and Backgrounds of Senior Military Elites
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017g.html#93 The U.S. Military Believes People Have a Sixth Sense
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017g.html#100 Why CEO pay structures harm companies
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017i.html#2 Mission Command: The Who, What, Where, When and Why An Anthology
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017i.html#32 progress in e-mail, such as AOL
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017k.html#24 The Ultimate Guide to the OODA-Loop
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018c.html#45 Counterinsurgency Lessons from Malaya and Vietnam: Learning to Eat Soup with a Knife
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018d.html#8 How to become an 'elastic thinker' and problem solver
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018d.html#44 Mission Command Is Swarm Intelligence
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018d.html#82 Quality Efforts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#60 Excess Management Is Costing the U.S. $3 Trillion Per Year
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018f.html#65 Why General Motors Is Cutting Over 14,000 Workers

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Fwd: It's Official: Open-Plan Offices Are Now the Dumbest Management Fad of All Time | Inc.com

From: lynn@GARLIC.COM (Anne & Lynn Wheeler)
Subject: Re: Fwd: It's Official: Open-Plan Offices Are Now the Dumbest Management Fad of All Time | Inc.com
Newsgroups: bit.listserv.ibm-main
Date: 3 Jan 2019 12:13:02 -0800
marktregan@GMAIL.COM (Mark Regan) writes:
For those of you who find yourselves in this type of working environment.
https://www.inc.com/geoffrey-james/its-official-open-plan-offices-are-now-dumbest-management-fad-of-all-time.html


long ago and far away ... from "Real Programmers Don't Eat Quiche":
Real Programmers never work 9 to 5. If any Real Programmers are around at 9 AM, it's because they were up all night.

so can concentrate and avoid interruptions from co-workers and phone calls.

older trivia: as undergraduate, about a year after taking two semester hr intro to fortran/computers, I was hired fulltime to be responsible for univ. academic and administration os/360 systems. The univ. shutdown the datacenter from 8am sat. to 8am monday ... and I had the whole datacenter dedicated to myself ... although 48hrs w/o sleep could make monday morning classes a little hard.

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

10 Years With Tux

Refed: **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: 10 Years With Tux
Date: 03 Jan 2019
Blog: Facebook
10 Years With Tux (March 2010)
http://ibmsystemsmag.com/mainframe/trends/linux/10_years_with_tux/
Highlights of the Linux on System z Timeline

A decade after it was first ported to the IBM mainframe environment, businesses are still adpoting Linux* on System z* for their high I/O and mission-critical workloads, and for good reason.

... snip ...

I have old SHARE trip report where IBM had said that the year after LINUX was ported to mainframe (2001), LINUX accounted for 11% of total mainframe MIPS shipped.

Recent observation is LINUX runs on 70% of all "real" computers (i.e. significant percentage combined together in the hundreds of thousands of systems that make up a cloud megadatacenter or a supercomputer); another area LINUX dominates is smart devices and embedded controllers ... typical car can have ten linux systems and typical home may have 30 linux systems.

and similar to dominance of linux in the server and embedded markets, Google Android (75% world cellphone market share) and (Chromebook) Chrome/OS are linux under the covers

recent posts mentioning cloud megadatacenters
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#21 History of Mainframe Cloud
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#6 How do BIG WEBSITES work?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#6 ComputerWorld Says: Cobol plays major role in U.S. government breaches
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#40 What are mainframes
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#48 360 announce day
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#57 What are mainframes
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017e.html#94 Migration off Mainframe to other platform
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017f.html#9 The Mainframe vs. the Server Farm: A Comparison
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017g.html#86 IBM Train Wreck Continues Ahead of Earnings
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017h.html#89 z14 and zBX
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017i.html#73 When Working From Home Doesn't Work
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017k.html#30 Converting programs to accommodate 8-character userids and prefixes
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017k.html#47 When did the home computer die?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018.html#36 When did the home computer die?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018.html#46 VSE timeline [was: RE: VSAM usage for ancient disk models]
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018b.html#104 AW: mainframe distribution
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018c.html#24 Old word processors
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018c.html#46 Slashdot: Business under-investing in I.T
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018c.html#106 Has Microsoft commuted suicide
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018d.html#4 MORGAN STANLEY: Tech giants are investing way more 'aggressively' in data centers than anyone thought, and it's driving double-digit growth
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018d.html#27 The Medici Effect
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#96 The (broken) economics of OSS
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018f.html#14 IBM today
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018f.html#16 IBM Z and cloud
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018f.html#21 IBM today
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018f.html#111 Online Timsharing

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Network names

From: lynn@GARLIC.COM (Anne & Lynn Wheeler)
Subject: Re: Network names
Newsgroups: bit.listserv.ibm-main
Date: 4 Jan 2019 14:32:32 -0800
smetz3@GMU.EDU (Seymour J Metz) writes:
I would have loved to see an enhanced SNA with internetworking and DNS, but when CCITT refused to look at it, that wasn't an option.

If the major TCP-based protocols at least switched to SCTP, that would be an improvement.


re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#3 Network Names

late 80s, I was on XTP technical advisory board ... that IBM communication group found hard to block.

XTP has high-speed option for TCP/IP. Supported internetworking and reliable delivery in minimum of 3-packet exchange (compared to TCP that requires minimum 7-packet exchange for reliable transmission and the earlier stanford VMTP that required minimum 5-packet exchange for reliable transmission).

We had been doing rate-bassed pacing inside the HSDT effort (T1 & faster speed links, both satellite and terrestrial) for several years ... and I wrote the draft for rate-based in XTP. There was lots of XTP multi-cast reliable work by various DOD organizations (went into navy's SAFENET). Also cleaned up some other stuff in TCP flow that was serialized ... so it could be pipelined. Much of this was influenced from SGI and Greg Chesson from SGI's pipelined graphics engines.

SCTP, XTP and TCP as transport protocols for high performance computing on multi-cluster grid environments
https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=2127989
https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-642-12659-8_17
Xpress Transport Protocol
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xpress_Transport_Protocol
SAFENET II-THE NAVY'S FDDI-BASED COMPUTER NETWORK STANDARD (although it mentions the dreaded "OSI" word)
https://apps.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a230482.pdf
XTP
http://www.cs.virginia.edu/~acw/netx/xtp_long.html
The Xpress Transport Protocol (XTP) has been designed to support a variety of applications ranging from real-time embedded systems to multimedia distribution to applications distributed over a wide area network. In a single protocol it provides all the classic functionality of TCP, UDP, and TP4, plus new services such as transport multicast, multicast group management, transport layer priorities, traffic descriptions for quality-of service negotiation, rate and burst control, and selectable error and flow control mechanisms.
... snip ...

in some sense, SCTP is a later subset of some of the XTP features
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SCTP
SCTP Oct2000.
https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2960

HSDT posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#hsdt
XTP posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#xtphsp
rate-based pacing draft for XTP (1989)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/xtprate.html

we were also doing some slight of hand with selective resend. There was work with Berkeley Reed-Solomon company (that did a lot of the work for CDROM standard, they were then bought by Kodak) on high-speed 15/16-rate Reed-Solomon ... and selective resend (if couldn't be corrected by RS-FEC) would transmit the 1/2-rate Viturbi (rather than original data, could reasonably recover even if both packets had unrecoverable errors with RS-FEC) ... and if things really got noisy, dynamically switch to 1/2-rate Virturbi (within 15/16-rate Reed-solomon).
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Viterbi_decoder
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reed%E2%80%93Solomon_error_correction
Reed-Solomon codes are a group of error-correcting codes that were introduced by Irving S. Reed and Gustave Solomon in 1960.[1] They have many applications, the most prominent of which include consumer technologies such as CDs, DVDs, Blu-ray Discs, QR Codes, data transmission technologies such as DSL and WiMAX, broadcast systems such as satellite communications, DVB and ATSC, and storage systems such as RAID 6.
... snip ...

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Balanced Federal Budget

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Balanced Federal Budget
Date: 05 Jan 2019
Blog: Facebook
recent related post
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#4 Noncompliant: A Lone Whistleblower Exposes the Giants of Wall Street

PAYGO
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PAYGO
spending couldn't exceed tax revenue, on its way to eliminating all federal debt, allowed to lapse 2002.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PAYGO#Statutory_PAYGO_(1990%E2%80%932002)
2010, CBO report that 2003-2009, spending was increased by $6T and tax revenue cut by $6T ... for $12T gap compared to PAYGO (1st time taxes were cut to not pay for two wars). By 2005, US Comptroller General was including in speeches that nobody in congress was capable of of middle school arithmetic (for how badly the were savaging the budget). Sort of confluence of Federal Reserve and wallstreet wanting huge federal debt, special interests and wallstreet wanting huge tax cut, and military-industrial complex wanting huge spending increase.

Note that SECTREAS had convinced congress to pass TARP for buying offbook toxic assets, bailing out the the Too Big To Fail.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Troubled_Asset_Relief_Program
But with only $700B appropriated it could hardly dent the problem with jus the four largest TBTF holding $5.2T offbook toxic assets ye2008. TARP was used for other stuff and Federal Reserve did the real bailout,
http://www.csmonitor.com/USA/2010/1201/Federal-Reserve-s-astounding-report-We-loaned-banks-trillions
buying trillions in toxic assets at 98cents on the dollar and tens of trillions in ZIRP funds.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zero_interest-rate_policy

The Federal Reserve fought long legal battle to prevent what they were doing being made public. When they lost, the FED chairman held a press conference and said that he had expected that the TBTF would use ZIRP funds to help mainstreet, but when they didn't he had no way to force them (but that didn't stop the ZIRP funds). Note the FED chairman had been partially selected as a depression era scholar. However, the FED had tried something similar then with the same results, so the chairman shouldn't have expected anything different this time. Note that FED/TBTF deal with ZIRP funds doesn't work without enormous trillions in bloated federal debt.

Note that paying credit rating agencies for triple-A rating on securitized mortgages (when the rating agencies knew they weren't worth triple-A, from Oct2008 congressional testimony), eliminated any reason to care about borrowers' qualification and/or loan quality. The only concern was how fast they can close the deal for the largest amount possible, since the triple-A allowed them to sell everything off into the bond market (including to operations restricted to only dealing in "safe" investments, like large institutional pension funds, large part of doing over $27T 2001-2008). Then they found that they could design securitized mortgages to fail, pay for triple-A, sell into the bond market, and take out CDS gambling bets that they would fail. End of 2008, the largest holder of the CDS gambling bets was AIG and negotiating to pay off at 50cents on the dollar. The SECTREAS steps in and has AIG sign a document that they can't sue those making the CDS gambling bets and take TARP funds to pay off at face value. The largest recipient of TARP funds was AIG and the largest recipient of face value payoffs was the firm formally headed by SECTREAS.

economic mess posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#economic.mess
Too Big To Fail ("Too Big To Prosecute", "Too Big To Jail") posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#too-big-to-fail
Fed chairman posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#fed.chairman
ZIRP posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#zirp
fiscal responsibility posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#fiscal.responsibility.act
military-industrial(-congressional) complex posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#military.industrial.complex

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Employees Come First

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Employees Come First
Date: 06 Jan 2019
Blog: Facebook
Why the "Maximizing Shareholder Value" Theory of Corporate Governance is Bogus; One mantra you see regularly in the business and popular press goes something along the lines of "the CEO and board have a fiduciary duty to maximize shareholder value."
http://www.nakedcapitalism.com/2013/10/why-the-maximizing-shareholder-value-theory-of-corporate-governance-is-bogus.html
from above:
If you review any of the numerous guides prepared for directors of corporations prepared by law firms and other experts, you won't find a stipulation for them to maximize shareholder value on the list of things they are supposed to do. It's not a legal requirement. And there is a good reason for that.

Directors and officers, broadly speaking, have a duty of care and duty of loyalty to the corporation. From that flow more specific obligations under Federal and state law. But notice: those responsibilities are to the corporation, not to shareholders in particular.

... snip ...

Stockman in "The Great Deformation: The Corruption of Capitalism in America"
https://www.amazon.com/Great-Deformation-Corruption-Capitalism-America-ebook/dp/B00B3M3UK6/
pg464/loc9995-10000:
IBM was not the born-again growth machine trumpeted by the mob of Wall Street momo traders. It was actually a stock buyback contraption on steroids. During the five years ending in fiscal 2011, the company spent a staggering $67 billion repurchasing its own shares, a figure that was equal to 100 percent of its net income.

pg465/10014-17:
Total shareholder distributions, including dividends, amounted to $82 billion, or 122 percent, of net income over this five-year period. Likewise, during the last five years IBM spent less on capital investment than its depreciation and amortization charges, and also shrank its constant dollar spending for research and development by nearly 2 percent annually.
... snip ...

aka ... all the money going into propping up stock price and cutting future investment. As Stockman goes into great detail, this is becoming increasingly coming among top executives totally focused on making their bonuses (before they retire and get out). Since then there has been a lot more IBM stock buybacks.

for other drift: The (MIS)Behavior Of Markets (Mandelbrot & Hudson)
https://www.amazon.com/The-Misbehavior-Markets-Turbulence-ebook/dp/B004PYDBEO
although
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benoit_Mandelbrot
from above:
Mandelbrot left IBM in 1987, after 35 years and 12 days, when IBM decided to end pure research
... snip ...

Mendelbrot description of period from 60s through the last decade was continuing to use same computations even when they are repeatedly shown to be wrong. Some of Mendelbrot's references are similar to this (by nobel prize winner in economics) Thinking Fast and Slow
https://www.amazon.com/Thinking-Fast-and-Slow-ebook/dp/B00555X8OA
pg212/loc3854-60:
"Since then, my questions about the stock market have hardened into a larger puzzle: a major industry appears to be built largely on an illusion of skill. Billions of shares are traded every day, with many people buying each stock and others selling it to them"
... snip ...

another area is manipulating pension plans ... some of the IBM specific excerpts
http://www.ibmemployee.com/RetirementHeist.shtml
from this book
https://www.amazon.com/Retirement-Heist-Companies-American-ebook/dp/B003QMLC6K/

The Price of Inequality: How Today's Divided Society Endangers Our Future
https://www.amazon.com/Price-Inequality-Divided-Society-Endangers-ebook/dp/B007MKCQ30/
pg35/loc1169-73:
In business school we teach students how to recognize, and create, barriers to competition -- including barriers to entry -- that help ensure that profits won't be eroded. Indeed, as we shall shortly see, some of the most important innovations in business in the last three decades have centered not on making the economy more efficient but on how better to ensure monopoly power or how better to circumvent government regulations intended to align social returns and private rewards.
... snip ...

Freefall: America, Free Markets, and the Sinking of the World Economy
https://www.amazon.com/Freefall-America-Markets-Sinking-Economy-ebook/dp/B0035YDM9E/
pg271/loc5101-4:
Standard economic theory (the neoclassical model discussed earlier in this chapter) has had little to say about innovation, even though most of the increases in U.S. standards of living in the past hundred years have come from technical progress.56 As I noted earlier, just as "information" was outside the old models, so too was innovation.
... snip ...

stock buyback posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#stock.buyback
inequality posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#inequality

posts mentioning Mandelbrot
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012i.html#17 Monopoly/ Cartons of Punch Cards
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012i.html#65 Thousands Of IBM Employees Got A Nasty Surprise Yesterday: Here's The Email They Saw
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012i.html#67 China Caught the U.S. in Manufacturing, High-Tech Weapons Might Be Next
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012i.html#85 Naked emperors, holy cows and Libor
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012i.html#92 Naked emperors, holy cows and Libor
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012j.html#4 Interesting News Article
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012j.html#74 What voters are really choosing in November
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012k.html#71 How do you feel about the fact that India has more employees than US?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013k.html#52 The agency problem and how to create a criminogenic environment
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013o.html#15 IBM Shrinks - Analysts Hate It
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014h.html#3 The Decline and Fall of IBM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014k.html#71 Bell Picturephone--early business application experiments
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014m.html#61 Decimation of the valuation of IBM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016b.html#16 Ancient History (OS's) - was : IBM Destination z
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018.html#63 The 17 equations that changed the course of history
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018d.html#39 IBM downturn
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#84 Top CEOs' compensation increased 17.6 percent in 2017
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018f.html#94 Is LINUX the inheritor of the Earth?

recent posts mentioning "retirement heist":
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018.html#3 Pension Plans
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018.html#17 NSA's top talent is leaving because of low pay, slumping morale and unpopular reorganization
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018.html#29 Black & Blue: IBM hires Bain to cut costs, up productivity
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018.html#40 Hawaii missile alert: How one employee 'pushed the wrong button' and caused a wave of panic
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018.html#67 Pushing Out Immigrants Isn't About the Economy
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018.html#69 The Next New Military Specialty Should Be Software Developers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018.html#104 Tax Cut for Stock Buybacks
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018b.html#63 Major firms learning to adapt in fight against start-ups: IBM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018b.html#82 The Real Reason the Investor Class Hates Pensions
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018b.html#83 Elizabeth Warren Slams Democrats for Helping Gut Financial Regulations
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018b.html#112 How China Pushes the Limits on Military Technology Transfer
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018c.html#69 Has Microsoft commuted suicide
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018d.html#21 Bankers Hate the Volcker Rule. Now, It Could Be Watered Down
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018d.html#39 IBM downturn
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018d.html#43 How IBM Was Left Behind
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#17 Pentagon to outsource all strategy to Booz Allen Hamilton (warning satire?)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#32 12 Russian Agents Indicted in Mueller Investigation
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#64 Mystery of the Underpaid American Worker
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#68 Before Snowden, an NSA Spy Tried to Incite Change From the Inside
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#114 Pigs Want To Feed at the Trough Again: Bernanke, Geithner and Paulson Use Crisis Anniversary to Ask for More Bailout Powers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#118 IBM today
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018f.html#104 Netscape: The Fire That Filled Silicon Valley's First Bubble
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018f.html#112 The Post-IBM World
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018f.html#113 Trump asking advisers if he can legally fire Fed chief
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#1 As a grocery chain is dismantled, investors recover their money. Worker pensions are short millions

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

When 'Trashing Our Allies' Was All the Rage

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: When 'Trashing Our Allies' Was All the Rage
Date: 06 Jan 2019
Blog: Facebook
When 'Trashing Our Allies' Was All the Rage; The same neocons who gush about alliances today were telling anyone not on board with the Iraq invasion to 'go to hell.'
https://www.theamericanconservative.com/articles/remembering-when-trashing-our-allies-was-all-the-rage/

Before the invasion, the cousin of white house chief of staff Card ... was dealing with the Iraqis at the UN and was given evidence that WMDs (tracing back to US in the Iran/Iraq war) had been decommissioned. the cousin shared it with Card, Powell and others ... then is locked up in military hospital, book was published in 2010 (4yrs before decommissioned WMDs were declassified)
https://www.amazon.com/EXTREME-PREJUDICE-Terrifying-Story-Patriot-ebook/dp/B004HYHBK2/

NY Times series from 2014, the decommission WMDs (tracing back to US from Iran/Iraq war), had been found early in the invasion, but the information was classified for a decade
http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2014/10/14/world/middleeast/us-casualties-of-iraq-chemical-weapons.html

and military-industrial-complex wanted a war so badly that corporate reps were telling former eastern block countries that if they voted for IRAQ2 invasion in the UN, they would get membership in NATO and (directed appropriation) USAID (can *ONLY* be used for purchase of modern US arms). From the law of unintended consequences, the invaders were told to bypass ammo dumps looking for WMDs, when they got around to going back, over a million metric tons had evaporated.
https://www.amazon.com/Prophets-War-Lockheed-Military-Industrial-ebook/dp/B0047T86BA/

Earlier, CIA director Colby refuses to approve "Team B" analysis that claims huge Russian military capability, justifying huge US military spending increase.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Team_B

White House Chief of Staff Rumsfeld gets Colby replaced with somebody (Bush1) that will agree with "Team B" analysis. Rumsfeld then resigns to become SECDEF (and is replaced by his assistant Cheney).

In the 80s, US support Iraq in the iran/iraq war
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iran%E2%80%93Iraq_War
Bush1 is VP and Rumsfeld is involved in supporting Iraq, including supplying WMDs
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_support_for_Iraq_during_the_Iran%E2%80%93Iraq_war

In the early 90s, Bush1 is president and Cheney is SECDEF. Sat. photo recon analyst told white house that saddam was marshaling forces to invade Kuwait. White house said that saddam would do no such thing and proceeded to discredit the analyst. Later the analyst informed the white house that saddam was marshaling forces to invade Saudi Arabia, now the white house has to choose between saddam and the Saudis.
https://www.amazon.com/Long-Strange-Journey-Intelligence-ebook/dp/B004NNV5H2/

This century, Bush2 is president, Cheney is VP, Rumsfeld is SECDEF and one of the "Team B" members is deputy SECDEF (and major architect of Iraq policy).
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul_Wolfowitz

"Team B" posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#team.b
military-industrial(-congressional) complex posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#military.industrial.complex
WMD posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#wmds
perpetual war posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#perpetual.war

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Employees Come First

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Employees Come First
Date: 06 Jan 2019
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009.html#10 Employees Come First

One of my hobbies after joining IBM was building & supporting enhanced operating systems for internal datacenters (including world-wide online sales&marketing support HONE system, which was long time customer). After being blamed for online computer conferencing in the late 70s and early 80s on the internal network (folklore is that when the corporate executive committee was told about it, 5of6 wanted to fire me), there was lots of increasing pressure on places like HONE to move off my systems, first getting hit with did they have MOUs with my management for my supporting the systems. Then they started getting hit with questions about things like what they would do if I was hit by a bus. There was no more focus on quality but reducing employees to interchangeable parts and the lowest common denominator.

online computer communication posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#cmc
internal network posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#internalnet

Later we were doing HA/CMP cluster scaleup, working with RDBMS vendors on commercial and national labs on technical/scientific ... reference to meeting on commercial scaleup JAN1992
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/95.html#13

within a few weeks of the meeting, cluster scaleup was transferred, announced as IBM supercomputer for technical/scientific *ONLY* and we were told we couldn't work on anything with more than four processors. We leave IBM a few months later. Some other detail in this post/thread
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018f.html#102 Netscape: The Fire That Filled Silicon Valley's First Bubble
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018f.html#104 Netscape: The Fire That Filled Silicon Valley's First Bubble

ha/cmp posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#hacmp

I was introduced to John Boyd in the early 80s and would sponsor his briefings at IBM. Part of the briefing was that former military officers were starting to contaminate US companies with their rigid, top-down, command&control (only those at the very top know what they are doing). However, this was also about the time that articles were starting to appear about how MBAs were destroying US corporations with the myopic focus on short term results.

When he was instructor at Nellis, he was considered possibly best fighter pilot in the world. By the time he passes, he was pretty much disowned by USAF and it was the Marines at Arlington (and all his effects went to Quantico). So it was somewhat surprise that USAF would dedicate "Boyd Hall" at Nellis (after he passes) ... from dedication:
There are two career paths in front of you, and you have to choose which path you will follow. One path leads to promotions, titles, and positions of distinction.... The other path leads to doing things that are truly significant for the Air Force, but the rewards will quite often be a kick in the stomach because you may have to cross swords with the party line on occasion. You can't go down both paths, you have to choose. Do you want to be a man of distinction or do you want to do things that really influence the shape of the Air Force? To be or to do, that is the question.
... snip ...

Boyd ref from 2013: 40 Years of the 'Fighter Mafia'; An informal group begun by Col. John Boyd and mathematician Tom Christie calls for military reform--by doing more with less. ... F15, F16, F18, A10 .... plus some of the follow on discussion. Most recent we went back for Dec2017 with some people back from Afghanistan
https://www.theamericanconservative.com/articles/40-years-of-the-fighter-mafia/

and IBM downhill slide Ferguson & Morris, "Computer Wars: The Post-IBM World", Time Books .... reference to the "Future System" project 1st half of the 70s, was going to completely replace 370 and 370 efforts were being shutdown, the lack of 370 products during the period is credited with giving clone processor makers market foothold (Boyd philosophy about "To be or to do" overlapped Watson "free and vigorous debate"):
... and perhaps most damaging, the old culture under Watson Snr and Jr of free and vigorous debate was replaced with *sycophancy* and *make no waves* under Opel and Akers. It's claimed that thereafter, IBM lived in the shadow of defeat
...
But because of the heavy investment of face by the top management, F/S took years to kill, although its wrong headedness was obvious from the very outset. "For the first time, during F/S, outspoken criticism became politically dangerous," recalls a former top executive.
... snip ...

Future System posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#futuresys
Boyd posts & URLs
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subboyd.html

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

China's African debt-trap ... and US Version

Refed: **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: China's African debt-trap ... and US Version
Date: 06 Jan 2019
Blog: Facebook
China's African debt-trap ... and US Version

China's African debt-trap: Beijing prepares to seize Kenya's port of Mombasa
http://warnewsupdates.blogspot.com/2018/12/china-prepares-to-seize-kenyas.html
China's African debt-trap: Beijing prepares to seize Kenya's port of Mombasa
https://www.taiwannews.com.tw/en/news/3605624
Debt-trap diplomacy
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Debt-trap_diplomacy
China's debt traps around the world are a trademark of its imperialist ambitions
https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/global-opinions/wp/2018/08/27/chinas-debt-traps-around-the-world-are-a-trademark-of-its-imperialist-ambitions/

US version that started with "War Is a Racket" and "Economic Hitman"
https://www.amazon.com/New-Confessions-Economic-Hit-Man-ebook/dp/B017MZ8EBM/
wiki entry
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Confessions_of_an_Economic_Hit_Man
also references Butler's "War Is a Racket"
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/War_Is_a_Racket
and "perpetual war" (for the military-industrial complex)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perpetual_war

US version, more
https://www.amazon.com/Confessions-Economic-Hit-Man-ebook/dp/B001AFF266
pg89/loc1598-1601:
I knew what none of them could possibly know, that the corporatocracy, its band of EHMs, and the jackals waiting in the background would never allow the little guys to gain control. I only had to draw upon the examples of Arbenz and Mossadegh--and more recently, upon the 1973 CIA overthrow of Chile's democratically elected president, Salvador Allende. In fact, I understood that the stranglehold of global empire was growing stronger, despite OPEC--or, as I suspected at the time but did not confirm until later, with OPEC's help.

pg217/loc3378-80:
However, by the late 1980s it was apparent that Saddam was not buying into the EHM scenario. This was a major frustration and a great embarrassment to the first Bush administration. Like Panama, Iraq contributed to George H. W. Bush's wimp image. As Bush searched for a way out, Saddam played into his hands.
... snip ...

EHM story is to convince countries to start massive infrastructure projects predicting benefits far in excess of possible. Country gets loans to pay for projects and companies skim massive profits. Country can't keep up with payments. US gov goes in and helps them restructure payments in return for special considerations.

and then last decade did it to their own country: Confidence Men: Wall Street, Washington, and the Education of a President.
https://www.amazon.com/Confidence-Men-Washington-Education-ebook/dp/B0089LOKKS/
has several references that essentially wallstreet was using the EHM debt strategy against the American public. Other references were about new president having to choose between the economic A-team (Volcker et al) and the B-team. The A-team was instrumental in getting him elected, but the A-team would have held wallstreet and the too-big-to-fail accountable, which would have likely taken down most of those institutions.
https://www.npr.org/templates/transcript/transcript.php?storyId=140594464

economic mess posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#economic.mess

posts mentioning EHM, Economic Hit Man
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011p.html#63 21st Century Management approach?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011p.html#71 A question for the readership
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011p.html#80 The men who crashed the world
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011p.html#111 Matt Taibbi with Xmas Message from the Rich
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#25 You may ask yourself, well, how did I get here?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#57 Study Confirms The Government Produces The Buggiest Software
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012e.html#70 Disruptive Thinkers: Defining the Problem
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012f.html#70 The Army and Special Forces: The Fantasy Continues
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012j.html#81 GBP13tn: hoard hidden from taxman by global elite
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012k.html#45 If all of the American earned dollars hidden in off shore accounts were uncovered and taxed do you think we would be able to close the deficit gap?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012n.html#60 The IBM mainframe has been the backbone of most of the world's largest IT organizations for more than 48 years
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012n.html#83 Protected: R.I.P. Containment
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012o.html#2 OT: Tax breaks to Oracle debated
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013d.html#93 What Makes an Architecture Bizarre?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013d.html#95 What Makes an Architecture Bizarre?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013d.html#98 What Makes an Architecture Bizarre?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013e.html#7 How to Cut Megabanks Down to Size
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013e.html#25 What Makes bank regulation and insurance Bizarre?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013e.html#51 What Makes an Architecture Bizarre?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013i.html#78 Has the US Lost Its Grand Strategic Mind?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013k.html#69 What Makes a Tax System Bizarre?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013m.html#80 The REAL Reason U.S. Targets Whistleblowers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014.html#40 Royal Pardon For Turing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014b.html#38 Can America Win Wars
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014b.html#62 UK government plans switch from Microsoft Office to open source
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014c.html#41 UK government plans switch from Microsoft Office to open source
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014c.html#49 Royal Pardon For Turing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014d.html#37 Royal Pardon For Turing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014d.html#38 Royal Pardon For Turing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014d.html#47 Stolen F-35 Secrets Now Showing Up in China's Stealth Fighter
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014g.html#66 Revamped PDP-11 in Brooklyn
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014j.html#104 No Internet. No Microsoft Windows. No iPods. This Is What Tech Was Like In 1984
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015b.html#1 do you blame Harvard for Puten
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015b.html#4 Pay Any Price: Greed, Power, and Endless War
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015b.html#5 Swiss Leaks lifts the veil on a secretive banking system
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015b.html#8 Shoot Bank Of America Now---The Case For Super Glass-Steagall Is Overwhelming
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015b.html#68 Why do we have wars?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015c.html#13 past of nukes, was Future of support for telephone rotary dial ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015e.html#67 1973--TI 8 digit electric calculator--$99.95
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015f.html#30 Analysis: Root of Tattered US-Russia Ties Date Back Decades
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015f.html#44 No, the F-35 Can't Fight at Long Range, Either
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015f.html#45 1973--TI 8 digit electric calculator--$99.95
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015g.html#11 1973--TI 8 digit electric calculator--$99.95
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015g.html#14 1973--TI 8 digit electric calculator--$99.95
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015h.html#122 For those who like to regress to their youth? :-)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016b.html#31 Putin holds phone call with Obama, urges better defense cooperation in fight against ISIS
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016b.html#39 Failure as a Way of Life; The logic of lost wars and military-industrial boondoggles
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016c.html#7 Why was no one prosecuted for contributing to the financial crisis? New documents reveal why
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016c.html#69 Qbasic
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016f.html#22 US and UK have staged coups before
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016h.html#3 Smedley Butler
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016h.html#38 "I used a real computer at home...and so will you" (Popular Science May 1967)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017e.html#103 [CM] What was your first home computer?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017e.html#105 [CM] What was your first home computer?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017i.html#64 The World America Made
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017k.html#66 Innovation?, Government, Military, Commercial
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018.html#14 Predicting the future in five years as seen from 1983
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018.html#82 DEC and HVAC
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018b.html#30 free, huh, was Bitcoin confusion?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018b.html#60 Revealed - the capitalist network that runs the world
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018c.html#44 Anatomy of Failure: Why America Loses Every War It Starts

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

The PDP11 and subsequent influences

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: The PDP11 and subsequent influences
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Sun, 06 Jan 2019 23:51:42 -0800
Quadibloc <jsavard@ecn.ab.ca> writes:
Well, a case could be made that the IBM 704 heavily influenced a *lot* of the other computers that were made and sold after it - the PDP-4/7/9/15, the PDP-5/8, the Honeywell 516, the Hewlett-Packard 2114, and various 24-bit machines.

The PDP-11, of course, got to be the way it was because _it_ was influenced by the IBM System/360.

But it is indeed true that, while they also deviated from it in various ways, nearly every microprocessor owed something to the PDP-11 - and some of them even noted this fact in their advertising (such as the 6502).


interdata/3 ... 1967
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interdata
Interdata, Inc., was a computer company, founded in 1966 by a former Electronics Associates engineer, Daniel Sinnott, and was based in Oceanport, New Jersey. The company produced a line of 16- and 32-bit minicomputers that were loosely based on the IBM 360 architecture but at a cheaper price.[1] In 1974, it produced one of the first 32-bit minicomputers,[2] the Interdata 7/32. The company then used the parallel processing approach, where multiple tasks were performed at the same time, making real-time computing a reality.[3]
... snip ...

interdata 7/32 & 8/32
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interdata_7/32_and_8/32
The Model 7/32 and Model 8/32 were 32-bit minicomputers introduced by Perkin-Elmer after they acquired Interdata, Inc., in 1973. Interdata computers are primarily remembered for being the first 32-bit minicomputers. The 8/32 was a more powerful machine than the 7/32, with the notable feature of allowing user-programmable microcode to be employed.
... snip ...

operating systems
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interdata_7/32_and_8/32#Operating_systems
Unix was ported to the platform in 1977 by two groups, working independently; to the 7/32 at Wollongong University,[3] and to the 8/32 at Bell Labs, making the 32-bit Interdata machines the first non-PDP computers to run Unix. (See V6 Unix, portability).[4] Bell chose the 8/32 for their port because it was as different from the DEC PDP-11 as possible.[5]
... snip ...

PerkinElmer
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PerkinElmer
PE Computer Systems Division
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PerkinElmer#Computer_Systems_Division
Perkin-Elmer was involved in computer manufacture for a time. The Perkin-Elmer Computer Systems Division was formed through the purchase of Interdata, Inc., an independent computer manufacturer, in 1973-74 for some $63 million.[3][4] This merger made Perkin-Elmer's annual sales rise to over $200 million.[4] This was also known as Perkin-Elmer's Data Systems Group.[5]

The 32-bit computers were very similar to an IBM System/370, but ran the OS/32MT operating system.

The Wollongong Group provided the commercial version of the Unix port to the Interdata 7/32 hardware, known as Edition 7 Unix. The port was originally done by the University of Wollongong in New South Wales, Australia, and was the first UNIX port to hardware other than the Digital Equipment Corporation PDP family. By 1982 the Wollongong Group Edition 7 Unix and Programmer's Workbench (PWB) were available on models such as the Perkin-Elmer 3210 and 3240 minicomputers.

In 1985, the computing division of Perkin-Elmer was spun off as Concurrent Computer Corporation.[6

... snip ...

I had taken 2hr (semester) fortan (709/ibsys) intro to computer class and then was hired for student programming job to reimplement 1401 MPIO on 360/30 (part of transition replacing 709/1401 with 360/67 for tss/360). Got to design/implement my own monitor, device drivers, error recovery, dispatcher, storage management, etc). TSS/360 never quite made it to fruition and 360/67 ran as 360/65 most of the time with os/360 and within year of my computer intro class, i was hired fulltime to be responsible for academic and administration systems. Last weekend Jan1968 (50yrs ago), three people from ibm cambridge science center came out to univ to install CP67/CMS (3rd site after cambridge and mit lincoln labs) and playing with CP67 (on weekends when datacenter shutdown, and I had the place all to myself for 48hrs, os/360 maintenance, playing with cp67, etc, made monday morning classes a little hard, 48hrs w/o sleep).

During spring and summer of 1968 I rewrote lots of CP67. One of the things was CP67 had 2741 & 1052 terminal support (doing automatic terminal type identification, using terminal controllerr SAD ccw to switch terminal type port scanner). Univ. had some number of TTY/ASCII terminals and I also had to add ASCII support to CP67. I then wanted to have single dial-up number for all terminals ... hunt group
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Line_hunting

however, while IBM terminal controller supported SAD ccw to change port scanner type, it had hard wire terminal line speed (2741 & 1052 were same speed, TTYs were different). somewhat as a result, univ. started clone controller project ... built channel interface board for Interdata/3 minicomputer programmed to emulate IBM controller (but do both dynamic speed and terminal type). Interdata then started selling it as mainframe controller and four of us get written up as responsible for (some part of) IBM clone controller business. Then PE buys Interdata. I ran into one of the boxes around the turn of the century handling majority of the dialup card swipe, point-of-sale terminals on the east coast.

360 clone controller posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#360pcm

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

TARP Funds and Noncompliant

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: TARP Funds and Noncompliant
Date: 09 Jan 2019
Blog: Facebook
TARP Funds and Noncompliant
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#4 Noncompliant: A Lone Whistleblower Exposes the Giants of Wall Street

TARP Funds
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Troubled_Asset_Relief_Program

Noncompliant
https://www.amazon.com/Noncompliant-Whistleblower-Exposes-Giants-Street-ebook/dp/B079L5MMSP/
pg274/loc3351-53:
revealed Goldman's conflicts of interest during the 2008 financial crisis. 10 Jerry and then New York Fed president Timothy Geithner were, according to the Times, "close, speaking frequently and sometimes lunching together at Goldman headquarters."

pg248/3354-56:
What the articles only hinted at but my colleagues filled in was that during the 2008 crisis, Jerry used his clout over Tim Geithner, then president of the New York Fed, to get Goldman employees access to AIG's books under the pretense that Goldman was going to lend AIG money to help them stay afloat.

pg248/loc3356-57:
What was actually happening was that AIG owed Goldman so much money that if they failed to pay Goldman what it owed, the bank would go bankrupt.
... snip ...

from a slightly different view: #2 on times list for those responsible for the economic mess
http://content.time.com/time/specials/packages/article/0,28804,1877351_1877350_1877330,00.html
Now better known for GLBA which included repeal of Glass-Steagall, however he is on the list for legislation blocking regulation of derivatives (CDS gambling bets), originally described as favor for ENRON. The chair of CFTC suggested regulating derivatives, who was then quickly replaced by #2's wife, while he got legislation blocking any regulation. The wife then resigns and joins ENRON board and audit committee.

Note that paying credit rating agencies for triple-A rating on securitized mortgages (when the rating agencies knew they weren't worth triple-A, from Oct2008 congressional testimony), eliminated any reason to care about borrowers' qualification and/or loan quality. The only concern was how fast they can close the deal for the largest amount possible, since the triple-A allowed them to sell everything off into the bond market (including to operations restricted to only dealing in "safe" investments, like pension funds, large part of doing over $27T 2001-2008).

Then they found that they could design securitized mortgages to fail, pay for triple-A, sell into the bond market, and take out CDS gambling bets that they would fail (now they cared about borrowers' qualifications, but not in the traditional way). End of 2008, the largest holder of the CDS gambling bets was AIG and negotiating to pay off at 50cents on the dollar. The SECTREAS steps in and has AIG sign a document that they can't sue those making the CDS gambling bets and take TARP funds to pay off at face value. The largest recipient of TARP funds was AIG and the largest recipient of face value payoffs was the firm formally headed by SECTREAS. The SECTREAS had pressured congress into passing TARP funding, supposedly for buying off-book toxic assets. However, with only $700B appropriated, it wouldn't have solved the problem (just the four largest too big to fail were carrying $5.2T off-book assets YE2008). The SECTREAS used TARP funds (primarily AIG on behalf of the company he formally headed) and it was the Federal Reserve that did the real bailout behind the scenes.

Confidence Men: Wall Street, Washington, and the Education of a President.
https://www.amazon.com/Confidence-Men-Washington-Education-ebook/dp/B0089LOKKS/
has several references that essentially wallstreet was using the *EHM debt strategy* against the American public. Other references were about new president having to choose between the economic A-team (Volcker et al) and the B-team. The A-team was instrumental in getting him elected, but the A-team would have held wallstreet and the too-big-to-fail accountable, which would have likely taken down most of those institutions (choose B-team, including former president of NY Fed as the new SECTREAS).

recent EHM post
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#19 China's African debt-trap ... and US Version

Whistleblower posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#whistleblower
economic mess posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#economic.mess
Too Big To Fail ("Too Big To Prosecute", "Too Big To Jail") posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#too-big-to-fail
Fed chairman posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#fed.chairman
TBTF (too big to fail, too big to prosecute, too big to jail) posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#too-big-to-fail
(triple-a rated) toxic CDO posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#toxic.cdo
'29 crash, Pecora Hearings, FDIC insured and/or Glass-Steagall posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#Pecora&/orGlass-Steagall

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Netscape: The Fire That Filled Silicon Valley's First Bubble

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Netscape: The Fire That Filled Silicon Valley's First Bubble
Date: 12 Jan 2019
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018f.html#102 Netscape: The Fire That Filled Silicon Valley's First Bubble
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018f.html#104 Netscape: The Fire That Filled Silicon Valley's First Bubble
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#10 Employees Com First
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#12 Employees Com First

other trivia: the commercial side of HA/CMP had been constant battle with rest of the Austin organization ... constantly claiming there was no business ... even though we were working on cluster scaleup for both technical/scientific (with national labs) and commercial (with RDBMS vendors) .... early on we had change project name from HA/6000 to HA/CMP to reflect the cluster scaleup work ... and then cluster scaleup is transferred, announced as IBM supercomputer (for technical/scientific *ONLY*), and we were told that we couldn't work on anything with more than four processors ... we then leave IBM a few months later (taking early out with bridge to 30)

1995 (three years after we left), the HA/CMP product administrator tells us that HA/CMP revenue exceeded over half of IBM Austin revenue (HA/CMP software only, doesn't include any revenue for the hardware) ... despite being knee-capped with transfer of cluster scaleup. The nay sayers were then busily rewriting history (names redacted to protect the guilty).

ha/cmp posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#hacmp

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Dancing Elephant

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Dancing Elephant
Date: 12 Jan 2019
Blog: Facebook
older threads on Dancing Elephant
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014i.html#58 How Comp-Sci went from passing fad to must have major
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014l.html#51 A View From Beneath the Dancing Elephant
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014l.html#64 How Comp-Sci went from passing fad to must have major
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014m.html#8 weird apple trivia
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014m.html#58 Wall Street is Taking Over America's Pension Plans
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014m.html#62 Is IBM Suddenly Vulnerable To A Takeover?

A View from Beneath the Dancing Elephant
https://www.amazon.com/View-Beneath-Dancing-Elephant-Rediscovering-ebook/dp/B00KPKX7W8/

AMEX & KKR were in competition for PE, LBO take-over of RJR and KKR won. KKR then ran into problems and hired away president of AMEX to help turn it around. Then IBM ran into problems and was in the process of being reorganized into the 13 "Baby Blues" in preparation for breaking up the company. The board then hires away the former president of AMEX to help turn it around and reverses the breakup ... using some of the same techniques used at RJR.
http://www.ibmemployee.com/RetirementHeist.shtml

Former AMEX president then leaves IBM to head up another major private-equity company, that was buying up beltway bandits (including company that will employ Snowden) and gov. contractors ... hiring prominent politicians to lobby congress to outsource business to their companies. Companies in the PE-mills are under intense pressure to cut corners to push profit up to their owners (PE can borrow 100% to buy a company, but then put the debt on the purchased company, which is then under enormous debt load, over half corporate defaults are companies currently or formally in the PE mill; what is funny is that the defaults never affect the credit rating of the original PE borrowers).
http://www.motherjones.com/politics/2007/10/barbarians-capitol-private-equity-public-enemy/
"Lou Gerstner, former ceo of ibm, now heads the Carlyle Group, a Washington-based global private equity firm whose 2006 revenues of $87 billion were just a few billion below ibm's. Carlyle has boasted George H.W. Bush, George W. Bush, and former Secretary of State James Baker III on its employee roster."
... snip ...

enormous uptic in outsourcing last decade, intelligence: 70% of budget and over half the people:
http://www.investingdaily.com/17693/spies-like-us
and the rapidly spreading success of failure culture, companies in PE-mills get a lot more money from a series of failures (analogous to military-industrial complex perpetual wars)
http://www.govexec.com/excellence/management-matters/2007/04/the-success-of-failure/24107/

One of the opportunities is agencies are prohibited from lobbying congress and companies can't use gov. contract money in lobbying congress ... but apparently PE owners have no such restriction.

other trivia: in 1992, AMEX spun off a bunch of its financial transaction outsourcing business (enormous, mostly IBM mainframe datacenters) in the largest IPO up until that time as First Data.

PE posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#private.equity
gerstner posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#gerstner
success of failure posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#success.of.failure

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

IBM assembler

Refed: **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: IBM assembler
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Sat, 12 Jan 2019 18:00:27 -0800
Peter Flass <peter_flass@yahoo.com> writes:
I didn't think the /360 POP was particularly ambiguous. They did add a ton of instructions, a new channel subsystem, virtual memory and the multiple address-space stuff.

from ibm-main post last year
z/Architecture Principles of Operation SA22-7832-11 Twelfth Edition (September, 2017)
http://publibz.boulder.ibm.com/epubs/pdf/dz9zr011.pdf or http://publibfp.dhe.ibm.com/epubs/pdf/dz9zr011.pdf
z/Architecture Principles of Operation SA22-7832-10 Eleventh Edition (March, 2015)
http://publibz.boulder.ibm.com/epubs/pdf/dz9zr010.pdf or http://publibfp.dhe.ibm.com/epubs/pdf/dz9zr010.pdf
z/Architecture Principles of Operation SA22-7832-09 Tenth Edition (September, 2012)
http://publibz.boulder.ibm.com/epubs/pdf/dz9zr009.pdf or http://publibfp.dhe.ibm.com/epubs/pdf/dz9zr009.pdf


and
z/Architecture Reference Summary SA22-7871-09 Tenth Edition (September, 2017)
http://publibz.boulder.ibm.com/epubs/pdf/dz9zs009.pdf or http://publibfp.dhe.ibm.com/epubs/pdf/dz9zs009.pdf
z/Architecture Reference Summary SA22-7871-08 Ninth Edition (March, 2015)
http://publibz.boulder.ibm.com/epubs/pdf/dz9zs008.pdf or http://publibfp.dhe.ibm.com/epubs/pdf/dz9zs008.pdf
z/Architecture Reference Summary SA22-7871-07 Eighth Edition (September, 2012)
http://publibz.boulder.ibm.com/epubs/pdf/dz9zs007.pdf or http://publibfp.dhe.ibm.com/epubs/pdf/dz9zs007.pdf


just for the fun, I tried dz9zr012.pdf ... but didn't get anything

POP has all the instructions ... not just general application but lots of system level and how they operate.

old reference to decision to transition all 370 to virtual memory. base issue was MVT storage management was so bad, that typical region sizes had to be four times more than was traditionally used ... as a result, a typical 370/165 system with 1mbyte real storage only allowed four regions. Transition to virtual memory would allow four times as many regions with little or no paging.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011d.html#73 Multiple Virtual Memory

initial OS/VS2 SVS ... was close to MVT running in 16mbyte virtual machine under CP67. The biggest change was adding a little bit of code to MVT to create 16mbyte virtual address space tables at startup and a little bit of code to handle page fault and page I/O. The biggest issue was channel programs were built by applications with application space addresses ... and SVC0/EXCP had the same problem as CP67 virtual machines ... the CCW virtual addresses had to be converted to real addresses. Ludlow initially borrowed CP67's CCWTRANS and cobbled it into the side fo SVC0/EXCP processing to create "shadow" copies of the application channel programs but with real addresses.

The transission from SVS to MVS involved giving every application program its own 16mbyte virtual address space. However, OS/360 programming paradigm was extensively pointer passing API and as a result kernel code had to have addressing to everything in the application. As a result, 8mbyte image of the kernel code was mapped into every 16mbyte virtual address space (leaving only 8mbyte for application. The next issue was that subsystems were moved into their own address space, but like the kernel code, needed access to application space. To support that they defined the COMMON SEGMENT AERA (CSA) that was used for API parameter list & return passing ... which was mapped into every application (and subsystem) address space. The problem was that the space needed for parameter list & return passing was proporational to the number of concurrent applications and subsystems. By 3033 time-frame the COMMON SEGEMENT had morphed into COMMON SPACE AREA (also CSA) ... typically 5-6mbytes and threatening to increase to 8mbytes (leaving 0mbytes for application use).

Another problem was that MVS I/O pathlength was huge and I/O redrive idle latency was representing significant lost throughput (between the time a previous I/O finishes and the time next queued I/O is started).

To address the COMMON SEGMENT AREA constraint they invented multiple address space mode and to improve throughput, program call instruction and return ... along with system hardware table that controlled fiddling primary/secondary address space pointers for semi-privileged subsystems ... move application space to secondary, load subsystem space as primary ... allowing subsystem to access data in application secondary space (and all address space swapping done w/o any kernel execution). The problem was becoming so critical on 3033, a subset was retrofitted to 3033 as "dual-address" space mode ... but still required instruction path through kernel to flip all the address space pointers.

To address the MVS device I/O idle redrive latency ... created subchannel interface to do request queueing in the channel (possibly implemented with external real-time processors) w/o putting MVS processing in the critical path.

In much the same way that virtual memory was justified for all 370s because huge (insolvable) problem with MVT system storage management ... a lot of the later stuff was originally justified to address other major MVS system issues.

Another issue was OS/360 paradigm needing CKD DASD with multi-track search ... and inability to moved to fixed-block disks. Even though no real CKD DASD has been manufactured for decades, the current OS/360 decedent still requires emulated CKD DASD on industry standard fixed block disks. posts getting to play disk engineer in bldgs 14&15
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#disk

Finally, in 1980, IBM STL lab was bursting at the seams and they were moving 300 people from the IMS group to offsite bldg with dataprocessing service back to STL datacenter. They had tried remote 3270 terminals but found the human factors totally unacceptable. I get con'ed into doing channel extender support .... allowing putting in channel attached controllers at the remote site (primarily channel attached 3270 controllers and can't see difference between local STL and offsite bldg). Hardware vendor tries to get IBM approval to release support to customers ... but there was group in POK playing with some serial stuff that gets approval turned down (afraid if it was in the market, it would make it harder to get their stuff approved). channel-extender posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#channel.extender

In 1988, i get asked to help LLNL standardize some serial stuff that they've been playing with quickly becomes fibre channel standard (including some stuff I had done in 1980). Then in 1990, the POK people get their stuff released as ESCON with ES/9000 (when it is already obsolete).

Then some of the POK channel engineers become involved in fibre channel standard (FCS) and define a heavy weight protocol that drastically cuts the native throughput ... which finally ships as FICON. Most recently numbers I've seen published is peak I/O for z196 that got 2M IOPS using 104 FICONs (running over 104 fibre channel). At the same time there was an FCS announced for E5-2600 blade claiming over million (native) IOPS (two such fibre channel having higher native throughput than 104 fibre channel running FICON protocol). ficon posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#ficon

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

IBM assembler over the ages

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: IBM assembler over the ages
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Mon, 14 Jan 2019 14:33:05 -0800
John Levine <johnl@taugh.com> writes:
Plenty, since it runs linux web servers. The market for mainframes has for decades been online applications that have to stay up No Matter What. That's why the z/Series has so much checking and recovery stuff.

After Jim Gray left for Tandem, he did survey/study of availability and failurs. old overview:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/grayft84.pdf

and most failures had shifted to people mistakes and environment (power outages, earthquakes, floods, etc) ... general purpose hardware had gotten significantly more reliable. For high availability operation, focus had changed to 1) no changes, static, for something that had been running the same way for years and 2) geographically separated servers.

In 1990s, there was billions of dollars spent on redoing high value financial operations ... which went down in massive failures ... big fallback to if it isn't broke don't fix it (where the application value is significantly greater than the difference between z/Series and other platforms).

About this time, we would periodically visit one of the largest financial transfer operations and he claimed that the primary reason he had 100% for a decade or more 1) automated operator (people not making mistakes), 2) triple-redundant IMS hot-standby in two geographically separated locations)

On IBM side, a couple years ago when IBM was still publishing numbers, it had the mainframe division was 25% of revenue but 40% of the bottom line profit ... almost all of it was software and services, very small couple percent was actually mainframe system sales (being able to milk those customers where the risk of changing something far outweighed any savings from potential move to less expensive platforms).

when we were out marketing for our (IBM) HA/CMP product, I coined the terms disaster survivability and geographic survivability (to differentiate from disaster/recovery) ... some past posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#available
and HA/CMP posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#hacmp

triple-redundant IMS hot-standby posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001n.html#47 Sysplex Info
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007f.html#56 Is computer history taught now?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008b.html#40 windows time service
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008d.html#11 Toyota Sales for 2007 May Surpass GM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008i.html#99 We're losing the battle
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008s.html#75 Is SUN going to become x86'ed ??
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010l.html#4 Did a mainframe glitch trigger DBS Bank outage?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010l.html#55 Mainframe Hacking -- Fact or Fiction
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011e.html#0 Mainframe technology in 2011 and beyond; who is going to run these Mainframes?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#6 NASA unplugs their last mainframe
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013h.html#16 How about the old mainframe error messages that actually give you a clue about what's broken
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014c.html#90 Why do bank IT systems keep failing ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014m.html#113 How Much Bandwidth do we have?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015e.html#59 Why major financial institutions are growing their use of mainframes
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#19 Check out Massive Amazon cloud service outage disrupts sites

posts reference mainframe division (primarily software & services) 25% of revenue but 40% of profit
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012m.html#67 How do you feel about the fact that today India has more IBM employees than any of the other countries in the world including the USA.?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012n.html#13 System/360--50 years--the future?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012n.html#25 System/360--50 years--the future?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013b.html#24 New HD
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013e.html#4 Oracle To IBM: Your 'Customers Are Being Wildly Overcharged'
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013f.html#35 Reports: IBM may sell x86 server business to Lenovo
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013f.html#37 Where Does the Cloud Cover the Mainframe?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013f.html#64 What Makes an Architecture Bizarre?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013g.html#7 SAS Deserting the MF?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013n.html#61 Bet Cloud Computing to Win
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014f.html#80 IBM Sales Fall Again, Pressuring Rometty's Profit Goal
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014f.html#84 Is end of mainframe near ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014j.html#90 Demonstrating Moore's law
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014l.html#95 weird apple trivia
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014m.html#71 Decimation of the valuation of IBM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014m.html#155 IBM Continues To Crumble
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014m.html#170 IBM Continues To Crumble
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015.html#30 Why on Earth Is IBM Still Making Mainframes?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015.html#85 a bit of hope? What was old is new again
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015g.html#19 Linux Foundation Launches Open Mainframe Project
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015h.html#20 the legacy of Seymour Cray
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016b.html#52 MVS Posix
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016g.html#69 "I used a real computer at home...and so will you" (Popular Science May 1967)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016h.html#56 Why Can't You Buy z Mainframe Services from Amazon Cloud Services?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#62 Big Shrink to "Hire" 25,000 in the US, as Layoffs Pile Up
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#23 IBM "Breakup"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017g.html#86 IBM Train Wreck Continues Ahead of Earnings
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017g.html#103 SEX
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017h.html#61 computer component reliability, 1951
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017h.html#95 PDP-11 question
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017i.html#33 learning Unix, was progress in e-mail, such as AOL
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017i.html#73 When Working From Home Doesn't Work
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018.html#4 upgrade
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018.html#98 Mainframe Use/History
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018b.html#63 Major firms learning to adapt in fight against start-ups: IBM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018c.html#33 The Pentagon still uses computer software from 1958 to manage its contracts

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Trump CFPB Plans Obscene Change to Payday Lender Rule

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Trump CFPB Plans Obscene Change to Payday Lender Rule
Date: 15 Jan 2019
Blog: Facebook
Trump CFPB Plans Obscene Change to Payday Lender Rule
http://neweconomicperspectives.org/2019/01/trump-cfpb-plans-obscene-change-to-payday-lender-rule.html
Kate Berry, the American Banker reporter that covers consumer financial protection, has written another important article about the continuing horror story of Trump's increasingly successful efforts to pervert the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB) into an agency dedicated to harming consumers and protecting our Nation's most predatory lenders. Unfortunately, her January 14, 2019 article is behind a paywall.
... snip ...

Trump CFPB Plans Obscene Change to Payday Lender Rule
https://www.nakedcapitalism.com/2019/01/bill-black-trump-cfpb-plans-obscene-change-payday-lender-rule.html

some background; Black was regulator that went after Keating (and others, aka "Keating Five") in the S&L crises
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_K._Black
The former Director of the Institute for Fraud Prevention now teaches Economics and Law at the University of Missouri, Kansas City. During the savings and loan crisis, it was Black who accused then-house speaker Jim Wright and five US Senators, including John Glenn and John McCain, of doing favors for the S&L's in exchange for contributions and other perks. The senators got off with a slap on the wrist, but so enraged was one of those bankers, Charles Keating -- after whom the senate's so-called "Keating Five" were named -- he sent a memo that read, in part, 'get Black -- kill him dead.' Metaphorically, of course. Of course.[5]

wrote a book on the S&L crises, The Best Way to Rob a Bank is to Own One:
https://www.amazon.com/Best-Way-Rob-Bank-Own-ebook/dp/B00H5B9Z80/

other trivia: ... VP and former CIA director repeatedly claims no knowledge of
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iran%E2%80%93Contra_affair
because he was fulltime administration point person deregulating financial industry ... creating S&L crisis
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Savings_and_loan_crisis
along with other members of his family
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Savings_and_loan_crisis#Silverado_Savings_and_Loan
and another
http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9D0CE0D81E3BF937A25753C1A966958260

last decade (after turn of century) another family member is president and presides over the economic mess 70 times larger than the S&L crisis. S&L crisis had 1000 criminal convictions with jailtime, proportionally the economic mess should have 70,000 (criminal convictions with jailtime)

inequality posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#inequality
S&L crises posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#s&l.crisis
economic mess posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#economic.mess

some posts mentioning payday lenders
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008i.html#98 dollar coins
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014b.html#19 Royal Pardon For Turing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014i.html#37 Sale receipt--obligatory?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015h.html#53 rationality
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016c.html#58 Qbasic
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#8 Too big to fail was Malicious Cyber Activity
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#37 New phone scams
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017i.html#41 Commercial grade ink and paper (Western Union)

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Financial Engineering

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Financial Engineering
Date: 15 Jan 2019
Blog: Facebook
Age of Greed: The Triumph of Finance and the Decline of America, 1970 to the Present
https://www.amazon.com/Age-Greed-Triumph-Finance-Decline-ebook/dp/B004DEPF6I/

pg187/loc3667-70:
When Welch took over GE in 1980, it was the ninth most profitable company in the nation. Now it was first, second, or third. Shareholder value reached $500 billion, more than any other company in America. The stock price was Welch's personal measure of achievement, though he later denied it. The boom of the late 1990s on balance sent the wrong message to American managers: cut costs rather than innovate. Despite its appeal, In Search of Excellence had little true staying power.

pg191/loc3754-60:
In 1977, GE Capital, as it was later called, generated $67 million in revenue with only seven thousand employees, while appliances that year generated $100 million and required 47,000 workers. He hired better managers and supplied GE Credit with a lot of capital, and he had built-in scale—meaning large size—due to GE's assets size and triple-A credit rating. In time, GE Capital became a full-fledged bank, financing all kinds of commercial loans, issuing mortgages and other consumer loans, and becoming a leader in mortgage-backed securities. By the time Welch left in 2000, GE Capital's earnings had grown by some eighty times to well more than $5 billion, while the number of its employees did not even double. It provided half of GE's profits.

pg192/loc3777-79:
In a few brief sentences, Welch had defined a new age for big business. He introduced short-run profit management to GE, understanding that stock market investors trusted little so well as rising profits every calendar quarter. It became the best indication of a company's quality, making it stand out in good times and bad.
... snip ...

basically the new corporate mantra was financial engineering ... more financial engineering

pg199/loc3919-25:
Over his tenure, he cut back significantly on research and development--by some 20 percent in the 1990s. In 1993, he told BusinessWeek, "We feel that we can grow within a business, but we are not interested in incubating new businesses." GE Capital itself was built through countless acquisitions. As the CNNMoney writers put it, "Consider first what the company really is. Its strength and curse is that it looks a lot like the economy. Over the decades GE's well-known manufacturing businesses--jet engines, locomotives, appliances, light bulbs--have shrunk as a proportion of the total. Like America, GE has long been mainly in the business of services. The most important and profitable services it offers are financial."

pg200/pg3935-41:
He mostly stopped trying to create great new products, hence the reduction in R&D. He took the heart out of his businesses, he did not put it in, as he had always hoped to do. What made his strategy possible, and fully shaped it, was the rising stock market--and the new ideology that praised free markets even as they failed.
... snip ...

and IBM financial engineering

The Great Deformation: The Corruption of Capitalism in America
https://www.amazon.com/Great-Deformation-Corruption-Capitalism-America-ebook/dp/B00B3M3UK6/

pg464/loc9995-10000:
IBM was not the born-again growth machine trumpeted by the mob of Wall Street momo traders. It was actually a stock buyback contraption on steroids. During the five years ending in fiscal 2011, the company spent a staggering $67 billion repurchasing its own shares, a figure that was equal to 100 percent of its net income.

pg465/10014-17:
Total shareholder distributions, including dividends, amounted to $82 billion, or 122 percent, of net income over this five-year period. Likewise, during the last five years IBM spent less on capital investment than its depreciation and amortization charges, and also shrank its constant dollar spending for research and development by nearly 2 percent annually.
... snip ...

aka ... all the money going into propping up stock price and cutting future investment. As Stockman goes into great detail, this is becoming increasingly coming among top executives totally focused on making their bonuses (before they retire and get out). Since then there has been a lot more IBM stock buybacks.

for other drift: The (MIS)Behavior Of Markets (Mandelbrot & Hudson)
https://www.amazon.com/The-Misbehavior-Markets-Turbulence-ebook/dp/B004PYDBEO
note, Mandelbrot had resigned from IBM in 1987, protesting end to pure research
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benoit_Mandelbrot

stock buyback posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#stock.buyback

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

The American Military Sucks at Cybersecurity; A new report from US military watchdogs outlines hundreds of cybersecurity vulnerabilities

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: The American Military Sucks at Cybersecurity; A new report from US military watchdogs outlines hundreds of cybersecurity vulnerabilities.
Date: 15 Jan 2019
Blog: Facebook
The American Military Sucks at Cybersecurity; A new report from US military watchdogs outlines hundreds of cybersecurity vulnerabilities.
https://motherboard.vice.com/en_us/article/7xy5ky/the-american-military-sucks-at-cybersecurity

latest in long list of such reports

Let's Face It--It's the Cyber Era and We're Cyber Dumb
https://medium.com/war-is-boring/lets-face-it-its-the-cyber-era-and-were-cyber-dumb-30a00a8d29ad
'Hack the Air Force' bug hunting challenge uncovers 120 flaws in websites and services
https://www.zdnet.com/article/hack-the-air-force-bug-hunting-challenge-uncovers-120-flaws-in-websites-and-services/
A list of the U.S. weapons designs and technologies compromised by hackers
https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/national-security/a-list-of-the-us-weapons-designs-and-technologies-compromised-by-hackers/2013/05/27/a95b2b12-c483-11e2-9fe2-6ee52d0eb7c1_story.html
Chinese Hackers Stole Boeing, Lockheed Military Plane Secrets: Feds
http://www.nbcnews.com/news/investigations/chinese-hackers-stole-boeing-lockheed-military-plane-secrets-feds-n153951
Confidential report lists U.S. weapons system designs compromised by Chinese cyberspies
https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/national-security/confidential-report-lists-us-weapons-system-designs-compromised-by-chinese-cyberspies/2013/05/27/a42c3e1c-c2dd-11e2-8c3b-0b5e9247e8ca_story.html
NSA Details Chinese Cyber Theft of F-35, Military Secrets
http://freebeacon.com/national-security/nsa-details-chinese-cyber-theft-of-f-35-military-secrets/
REPORT: Chinese Hackers Stole Plans For Dozens Of Critical US Weapons Systems
http://www.businessinsider.com/china-hacked-us-military-weapons-systems-2013-5
Report: China gained U.S. weapons secrets using cyber espionage
http://www.cnn.com/2013/05/28/world/asia/china-cyberespionage/
US Navy Contractors Hacked by China "More Than A Handful Of Times"
https://www.zerohedge.com/news/2018-12-15/us-navy-contractors-hacked-china-more-handful-times
FBI: Chinese hacker accessed gold mine of data on F-22, F-35 and 32 U.S. military projects
http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2014/jul/16/fbi-chinese-hacker-accessed-gold-mine-data-f-22-f-/

military-industrial(-congressional) complex posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#military.industrial.complex
success of failure posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#success.of.failure

a few past cyberdumb posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016b.html#4 Cyberdumb
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016b.html#8 Cyberdumb
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016b.html#19 Does Cybercrime Really Cost $1 Trillion?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016b.html#20 DEC and The Americans
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016b.html#91 Computers anyone?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016b.html#95 Computers anyone?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016f.html#104 How to Win the Cyberwar Against Russia
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016h.html#0 Snowden
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016h.html#28 China's spies gain valuable US defense technology: report
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016h.html#67 "I used a real computer at home...and so will you" (Popular Science May 1967)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#15 China's claim it has 'quantum' radar may leave $17 billion F-35 naked
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#34 CBS News: WikiLeaks claims to release thousands of CIA documents of computer activity
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#47 WikiLeaks CIA Dump: Washington's Data Security Is a Mess
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017e.html#50 A flaw in the design; The Internet's founders saw its promise but didn't foresee users attacking one another
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017e.html#73 More Cyberdumb
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017e.html#77 Time to sack the chief of computing in the NHS?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017g.html#78 This Afghan War Plan By The Guy Who Founded Blackwater Should Scare The Hell Out Of You
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017i.html#51 Russian Hackers Stole NSA Data on U.S. Cyber Defense
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017i.html#56 China's mega fortress in Djibouti could be model for its bases in Pakistan
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018b.html#86 Lawmakers to Military: Don't Buy Another 'Money Pit' Like F-35
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018c.html#26 DoD watchdog: Air Force failed to effectively manage F-22 modernization
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018c.html#60 11 crazy up-close photos of the F-22 Raptor stealth fighter jet soaring through the air
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018f.html#100 US Navy Contractors Hacked by China "More Than A Handful Of Times"

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

A Deep Dive Inside The Market's Toxic "Liquidity-Volatility-Flows" Feedback Loop

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: A Deep Dive Inside The Market's Toxic "Liquidity-Volatility-Flows" Feedback Loop
Date: 16 Jan 2019
Blog: Facebook
A Deep Dive Inside The Market's Toxic "Liquidity-Volatility-Flows" Feedback Loop
https://www.zerohedge.com/news/2019-01-16/deep-dive-inside-markets-toxic-liquidity-volatility-flows-feedback-loop

Note a lot of traders make money from volitility ... pump&dump on the way up and short on the way down. Stable, long-term hold drastically cuts into their revenue. decade old reference about they all do it and have nothing to worry about from regulators
http://nypost.com/2007/03/20/cramer-reveals-a-bit-too-much/

Griftopia--Bubble Machines, Vampire Squids, and the Long
https://www.amazon.com/Griftopia-Machines-Vampire-Breaking-America-ebook/dp/B003F3FJS2/

CFTC had rule that any player had to have significant position because speculators caused wild, irrational price swings. Then 19 secret letters went out allowing specific speculators to play ... resulting in wild, irrational price swings ... including the huge spike in oil/gas the summer of 2008. Two years later, member of congress released the transaction details showing those responsible ... for whatever reason, those responsible weren't demonized in the press ... instead the press demonized the member of congress for violating corporate privacy.

some of the same players showed up here
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#4 Noncompliant: A Lone Whistleblower Exposes the Giants of Wall Street

griftopia posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#griftopia
regulator "capture" posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#regulatory.capture
whistleblower posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#whistleblower

some "Cramer reveals a bit too much" refs
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014.html#89 Royal Pardon For Turing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014b.html#28 Royal Pardon for credit unions
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014b.html#29 Royal Pardon for credit unions
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014e.html#18 FBI Investigates High-Speed Trading
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014e.html#72 Three Expensive Milliseconds
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014f.html#20 HFT, computer trading
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014g.html#54 Has the last fighter pilot been born?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014g.html#109 SEC Caught Dark Pool and High Speed Traders Doing Bad Stuff
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015.html#58 IBM Data Processing Center and Pi
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015b.html#36 IBM CEO Rometty gets bonus despite company's woes
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015c.html#17 Robots have been running the US stock market, and the government is finally taking control
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015d.html#28 Bernie Sanders Proposes A Bill To Break Up The 'Too Big To Exist' Banks
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015d.html#78 Greedy Banks Nailed With $5 BILLION+ Fine For Fraud And Corruption
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015e.html#47 Do we REALLY NEED all this regulatory oversight?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015f.html#53 1973--TI 8 digit electric calculator--$99.95
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015g.html#16 Federal Deficits
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015g.html#46 seveneves
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015g.html#47 seveneves
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015h.html#23 It A "Liquidity Mirage": New York Fed Finally Grasps How Broken The Market Is Due To HFTs
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015h.html#29 Ernst & Young Confronts Madoff's Specter in Trial Over Audits
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016b.html#68 Eric Hunsader Explains To CNBC That "Markets Are Always Rigged"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016c.html#11 Qbasic
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#43 when to get out???
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#22 How do BIG WEBSITES work?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017f.html#24 [CM] What was your first home computer?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017f.html#26 [CM] What was your first home computer?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017g.html#17 Wall Street
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017g.html#19 Financial, Healthcare, Construction, Education complexity
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017g.html#79 Bad Ideas
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017g.html#96 IBM Another Disappointment
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017i.html#7 The Real Reason Wages Have Stagnated: Our Economy Is Optimized For Financialization
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017i.html#24 Systemic Risk
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017j.html#60 The Windows 95 chime was created on a Mac
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018f.html#104 Netscape: The Fire That Filled Silicon Valley's First Bubble
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018f.html#105 Is LINUX the inheritor of the Earth?

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

JOHN BOYD AND THE "OODA" LOOP

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: JOHN BOYD AND THE "OODA" LOOP
Date: 17 Jan 2019
Blog: Facebook
JOHN BOYD AND THE "OODA" LOOP (GREAT STRATEGISTS)
https://warroom.armywarcollege.edu/special-series/great-strategists/boyd-OODA-loop-great-strategists/

simpler version from 1846, Elements of Military Art and Science Or, Course Of Instruction In Strategy, Fortification, Tactics Of Battles, &C.; Embracing The Duties Of Staff, Infantry, loc5019-20:
A rapid coup d'oeil prompt decision, active movements, are as indispensable as sound judgment; for the general must see, and decide, and act, all in the same instant.
... snip ...

could claim transition "see" to "observe" and add "orientation" that captures concepts like learning and acquiring knowledge & understanding. In briefings Boyd would also stress observing from every possible facet ... which can be considered countermeasure to observation, orientation, and confirmation biases.

Boyd posts and URLs
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subboyd.html

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Are we all now dinosaurs, out of place and out of time?

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Are we all now dinosaurs, out of place and out of time?
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Thu, 17 Jan 2019 12:28:38 -0800
Charlie Gibbs <cgibbs@kltpzyxm.invalid> writes:
I was once handed a set of specs that were so detailed that I could have probably written a compiler for them. Unfortunately, there were a number of cases they didn't allow for. When I asked what I should do in such cases, I was given the classic answer: "Oh, don't worry about that - it'll never happen." That phrase was already the #1 entry in my list of Famous Last Words, and I refused to continue until I extracted answers from them.

I didn't hear the term "nasal demons" until years later. Too bad...


back when doing electronic commerce, use to pontificate quite a bit that it takes ten times the effort to take a well designed and implemented application and turn it into a service ... dealing with all the failure modes and edge conditions.

we were brought in as consultants to small client/server startup that wanted to do payment transactions on their server, they had also invented this technology called "SSL" they wanted to use, the result is now frequently called "electronic commerce".

They had done a straight forward webserver application that did SSL/TCPIP over the internet talked to interface to the payment networks. In some tests, they had early failure that was closed as NTF (no trouble found) after 3hrs of extensive manual investigation.

The payment network trouble center (interfaces for merchant payment transactions) had requirement for 5min elapsed time for first level problem determination. I had to document, design & implement loads of recovery and diagnostic capability (in part compensating procedures as part of the switch from a circuit-based to packet-based infrastructure), along with loads of countermeasures to internet-based attacks.

Until he passed, Postel (rfc/internet standards editor) use to let me help with STD1 and sponsored my talk at ISI/USC about why internet wasn't business critical dataprocessing.

posts mentioning "assurance"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subintegrity.html#assurance

some specific posts mentioning ten times effort for service
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aadsm25.htm#37 How the Classical Scholars dropped security from the canon of Computer Science
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aadsm27.htm#48 If your CSO lacks an MBA, fire one of you
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001f.html#75 Test and Set (TS) vs Compare and Swap (CS)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001n.html#91 Buffer overflow
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001n.html#93 Buffer overflow
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002n.html#11 Wanted: the SOUNDS of classic computing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003g.html#62 IBM says AMD dead in 5yrs ... -- Microsoft Monopoly vs. IBM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003j.html#15 A Dark Day
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003p.html#37 The BASIC Variations
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004b.html#8 Mars Rover Not Responding
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004b.html#48 Automating secure transactions
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004k.html#20 Vintage computers are better than modern crap !
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004l.html#49 "Perfect" or "Provable" security both crypto and non-crypto?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004p.html#23 Systems software versus applications software definitions
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004p.html#63 Systems software versus applications software definitions
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004p.html#64 Systems software versus applications software definitions
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005b.html#40 [Lit.] Buffer overruns
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005i.html#42 Development as Configuration
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005n.html#26 Data communications over telegraph circuits
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006n.html#20 The System/360 Model 20 Wasn't As Bad As All That
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007f.html#37 Is computer history taught now?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007g.html#51 IBM to the PCM market(the sky is falling!!!the sky is falling!!)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007h.html#78 John W. Backus, 82, Fortran developer, dies
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007n.html#10 The top 10 dead (or dying) computer skills
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007n.html#76 PSI MIPS
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007n.html#77 PSI MIPS
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007o.html#23 Outsourcing loosing steam?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007p.html#54 Industry Standard Time To Analyze A Line Of Code
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007v.html#53 folklore indeed
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008e.html#41 IBM announced z10 ..why so fast...any problem on z 9
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008e.html#50 fraying infrastructure
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008e.html#53 Why Is Less Than 99.9% Uptime Acceptable?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008i.html#33 Mainframe Project management
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008n.html#20 Michigan industry
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008n.html#35 Builders V. Breakers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008p.html#48 How much knowledge should a software architect have regarding software security?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009.html#0 Is SUN going to become x86'ed ??
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010g.html#16 Far and near pointers on the 80286 and later
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010g.html#60 Far and near pointers on the 80286 and later
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011i.html#27 PDCA vs. OODA
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011k.html#67 Somewhat off-topic: comp-arch.net cloned, possibly hacked
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#44 Faster, Better, Cheaper: Why Not Pick All Three?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013i.html#31 DRAM is the new Bulk Core
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014f.html#13 Before the Internet: The golden age of online services
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014m.html#86 Economic Failures of HTTPS Encryption
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014m.html#117 Are we programmed to stop at the 'first' right answer
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014m.html#146 LEO
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015e.html#10 The real story of how the Internet became so vulnerable
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015e.html#16 The real story of how the Internet became so vulnerable
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#27 History of Mainframe Cloud
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017f.html#23 MVS vs HASP vs JES (was 2821)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017i.html#18 progress in e-mail, such as AOL
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017j.html#42 Tech: we didn't mean for it to turn out like this

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Where's the fire? | Computerworld Shark Tank

From: lynn@GARLIC.COM (Anne & Lynn Wheeler)
Subject: Re: Where's the fire? | Computerworld Shark Tank
Newsgroups: bit.listserv.ibm-main
Date: 17 Jan 2019 23:08:07 -0800
smetz3@GMU.EDU (Seymour J Metz) writes:
The 370/168 had UP models ranging from 1 MiB to 8 MiB. Double that for MP.

The Amdahl 470V/6 was available in 1 MiB through 8 MiB.

Maybe so, but Amdahl started shipping the 470V/6 in 1975 with 4 MB of memory standard, and I'm pretty sure that the 370 model 168 also had 4 MB in that time frame. I'm pretty sure that either of those processors would outperform a 360/75 by a considerable margin. According to Wikipedia, the model 75 first shipped in 1965


370/165 had 2mic memory ... typically 1mbyte. It was part of explanation/justification for making all 370s virtual memory ... i.e. MVT real storage management was so bad that region sizes had to be four times larger than actually used ... getting four concurrent regions on typical 1mbyte memory machine. Going to virtual memory (very much like running in CP67 16mbyte virtual machine) could get four times as many regions with little or no paging ... on same 370/165 one mbyte machine. Old reference about being asked to try and track down reason for the decision to move to virtual memory for all 370s.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011d.html#73

part of upgrade from 165 to 168 was moving to new memory technology ... about same access time as 370/145, around 400ns (but 165&168 also had 80ns cache)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM_System/370_Model_168

Newer technology than that of the 370/165, which had been introduced 2 years prior, used "monolithic, instead of magnetic core" memory,[5] resulting in a system which was faster and physically smaller than a Model 165.[5]:pp.3

... snip ...

168-1 to 168-3 doubled cache size from 16kbytes to 32kbytes. Had one vm370/vs1 customer that upgraded from 168-1 to 168-3 (double cache) and found it running much slower than 168-1. Issue was that 168-3 ran 2k page option with only half the cache, and everytime (vm370) switched between 4k pages and 2k pages, the cache was flushed (w/o all the cache flushing, 2k pages would have run same as 168-1).

I had worked with some of the 165/168 engineers and they said that the other difference was that they optimized the microcode reducing avg. of 2.1cycles per 370 instruction for 165 to 1.6cycles per instruction for 168. 168-3, optimized m'code, 400ns memory and 32kbyte cache was 3-3.5MIPS ... some 3times that of 360/75.

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

The American Military Sucks at Cybersecurity; A new report from US military watchdogs outlines hundreds of cybersecurity vulnerabilities

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: The American Military Sucks at Cybersecurity; A new report from US military watchdogs outlines hundreds of cybersecurity vulnerabilities.
Date: 18 Jan 2019
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#22 The American Military Sucks at Cybersecurity

cyberdumb or just cutting corners to increase profits?

former AMEX president leaves as CEO of IBM to become head of large private equity fund ... was specializing in buying government contractors and beltway bandits (including one that will employ Snowden). Agencies can't lobby congress and companies can't use gov. contract funds to lobby congress, but PE owners appear to be under no such restrictions ... hiring prominent politicians to lobby congress to outsource business to their companies. Companies in PE-mill are under intense pressure to cut corners in order to service heavy debt load and push profits up to their owners
http://www.motherjones.com/politics/2007/10/barbarians-capitol-private-equity-public-enemy/
"Lou Gerstner, former ceo of ibm, now heads the Carlyle Group, a Washington-based global private equity firm whose 2006 revenues of $87 billion were just a few billion below ibm's. Carlyle has boasted George H.W. Bush, George W. Bush, and former Secretary of State James Baker III on its employee roster."
... snip ...

enormous uptic in outsourcing last decade, intelligence: 70% of budget and over half the people:
http://www.investingdaily.com/17693/spies-like-us
and significantly speeding up the spreading success of failure culture, lots more money for companies in PE-mills with a series of failures
http://www.govexec.com/excellence/management-matters/2007/04/the-success-of-failure/24107/

analogous to military-industrial complex "perpetual war" ... decisive success/victories could significantly reduce budget
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perpetual_war

private-equity posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#private.equity
success of failure posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#success.of.failure
perpetual war posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#perpetual.war
military-industrial(-congressional) complex posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#military.industrial.complex

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Army Releases a Critical History of the War in Iraq

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Army Releases a Critical History of the War in Iraq
Date: 18 Jan 2019
Blog: Facebook
Army Releases a Critical History of the War in Iraq
https://www.wsj.com/articles/army-releases-a-critical-history-of-the-war-in-iraq-11547768863
Army's long-awaited Iraq war study finds Iran was the only winner in a conflict that holds many lessons for future wars
https://www.armytimes.com/news/your-army/2019/01/18/armys-long-awaited-iraq-war-study-finds-iran-was-the-only-winner-in-a-conflict-that-holds-many-lessons-for-future-wars/
The U.S. Army in the Iraq War - Volume 1: Invasion - Insurgency - Civil War, 2003-2006
http://ssi.armywarcollege.edu/pubs/display.cfm?pubID=1373

An expensive lesson in hubris for the United States
https://www-m.cnn.com/2019/01/17/opinions/expensive-lesson-in-hubris-for-the-united-states-bergen/
On Thursday the US Army War College published a monumental and authoritative history of the Iraq War. One of its sober conclusions: "An emboldened and expansionist Iran appears to be the only victor" of the Iraq War
... snip ...

An early conjecture that Iraq learned from Desert Storm to minimize targets for US Air Power (43days only last 100hrs was land war).
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gulf_War
GAO air power effectiveness study has A10 so effectively destroying Iraqi tanks that crews were walking away (sitting ducks). Later accounts of ferocious tanks battles with coalition forces taking no damage, doesn't mention if Iraqi tanks had anybody home.
http://www.gao.gov/products/NSIAD-97-13

also, last decade (before invasion), cousin of white house chief of staff Card ... was dealing with the Iraqis at the UN and was given evidence that WMDs (tracing back to US in the Iran/Iraq war) had been decommissioned. the cousin shared it with Card, Powell and others ... then is locked up in military hospital, book was published in 2010 (before decommissioned WMDs were declassified)
https://www.amazon.com/EXTREME-PREJUDICE-Terrifying-Story-Patriot-ebook/dp/B004HYHBK2/

NY Times series from 2014, the decommission WMDs (tracing back to US from Iran/Iraq war), had been found early in the invasion, but the information was classified for a decade
http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2014/10/14/world/middleeast/us-casualties-of-iraq-chemical-weapons.html

and military-industrial-complex wanted a war so badly that corporate reps were telling former eastern block countries that if they voted for IRAQ2 invasion in the UN, they would get membership in NATO and (directed appropriation) USAID (can *ONLY* be used for purchase of modern US arms). From the law of unintended consequences, the invaders were told to bypass ammo dumps looking for WMDs, when they got around to going back, over a million metric tons had evaporated.
https://www.amazon.com/Prophets-War-Lockheed-Military-Industrial-ebook/dp/B0047T86BA/

Much earlier, CIA director Colby refuses to approve "Team B" analysis greatly exaggerating Russian military capability, justifying huge US military spending increase.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Team_B
White House Chief of Staff Rumsfeld gets Colby replaced with somebody (Bush1) that will agree with "Team B" analysis. Rumsfeld then resigns to become SECDEF (and is replaced by his assistant Cheney).

In the 80s, US supports Iraq in the Iran/iraq war
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iran%E2%80%93Iraq_War
Bush1 is VP and Rumsfeld is involved in supporting Iraq, including supplying WMDs
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_support_for_Iraq_during_the_Iran%E2%80%93Iraq_war

This century, Bush2 is president, Cheney is VP, Rumsfeld is SECDEF and one of the "Team B" members is deputy SECDEF (and major architect of Iraq policy).
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul_Wolfowitz

military-industrial(-congressional) complex posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#military.industrial.complex
Team B posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#team.b
WMD posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#wmds
perpetual war posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#perpetual.war

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Unreadable code

From: lynn@GARLIC.COM (Anne & Lynn Wheeler)
Subject: Re: Unreadable code
Newsgroups: bit.listserv.ibm-main
Date: 18 Jan 2019 13:59:35 -0800
0000000433f07816-dmarc-request@LISTSERV.UA.EDU (Paul Gilmartin) writes:
Intriguing. Seems to be specifying redirection. Pointless for CMS or TSO since the concept of standard input/standard output is alien to each. Relevant, of course, to OMVS, but OMVS was unable to exert much influence on the design of z/OS Rexx.

I wonder how this made its way into the Standard since standards tend to be descriptive and rarely innovate extensions except to resolve ambiguities or inconsistencies.


modulo CMS pipelines
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CMS_Pipelines

at least since 1982 (almost as old as REXX) ... I had author at spring 1982 adtech conference (week before share), archived reference
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/96.html#4a

later made available on MVS
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BatchPipes
history
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BatchPipes#History
BatchPipes Version 1 was developed in the late 1980s and early 1990s simply as a technique to speed up MVS/ESA batch processing. In 1997 the functionality of BatchPipes was integrated into a larger IBM product - SmartBatch (which incorporated two BMC Corporation product features: DataAccelerator and BatchAccelerator). However SmartBatch was discontinued in April 2000.

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

DIA Chinese Military Power Report

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: DIA Chinese Military Power Report
Date: 18 Jan 2019
Blog: Facebook
New US Intelligence Study: China "Already Leads The World" In Key Weapons Technologies
https://www.zerohedge.com/news/2019-01-16/new-us-intelligence-study-china-already-leads-world-key-weapons-technologies
DIA Chinese Military Power Report
https://news.usni.org/2019/01/15/dia-chinese-military-power-report

more perpetual war?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#27 The American Military Sucks at Cybersecurity
and/or another "Team B"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#28 Army Releases a Critical History of the War in Iraq

perpetual war posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#perpetual.war
Team B posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#team.b
military-industrial(-congressional) complex posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#military.industrial.complex

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

An Epidemic Is Killing Thousands Of Coal Miners. Regulators Could Have Stopped It

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: An Epidemic Is Killing Thousands Of Coal Miners. Regulators Could Have Stopped It.
Date: 19 Jan 2019
Blog: Facebook
An Epidemic Is Killing Thousands Of Coal Miners. Regulators Could Have Stopped It.
https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/frontline/article/an-epidemic-is-killing-thousands-of-coal-miners-regulators-could-have-stopped-it/

other posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#100 Trump to sign cyber security order
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#1 Trump to sign cyber security order
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#22 Trump to sign cyber security order

regulatory "capture" posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#regulatory.capture

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Cluster Systems

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Cluster Systems
Date: 20 Jan 2019
Blog: Facebook
1980 I get con'ed into doing channel extender support STL, they were moving 300 people from the IMS group to offsite bldg with dataprocessing back into STL datacenter. They had tried remote 3270, but found the human factors totally unacceptable. Channel extender support allowed putting channel attached 3270 controllers in the offsite bldg with same human factors as internal STL. Vendor then tries to get IBM to let them ship my support to customers. There is group in POK vetos it, they are playing with serial stuff are were afraid if it was in the market, it would make it harder for them to ship their stuff.

channel extender posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#channel.extender

In 1988, I'm asked to help LLNL standardize some serial stuff they are playing with, which quickly becomes fibre channel standard (FCS) including some of my stuff from 1980. The POK people finally get their stuff shipped in 1990 with ES/9000 as ESCON when it is already obsolete. Also around the same time, I'm asked to work with Gustavson at SLAC on some serial stuff he is playing with which becomes scalable coherent interface.

FCS
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fibre_Channel
SCI
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scalable_Coherent_Interface

I started out working on 128-way FCS as part of HA/CMP scaleup (or at least until they transfer cluster scaleup, announce as supercomputer for scientific/technical *ONLY*, and tell us we can't work on anything with more than four processors, we leave a few months later) ... in part because RIOS didn't support any cache consistency. After leaving IBM, I do some SCI-related work with CONVEX for their 64 two HP/RISC processor boards (128-way Examplar) ... and with Steve Chen, CTO at Sequent (64 four Intel processor boards, 256-way NUMA-Q) ... this was before IBM buys Sequent and shuts them down.

HA/CMP trivia: as part of doing HA/CMP, I'm asked to write a section for the corporate strategic continuous availability document. However, it gets pulled because both the Rochester AS/400 and the POK mainframe groups complain that they can't meet the objectives.

HA/CMP posts
http://www.garlic.coom/~lynn/subtopic.html#hacmp

Steve is credited with doing Cray YMP, before leaving Cray. Kingston supercomputer group was also providing funding/support for SSI. IBM SVP supporting the Kingston effort retired Oct1991 ... and various audits followed, which included replacing Kingston group management and announcing a corporate conference trolling the company for supercomputer technology. A couple weeks after the conference, HA/CMP cluster scaleup was transferred, announced as IBM supercomputer (for technical/scientific *ONLY*) and we were told we couldn't work on anything with more than four processors. A few months later we leave IBM. We had been working with national labs on scientific/technical scaleup and with RDBMS vendors on commercial scaleup (we had been getting push back, including from the mainframe DB2 group).

Cray trivia: CPD had fought releasing mainframe TCP/IP support. They eventually lost and then switched to since it was communication, product had to ship as CPD product. What ships gets aggregate 44kbyte/sec throughput using nearly whole 3090 processor. I do the software enhancements to mainframe TCP/IP to support RFC1044 and in some 1988 (same year YMP ships) at Cray research, I get sustained channel speed throughput between 4341 and Cray ... using only modest amount of 4341 processor (possibly 500 times improvement in bytes moved per instruction executed).

RFC 1044 posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#1044

Through much of 1980s, I also had HSDT project, T1 (1.5mbitt/sec) and faster links. We had been working with NSF director and was suppose to get $20M to interconnect the NSF supercomputer centers. Then congress cuts the budget, some other things happen, and finally NSF releases RFP (in part based on what we already had running). IBM prevents us from bidding despite all the NSF efforts (director writes the company a letter, copying the CEO, with support from other agencies, but that just makes the internal politics worse). Some of the same people involved in preventing us from bidding also were involved in transferring HA/CMP scaleup.

NSF posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#nsfnet
HSDT posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#hsdt

HSDT included T1 satellite link between Los Gatos VLSI lab and Clementi's E&S lab in Kingston that had 20 high-end floating point system boxes with connections to IBM mainframe (note FPS had support for 40mbyte/sec disk arrays, while IBM crawled along at only 3mbyte/sec). I got the impression much of this time, Kingston supercomputer group thought we were trampling on their domain.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Floating_Point_Systems

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Cluster Systems

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Cluster Systems
Date: 20 Jan 2019
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#32 Cluster Systems

Preliminary announce from 28Mar1986 ... partially included in this recent post (with lots of other stuff, originally posted to facebook online history group):
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018d.html#33
full preliminary announce
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002k.html#12

The original RFP called for T1 links (we had been running T1 links for a few years) ... but what was installed was rube goldberg of 440kbit/sec links ... and telco multiplexor that ran multiple 440kbit links over T1 trunk (somewhat facade of meeting the requirements).

Part of ridiculing them was why didn't they call it a T5 network ... rather than just T1 network ... since at some point, the T1 trunks were likely in turn multiplexed of some T5 network.

For the T3 "upgrade" I was asked to be the red team ... while lots of people from several labs were the blue team (possibly thinking that they would shut down my criticism). At final review, I was asked to present first ... then 5mins into the "blue team" presentation, the review executive pounded on the table and said that he would lay down in front of a garbage truck before he allowed anything but the blue team proposal to go forward (I get up and walk out). Old NSF related email ... started in 83 with Berkeley 10M telescope that they wanted to put at 14,000 in Hawaii
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/lhwemail.html#nsfnet
other HSDT related email
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/lhwemail.html#hsdt

NSF posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#nsfnet
HSDT posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#hsdt

In early/mid 80s, I also had precursor to HA/CMP cluster scaleup where I wanted to put lots of Blue Iliad (1st 32bit 801/risc) chips in racks (Blue Iliad was never finished. Old post with several email about including being caught in schedule between presentation to NSF director and meetings on (early) cluster scaleup
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011b.html#50
with
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011b.html#email830916
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011b.html#email850312
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011b.html#email850313
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011b.html#email850314

note the 12Mar1985 email references NSF giving $120M for San Diego supercomputer center. Originally it was suppose to be for a Berkeley supercomputer center ... however the UC regents master plan was for the next new bldg at UCSD ... and so it was UCSD not UCB.

http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#hacmp

IBM100 trivia: one of the IBM100 was about "wild ducks" ... however it was about customer "wild ducks" ... all evidence of employee "wild ducks" had been eradicated.

a few wild duck posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011h.html#30 IBM Centennial Film: Wild Ducks
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011h.html#33 Happy 100th Birthday, IBM!
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011i.html#79 Innovation and iconoclasm
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011m.html#1 What is IBM culture?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011m.html#45 What is IBM culture?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011n.html#93 John R. Opel, RIP
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011p.html#105 5 ways to keep your rockstar employees happy
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011p.html#121 The Myth of Work-Life Balance

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

The Rise of Leninist Personnel Policies

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: The Rise of Leninist Personnel Policies
Date: 06 Feb 2019
Blog: Facebook
Boyd: The Fighter Pilot Who Changed the Art of War
https://www.amazon.com/Boyd-Fighter-Pilot-Who-Changed-ebook/dp/B000FA5UEG/
pg281/loc4905-6:
He stalked the office, staring at his underlings, then suddenly walking up to them, sticking a bony finger into their chest, and saying things such as, "If your boss demands loyalty, give him integrity. But if he demands integrity, then give him loyalty."
... snip ...

The Deep State: The Fall of the Constitution and the Rise of a Shadow Government
https://www.amazon.com/Deep-State-Constitution-Shadow-Government-ebook/dp/B00W2ZKIQM/
pg190/loc3054-55:
In early 2001, just before George W. Bush's inauguration, the Heritage Foundation produced a policy document designed to help the incoming administration choose personnel

pg191/loc3057-58:
In this document the authors stated the following: "The Office of Presidential Personnel (OPP) must make appointment decisions based on loyalty first and expertise second,"

pg191/loc3060-62:
Americans have paid a high price for our Leninist personnel policies, and not only in domestic matters. In important national security concerns such as staffing the Coalition Provisional Authority, a sort of viceroyalty to administer Iraq until a real Iraqi government could be formed, the same guiding principle of loyalty before competence applied.
... snip ...

Heritage Foundation
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Heritage_Foundation
more recent candidate list
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Donald_Trump_Supreme_Court_candidates

Founders of the country and framers of the constitution felt strongly that USA wasn't created as a "christian" country and there was a strong separation of State and (any/all) Church.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Separation_of_church_and_state_in_the_United_States
Article Six of the United States Constitution also specifies that "no religious Test shall ever be required as a Qualification to any Office or public Trust under the United States."

mandatory swearing oath on bible easily construed as religious test.

A lot of the current "christian" propaganda came from conference of 5,000 industrialist held at Waldorf-Astoria where they approved a major propaganda campaign to equate capitalism with Christianity (because of their very bad reputation for the depression and supporting Nazi Germany). Eventually this results in adding "in god we trust" to money and "under god" to the pledge of allegiance. The theme was augmented with the later "red menace" propaganda.
https://www.amazon.com/One-Nation-Under-God-Corporate-ebook/dp/B00PWX7R56/
1957 "in god we trust" added to paper money
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/In_God_We_Trust

earlier, June1940, Germany had a victory celebration at the same NYC Waldorf-Astoria with major industrialists. Lots of them were there to hear how to do business with the Nazis (and circumvent the neutrality laws)
https://www.amazon.com/Man-Called-Intrepid-Incredible-Narrative-ebook/dp/B00V9QVE5O/
loc1925-29:
One prominent figure at the German victory celebration was Torkild Rieber, of Texaco, whose tankers eluded the British blockade. The company had already been warned, at Roosevelt's instigation, about violations of the Neutrality Law. But Rieber had set up an elaborate scheme for shipping oil and petroleum products through neutral ports in South America. With the Germans now preparing to turn the English Channel into what Churchill thought would become "a river of blood," other industrialists were eager to learn from Texaco how to do more business with Hitler.
... snip ...

John Foster Dulles played major role in rebuilding German economy, industry and military from the 20s up through the early 40s.
https://www.amazon.com/Brothers-Foster-Dulles-Allen-Secret-ebook/dp/B00BY5QX1K/
loc865-68:
In mid-1931 a consortium of American banks, eager to safeguard their investments in Germany, persuaded the German government to accept a loan of nearly $500 million to prevent default. Foster was their agent. His ties to the German government tightened after Hitler took power at the beginning of 1933 and appointed Foster's old friend Hjalmar Schacht as minister of economics.

loc905-7:
Foster was stunned by his brother's suggestion that Sullivan & Cromwell quit Germany. Many of his clients with interests there, including not just banks but corporations like Standard Oil and General Electric, wished Sullivan & Cromwell to remain active regardless of political conditions.

loc938-40:
At least one other senior partner at Sullivan & Cromwell, Eustace Seligman, was equally disturbed. In October 1939, six weeks after the Nazi invasion of Poland, he took the extraordinary step of sending Foster a formal memorandum disavowing what his old friend was saying about Nazism
... snip ...

From the law of unintended consequences, when the 1943 US Strategic Bombing program needed locations of industrial and military targets in Germany, they got the information from wallstreet.

Boyd posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subboyd.html

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

The Myth of Capitalism

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: The Myth of Capitalism
Date: 07 Feb 2019
Blog: Facebook
The Myth of Capitalism
https://www.amazon.com/Myth-Capitalism-Monopolies-Death-Competition-ebook/dp/B07KRG46XS/
pg40/loc1442-45:
A recent paper by economists Justin Pierce of the Federal Reserve Board of Governors and Bruce Blonigen of the University of Oregon shows that mergers cause higher prices with little evidence of greater productivity and efficiency. They also looked in great detail at whether mergers increased efficiency through reductions in administrative costs and greater asset productivity, but again find little evidence for these grand claims.
... snip ...

I've periodically mention that around turn of century, I was asked to review a periodic financial industry publication that gave avg (raw) data on thousands of activities for the top 20 regional banks compared to the top 10 national banks. After sorting through the data for some time, I was able to show that the 20 regional banks were more efficient than the top 10 national banks. The only justification for larger banks (this was even before too big to fail had really kicked in) was that top executives compenstation was proportional to size (not performance) ... and unrelated to any benefits for the public interest.

We the Corporations: How American Businesses Won Their Civil Rights
https://www.amazon.com/We-Corporations-American-Businesses-Rights-ebook/dp/B01M64LRDJ/

Originally, US corporations were entities that operate in public interest, but then special interests wanted those rights extended to entities that can operate in self interest as well "people" rights under constitution.

Then the large financial institutions morphed into too big to fail and nearly took down the economy. Later they were also found to be dealing in all sorts of other illegal activity, manipulating markets, LIBOR, foreign exchange, commodities, money laundering for drug cartels and terrorists, facilitating tax evasion; etc. and also garnered labelstoo big to prosecute and too big to jail.

too big to fail ("too big to prosecute", "too big to jail") posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#too.big.to.fail
economic mess posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#economic.mess
fed chairman posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#fed.chairman

posts mentioning report comparing regional & national banks
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010h.html#52 Our Pecora Moment
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010i.html#16 Fake debate: The Senate will not vote on big banks
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010i.html#21 Fake debate: The Senate will not vote on big banks
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010k.html#43 Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010m.html#67 Idiotic programming style edicts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010p.html#7 What banking is. (Essential for predicting the end of finance as we know it.)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011d.html#28 The first personal computer (PC)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011l.html#39 Kabuki Theater 1603-1629
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011o.html#83 The banking sector grew seven times faster than gross domestic product since the beginning of the financial crisis and Too-Big-to-Fail: Banks Get Bigger After Dodd-Frank
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#25 You may ask yourself, well, how did I get here?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012e.html#1 The Dallas Fed Is Calling For The Immediate Breakup Of Large Banks
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012g.html#9 JPM LOSES $2 BILLION USD!
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012g.html#84 Monopoly/ Cartons of Punch Cards
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013.html#44 How to Cut Megabanks Down to Size
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013.html#51 How to Cut Megabanks Down to Size
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013c.html#3 How to Cut Megabanks Down to Size
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013k.html#2 IBM Relevancy in the IT World
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014k.html#63 LA Times commentary: roll out "smart" credit cards to deter fraud
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014m.html#55 Piketty Shreds Marginal Productivity as Neoclassical Justification for Supersized Pay
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014m.html#63 The Fed Just Acknowledged Its Too Big To Jail Policy
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015b.html#23 What were the complaints of binary code programmers that not accept Assembly?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015d.html#31 Bernie Sanders Proposes A Bill To Break Up The 'Too Big To Exist' Banks
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017h.html#28 Stop Romanticizing Glass-Steagall
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017i.html#19 How to spot a dodgy company - never trust a high achiever
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#60 Excess Management Is Costing the U.S. $3 Trillion Per Year
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#72 Top CEOs' compensation increased 17.6 percent in 2017

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

The Drillmaster of Valley Forge: The Baron de Steuben and the Making of the American Army

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: The Drillmaster of Valley Forge: The Baron de Steuben and the Making of the American Army
Date: 07 Feb 2019
Blog: Facebook
The Drillmaster of Valley Forge: The Baron de Steuben and the Making of the American Army
https://www.amazon.com/Drillmaster-Valley-Forge-Steuben-American-ebook/dp/B001EWOFJU/

theme repeated several times, congress had no money, pg281/loc4350-52:
Disillusionment was rife in the now-defunct army, as many were convinced that the furlough system was just a clever way of disposing of the army without paying it. Washington, rather unfairly, took much of the blame for the circumstances of the disbandment.
.... snip ...

Congress was faced with an enormous problem with the end of the war, the treasury was bare and all the militias were now expected to be paid (back pay owned was enormous and congress had no way of paying), pg287/loc4455-59:
The main reason that the military security of the Swiss rested on their militia was economic: "the Want of the necessary means to maintain a Standing Army." America had even better grounds for such a military system. Switzerland was small and compact; America was expansive, with a long, vulnerable coast and a long, vulnerable frontier. If the United States entrusted its national defense to a standing army, that army would necessarily have to be very large indeed to cover so much territory. "It is to our Militias that We must find the real Strength which we are to oppose to that of Great Britain."5
... snip ...

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Democracy in Chains

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Democracy in Chains
Date: 07 Feb 2019
Blog: Facebook
Democracy in Chains
https://www.amazon.com/Democracy-Chains-History-Radical-Stealth-ebook/dp/B01EH1EL7A/
pg221/loc3679-82:
The budget director, it turned out, had failed to make clear to the president and his political advisers—much less to the American people—that the colossal Kemp-Roth tax cut, as it came to be known, would necessitate tearing up the social contract on a scale never attempted in a democracy. To this day, it is unclear how such a consequential misunderstanding occurred.

pg221/loc3685-90:
"A true economic policy revolution" of the size Reagan and the right had requested, David Stockman explained in the wake of its rout, "meant risky and mortal political combat with all the mass constituencies" who looked to Washington for help. They would have to fight "Social Security recipients, veterans, farmers, educators, state and local officials, [and] the housing industry," with its mass market of middle-class buyers who relied on their mortgage tax deductions. The president could rail all he wanted about "welfare queens" and government "waste," but Social Security, veterans' benefits, and Medicare "accounted for over half the domestic budget"—and were dear to his followers.

pg222/loc3693-97:
"By 1982," Stockman reported, "I knew the Reagan Revolution was impossible." It simply could not happen in "the world of democratic fact." Indeed, once the public became aware of just how drastic a plan the president's economic team intended—including immediate changes to Social Security (as Stockman put it, "a frontal assault on the very inner fortress of the American welfare state," a program "on which one seventh of the nation's populace depended for its well-being")—the jig was up.

pg222/loc3701-3:
What was not evident then but is now is that this moment became a turning point in the Republican Party, the prod for a historic, albeit unnoticed, three-way split. Stockman represented one wing, a lonely one. He learned from this experience that the libertarian dream had been a dangerous illusion.

pg222/loc3705-8:
The correct inference from the episode, Stockman concluded, was that voters must be told the truth. To have all the things they wanted, from clean air and water to retirement security (to say nothing of military power), Americans needed "a moderate social democracy," and to get this, they needed to pay higher taxes. It was that simple: higher taxes could solve the problem, without permanent deficits or economic disaster.

pg223/loc3709-10:
The Republican right's political leadership, however, looked on Stockman as a turncoat. Its members followed the president and his advisers on a second path, one that forsook the fact-based universe.

pg224/loc3727-31:
Social Security, as both Buchanan and Stockman had observed, was the linchpin of the American welfare state. 32 The most popular New Deal reform, its very success had made it a far-right target ever since its creation, in 1935. Indeed, one of the radical right's indictments of Dwight Eisenhower and moderate Republicans after him was that they had accepted the legitimacy of Social Security.

pg224/loc3733-36:
Now, no doubt inspired by Chile's conversion to private pensions, Charles Koch's Cato Institute turned to Buchanan to teach its staff how to crab walk. Having relocated from San Francisco to Washington, D.C., in late 1981 to achieve greater influence, Cato made the privatization of Social Security its top priority. Buchanan labeled the existing system a "Ponzi scheme," a framing that, as one critic pointed out, implied that the program was "fundamentally fraudulent"—indeed, "totally and fundamentally wrong."
... snip ...

Stockman (Reagan's budget director) takes credit for revamping social security to take into account baby boomer's longer life ... however, he wanted more money coming into the Trust Fund ... so they could immediately borrow everything that came in and spend (w/o having to say they increased taxes). Stockman also takes credit for starting to tax benefits (double tax, contribution to trust fund is from after tax wages ... and then the benefits taxed again when it is paid out) ... so they even have more to spend (continuing a facade that they hadn't increased taxes, while at the same time having more money to spend).

It was all working during peak baby boomer working years, more money going into trust fund (to be immediately borrowed and spent) than benefits being paid out (baby boomers accumulating principle in trust fund for when they retire). But it flips when baby boomer retire ... baby boomer larger than previous generation and following generation (not called baby boomers for nothing) ... they will have to start drawing on the (borrowed&spent) principle. To pay back that money that has been borrowed&spent from the SS Trust Fund ... will require getting it from somebody else (like increasing taxes on the following generation).

Politicians referring to SS as entitlements creates suspicion that they are maneuvering to default on the debt to the SS Trust fund.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_Security_Trust_Fund
Totally different is SSI which comes out of the general fund
https://www.ssa.gov/ssi/

There are recent articles about the economic mess is still affecting large parts of the country ... and after other forms of assistance ran out, doctors have been putting people on disability ... because there wasn't anything else available.

inequality posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#inequality
economic mess posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#economic.mess

recent Stockman posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#30 $16T National Debt
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#54 Why the Pursuit of Shareholder Value Kills Innovation
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#69 How Private Equity Firms are Designed to Earn Big While Risking Little of Their Own
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#43 when to get out???
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#58 The ICL 2900
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#5 IBM's core business
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#99 United Air Lines - an OODA-loop perspective
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017e.html#12 SS Trust Fund
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017f.html#3 [CM] What was your first home computer?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017f.html#24 [CM] What was your first home computer?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017g.html#17 Wall Street
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017g.html#47 The rise and fall of IBM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017g.html#48 SS Trust Fund
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017g.html#97 IBM Another Disappointment
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017h.html#22 OT: book: "Capital in the Twenty-First Century"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017h.html#37 Disregard post (another screwup)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017h.html#48 endless medical arguments, Disregard post (another screwup)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017k.html#49 The 50 Largest Stashes of Cash Companies Keep Overseas
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017k.html#51 Taxing Social Security Benefits
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018.html#19 In Praise of Hierarchy
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018.html#59 How Income Tax on Social Security Became a $277 Billion Problem for Retirees
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018.html#104 Tax Cut for Stock Buybacks
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018b.html#18 Important US technology companies sold to foreigners
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018b.html#63 Major firms learning to adapt in fight against start-ups: IBM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018d.html#39 IBM downturn
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#10 Companies buying back their own shares is the only thing keeping the stock market afloat right now
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#12 Companies buying back their own shares is the only thing keeping the stock market afloat right now
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#118 IBM today
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018f.html#44 The Great Depression II
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#10 Employees Come First
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#21 Financial Engineering

recent Friedman posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#17 Destruction of the Middle Class
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#24 Destruction of the Middle Class
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#26 Milton Friedman's Cherished Theory Is Laid to Rest
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#29 Milton Friedman's Cherished Theory Is Laid to Rest
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#31 Milton Friedman's Cherished Theory Is Laid to Rest
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#34 If economists want to be trusted again, they should learn to tell jokes
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#92 Trump's Rollback of the Neoliberal Market State
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#97 Trump to sign cyber security order
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#101 Trump to sign cyber security order
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#102 Trump to sign cyber security order
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#11 Trump to sign cyber security order
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#16 Trump to sign cyber security order
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#17 Trump to sign cyber security order
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#24 Disorder
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#25 Trump to sign cyber security order
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#26 Virtualization's Past Helps Explain Its Current Importance
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#43 when to get out???
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#0 Locking our own orientation
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#67 Economists are arguing over how their profession messed up during the Great Recession. This is what happened
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#77 Trump delay of the 'fiduciary rule' will cost retirement savers $3.7 billion
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#89 Understanding decisions: The power of combining psychology and economics
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#93 United Air Lines - an OODA-loop perspective
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#96 Cognitive Bias Codex, 2016
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017e.html#7 Arthur Laffer's Theory on Tax Cuts Comes to Life Once More
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017e.html#44 [CM] cheap money, was What was your first home computer?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017e.html#96 [CM] What was your first home computer?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017f.html#8 [CM] What was your first home computer?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017f.html#16 Conservatives and Spending
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017f.html#42 MVS vs HASP vs JES (was 2821)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017f.html#44 [CM] What was your first home computer?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017f.html#45 [CM] What was your first home computer?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017f.html#53 [CM] What was your first home computer?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017f.html#73 [CM] What was your first home computer?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017g.html#6 Mapping the decentralized world of tomorrow
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017g.html#19 Financial, Healthcare, Construction, Education complexity
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017g.html#49 Shareholders Ahead Of Employees
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017g.html#63 Real World OODA
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017g.html#79 Bad Ideas
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017g.html#83 How can we stop algorithms telling lies?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017g.html#107 Why IBM Should -- and Shouldn't -- Break Itself Up
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017h.html#9 Corporate Profit and Taxes
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017h.html#45 "Subprime Is Contained" (& Other Evidence That "They Really Don't Know What They're Doing")
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017h.html#60 Pareto efficiency
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017h.html#92 'X' Marks the Spot Where Inequality Took Root: Dig Here
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017h.html#116 The Real Reason Wages Have Stagnated: Our Economy Is Optimized For Financialization
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017i.html#13 Merchants of Doubt
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017i.html#47 Retirement Heist: How Firms Plunder Workers' Nest Eggs
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017i.html#55 How Economists Turned Corporations into Predators
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017i.html#60 When Working From Home Doesn't Work
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017i.html#70 Nobel in Economics Is Awarded to Richard Thaler
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017i.html#84 "Worse Than Big Tobacco": How Big Pharma Fuels the Opioid Epidemic
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017j.html#63 Sugar Industry Long Downplayed Potential Harms
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018.html#25 Trump's Infrastructure Plan Is Actually Pence's--And It's All About Privatization
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018.html#44 Predicting the future in five years as seen from 1983
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018b.html#82 The Real Reason the Investor Class Hates Pensions
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018b.html#87 Where Is Everyone???
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018b.html#114 Chevron's lawyer, speaking for major oil companies, says climate change is real and it's your fault
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018c.html#81 What Lies Beyond Capitalism And Socialism?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018c.html#83 Economists and the Powerful: Convenient Theories, Distorted Facts, Ample Rewards
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#115 Economists Should Stop Defending Milton Friedman's Pseudo-science
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018f.html#30 Scientists Just Laid Out Paths to Solve Climate Change. We Aren't on Track to Do Any of Them
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018f.html#107 Politicians have caused a pay 'collapse' for the bottom 90 percent of workers, researchers say
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018f.html#117 What Minimum-Wage Foes Got Wrong About Seattle

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virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

long-winded post thread, 3033, 3081, Future System

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: long-winded post thread, 3033, 3081, Future System
Date: 09 Feb 2019
Blog: Facebook
3033 reference
https://www.ibm.com/ibm/history/exhibits/3033/3033_intro.html

During Future System project in the early 70s, internal politics were shutting 370 efforts (the lack of new 370 products in this period is credited with giving clone mainframe makers market foothold). When FS imploded, there was mad rush to get products back in the 370 pipeline, kicking off 303x and 3081 in parallel.

They took 158 engine with just the integrated channel microcode (and no 370 microcode) for the 303x external channel director. 3031 was 158 engine with just the 370 microcode and 2nd 158 engine with just the integrated channel microcode. 3032 was 168-3 reworked to use the 303x external channel director. 3033 was 168-3 logic mapped to 20% faster chips with some other tweaks Some more on FS, 3033, & 3081.
http://www.jfsowa.com/computer/memo125.htm

370/165 avg. 2.1 machine cycles per instruction. 370/168-1 had 4-5 times faster real memory and microcode optimized to 1.6 machine cycles per instruction. 168-3 doubled cache size. 3033 further tweaked microcode to approx. one machine cycle per instruction (throughput increase wasn't linear because of major impact of cache misses), getting 3033 to about 1.5 times 168-3 or around 4.5MIPS.

FS posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#futuresys

3081 referece
https://www.ibm.com/ibm/history/exhibits/mainframe/mainframe_PP3081.html

3081D was two processor (dyadic), each processor supposedly 5mips, but actually much slower. 3081K doubled cache size and supposedly 7mips/processor ... but more like 4.5-5mips (more like 3033).

I was involved in a project to do a 16-way 370 multiprocessor (16 processors) and we con'ed the 3033 processor engineers to work on it in their spare time, lot more interesting that 168-3 logic remap. Initially everybody thought it was really fantastic ... and then somebody told the head of POK that it could be decades before the POK favorite son operating system (MVS) had effective 16-way support. Then some of us were invited to never visit POK again ... and the 3033 processor engineers were instructed to stop being distracted (mainframe doesn't ship 16-way configuration until 2000, over two decades later).

3084 was two 3081s lashed together ... but it was difficult effort. Standard 370 (two) multiprocessor is constantly getting serialization signals/interrupts from the other processor ... and cache synchronization protocols, caches were constantly getting signals from other cache about what it was bringing into cache. Because of all the (software & hardware) synchronization & serialization overhead ... two-way frequently was only 1.2-1.3 times the throughput of a single (uni-) processor system.

3084 was two 3081s tied together for a four processor system ... that met every system was getting signals/interrupts from three other systems and each cache was constantly getting signals from three other caches ... aka a 3084 four-way had three times the multiprocessor overhead of a two-way.

in original morph from cp67 to vm370, they eliminated and/or simplified a bunch of stuff. Part of doing enhanced vm370 for HONE after they consolidated in Palo Alto, they wanted to move from eight single processor systems to eight two-processor systems ... and needed VM370 with two-processor support. I did a modified VM370 release3 that supported two processors with highly optimized serialization that drastically minimized the multiprocessor overhead ... getting very close to twice the throughtput of single processor system (the product group didn't ship any multiprocessor support until release 4).

To do a 16-way required a lot of invention in handling cross-cache serialization for all 16 machine (caches) ... as well as how the interaction of the software across all 16 machines

3081 was originally going to be multiprocessor only ... however ACP/TPF (airline control program, transaction processing facility) had no multiprocessor support ... and they were afraid that the whole ACP/TPF market would move to non-IBM clone systems (that continued to offer newer single processor products). As counter they initially did some horrible unnatural modifications to VM370 ... which ran multiprocessor with ACP/TPF running in virtual machine. It slightly improved ACP/TPF on multiprocessor but degraded VM370 throughput for all other customers (there was an Amdahl t-shirt with large vulture on the front with the words "VM/SP is waiting for you"). Eventually they came out with 3083 (primarily for the ACP/TPF market) with one of the (3081) processors removed. The easiest would have been simply to remove the 2nd processor, which was in the middle of the box ... but that would have made the box dangerously top heavy. They eventually rewired the box so the 1st processor could be moved to the middle of the box, leaving the top of the box empty.

In the wake of FS and the mad rush to get products back into the pipeline, kicking off 3033, 3081, 370/xa .... the head of POK managed to convince corporate to kill the vm370 product, shutdown the burlington (mass) vm370 product group and transfer all the people to POK to work on MVS/XA, or otherwise MVS/XA wouldn't ship on time. Originally they weren't going to tell the group until just before the shutdown/move, to minimize the number of people that might escape. However, the information managed to leak allowing lots of people to escape (many to DEC to the brand new VMS effort, joke was the head of POK was one of the largest contributors to DEC VAX/VMS). There was witch hunt to identify who leaked the information, but fortunately for me, it was never divulged. Endicott eventually managed to acquire the VM370 product mission, but had to reconstitute a product group from scratch.

trivia: TYMSHARE started offerring its CMS-based online computer conferencing facility free to SHARE in Aug1976 ... and the wake of the Burlington shutdown, there were liberal comments in VMSHARE about code quality during the period. VMSHARE archives here:
http://vm.marist.edu/~vmshare
sometimes(?) "404" ... but also at wayback machine
https://web.archive.org/web/20150912012745/http://vm.marist.edu/~vmshare/

Other trivia: some of the former Burlington people did do a rudimentary virtual machine tool designed for MVS/XA testing only and was never intended to ship to customers. However, when customers weren't migrating to MVS/XA as planned, they had releases of the tool as VM/MA (migration aid) and VM/SF (system facility) allowing customers to concurrently run MVS & MVS/XA on the same machine. Then the POK group had a push for huge new development group to bring the tool up to function and performance level of VM370. Endicott had a counter which was a system support person in Rochester had added full 370/XA system support function to VM370. POK won with several hundred people in new group in Kingston to bring tool feature/function/performance up to VM370 level.

Not along the way, apparently as counter to clone makers, IBM started adding a series of little tweaks to 3033 microcode (and continued with 3081) which were required by each new release of IBM operating systems. Amdahl as counter to the constant little tweaks to the architecture came up with MACROCODE ... being able to implement architecture features in something that looked like 370 assembler ... rather than the much more difficult horizontal microcode. Amdahl also eventually did "hypervisor" (a virtual machine subset directly as part of the machine). It took IBM well into 3090 product to be able to respond with PR/SM and LPAR (implementation was done in the significantly more difficult native horizontal microcode).

I had done a lot of work on Endicott ECPS microcode assist and in early 80s, gave several presentations on the implementation at the monthly bay area IBM users group ... and after the meetings would get further grilled about details ... mostly by Amdahl employees working on hypervisor (this was before it was announced/shipped). Some old details about original ECPS work ... Endicott said that 138/148 had 6kbytes of microcode space and was to select the 6kbytes of highest executed VM370 pathlengths to drop into native microcode for a 10 times speedup (low & midrange 370s executed an avg. of ten native instructions for every emulated 370 instruction) ... which turned out to be 79.55% of VM370 kernel execution
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/94.html#21
mcode posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#mcode

Note POK had looked at doing similar microcode for 3033, but it turned out that since 3033 already was executing 370 at avg. of nearly one machine cycle per 370 instruction ... there was no benefit and in fact, several of the attempts, the microcode actually ran slower than the original 370 (in part because of the overhead of switching back and forth between 370 and microcode modes). They would do some of the tweaks anyway ... trying to make it exclusive for running IBM system software. It got worse for 3081, the limited space for microcode met that SIE instruction required the microcode implementation to be "paged" in&out the microcode execution area. old email
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011b.html#email810210
related email 3033, 3081, 3084 numbers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011b.html#email820917

trivia: After 3033 was out the door, the 3033 processor engineers (that had done work with on 16-way 370) then started on Trout (eventually 3090) ... in parallel with 3081. This is old email from 3090 processor engineer ... including about 3090 design ... including 3090 was designed for high performance virtual machine operation (as compared to 3081 which originally assumed virtual machine was purely internal for MVS/XA development).
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006j.html#email810630
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003j.html#email831118
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007c.html#email860121

my wife was in the gburg JES group and catcher for ASP turning into JES3 and co-author of JESUS (jes unified system, all the things that neither customers could live w/o, never shipped). She then got con'ed into moving to POK to be responsible for loosely-coupled architecture ... where she did peer-coupled shared data architecture. She didn't last long, in part because of poor uptake (except for IMS hot-standby) until much later with SYSPLEX & parallel SYSPLEX ... and constant battles with communication group trying to force her into using SNA/VTAM for loosely-coupled operation. Also they wouldn't accept her upgrades to trotter/3088 ... kept as 8-way CTCA instead of much more capable architecture.

peer-coupled shared data architecture posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#shareddata

Part of the issue was cluster of 4341s was much cheaper than 3033, much faster, better price/performance, much less floor space, and much less environmentals. Enhanced trotter/3088 could do cluster wide operations in well under second elapsed time ... forced to use standard trotter/3088 with sna/VTAM those same cluster operations were taking over 30secs elapsed time. 4341 was so threatening to 3033 that at one point, head of POK got corporate to cut allocation of critical 4341 manufacturing component in half.

I transferred from the science center at MIT to San Jose Research in 1977. They let me wander around a lot of silicon valley (IBM locations, customer locations, other vendors). The disk engineering (bldg14) and product test (bldg15) were running stand-alone testing on lots of mainframe scheduled 7x24 around the clock. They had once tried MVS for concurrent testing, but found it had 15min MTBF (requiring manual re-ipl) in that environment. I offered to rewrite input/output supervisor to make it bullet proof and never fail so they could do any amount of on-demand, concurrent testing, significantly improving productivity.

Product test gets early engineering machines for i/o testing, something like #3 (or #4) engineering 3033, engineering 4341, etc. Since i/o testing required percent or two of cpu, we setup the 3033 for general online service with 3830 controller and two spare strings of 3033 (16drives). Floating head design (air bearing simulation) had been running on 370/195 over in SJR, but even with "high-priority" was only getting a couple turn arounds a month. We set them up on 3033 in bldg15 ... and while 3033 was little less than half peak 370/195, they could still get several turn arounds a day.

One monday morning, I get a call and asked what did I do to 3033 service over the weekend (engineering and product test got in habit of any time they had a problem of calling me to come over and figure out mostly their problems). After several back&forths, it turned out they had replaced the 3830 controller with 3880 controller. While 3880 had special data path for 3mbyte/sec transfer, everything else was significantly slower than 3830 ... getting normal several concurrent channel program activity on several 3330 drives concurrently drastically slowed down 3880 processing. Fortunately this was still 6months before 3880 first customer ship ... and managed to come up several fixes to help mitigate the slow 3880 processing.

posts getting to play disk engineering in bldg 14&15
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#disk

The 3090 group had balanced design for system throughput based on processing power and number of channels. When they found out how slow the 3880 (including significantly increasing channel busy), they realized that they had to significantly increase number of channels ... which required an additional TCM. There was joke that the 3090 group would charge off the increased 3090 manufacturing cost (for the additional TCM) to the 3880 group. Marketing then respins the significant increase in number of 3090 channels (compensating for significant channel busy increase, required for meeting throughput objectives) as 3090 was great I/O machine (based on the required additional channels).

Jan1979, I also got con'ed into doing benchmarks on the engineering 4341 for national lab that was looking at getting 70 4341s for compute farm (sort of the leading edge of the coming cluster supercomputing tsunami) ... I had more/better 4341 access than nearly everybody in Endicott. POK started doing internal political dirty tricks over Endicott 4341 ... customers were finding that cluster of 4341s was significantly cheaper than 3033 with much more processing power, more I/O througput, more memory, much smaller footprint and much less environmentals. Internal in IBM computing demand was outstripping datacenter space, so they started putting 4341s out in departmental areas (one side-effect was departmental conference rooms were becoming scarce).

Part of the DASD problem was CKD was trade-off from mid-60s days with 360 ... offload a bunch of mainframe processing requiring storage to constantly rotating serial search channel programs (trading processing/memory for channel I/O). By the mid-70s, the trade-off had flipped, and it was channel I/O that was becoming constrained problem (severely aggravated by CKD search convention). GPD started producing fixed-block disks which were much more efficient in that environment, but MVS was tightly tethered to its CKD search paradigm. I had offered MVS FBA support, but was told even if I provided fully integrated and tested FBA support, I still needed $26M incremental revenue business case ($200M-$300M in additional sales) to cover documentation and training ... and since GPD was already selling every disk it could make, FBA support would just switch the same amount of CKD disk to FBA disk. MVS still requires CKD ... simulated on industry fixed-block disks, decades since the last real CKD disk was manufactured.

Mentioned before, transition from cp67 to vm370 eliminated and simplified lots of functions ... including multiprocessor support. 1974 I started migrating a lot of old cp67 stuff (including things I had done as undergraduate in the 60s) to vm370. While working on CP67 at the science center, I had also done automated benchmark, configuration management and simulated workload scripts ... however, initial work with vm370 was that benchmarks were guaranteed to crash vm370. Started fixing huge number of bugs ... and then finally got CP67 serialization function moved over to vm370. Apparently they thought that some number of vm370 failures were allowing user to log off before all their activity had completed ... so they put in things to delay logoffs ... which didn't actually solve very many of the failures at the same time creating huge number of problems with hung/zombie users (problems that included not being able to log back on until the next system re-ipl). It took several months just to get vm370 to the level that the automated benchmarks could complete w/o crashing the system (and eliminate all zombie users). It was the end of 1974 before I was able to start shipping enhanced production operating system distribution for internal datacenters. Some old email
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006w.html#email750102
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006w.html#email750430

There was lots of other performance work going at at the science center ... one was an analytical model implemented in CMS\APL. A version of this was made available on HONE as the performance predictor where branch people could enter customers' hardware&software configuration along with workload information and ask "what-if" questions about what happens to performance when configuration and/or workload changes.

HONE (&/or APL) posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#hone

All during FS period, I continued to work on 360 & 370 stuff, even periodically ridiculing FS, even claiming some of the stuff I already had running production was better than some of their blue sky stuff. With the imploding of FS and the mad rush to get stuff back into 370 product pipeline, contributed to decision to release some of my resource management stuff. As part of getting ready for product release put together a matrix of 1000 automated benchmarks that covered spectrum of configurations and user workloads. Each benchark workload/configuration information was fed into a modified performance predictor which then predicted the results and compared it with the actual results after the benchmark ran ... helping validate both the performance predictor and the system resource manager. Since all this benchmarking was validating what would ship for the resource manager, I had to include all the integrity fixes that was necessary for the benchmarks to run (and prevent system from crashing). Then the performance predictor was programmed to select other configuration and workload combinations, hunting for possible anomolies. In all 2000 automated benchmarks were run taking 3months elapsed time preparing for initial release of the resource manager.

The 30April1975 email references some other features that had been picked up and included along the way in various standard releases, for instance the "autolog" command which originally had been done for automated benchmarking.

I did history of vm performance talk at '86 SEAS ... they had schedule me for an hour ... but wasn't done ... so that evening, they scheduled a room ... and it went on for a few hours. i repeated an hr version at HILLGANG meeting a couple years ago.

upthread mentioned system support programmer added full 370/XA support to VM370 (HPO) but fell victim to POK/Endicott politics, POK wanted huge group to upgrade VM/MA-VM/SF to VM370 level. Some old email.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011c.html#email860121
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011c.html#email860122
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011c.html#email860123

Later there was a subgroup in the Kingston organization that had several factions arguing about the optimal implementation for dispatch/scheduling. I had running email exchange with one of the participants keeping up to the minute ... and we observed that the resources spent arguing in the meetings were more than sufficient to have implemented all the different proposals and done comparison benchmarks.

By 3033 time, MVS was reaching limit of both real and virtual 16mbyte. MVS system bloat was taking up so much of the real 16mbyte storage that what was left for application use was resulting lots of lost time to excessive paging activity.

reference to decision to move all 370 to virtual memory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011d.html#73

The other problem (with virtual 16mbyte) dates back to transition from SVS (effectively MVT layed out in single 16mbyte virtual address space, slight change from MVT running in CP67 16mbyte virtual machine) to MVS (each application having its own 16mbyte virtual address space). The issue was that the OS/360 heritage was pervasive pointer-passing API convention. As a result, an 8mbyte "image" of MVS was in every application 16mbyte space, in theory leaving 8mbyte for application. However, the transition to MVS put every subsystem into its own address space (separate from application). Initially, in order for applications to call subsystems, a 1mbyte "common segment area" was created in every address space ... for passing data back&forth between applications and subsystems. However requirement for CSA was proportional to number of subsystems and concurrent applications and by 3033 time-frame CSA had morphed into the "common system area" that was 5-6 mbytes (leaving to 2-3mbytes for applications) ... and threatened to grow to 8mbytes (limiting application space to zero mbytes).

To address the enormous MVS system bloat, they did a hack to 16mbyte address space, sort of allowing 64mbytes of real storage. The page table entry (PTE) gives mapping between virtual address to real address, mapped virtual page to 12bit real page number (12bit page size + 12bit page number addresses 24bits or 16mbyte). However there were two unused bits in the PTE and the hack was to use these two unused bits, to prefix the the 12bit real page number, giving 14bit real page numbers or 64mbytes. Instructions were still limited to addressing 16mbytes, but instruction virtual addresses could be remapped into addressing real page anywhere in 64mbyte range. However, there were still some things that were needed to be "below the 16mbyte line" ... and so there was gimmicks where virtual pages were moved back&forth between below the line and above the line.

To address the exploding CSA size reducing virtual application actual space to zero bytes ... part of xa/370 was retrofitted to 3033 for dual-address space ... primary and secondary. Subsystem could be invoked with the calling application address space as secondary ... the subsystem then could directly address the callers space (w/o needing CSA, reducing need for CSA space).

The initial hack for moving virtual pages back&forth across the (real) 16mbyte line was to use channel programs and I/O. Original 360 channel programs only had 24bits for addressing. However channel program architecture was limited to the previous CCW had to completely finish before fetching the next CCW. For scatter/gather channel programs where transfer involved data at multiple locations, requierd chain data CCWs ... however timing could be such that the next CCW couldn't be fetched within the timing constraints of the device. 370 introduced IDALs, full words (32bit) for data addresses, which could be prefetched, eliminating lots of device timing constraints with not being able to prefetch CCW (resulting in data overrun). For 3033 64mbyte support, (full word) IDALs could be used for doing I/O above the line. The initial hack for moving was to write a page above the line out and read it back in below the line. I quickly gave them a different hack where I fabricated two page table entries, one pointing to the real page above the line and the other to the real page below the line and used MVCL to copy the virtual page (eliminating the two I/Os to do the job).

CSA trivia: IBM Burlington had a 7mbyte hardware design fortran program with 168s and then 3033s dedicated for the running of this program. There was constant battles keeping the evolving MVS system limited to CSA never exceeding 1mbyte as well as constant battles that enhancements/changes to the design program was forced to never exceed 7mbytes. We offered them a VM370 system, running 16mbyte CMS virtual machine, where CMS took 128kbytes and OS/360 simulation took another 64kbyte bytes (there was joke that CMS 64kbyte OS/360 simulation was significantly more effective than MVS 8mbyte OS/360 simulation) ... which would allow them to eliminate their constant battles trying to keep their design program within 7mbytes (actually more than double the size, 16mbytes-192kbytes).

Other trivia: SJ/GPD had a similar large MVS application for microcode development ... that wouldn't run with standard CMS OS/360 facility support. Turns out looking at what it needed was an additional 12kbytes of OS/360 function facilities and everything ran fine (added to the existing 64kbytes OS/360 support ... for a total of 76kbytes).

Dual-address space trivia: long time IBMer responsible for retrofit part of XA/370 to 3033, also works on 801/risc (1st 32bit, blue illiad, never ships), then in early 80s leaves IBM for HP and works on their risc processors. Later he is one of the primary architects for 64bit Itanium (incompatible architecture) ... which ran into trouble when AMD came out with 64bit compatible architecture.

I don't remember the Burlington Fortran program name, it was late 70s/early 80s. The San Jose GPD program was "MDS" ... old email reference
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006v.html#email800717

One of my other projects started in the early 80s I called HSDT (high speed data transport), T1 and faster speed links ... I was doing a lot of it out of the Los Gatos lab with the LSG VLSI group (doing Blue Iliad 32bit 801/risc, which never finished) which let me have several offices and labs in return for helping them with some stuff. One of first links was T1 between LSG and Clementi's engineering&scientific lab in Kingston (he had something like 20 high-end FPS boxes and did lot of chemistry simulations). We were also working with the director of NSF and were suppose to get $20M to interconnect the NSF supercomputer systems. Then congress cuts the budget, some other things happen, and eventually they release RFP. Copy of Preliminary Announcmeent (28March1986)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002k.html#12

Internal politics prevent us from bidding, the NSF director tries helping by writing the company a letter (with copy to CEO) with support of other government agencies, but that just makes the internal politics worse (as does statements that what we already had running was more than 5yrs ahead of all bid responses).
https://www.technologyreview.com/s/401444/grid-computing/
As regional networks connect into the centers, it morphs into the NSFNET backbone, precursor to modern internet.

I also had a proposal to cram a huge cluster of chips in a rack, arbitrary mix of Blue Iliad processors (1st 32bit 801/risc chip, which never reached production) and ROMAN (IBM Germany 3mip 370 chip). Old email about getting double booked, meeting in YKT on huge cluster and having to find somebody to fill in for me for meeting with NSF director:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007d.html#email85031

HSDT also got transponder on SBS4 and put in custom designed TDMA earth stations in LSG, YKT, and Austin. One of the things was LSG had done VLSI logic simulation engine (LSM) that ran logic simulation 50,000 times faster than software on 3033. The RIOS VSLI (1st 32bit 801/risc chip that ships, used in RS/6000) group in Austin started doing huge file transfers between Austin and LSG to run logic simulation (claim that it helps bring in RIOS design more than year early).

HSDT posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#hsdt
NSFNET posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#nsfnet --
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

The Russian Way of War (& Math Anxiety)

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: The Russian Way of War (& Math Anxiety)
Date: 11 Feb 2019
Blog: Facebook
The Russian Way of War
https://www.armyupress.army.mil/Portals/7/Hot%20Spots/Documents/Russia/2017-07-The-Russian-Way-of-War-Grau-Bartles.pdf
loc1268-74:
The Russian education system continues to emphasize mathematics and science. Consequently, "math anxiety" is not a problem, particularly among military professionals. Mathematical determination articles are a normal part of most Russian professional military journals. Russian officers use mathematical models to aid in their planning. Nomograms and calculations quickly resolve issues such as determining pass times and march durations; duration and density of artillery fire to achieve necessary percentages of kills and equipment destruction in area fire missions; the time and place where the forces will encounter the enemy main force; the optimal march routes; the time required to move from the assembly area and transition from battalion to platoon attack formation; the artillery expenditure required during this transition; or the numbers of trucks and trips required to move tonnages of different cargo.
... snip ...

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Indian Wars

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Indian Wars
Date: 12 Feb 2019
Blog: Facebook
Note the original 1607 English settlement was Jamestown that had planned to follow the Spanish model, military to enslave the local natives to support the settlement. It turns out that the North American natives weren't as docile and cooperative; and the original settlement starved. English then switched to sending over other members of the British Isles to serve the purpose. "Why Nations Fail":
https://www.amazon.com/Why-Nations-Fail-Prosperity-ebook/dp/B0058Z4NR8
pg27:
The clauses of the Fundamental Constitutions laid out a rigid social structure. At the bottom were the 'leet-men', with clause 23 noting, "All the children of leet-men shall be leet-men, and so to all generations."
... snip ....

My wife's father (Scottish ancestry, clan was "broken" in 1600s and migrated to North America) had been given a set of Fiske's histories (from 1880s) by the daughters of the 17th century for some distinction at West Point
http://www.colonialdaughters17th.org

Fiske's histories has the US gov. completely different if it had been up to the English settlers in north atlantic states (aka oligarchs) ... but for the influence of the scots-irish settlers in the mid-atlantic states. James Webb also touches on it in his book: "How the Scots-Irish Shaped America"

The Comanche Empire
https://www.amazon.com/Comanche-Empire-Lamar-Western-History-ebook/dp/B001HZZ05C/
loc4690-93:
When planning Comanche campaigns, the U.S. Army was able to draw on its rapidly accumulating experience in fighting the Plains Indians. The Lakota wars had revealed that regular soldiers, although armed with Colt revolvers and Winchester repeating rifles, were a poor match for the highly motivated and mobile Indian warriors

loc4695-99:
Short of troops and wary of open battles, the army set out to deprive the Comanches of shelter and sustenance by destroying their winter camps, food supplies, and horse herds. By the early 1870s this kind of total warfare against entire populations was an established practice in the U.S. Army. Sherman had pioneered it against the Confederacy in his "March to the Sea," and Sheridan had introduced a stripped-down version of it to the plains in his 1868-69 winter campaign against the Cheyennes.
... snip ....

except Sherman wasn't slaughtering women and children, practicing genocide. "Generals South, Generals North: The Commanders of the Civil War Reconsidered" https://www.amazon.com/Generals-South-North-Commanders-Reconsidered-ebook/dp/B012A1WML6/ loc6085-88:
Despite the mixed results of his approach to cavalry and the moral ambiguity (in the Indian Wars verging on genocide) of his policy of waging war on civilians, it cannot be denied that Sheridan was a superb leader of troops, a fine tactician, and an aggressive fighter, who was especially effective in forcing Lee to surrender his Army of Northern Virginia in the closing weeks of the Civil War.
... snip ...

Grant
https://www.amazon.com/Grant-Ron-Chernow-ebook/dp/B06W2J89PV/
pg872/loc15189-95:
Many of the same generals who had defeated the Confederacy were now assigned to pacify Native Americans and often betrayed a punitive, bloody attitude, exemplified by Phil Sheridan's infamous remark "The only good Indians I know are dead." 16 Convinced Native Americans must succumb to a stronger race of white men, Sheridan reviled them as "the enemies of our race and of our civilization," who had to be confined on reservations or killed. 17 During one Indian war in 1867, Sherman advised Sheridan, "The more [Indians] we kill this year, the less we would have to kill next year."
... snip ...

and a more little drift ...

A New Concept of War, John Boyd, the U.S. Marines, and Maneuver Warfare
https://www.usmcu.edu/Portals/218/ANewConceptionOfWar.pdf?ver=2018-11-08-094859-167
other refs:
https://www.professionalmilitaryeducation.com/episode-eleven-john-boyd-maneuver-warfare-and-mcdp-1/
https://www.amazon.com/Warfighting-Maneuver-Warfare-Marine-Corps/dp/1853671983
https://thestrategybridge.org/the-bridge/2018/3/22/john-boyd-on-clausewitz-dont-fall-in-love-with-your-mental-model
Boyd posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subboyd.html

I am biased, I had been introduced to Boyd in early 80s and sponsored his briefings several times. In 1990, the commandant of the Marine Corps leveraged Boyd for make-over of the Corps.

Parady of the conflict between the attritionists and the maneuverists that appeared in Marine Corps gazette:
https://web.archive.org/web/20160326155408/https://www.mca-marines.org/gazette/attritionist-letters-archives
also archived here
https://fabiusmaximus.com/2011/05/11/27461/

inequality posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#inequality

recent posts mentioning Sheridan
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016c.html#44 Qbasic
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016c.html#45 Qbasic
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016d.html#92 "Computer & Automation" later issues--anti-establishment thrust
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#55 Comanche Empire
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#38 Imperial Hubris
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017h.html#103 Iraq, Longest War
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018.html#83 people's heights
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018d.html#95 More Immigration

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Family of Secrets

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Family of Secrets
Date: 17 Feb 2019
Blog: Facebook
Family of Secrets
https://www.amazon.com/Family-Secrets-Americas-Invisible-Government-ebook/dp/B003NSBMNA/

All the stuff about assasination made the least sense.

Lots of stuff about how intertwined old boys network, ivy league, etc ... CIA does a lot of recruiting in those places including plausibly H.W. Bush.

It has Bush creating "Team B" after becoming CIA Director. All the other stuff I've read about "Team B" has Colby not approving the analysis and Rumsfeld getting Colby replaced with Bush, who would approve "Team B" analysis (justifying huge DOD spending increase), then Rumsfeld resigns as white house chief of staff (replaced by his assistant Cheney) to become SECDEF.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Team_B

"team b" posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#team.b

Touches a little how heavily involved the family was in the S&L crises in various ways. S&L crises posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#s&l.crises

Does refer to lots of support for Saddam, including WMDs. Other reports have White House tolerating invasion of Kuwait ... it was when Saddam was marshaling forces for invasion of Saudi Arabia, then H.W. had to choose between Saddam and Saudis. Then this century, using fabricated WMDs as excuse for invasion.

After H. is brought on the board of Harken with little or no duties and given lots of stock options ... then has enough money to buy into baseball team ... which helps with his campaign for governor. pg336/6943-51:
IF IT WALKS LIKE A DUCK AND TALKS like a duck, the saying goes, then maybe it really is a duck. Over at Harken Energy—George W. Bush's next corporate home—the ducks were quacking plenty loud. Bush-connected enterprises were just not the kinds of businesses with which the rest of us are familiar. There always seemed to be something more going on: that overlay of peculiar money-moving, a general lack of profitability, the participation of foreign interests, and a hint of black intelligence operations.

pg335/loc7353-55:
A week after Bush sold his stock (and the day a largely favorable Forbes magazine profile of the company appeared), Harken announced a second-quarter loss of $23.2 million. The stock plunged 20 percent. In 2002, it came out that Bush and other insiders had received internal warnings of impending financial collapse just sixteen days before Bush sold his own shares
... snip ...

Mentions H.W. worked for Carlyle, but not H. (& Baker), enormous uptic in government outsourcing last decade, Agencies can't lobby congress, and beltway bandits can use contract money to lobby congress ... however doesn't seem to be any limitations on private-equity owners. PE companies buying up government contractors and beltway bandits ... with lots of help from prominate politicians lobbying congress.
http://www.motherjones.com/politics/2007/10/barbarians-capitol-private-equity-public-enemy/
Lou Gerstner, former ceo of ibm, now heads the Carlyle Group, a Washington-based global private equity firm whose 2006 revenues of $87 billion were just a few billion below ibm's. Carlyle has boasted George H.W. Bush, George W. Bush, and former Secretary of State James Baker III on its employee roster.
... snip ...

Rove (& Gingrich) master of political manipulation, information spinning (& dirty tricks?), "family of secrets" pg371/loc7664-65:
Few people realize that Rove, perhaps the most important figure in W.'s political rise, got his start as a handpicked apprentice to Poppy Bush.

pg374/loc7717-19:
Rove's growing repertoire of tricks was tradecraft of the type that Poppy Bush's CIA associates would have admired. It was what they themselves routinely did around the world, ostensibly in the service of the nation. And Rove was hardly alone: former House Speaker Newt Gingrich, whose Republican revolution of 1994 bedeviled Bill Clinton's presidency, quietly brought a military psy-ops specialist onto his staff.

pg374/loc7733-35:
So dedicated was Rove to George W. Bush that not only would he labor assiduously to muddy W.'s opponents, from Ann Richards to Al Gore to John Kerry; often he took it upon himself to clean George W. Bush up—sometimes literally.

pg390/loc8037-39:
GEORGE W. BUSH AND HIS HANDLERS knew that his behavior before becoming governor—his partying, his womanizing, and in particular his military service problems—posed a serious threat to his presidential ambitions. Their solution was to wipe the slate clean—through a religious transformation

... snip ...

In the early 90s, H.W. is president and Cheney is SECDEF. Sat. photo recon analyst told white house that saddam was marshaling forces to invade Kuwait. White house said that saddam would do no such thing and proceeded to discredit the analyst. Later the analyst informed the white house that saddam was marshaling forces to invade Saudi Arabia, now the white house has to choose between saddam and the Saudis.
https://www.amazon.com/Long-Strange-Journey-Intelligence-ebook/dp/B004NNV5H2/

This century, H. is president, Cheney is VP, Rumsfeld is SECDEF and one of the "Team B" members is deputy SECDEF (and major architect of Iraq policy).
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul_Wolfowitz

Before the invasion, the cousin of white house chief of staff Card ... was dealing with the Iraqis at the UN and was given evidence that WMDs (tracing back to US in the Iran/Iraq war) had been decommissioned. the cousin shared it with Card, Powell and others ... then is locked up in military hospital, book was published in 2010 (4yrs before decommissioned WMDs were declassified)
https://www.amazon.com/EXTREME-PREJUDICE-Terrifying-Story-Patriot-ebook/dp/B004HYHBK2/

NY Times series from 2014, the decommission WMDs (tracing back to US from Iran/Iraq war), had been found early in the invasion, but the information was classified for a decade
http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2014/10/14/world/middleeast/us-casualties-of-iraq-chemical-weapons.html

WMD posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#wmds

in general seems to have some amount of overlap/intersection with Democracy in Chains
https://www.amazon.com/Democracy-Chains-History-Radical-Stealth-ebook/dp/B01EH1EL7A/
and The Myth of Capitalism
https://www.amazon.com/Myth-Capitalism-Monopolies-Death-Competition-ebook/dp/B07KRG46XS/
and The Rise of Leninist Personnel Policies
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#34 The Rise of Leninist Personnel Policies

from the law of unintended consequences that come back to bite you; (Family of Secrets) pg292/loc6057-59:
There was also a calculated decision to use the Saudis as surrogates in the cold war. The United States actually encouraged Saudi efforts to spread the extremist Wahhabi form of Islam as a way of stirring up large Muslim communities in Soviet-controlled countries. (It didn't hurt that Muslim Soviet Asia contained what were believed to be the world's largest undeveloped reserves of oil.)

The New Confessions of an Economic Hit Man (John Perkins)
https://www.amazon.com/New-Confessions-Economic-Hit-Man-ebook/dp/B017MZ8EBM/
pg106/log1728-36:
Vanity Fair concluded: The Bush family and the House of Saud, the two most powerful dynasties in the world, have had close personal, business, and political ties for more than 20 years. . . . In the private sector, the Saudis supported Harken Energy, a struggling oil company in which George W. Bush was an investor. Most recently, former president George H. W. Bush and his longtime ally, former Secretary of State James A. Baker III, have appeared before Saudis at fundraisers for the Carlyle Group, arguably the biggest private equity firm in the world. Today, former president Bush continues to serve as a senior adviser to the firm, whose investors allegedly include a Saudi accused of ties to terrorist support groups. . . . Just days after 9/11, wealthy Saudi Arabians, including members of the bin Laden family, were whisked out of the US on private jets. No one will admit to clearing the flights, and the passengers weren't questioned. Did the Bush family's long relationship with the Saudis help make it happen?

pg174/loc2669-73:
Then newly elected President George H. W. Bush took office. Shortly thereafter, Michael Ameen — a State Department consultant assigned to brief the newly confirmed US ambassador to Bahrain, Charles Hostler — arranged for meetings between the Bahraini government and Harken Energy. Suddenly, Amoco was replaced by Harken. Although Harken had not previously drilled outside the southeastern United States, and never offshore, it won exclusive drilling rights in Bahrain, something previously unheard of in the Arab world. Within a few weeks, the price of Harken Energy stock increased by more than 20 percent, from $4.50 to $5.50 per share
... snip ...

private equity posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#private.equity

other recent EHM/Economic Hit Man:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017e.html#103 [CM] What was your first home computer?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017e.html#105 [CM] What was your first home computer?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017i.html#64 The World America Made
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017k.html#66 Innovation?, Government, Military, Commercial
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018.html#14 Predicting the future in five years as seen from 1983
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018.html#82 DEC and HVAC
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018b.html#30 free, huh, was Bitcoin confusion?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018b.html#60 Revealed - the capitalist network that runs the world
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018c.html#44 Anatomy of Failure: Why America Loses Every War It Starts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#111 Pigs Want To Feed at the Trough Again: Bernanke, Geithner and Paulson Use Crisis Anniversary to Ask for More Bailout Powers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018f.html#4 Pigs Want To Feed at the Trough Again: Bernanke, Geithner and Paulson Use Crisis Anniversary to Ask for More Bailout Powers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018f.html#10 Why Dodd-Frank Is A Protection Racket For Banks
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018f.html#56 Too Rich to Jail
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018f.html#66 Economic Mess Prosecution
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018f.html#113 Trump asking advisers if he can legally fire Fed chief
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#13 China's African debt-trap ... and US Version
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#15 TARP Funds and Noncompliant

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Army Special Operations Forces Unconventional Warfare

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From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Army Special Operations Forces Unconventional Warfare
Date: 18 Feb 2019
Blog: Facebook
The document, officially titled "Field Manual (FM) 3-05.130, Army Special Operations Forces Unconventional Warfare" and originally written in September 2008, was recently highlighted by WikiLeaks on Twitter in light of recent events in Venezuela as well as the years-long, U.S.-led economic siege of that country through sanctions and other means of economic warfare. Though the document has generated new interest in recent days, it had originally been released by WikiLeaks in December 2008 and has been described as the military's "regime change handbook."
https://www.mintpressnews.com/leaked-wikileaks-doc-reveals-how-us-military-uses-of-imf-world-bank-as-unconventional-weapons/254708/

Also consistant with long time WAR IS RACKET
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/War_Is_a_Racket
and especially Economic Hit Man
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Confessions_of_an_Economic_Hit_Man
especially when other methods don't work, they send in the jackels

although there is the more recent part about wallstreet using "EHM" tactics against the American public during economic mess.

More EHM
https://www.bkconnection.com/bkblog/jeevan-sivasubramaniam/five-examples-of-how-economic-hit-men-still-operate-globally-today
More EHM, including against our own people
https://www.yesmagazine.org/new-economy/more-confessions-of-an-economic-hit-man-this-time-theyre-coming-for-your-democracy-20160318

The New Confessions of an Economic Hit Man (John Perkins)
https://www.amazon.com/New-Confessions-Economic-Hit-Man-ebook/dp/B017MZ8EBM/
pg79/loc1332-36:
We sat in silence for a few moments, each lost in his own thoughts. Torrijos was the first to speak. "Do you know who owns United Fruit?" he asked. "Zapata Oil, George Bush's company — our UN ambassador," I said. 2 "A man with ambitions." He leaned forward and lowered his voice. "And now I'm up against his cronies at Bechtel."

pg80/loc1341-44:
"The biggest construction job in recent history." He paused. "Bechtel's loaded with Nixon, Ford, and Bush cronies." Bush, as US ambassador to the UN, and Ford, as House minority leader and chairman of the Republican National Convention, were well known to Torrijos as Republican powerbrokers. "I've been told that the Bechtel family pulls the strings of the Republican Party."

pg106/log1728-36:
Vanity Fair concluded: The Bush family and the House of Saud, the two most powerful dynasties in the world, have had close personal, business, and political ties for more than 20 years. . . . In the private sector, the Saudis supported Harken Energy, a struggling oil company in which George W. Bush was an investor. Most recently, former president George H. W. Bush and his longtime ally, former Secretary of State James A. Baker III, have appeared before Saudis at fundraisers for the Carlyle Group, arguably the biggest private equity firm in the world. Today, former president Bush continues to serve as a senior adviser to the firm, whose investors allegedly include a Saudi accused of ties to terrorist support groups. . . . Just days after 9/11, wealthy Saudi Arabians, including members of the bin Laden family, were whisked out of the US on private jets. No one will admit to clearing the flights, and the passengers weren't questioned. Did the Bush family's long relationship with the Saudis help make it happen?

pg173/loc2659-63:
For those of us interested in oil and the international scene, there was another frequently discussed topic: the vice president's son, George W. Bush. His first energy company, Arbusto (Spanish for bush), was a failure that ultimately was rescued through a 1984 merger with Spectrum 7. Then, Spectrum 7 found itself poised at the brink of bankruptcy and was purchased, in 1986, by Harken Energy Corporation; G. W. Bush was retained as a board member and consultant with an annual salary of $120,000 (in 1986 dollars).

pg174/loc2663-68:
We all assumed that having a father who was the US vice president factored into this hiring decision, since the younger Bush's record of accomplishment as an oil executive certainly did not warrant it. It also seemed no coincidence that Harken took this opportunity to branch out into the international field for the first time in its corporate history, and to begin actively searching for oil investments in the Middle East. Vanity Fair reported, "Once Bush took his seat on the board, wonderful things started to happen to Harken — new investments, unexpected sources of financing, serendipitous drilling rights."

pg174/2669-73:
Then newly elected President George H. W. Bush took office. Shortly thereafter, Michael Ameen — a State Department consultant assigned to brief the newly confirmed US ambassador to Bahrain, Charles Hostler — arranged for meetings between the Bahraini government and Harken Energy. Suddenly, Amoco was replaced by Harken. Although Harken had not previously drilled outside the southeastern United States, and never offshore, it won exclusive drilling rights in Bahrain, something previously unheard of in the Arab world. Within a few weeks, the price of Harken Energy stock increased by more than 20 percent, from $4.50 to $5.50 per share
... snip ...

"Confidence Men"
https://www.amazon.com/Confidence-Men-Washington-Education-ebook/dp/B0089LOKKS/
pg430:
But they were fighting on too many fronts. Carl Levin of Michigan and Jeff Merkley of Oregon had discovered that Dodd had discreetly gutted the Volcker Rule, and the two set to work trying to counteract Dodd's efforts. The Merkley-Levin Amendment articulated Volcker's idea fully -- and wrote it as law. No regulatory backsliding, once everything settled down.
... snip ...

also has several references that essentially wallstreet was using the EHM (economic hit men) debt strategy against the American public. Other references were about new president having to choose between the economic A-team (Volcker et al) and the B-team. The A-team was instrumental in getting him elected, but the A-team would have held wallstreet and the too-big-to-fail accountable, which would have likely taken down most of those institutions (so new president chooses the b-team that wasn't going to hold anybody responsible).

inequality posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#inequality
TBTF (too big to fail, too big to prosecute, too big to jail) posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#too-big-to-fail

other recent EHM/Economic Hit Man:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017e.html#103 [CM] What was your first home computer?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017e.html#105 [CM] What was your first home computer?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017i.html#64 The World America Made
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017k.html#66 Innovation?, Government, Military, Commercial
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018.html#14 Predicting the future in five years as seen from 1983
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018.html#82 DEC and HVAC
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018b.html#30 free, huh, was Bitcoin confusion?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018b.html#60 Revealed - the capitalist network that runs the world
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018c.html#44 Anatomy of Failure: Why America Loses Every War It Starts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#111 Pigs Want To Feed at the Trough Again: Bernanke, Geithner and Paulson Use Crisis Anniversary to Ask for More Bailout Powers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018f.html#4 Pigs Want To Feed at the Trough Again: Bernanke, Geithner and Paulson Use Crisis Anniversary to Ask for More Bailout Powers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018f.html#10 Why Dodd-Frank Is A Protection Racket For Banks
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018f.html#56 Too Rich to Jail
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018f.html#66 Economic Mess Prosecution
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018f.html#113 Trump asking advisers if he can legally fire Fed chief
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#13 China's African debt-trap ... and US Version
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#15 TARP Funds and Noncomplian
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#41 Family of Secrets

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Billionaire warlords: Why the future is medieval

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Billionaire warlords: Why the future is medieval
Date: 19 Feb 2019
Blog: Facebook
Billionaire warlords: Why the future is medieval
https://bigthink.com/videos/future-world-superpowers
The New Rules of War: Victory in the Age of Durable Disorder
https://www.amazon.com/New-Rules-War-Victory-Disorder-ebook/dp/B0756DWQR7/

US using military to help overthrow, manipulate, and loot other countries, going back more than 100yrs (and reducing general population into serfdom)
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/War_Is_a_Racket

Current military role; The document, officially titled "Field Manual (FM) 3-05.130, Army Special Operations Forces Unconventional Warfare" and originally written in September 2008, was recently highlighted by WikiLeaks on Twitter in light of recent events in Venezuela as well as the years-long, U.S.-led economic siege of that country through sanctions and other means of economic warfare. Though the document has generated new interest in recent days, it had originally been released by WikiLeaks in December 2008 and has been described as the military's "regime change handbook."
https://www.mintpressnews.com/leaked-wikileaks-doc-reveals-how-us-military-uses-of-imf-world-bank-as-unconventional-weapons/254708/
previous post
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#42 Army Special Operations Forces Unconventional Warfare

in conjunction with "economic hit men" (EHM) that perform financial engineering as part of the process, when that isn't sufficient they send in the jackels
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Confessions_of_an_Economic_Hit_Man
although there is the more recent part about wallstreet using "EHM" tactics against the American public during economic mess last decade. More EHM
https://www.bkconnection.com/bkblog/jeevan-sivasubramaniam/five-examples-of-how-economic-hit-men-still-operate-globally-today
More EHM, including against our own people
https://www.yesmagazine.org/new-economy/more-confessions-of-an-economic-hit-man-this-time-theyre-coming-for-your-democracy-20160318

"Confidence Men", includes several references that during recent economic mess, used EHM tactics against our own people. Other references were about new president having to choose between the economic A-team (Volcker et al) and the B-team. The A-team was instrumental in getting him elected, but the A-team would have held wallstreet and the too-big-to-fail accountable, which would have likely taken down most of those institutions (so new president chooses the b-team that wasn't going to hold anybody responsible)
https://www.amazon.com/Confidence-Men-Washington-Education-ebook/dp/B0089LOKKS/

Newest edition added more about powerful families playing major roles over the years
https://www.amazon.com/New-Confessions-Economic-Hit-Man-ebook/dp/B017MZ8EBM/
with quite a bit of overlap with this about the Bush family (going back to grandpa Prescott)
https://www.amazon.com/Family-Secrets-Americas-Invisible-Government-ebook/dp/B003NSBMNA/
and from the law of unintended consequences that come back to bite you (9/11); pg292/loc6057-59:
There was also a calculated decision to use the Saudis as surrogates in the cold war. The United States actually encouraged Saudi efforts to spread the extremist Wahhabi form of Islam as a way of stirring up large Muslim communities in Soviet-controlled countries. (It didn't hurt that Muslim Soviet Asia contained what were believed to be the world's largest undeveloped reserves of oil.)
... snip ...

another family
https://www.amazon.com/Brothers-Foster-Dulles-Allen-Secret-ebook/dp/B00BY5QX1K/
and from the darker side with US supporting violent regime change, torture, terrorism, death squads (and reducing general population to serfdom)
https://www.amazon.com/Shock-Doctrine-Rise-Disaster-Capitalism-ebook/dp/B003KVKQB4/

inequality posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#inequality
TBTF (too big to fail, too big to prosecute, too big to jail) posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#too-big-to-fail

related works:
https://www.amazon.com/Myth-Capitalism-Monopolies-Death-Competition-ebook/dp/B07KRG46XS/
https://www.amazon.com/Democracy-Chains-History-Radical-Stealth-ebook/dp/B01EH1EL7A/
https://www.amazon.com/We-Corporations-American-Businesses-Rights-ebook/dp/B01M64LRDJ/
https://www.amazon.com/One-Nation-Under-God-Corporate-ebook/dp/B00PWX7R56/
https://www.amazon.com/Great-Deformation-Corruption-Capitalism-America-ebook/dp/B00B3M3UK6/
https://www.amazon.com/Deep-State-Constitution-Shadow-Government-ebook/dp/B00W2ZKIQM/

associated posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#0 How Harvard Business School Has Reshaped American Capitalism
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#4 Noncompliant: A Lone Whistleblower Exposes the Giants of Wall Street
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#10 Employees Come First
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#21 Financial Engineering
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#34 The Rise of Leninist Personnel Policies
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#35 The Myth of Capitalism
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#37 Democracy in Chains
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#41 Family of Secrets

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

People are Happier in Social Democracies Because There's Less Capitalism

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: People are Happier in Social Democracies Because There's Less Capitalism
Date: 21 Feb 2019
Blog: Facebook
People are Happier in Social Democracies Because There's Less Capitalism; Why Social Democracy is an Immune System for Capitalism's Economic, Psychological, Social, and Moral Ills
https://eand.co/people-are-happier-in-social-democracies-because-theres-less-capitalism-980a9c71bfc1

school systems focused on turning out capitalist workers, stamping out creativity and enforcing conformity, but had some trade-offs, citizens needed to feel that they had something to fight for. On War, The beautifully reproduced illustrated 1908 edition, with introduction by Andy McNab, notes by Col. F.N. Maude and brief memoir of General Clausewitz
https://www.amazon.com/War-beautifully-reproduced-illustrated-introduction-ebook/dp/B00G3DFLY8
from intro of the 1908 edition ... loc394-95:
As long as the Socialists only threatened capital they were not seriously interfered with, for the Government knew quite well that the undisputed sway of the employer was not for the ultimate good of the State.
...
the government needed general population standard of living sufficient that soldiers were willing to fight to preserve their way of life. Capitalists tendency was to reduce worker standard of living to the lowest possible ... below what the government needed for soldier motivation ... and therefor needed socialists as counterbalance to the capitalists in raising the general population standard of living.
... snip ...

June1940, Germany had a victory celebration at the NYC Waldorf-Astoria with major industrialists. Lots of them were there to hear how to do business with the Nazis
https://www.amazon.com/Man-Called-Intrepid-Incredible-Narrative-ebook/dp/B00V9QVE5O/

Later 5000 industrialists from across the US had conference (also) at NYC Waldorf-Astoria and in part because they had gotten such bad reputation for the depression and supporting Nazi Germany, they approved a major propaganda campaign to equate capitalism with Christianity
https://www.amazon.com/One-Nation-Under-God-Corporate-ebook/dp/B00PWX7R56/

part of the result by the early 50s was adding "in god we trust" to money and "under god" to the pledge of allegiance.

Note that the WW2 era neutrality laws were by same of the same people that saw the enormous profiteering that went on during WW1 .... the capitalists would respin it as isolationism

John Foster Dulles played major role in rebuilding Germany's economy, industry and military 20s thru early 40s. The Brothers: John Foster Dulles, Allen Dulles, and Their Secret World War,
https://www.amazon.com/Brothers-Foster-Dulles-Allen-Secret-ebook/dp/B00BY5QX1K/
loc905-7:
Foster was stunned by his brother's suggestion that Sullivan & Cromwell quit Germany. Many of his clients with interests there, including not just banks but corporations like Standard Oil and General Electric, wished Sullivan & Cromwell to remain active regardless of political conditions.

loc938-40:
At least one other senior partner at Sullivan & Cromwell, Eustace Seligman, was equally disturbed. In October 1939, six weeks after the Nazi invasion of Poland, he took the extraordinary step of sending Foster a formal memorandum disavowing what his old friend was saying about Nazism
... snip ...

From the law of unintended consequences; 1943 US Strategic Bombing Program, they needed German industrial and military targets and coordinates, they got the information and detailed plans from wallstreet

My wife's father was awarded a set of history books from 1880s, for some distinction at West Point by daughters of 17th century
http://www.colonialdaughters17th.org/

They reference that if hadn't been for mid-atlantic (Jefferson, Madison, Scottish etc) influence, the English settlers (Hamilton, Federalists) would have prevailed and our form of government would be more like English with monarch and structured society. The constitution deliberations were kept confidential and when states didn't ratified it, Jefferson was brought back from France to do the Bill of Rights (in order to get constitution ratified). Besides Bill of Rights, Jefferson was also major force behind making sure our country had separation of church and state.

Note the original English settlement was Jamestown that had planned to follow the Spanish model, military to enslave the local natives to support the settlement. It turns out that the North American natives weren't as cooperative and the original settlement starved. English then switched to sending over other members of the British Isles to serve the purpose. The crown charters for those settlements had rigid social structure with the "leet-men" at the bottom and "All the children of leet-men shall be leet-men, and so to all generations".

inequality posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#inequality

some more:

Thomas Jefferson: The Art of Power
https://www.amazon.com/Thomas-Jefferson-Power-Jon-Meacham-ebook/dp/B0089EHKE8/
loc5080-83:
Hamilton wanted the bank to be funded by federal deposits but run, in part, for the benefit of private investors. Jefferson and Madison objected. 29 They feared that the Hamiltonian program would enable financial speculators to benefit from commercial transactions made possible by government funds.
... snip ...

We the Corporations: How American Businesses Won Their Civil Rights
https://www.amazon.com/We-Corporations-American-Businesses-Rights-ebook/dp/B01M64LRDJ/

Originally, US corporations were entities that operate in public interest, but then certain factions wanted those rights extended to entities that can operate in self interest as well "people" rights under constitution. pgxiv/loc74-78:
Between 1868, when the amendment was ratified, and 1912, when a scholar set out to identify every Fourteenth Amendment case heard by the Supreme Court, the justices decided 28 cases dealing with the rights of African Americans--and an astonishing 312 cases dealing with the rights of corporations.

pgxviii/loc132-36:
For most of American history, the Supreme Court failed to protect the dispossessed and the marginalized, with the justices claiming to be powerless in the face of hostile public sentiment. As we will see, however, the court's record on corporate rights was much different. In 1809, the Supreme Court decided the first case on the constitutional rights of corporations, decades before the first comparable cases for women or racial minorities. And unlike women and minorities, who lost nearly all of their early cases, corporations won that first case--and have compiled an impressive list of victories in the years since.

pg36/loc726-28:
On this issue, Hamiltonians were corporationalists--proponents of corporate enterprise who advocated for expansive constitutional rights for business. Jeffersonians, meanwhile, were populists--opponents of corporate power who sought to limit corporate rights in the name of the people.

pg120|loc1975-78:
The railroad corporations were constitutional first movers who employed innovative tactics to secure new rights. They envisioned the lawsuits as a form of strategic litigation, or what their lawyers called "test cases," to determine whether corporations had the same rights as ordinary people to equal protection and due process under the Fourteenth Amendment.

pg229/loc3667-68:
IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY, CORPORATIONS WON LIBERTY RIGHTS, SUCH AS FREEDOM OF SPEECH AND RELIGION, WITH THE HELP OF ORGANIZATIONS LIKE THE CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.
... snip ...

The former Senator argued before the Supreme court that examination of the notes by those doing the 14th amendment was that they originally intended to explicitly include corporations. A number of decades later, when those notes were reexamined in detail, they found there was no intention to include corporations ... but by that time there had been extensive prior supreme court rulings (railroads had scammed the supreme court on behalf of corporations).

The Golden Passport: Harvard Business School, the Limits of Capitalism, and the Moral Failure of the MBA Elite
https://www.amazon.com/Golden-Passport-Harvard-Business-Capitalism-ebook/dp/B01JFYB12W/
The Great Deformation: The Corruption of Capitalism in America
https://www.amazon.com/Great-Deformation-Corruption-Capitalism-America-ebook/dp/B00B3M3UK6/

other railroad refs:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#57 The Myth of Work-Life Balance
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#62 Railroaded
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#70 Regulatory Agency logo
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#79 Bain: A consulting firm too hot to handle? (Fortune, 1987)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#2 Occupy the SEC (Securities & Exchange Commission)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#62 Why Is Finance So Big?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#48 IBM cuts more than 1,000 U.S. workers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012g.html#22 Psychology Of Fraud: Why Good People Do Bad Things
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012g.html#73 Monopoly/ Cartons of Punch Cards
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012g.html#76 Monopoly/ Cartons of Punch Cards
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012g.html#84 Monopoly/ Cartons of Punch Cards
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012h.html#29 Monopoly/ Cartons of Punch Cards
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012h.html#31 How do you feel about the fact that today India has more IBM employees than US?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012h.html#32 Monopoly/ Cartons of Punch Cards
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012h.html#37 Monopoly/ Cartons of Punch Cards
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012i.html#1 Monopoly/ Cartons of Punch Cards
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012i.html#66 Monopoly/ Cartons of Punch Cards
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012p.html#11 IBM Is Changing The Terms Of Its Retirement Plan, Which Is Frustrating Some Employees
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014.html#84 Royal Pardon For Turing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014b.html#73 Royal Pardon For Turing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014m.html#37 Income Inequality
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014m.html#39 LEO
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015.html#59 IBM Data Processing Center and Pi
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015b.html#42 Future of support for telephone rotary dial ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015f.html#45 1973--TI 8 digit electric calculator--$99.95
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#49 How Finance Behaves like a Parasite Toward the Economy
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018.html#108 GE's $31 billion pension nightmare
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018c.html#52 We the Corporations: How American Businesses Won Their Civil Rights
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#72 Top CEOs' compensation increased 17.6 percent in 2017

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Jeffrey Skilling, Former Enron Chief, Released After 12 Years in Prison

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Jeffrey Skilling, Former Enron Chief, Released After 12 Years in Prison
Date: 24 Feb 2019
Blog: Facebook
Jeffrey Skilling, Former Enron Chief, Released After 12 Years in Prison
https://www.nytimes.com/2019/02/22/business/enron-ceo-skilling-scandal.html

Rhetoric on flr of congress was that Sarbanes-Oxley would prevent future ENRONs and guarantee that executives and auditors did jailtime, however it requierd SEC to do something. Possibly because even GAO didn't believe SEC was doing anything, it started doing reports of public company fraudulent financial statements ... even showing they increased after SOX goes into effect and nobody doing jailtime.

Later at the congressional MADOFF hearings, they had the person that had tried unsuccesfully for a decade to get SEC to do something about MADOFF (SEC hands were finally forced when MADOFF turned himself in, folklore was that MADOFF was looking for gov. protection after having defrauded some unsavory characters).

enron posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#enron
sarbanes-oxiley posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#sarbanes.oxley
madoff posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#madoff

Gramm, #2 on time's list of those responsible for economic mess
http://content.time.com/time/specials/packages/article/0,28804,1877351_1877350_1877330,00.html

Now better known for GLBA and repeal of Glass-Steagall (enabling Too Big To Fail, used as excuse for not holding TBTF accountable), but on the list for legislation blocking regulation of CDS gambling bets (derivatives). Born, chair for CFTC suggested regulating derivatives. Gramm's wife replaces Born, while Gramm gets legislation passed blocking derivative regulation), then his wife resigns to join Enron board (and audit committee).
http://www.nytimes.com/2008/11/17/business/17grammside.html
Enron was a major contributor to Mr. Gramm's political campaigns, an Mr. Gramm's wife, Wendy, served on the Enron board, which she joined after stepping down as chairwoman of the Commodity Futures Trading Commission.
... snip ...

https://web.archive.org/web/20080711114839/http://www.villagevoice.com/2002-01-15/news/phil-gramm-s-enron-favor/
A few days after she got the ball rolling on the exemption, Wendy Gramm resigned from the commission. Enron soon appointed her to its board of directors, where she served on the audit committee, which oversees the inner financial workings of the corporation. For this, the company paid her between $915,000 and $1.85 million in stocks and dividends, as much as $50,000 in annual salary, and $176,000 in attendance fees
... snip ...

slightly different description: "Dark Money: The Hidden History of the Billionaires Behind the Rise of the Radical Right"
https://www.amazon.com/Dark-Money-History-Billionaires-RadicalRight-ebook/dp/B0180SU4OA/
loc2953-55:
The most fateful Mercatus Center hire might have been Wendy Gramm, an economist and director at the giant Texas energy company Enron who was the wife of Senator Phil Gramm, the powerful Texas Republican. In the mid-1990s, she became the head of Mercatus's Regulatory Studies Program.

loc2955-57:
There, she pushed Congress to support what came to be known as the Enron Loophole, exempting the type of energy derivatives from which Enron profited from regulatory oversight. Both Enron and Koch Industries, which also was a major trader of derivatives, lobbied desperately for the loophole.

loc2958-59:
Some experts foresaw danger. In 1998, Brooksley Born, chair of the Commodity Futures Trading Commission, warned that the lucrative but risky derivatives market needed more government oversight.

loc2959-61:
But Senator Gramm, who chaired the Senate Banking Committee, ignored such warnings, crafting a deregulatory bill made to order for Enron and Koch, called the Commodity Futures Modernization Act.
... snip ...

Mercatus Center
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mercatus_Center

economic mess posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#economic.mess

Jan1999 I was asked to try and help stop the coming economic mess. Some investment bankers had walked away "clean" from the S&L crises, were then doing Internet IPO mills (invest a few mil, hype, IPO for a couple billion, should fail, to leave field clear for next round), and were projected to get into securitized mortgages then. Some securitized mortgages had been used to obfuscate fraudulent mortgages during the S&L crises, posterchild was office bldgs in Dallas/Ft.Worth area that turned out to be empty lots. I was to improve the integrity of securitized mortgage supporting documents as countermeasure.

They then find that they could pay rating agencies for triple-A (when the rating agencies knew they weren't worth triple-A, from Oct2008 congressional testimony). Triple-A trumps supporting documents and they can start doing no-documentation, no-down, liar loans (pay for triple-A and immediately sell everything into the bond market) ... the triple-A rating means that they no longer have to care about loan quality or borrowers' qualifications.

They then realize that they can design securitized mortages to fail, pay for triple-A, sell into the bond market and take out CDS gambling bets (derivatives) that they would fail (creating enormous demand for dodgy loans, now they cared about borrowers' qualifications, but not in the traditional way).. The largest holder of these derivatives was AIG which was negotiating to pay off at 50cents on the dollar when SECTREAS steps in and has them sign paper they can't sue those making the bets, and take TARP funds to pay off at face value. The largest recipient of TARP funds was AIG and the largest recipient of face value payoffs was firm formally headed by SECTREAS.

other drift ... 80s, former CIA director and vice-president repeatedly claimed he knew nothing about
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iran%E2%80%93Contra_affair
because he was full-time administration point person deregulating the financial industry causing the S&L crises
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Savings_and_loan_crisis
along with other members of his family
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Savings_and_loan_crisis#Silverado_Savings_and_Loan
and another
http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9D0CE0D81E3BF937A25753C1A966958260

S&L crises posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#s&l.crises

another family member presides over the economic mess after turn of century, 70 times larger than S&L crises. S&L crises had 1000 criminal convictions with jailtime, proportionally the economic mess should have 70,000 with jailtimes. Also beholding to private-equity using them to lobby congress on behalf of beltway-bandits and government contractors (enormous boon in gov. privatizing after turn of century).
http://www.motherjones.com/politics/2007/10/barbarians-capitol-private-equity-public-enemy/
Lou Gerstner, former ceo of ibm, now heads the Carlyle Group, a Washington-based global private equity firm whose 2006 revenues of $87 billion were just a few billion below ibm's. Carlyle has boasted George H.W. Bush, George W. Bush, and former Secretary of State James Baker III on its employee roster.
... snip ...

https://www.amazon.com/New-Confessions-Economic-Hit-Man-ebook/dp/B017MZ8EBM/ pg106/log1728-36:
Vanity Fair concluded: The Bush family and the House of Saud, the two most powerful dynasties in the world, have had close personal, business, and political ties for more than 20 years. . . . In the private sector, the Saudis supported Harken Energy, a struggling oil company in which George W. Bush was an investor. Most recently, former president George H. W. Bush and his longtime ally, former Secretary of State James A. Baker III, have appeared before Saudis at fundraisers for the Carlyle Group, arguably the biggest private equity firm in the world. Today, former president Bush continues to serve as a senior adviser to the firm, whose investors allegedly include a Saudi accused of ties to terrorist support groups. . . . Just days after 9/11, wealthy Saudi Arabians, including members of the bin Laden family, were whisked out of the US on private jets. No one will admit to clearing the flights, and the passengers weren't questioned. Did the Bush family's long relationship with the Saudis help make it happen?
... snip ...

and from the law of unintended consequences that come back to bite you (including 9/11);
https://www.amazon.com/Family-Secrets-Americas-Invisible-Government-ebook/dp/B003NSBMNA/
pg292/loc6057-59:
There was also a calculated decision to use the Saudis as surrogates in the cold war. The United States actually encouraged Saudi efforts to spread the extremist Wahhabi form of Islam as a way of stirring up large Muslim communities in Soviet-controlled countries. (It didn't hurt that Muslim Soviet Asia contained what were believed to be the world's largest undeveloped reserves of oil.)
... snip ...

Note in the 80s during Iran/Iraq war, US supported Iraq & Saddam, including supplying WMDs. Then in 90s, sat. photo recon analyst told white house that saddam was marshaling forces to invade Kuwait. White house said that they didn't believe him and proceeded to discredit the analyst. Later the analyst informed the white house that saddam was marshaling forces to invade Saudi Arabia, now the white house has to choose between saddam and the Saudis.
https://www.amazon.com/Long-Strange-Journey-Intelligence-ebook/dp/B004NNV5H2/

Before the last Iraq invasion, the cousin of white house chief of staff Card ... was dealing with the Iraqis at the UN and was given evidence that WMDs (tracing back to US in the Iran/Iraq war) had been decommissioned. the cousin shared it with Card, Powell and others ... then is locked up in military hospital, book was published in 2010 (4yrs before decommissioned WMDs were declassified)
https://www.amazon.com/EXTREME-PREJUDICE-Terrifying-Story-Patriot-ebook/dp/B004HYHBK2/
NY Times series from 2014, the decommission WMDs (tracing back to US from Iran/Iraq war), had been found early in the invasion, but the information was classified for a decade
http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2014/10/14/world/middleeast/us-casualties-of-iraq-chemical-weapons.html

This old Jan1999 (two decades ago) post by one of the attendees at conference Compaq/Tandem/Atalla (Tandem had bought Atalla, a ATM cash machine security vendor, before Compaq bought Tandem) sponsored for us, references the S&L crises hit CITI so hard that it required a private bailout (Saudis) to stay in business.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aepay3.htm#riskm

Roll forward to economic mess, YE2008, just the four largest TBTF were holding $5.2T in offbook toxic assets, with Citi holding the largest amount. Original justification for TARP was supposedly to buy these toxic assets, but with only $700B appropriated it would have barely dented the problem ... instead it was used for things like AIG (to make face value payoffs for the CDS gambling bets) and the trillions needed came from he Federal Reserve (folklore in part, to help Sandis).

'29 crash, Pecora Hearings, FDIC insured and/or Glass-Steagall posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#Pecora&/orGlass-Steagall
Fed chairman posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#fed.chairman
ZIRP posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#zirp
TBTF (too big to fail, too big to prosecute, too big to jail) posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#too-big-to-fail
(triple-a rated) toxic CDO posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#toxic.cdo

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

IBM Mainframe Z14

Refed: **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: IBM Mainframe Z14
Date: 24 Feb 2019
Blog: Facebook
Standard industry benchmark for a long time was number of iterations compared to iterations on 370/158 assumed to be 1MIPS (million instructions per second).
z900, 16 processors, 2.5BIPS (156MIPS/proc), Dec2000
z990, 32 processors, 9BIPS, (281MIPS/proc), 2003
z9, 54 processors, 18BIPS (333MIPS/proc), July2005
z10, 64 processors, 30BIPS (469MIPS/proc), Feb2008
z196, 80 processors, 50BIPS (625MIPS/proc), Jul2010
EC12, 101 processors, 75BIPS (743MIPS/proc), Aug2012
z13, 140 processors, 100BIPS (710MIPS/proc), Jan2015
z14, 170 processors, 150BIPS (862MIPS/proc), Aug2017


single z14 processor @862MIPS is almost 200 3033 processors, max configured z14, 34,000 3033 processors.

z196 time-frame, standard cloud system was e5-2600 blade that benchmarked around 500BIPS (billion instructions per second, ten times max configured z196 or 3-4 current max configured z14). A single typical cloud megadatacenter would have some half million such systems (500,000*500BIPS or 250,000 TIPS, trillion instructions per second).

Current typical cloud blade system is around ten times faster (nearly ten yrs later) ... or a few TIPS, with 60 some blades systems to a rack (60*5TIPS = 300TIPS, ie around equivalent 2,000 max configured z14s, in about the same space as single z14) and 500k-1M blade systems per typical cloud megadatacenter (2.5 to 5 million TIPS ... or around the equivalent of >30 million max configured z14s).

Z14 posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017g.html#87 IBM z14 High-lights
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017g.html#88 IBM Mainframe Ushers in New Era of Data Protection
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017g.html#103 SEX
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017h.html#18 IBM RAS
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017h.html#61 computer component reliability, 1951
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017h.html#89 z14 and zBX
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017h.html#95 PDP-11 question
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017i.html#37 learning Unix, was progress in e-mail, such as AOL
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017i.html#62 64 bit addressing into the future
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017i.html#73 When Working From Home Doesn't Work
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017j.html#3 Somewhat Interesting Mainframe Article
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017j.html#15 Blockchain on Mainframe ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017k.html#8 IBM Mainframe
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017k.html#39 IBM etc I/O channels?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017k.html#47 When did the home computer die?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017k.html#50 Can anyone remember "drum" storage?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017k.html#57 When did the home computer die?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017k.html#65 Intrigued by IBM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018b.html#53 Think you know web browsers? Take this quiz and prove it
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018c.html#30 Bottlenecks and Capacity planning
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018d.html#3 Has Microsoft commuted suicide
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018d.html#42 Mainframes and Supercomputers, From the Beginning Till Today
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018f.html#12 IBM mainframe today
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018f.html#21 IBM today
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#7 10 Years With Tux

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Astronomy topic drift

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Astronomy topic drift
Date: 25 Feb 2019
Blog: Facebook
I got into somewhat later in life. In 1980 the new IBM STL lab was bursting at the seams and they were moving 300 people from the IMS group to offsite bldg with dataprocessing service back to the STL datacenter. They had tried "remote 3270" and found the human factors totally unacceptable (3270 controller with 19.2kbit link back to host VTAM). I get con'ed into doing channel extender support for them ... placing a "channel attached" controller at the offiste bldg with connection back to STL datacenter. A hardware vendor had built boxes that emulated IBM channel, transmitting channel programs and data over link. I do programming support to run the links in full duplex, constantly transmitting in both direction ... which goes a long way to masking the distance latency (which would have been enormous if was directly communicating the high overhead, half duplex IBM channel protocol chatter), and users don't notice difference in local channel attached 3270 at STL and at offsite bldg.

As part of doing channel-extender work, I get sucked into doing other kinds of "networking" ... and eventually have a project I call HSDT supporting T1 and faster speed links (both satellite and terrestrial). As a result, we also get involved with NSF director and were suppose to get $20M to interconnect the NSF supercomputer centers, including one that was suppose to be at Berkeley. Apparently because of the supercomputer interconnect work, got asked to be involved with what they called the Berkeley "10 meter telescope" (one meter segements arrainged in 10 meter) that they were planning on placing on top of mountain in Hawaii. They were also working on transition from film to digial/CCD and various testing was being run at Lick Observatory (east of San Jose). Where I got involved was they wanted to be able to do remote viewing back on the mainland and needed high-speed link support. At the time they had 40kpixel CCDs (200x200) ... although there were rumors that Spielberg had some 4megapixel CCDs (2Kx2K). While CCDs had 100 times light capture efficiency of film, at the time CCDs cells weren't stable, needed constant temperature and 30sec white board calibration (different cells generate different amount of electrical signal for the same light). Along the way, they got into dispute with NSF and refused to take NSF money and eventually found $80M from the Keck Foundation, and the project turns into the "Keck 10meter".
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/W._M._Keck_Observatory

And part of remote observing issue, there is high altitude sickness for some people

Back to the channel-extender work, the hardware vendor tried to get IBM to let them ship my support to customers, but there was a group in POK working on some serial stuff who were afraid that if it was in the market, it would be harder to get their stuff released ... and they manage to block the release. In 1988, I'm asked to help LLNL standardize some serial stuff they had been playing with which quickly becomes fibre channel standard ... including some stuff that I had done back in 1980. Finally in 1990, the POK people get their stuff released as part of ES/9000 as ESCON when it is already obsolete.

NSF had given $60M to UC for Berkeley supercomputer center ... but the UC Regents master plan had the next new bldg going to UCSD ... and it morphs into the San Diego supercomputer center.

And to the $20M, congress had cut the budget, some other things happen and eventually some years later, NSF releases an RFP (in part based on what we already have running). Internal IBM politics prevent us from bidding, the NSF director tries to help by writing the company a letter (with support from other gov. agencies), but that just makes the internal politics worse (as does the comments that what we already have running was at least 5yrs ahead of all RFP responses to build something new). preliminary announce (28Mar1986)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002k.html#12 as
regional networks connect into the centers, it morphs into the NSFNET backbone, precursor to modern internet.

channel extender posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#channel.extender
HSDT posts
http://www.garilc.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#hsdt
NSFNET posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#nsfnet

past posts mentioning Keck Foundation/Observatory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004h.html#7 CCD technology
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006t.html#12 Ranking of non-IBM mainframe builders?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009m.html#82 ATMs by the Numbers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009m.html#85 ATMs by the Numbers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009o.html#55 TV Big Bang 10/12/09
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010i.html#24 Program Work Method Question
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011b.html#58 Other early NSFNET backbone
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011d.html#9 Hawaii board OKs plan for giant telescope
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012k.html#10 Slackware
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012k.html#86 OT: Physics question and Star Trek
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012o.html#55 360/20, was 1132 printer history
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014.html#8 We're About to Lose Net Neutrality -- And the Internet as We Know It
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014.html#76 Royal Pardon For Turing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014g.html#50 Revamped PDP-11 in Honolulu or maybe Santa Fe
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014h.html#56 Revamped PDP-11 in Brooklyn
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014h.html#75 Revamped PDP-11 in Brooklyn
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015.html#20 Spaceshot: 3,200-megapixel camera for powerful cosmos telescope moves forward
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017g.html#51 Stopping the Internet of noise
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018c.html#89 Earth's atmosphere just crossed another troubling climate change threshold
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018d.html#76 George Lucas reveals his plan for Star Wars 7 through 9--and it was awful
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018f.html#22 A Tea Party Movement to Overhaul the Constitution Is Quietly Gaining
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018f.html#71 Is LINUX the inheritor of the Earth?

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Iran Payments

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Iran Payments
Date: 25 Feb 2019
Blog: Facebook
Democrats and Obama did not give $150 billion to Iran
https://www.apnews.com/afs:Content:2693370009

This is part of The Associated Press' ongoing effort to fact-check misinformation that is shared widely online, including work with Facebook to identify and reduce the circulation of false stories on the platform.

The 79 revolution against the Shah and (death squad) SAVAK
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iranian_Revolution
... US froze Iranian assets in this country. Over the years various diplomatic efforts have resulted in unfreezing various amounts of those assets... included some $400M that the previous Iranian gov. had paid for US military hardware that was never delivered (but US then resold to other countries ... getting paid twice).
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iranian_frozen_assets
more release of assets over the years by various administrations
http://time.com/4441046/400-million-iran-hostage-history

The World Crisis, Vol. 1, Churchill explains the mess in middle east started with move from 13.5in to 15in guns (requiring move from coal to oil) before WW1; loc2012-14:
From the beginning there appeared a ship carrying ten 15-inch guns, and therefore at least 600 feet long with room inside her for engines which would drive her 21 knots and capacity to carry armour which on the armoured belt, the turrets and the conning tower would reach the thickness unprecedented in the British Service of 13 inches.

loc2087-89:
To build any large additional number of oil-burning ships meant basing our naval supremacy upon oil. But oil was not found in appreciable quantities in our islands. If we required it, we must carry it by sea in peace or war from distant countries.

loc2151-56:
This led to enormous expense and to tremendous opposition on the Naval Estimates. Yet it was absolutely impossible to turn back. We could only fight our way forward, and finally we found our way to the Anglo-Persian Oil agreement and contract, which for an initial investment of two millions of public money (subsequently increased to five millions) has not only secured to the Navy a very substantial proportion of its oil supply, but has led to the acquisition by the Government of a controlling share in oil properties and interests which are at present valued at scores of millions sterling, and also to very considerable economies, which are still continuing, in the purchase price of Admiralty oil.
... snip ...

When the newly elected democratic government wanted to review the Anglo-Persian contract, US arranged coup and backed Shah as front
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kermit_Roosevelt,_Jr%2E
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1953_Iranian_coup_d%27%C3%A9tat
... and Schwarzkoph (senior) training of the secret police to help keep Shah in power
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SAVAK

slightly different version

Family of Secrets
https://www.amazon.com/Family-Secrets-Americas-Invisible-Government-ebook/dp/B003NSBMNA/
pg309/loc6424-28:
His father, Shah Reza Pahlavi, had been installed by two coups—one British (1947), the other American (1953)—and was incompetent, fabulously corrupt, and gratuitously brutal. The shah's first national police force, the Gendarmerie, was trained by U.S. World War II veteran General Norman Schwarzkopf (whose namesake son led Poppy Bush's "Desert Storm" war on Iraq's Saddam Hussein in 1991). After the 1953 CIA-sponsored coup that toppled a popularly elected prime minister and restored the shah to dictatorial power, it was clear that Reza Pahlavi needed protection against his own people. pg310/loc6428-29: So the CIA, under Allen Dulles and deputy director Richard Helms, helped train a new Iranian secret police force, the dreaded SAVAK.
.... snip ...

a little drift; from the law of unintended consequences that come back to bite you (including 9/11); pg292/loc6057-59:
There was also a calculated decision to use the Saudis as surrogates in the cold war. The United States actually encouraged Saudi efforts to spread the extremist Wahhabi form of Islam as a way of stirring up large Muslim communities in Soviet-controlled countries. (It didn't hurt that Muslim Soviet Asia contained what were believed to be the world's largest undeveloped reserves of oil.)
... snip ...

other recent refs:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#41 Family of Secrets
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#43 Billionaire warlords: Why the future is medieval
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#45 Jeffrey Skilling, Former Enron Chief, Released After 12 Years in Prison

Note in the 80s during Iran/Iraq war, US supported Iraq & Saddam, including supplying WMDs. Then in 90s, sat. photo recon analyst told white house that saddam was marshaling forces to invade Kuwait. White house said that they didn't believe him and proceeded to discredit the analyst. Later the analyst informed the white house that saddam was marshaling forces to invade Saudi Arabia, now the white house has to choose between saddam and the Saudis.
https://www.amazon.com/Long-Strange-Journey-Intelligence-ebook/dp/B004NNV5H2/

Before the invasion, the cousin of white house chief of staff Card ... was dealing with the Iraqis at the UN and was given evidence that WMDs (tracing back to US in the Iran/Iraq war) had been decommissioned. the cousin shared it with Card, Powell and others ... then is locked up in military hospital, book was published in 2010 (4yrs before decommissioned WMDs were declassified)
https://www.amazon.com/EXTREME-PREJUDICE-Terrifying-Story-Patriot-ebook/dp/B004HYHBK2/
NY Times series from 2014, the decommission WMDs (tracing back to US from Iran/Iraq war), had been found early in the invasion, but the information was classified for a decade
http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2014/10/14/world/middleeast/us-casualties-of-iraq-chemical-weapons.html

past posts refs "The World Crisis, Vol. 1"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016d.html#78 The World Crisis, Vol. 1
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016d.html#85 The World Crisis, Vol. 1
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016e.html#30 The World Crisis, Vol. 1
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016e.html#66 Dinosaurisation of we oldies?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016e.html#70 E.R. Burroughs
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016e.html#72 Dinosaurisation of we oldies?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016e.html#75 Dinosaurisation of we oldies?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016e.html#84 E.R. Burroughs
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016e.html#90 Google and Facebook put their fierce rivalry aside to save money in this key area
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016f.html#21 US and UK have staged coups before
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016f.html#23 Frieden calculator
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016h.html#36 "I used a real computer at home...and so will you" (Popular Science May 1967)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#72 A Coal Fire May Have Helped Sink the 'Titanic'
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#33 CBS News: WikiLeaks claims to release thousands of CIA documents of computer activity
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#90 Economist, Harry Dent Hints: Global Banks Facing a Serious Crisis in Months Ahead
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017e.html#97 [CM] What was your first home computer?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017h.html#104 Iraq, Longest War
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017h.html#115 When It Comes to the War in the Greater Middle East, Maybe We're the Bad Guys
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018.html#14 Predicting the future in five years as seen from 1983
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018.html#82 DEC and HVAC
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018b.html#30 free, huh, was Bitcoin confusion?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018b.html#105 CIA Caught Between Operational Security and Analytical Quality In 1953 Iran Coup Planning
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018c.html#59 America's War for the Greater Middle East: A Military History
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018c.html#104 Iran shrink-wrapped $100 Payments
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018d.html#99 tablets and desktops was Has Microsoft
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018f.html#88 Trump administration appointee quits lobbying for Saudi Arabia

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virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Pentagon harbors culture of revenge against whistleblowers

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Pentagon harbors culture of revenge against whistleblowers
Date: 26 Feb 2019
Blog: Facebook
Pentagon harbors culture of revenge against whistleblowers; ‘Your chances of avoiding professional suicide are akin to winning the lottery,' one advocate says
http://www.rollcall.com/news/pentagon-whistleblowers-often-face-retaliation-that-goes-unpunished

older refs

How the Pentagon punished NSA whistleblowers
http://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2016/may/22/how-pentagon-punished-nsa-whistleblowers
Former CIA Analyst Sues Defense Department to Vindicate NSA Whistleblowers
https://theintercept.com/2017/02/10/former-cia-analyst-sues-defense-department-to-vindicate-nsa-whistleblowers/

After turn of century, private equity buying up beltway bandits and goverment contractors and hiring prominent politicians to lobby congress to outsource/privatize federal government, just intelligence, 70% of the budget and over half the people
http://www.investingdaily.com/17693/spies-like-us
and accelerating the rapidly spreading success of failure culture (more profit from a series of failures)
http://www.govexec.com/excellence/management-matters/2007/04/the-success-of-failure/24107/

Gerstner leaves IBM to head up major private-equity company that will acquire the beltway bandit that will employee Snowden as well as some former agency directors ("revolving door").
http://www.motherjones.com/politics/2007/10/barbarians-capitol-private-equity-public-enemy/
Lou Gerstner, former ceo of ibm, now heads the Carlyle Group, a Washington-based global private equity firm whose 2006 revenues of $87 billion were just a few billion below ibm's. Carlyle has boasted George H.W. Bush, George W. Bush, and former Secretary of State James Baker III on its employee roster.
... snip ...

We were possibly tangentially involved ... although we didn't know it at the time. There was unclassified BAA from IC-ARDA (now IARPA) that basically said that nothing they had did the job ... and we got a call just before it closed, asking if we could get a response in (nobody else had responded). We got a response in, had a couple of meetings summer 2002, demonstrating we could do what was needed, and then nothing. It wasn't until we saw the success of failure article, that we began to suspect what went on (disclaimer: i've never worked for government and/or had clearance). Note there is possibility the person that called us was disciplined.

past posts mentioning IC-ARDA
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015.html#54 How do we take political considerations into account in the OODA-Loop?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015.html#72 George W. Bush: Still the worst; A new study ranks Bush near the very bottom in history
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015f.html#20 Credit card fraud solution coming to America...finally
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015f.html#26 Gerstner after IBM becomes Carlyle chairman
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015h.html#32 (External):Re: IBM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016b.html#39 Failure as a Way of Life; The logic of lost wars and military-industrial boondoggles
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016b.html#62 The NSA's back door has given every US secret to our enemies
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016f.html#40 Misc. Success of Failure
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016h.html#96 This Is How The US Government Destroys The Lives Of Patriotic Whistleblowers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#64 Improving Congress's oversight of the intelligence community
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#35 Former CIA Analyst Sues Defense Department to Vindicate NSA Whistleblowers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#47 WikiLeaks CIA Dump: Washington's Data Security Is a Mess
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017f.html#101 Nice article about MF and Government
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017h.html#23 This Is How The US Government Destroys The Lives Of Patriotic Whistleblowers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017i.html#11 The General Who Lost 2 Wars, Leaked Classified Information to His Lover--and Retired With a $220,000 Pension
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#6 The Pentagon Is Building a Dream Team of Tech-Savvy Soldiers

x-over from another discussion ... conjecture that (private-equity owned) beltway bandits used game theory to maximize revenue ... found a series of failed efforts is more revenue than an immediate success, another unintended consequence, "Game theory, or using math to find the optimal solution to complex systems" (also applicable to "perpetual wars"):
http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/guest-blog/2013/02/27/why-its-smart-to-be-reckless-on-wall-street/

past refs:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013c.html#16 A Matter of Mindset: Iraq, Sequestration and the U.S. Army
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013c.html#39 NPC Luncheon with Thomas Drake, NSA Whistleblower
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013d.html#54 What Makes an Architecture Bizarre?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013d.html#72 What Makes an Architecture Bizarre?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013d.html#75 What Makes an Architecture Bizarre?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015.html#72 George W. Bush: Still the worst; A new study ranks Bush near the very bottom in history
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015c.html#23 Why Doesn't the Intelligence Community Care Whether Its Surveillance Programs Work?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017i.html#11 The General Who Lost 2 Wars, Leaked Classified Information to His Lover--and Retired With a $220,000 Pension

Senior agency employee tells the congressional oversight committee about problems (and shares unclassified information with reporter) ... bringing down the wrath of the agency on his head, including charged under the WW1 espionage act (same act used to charge Snowden). The congressional oversight committee puts the agency on probation not being able to manage its own project for five years ... but that may have actually just been to further privatise agency activities. About the time probation period is up, the charges against the former agency executive are dropped.

The General Who Lost 2 Wars, Leaked Classified Information to His Lover--and Retired With a $220,000 Pension (and goes to work for another major private-equity company)
https://www.thenation.com/article/the-general-who-lost-2-wars-leaked-classified-information-to-his-lover-and-retired-with-a-220000-pension/
The experience of former NSA senior executive Thomas Drake who shared unclassified information about that agency's wasteful ways with a reporter is more typical of what leakers should expect. Although the Justice Department eventually dropped the most serious charges against him--he pled guilty to a single misdemeanor--he lost his job and his pension, went bankrupt, and has spent years working at an Apple store after being prosecuted under the World War I-era Espionage Act. "My social contacts are gone, and I'm persona non grata," he told Defense One last year. "I can't find any work in government contracting or in the quasi-government space, those who defend whistleblowers won't touch me."
... snip ...

NPC Luncheon with Thomas Drake, NSA Whistleblower
http://www.press.org/events/npc-luncheon-thomas-drake-nsa-whistleblower
wiki page:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Andrews_Drake
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ThinThread
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trailblazer_Project

whistleblower posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#whistleblower
private equity posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#private.equity
success of failure posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#success.of.failure
military-industrial(-congressional) complex posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#military.industrial.complex

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virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Rating agencies

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Rating agencies
Date: 26 Feb 2019
Blog: Facebook
Rating Agencies played major role in economic mess last decade. Testimony in the OCT2008 congressional hearings (into the role that rating agencies played) was that the rating agencies were being paid for triple-A rating on securitized mortgages when they knew they weren't worth triple-A, that ratings were for the benefit of the buyer and use to be paid for by the buyer. Then the rating agencies change to having the seller pay for the ratings and the business model became misaligned, the rating agencies aligned with the seller, but in theory providing something for the benefit of the buyer ... and it becomes almost impossible to regulate an industry when the business model is misaligned and they are motivated to do the wrong thing.

They can now make no-documentation, no-down, liar loans (triple-A trumps documentation), securitize, pay for triple-A (no longer need to care about borrowers' qualification or loan quality) and sell into the bond market (including to buyers that are restricted to only dealing in "safe" investments, like pension funds), major factor in being able to do over $27T 2001-2008.

economic mess posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#economic.mess
(triple-A rated) toxic CDO posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#toxic.cdo

Rhetoric on the floor of congress was that SOX would prevent future ENRONs and guarantee that executives and auditors did jailtime, however it required SEC to do something. Possibly because even GAO didn't believe SEC was doing anything, GAO started doing reports of public company fraudulent financial filings, even showing that they increased after SOX goes into effect (and nobody doing jailtime).

In the MADOFF congressional hearings they had the person that had unsuccesfully tried for over a decade to get SEC to do something about MADOFF (SEC's hands were forced when MADOFF turned himself in, folklore is he did it looking for gov. protection after defauding some unsavory characters).

Less well known is that Sarbanes-Oxley also required SEC to do something about the rating agencies, but they did about as much about rating agencies as they did about Madoff and fraudulent financial filings.

enron posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#enron
sarbanes-oxiley posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#sarbanes.oxley
madoff posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#madoff

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virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

3090/3880 trivia

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: 3090/3880 trivia
Date: 27 Feb 2019
Blog: Facebook
re: cover colors; science center 360/67 eventually had five 8(9) drive banks of 2314 and single 5 drive bank (45 drives). The CE painted each cover a different color ... so could more easily identify which set of drives dealing with.

When they were designing 3090 configurations ... it included the number of channels necessary to have balanced system throughput ... and assumed that 3880 (3380 controller) would have the same characteristics as the previous 3830 (3330&3350) with the addition of doing 3mbyte/sec transfer. However the 3880 had a much slower processor (than 3830, used for control operations) with special hardware dataflow. As a result the channel busy for i/o operation was significantly higher than they were planning on.

In order to compensate for the significant increase in channel busy (than planned on) and attempt to achieve 3090 throughput objectives, they had to significantly increase configuration number of channels (to compensate for the enormous increase in channel busy per i/o operation). The increase in number of channels then required adding another TCM to 3090 configurations (each TCM was an significant part of 3090 manufacturing cost). There was facetious reference that 3090 group was going to charge off the manufacturing cost for each extra 3090 TCM to the 3880 controller group.

Marketing then respins the enormous increase in number of 3090 channels (compared to earlier machines) as advantages for high I/O throughput workloads ... when in fact it was just of offset the horrible increase in 3880 controller channel busy.

other recent posts mentioning extra 3090 channels needed
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016b.html#23 IBM's 3033; "The Big One": IBM's 3033
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016d.html#24 What was a 3314?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016e.html#45 How the internet was invented
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016f.html#5 More IBM DASD RAS discussion
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016h.html#53 Why Can't You Buy z Mainframe Services from Amazon Cloud Services?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#69 The ICL 2900
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#70 The ICL 2900
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#94 GREAT presentation on the history of the mainframe
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#1 GREAT presentation on the history of the mainframe
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#3 GREAT presentation on the history of the mainframe
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017g.html#61 What is the most epic computer glitch you have ever seen?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017i.html#48 64 bit addressing into the future
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017k.html#11 thrashing, was Re: A Computer That Never Was: the IBM 7095
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017k.html#25 little old mainframes, Re: Was it ever worth it?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018.html#0 Intrigued by IBM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018c.html#30 Bottlenecks and Capacity planning
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018d.html#48 IPCS, DUMPRX, 3092, EREP
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#71 PDP 11/40 system manual
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018f.html#109 IBM Token-Ring
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#38 long-winded post thread, 3033, 3081, Future System

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virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Series/1 NCP/VTAM

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Series/1 NCP/VTAM
Date: 03 Mar 2019
Blog: Facebook
Early 70s, science center tried to convince CPD to use the Series/1 peachtree processor in place of UC (because it was significantly better).

Mid-80s, baby bell had developed NCP/VTAM emulator on Series/1 ... that provided enormously more function at significantly lower cost. I get con'ed into turning it out as type-1 product. There was enormous amount of effort to fence off CPD dirty tricks ... the largest 3705 customer even offered to fully fund the effort ... since it would completely recover all costs within 9months (if he could replace all his real 37x5 boxes). What CPD did next to kill the effort can only be described as truth is stranger than fiction.

I possibly made mistake doing presentation at 1986 SNA ARB meeting in raleigh ... rubbing their noses in it. All the technical people thought it was much better than what they had to work on. The only thing the executive responsible for ARB wanted to know was who authorized me to present at ARB. Old post with part of that presentation
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#67

CPD first started having people attack the numbers were wrong (not how they were wrong, just that they were wrong). I pointed out the Series/1 numbers come from real live Bell configurations and the 37x5 numbers come from the CPD HONE configurators. Their objections were all obfuscation, misdirection, smoke ... w/o any content. They even tried to assert that I didn't have access HONE and couldn't have run configurators .... possibly oblivious to the fact that from the time I first joined IBM fresh out of school was one of my hobbies was enhanced, production systems for internal datacenters ... and HONE was a long time customer ... so I had all the HONE access that anybody could pos sibly need.

one of the baby bell people also presented at IBM user group, COMMON, part of detail
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#70

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virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

IBM/PC Uptake

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: IBM/PC Uptake
Date: 03 Mar 2019
Blog: Facebook
Large corporations would have tens of thousand 3270s ... a IBM/PC with terminal emulation had about the same cost as 3270 ... and get terminal with some local computing in single footprint (little effort to switch from justified 3270s to IBM/PC with terminal emulation).

My brother was regional Apple marketing rep (largest physical region CONUS) and when he came into town, I could get invited to Apple business dinners. Even before MAC was announced, I would argue with MAC developers that they should have terminal emulation ... they would absolutely refuse to contaminate MAC with anything commercial.

corporate 3270 emulation seeded the initial IBM/PC market/volumes ... but as PC power advanced, paradigms evolved into client/server and distributed computing and CPD was striving to keep things frozen.

Late 80s, senior disk engineer got a talk scheduled at internal, annual, world-wide communication group conference, supposedly on 3174 performance, but opened the talk that the communication group was going to be responsible for the demise of the disk division. The issue was the communication group had stranglehold on datacenters with its corporate strategic ownership of everything that crossed the datacenter walls and was fighting off client/server and distributed computing trying to preserve their (emulated) dumb terminal paradigm and install base. The disk division was seeing data fleeing the mainframe datacenters to more distributed computing friendly platforms with drop in disk sales. The disk division had come up with a number of solutions, but they were constantly being vetoed by the communication group. terminal emulation posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#terminal

IBM formed SBS with Comsat and AETNA (each having 1/3rd ownership). One of the issues was so many IBMers came over that SBS had the same number of management levels as IBM (for .5% the number of employees) .... over half the employees were director or above. In part as a result, SBS always was significantly in the RED. The joke was that the profit IBM made on the hardware it sold SBS more than offset IBM's 1/3rd of the SBS losses. Folklore is that when SBS was dissolved, IBM reimbursed Comsat and AETNA for their losses.

disclaimer: 3 people came out to the univ. from the science center the last week Jan1968 to install CP/67. It supported 1052 & 2741 terminals and had terminal type identification, using terminal controller "SAD" ccw to switch line-port scanner type. Univ. had some number of ASCII/TTY terminals and I added ASCII/TTY terminal support, including being able to do automatic terminal type identification across all three types. I then wanted to have single dial-in number ("hung group") for all terminal types. It didn't quite work, while it was possible to switch terminal-port scanner type ... IBM controllers hard wired each line speed.

This contributed to Univ. starting clone terminal project, taking Interdata/3, building channel interface hardware for the interdata/3 and programmed to emulate IBM terminal controller ... but also being able to dynamicly recognize terminal/character speed. This was then enhanced with Interdata/4 for the channel interface and a cluster of interdata/3s for port/line interfaces. Interdata (and later Perkin/Elmer) market this as IBM clone controller. Four of us get written up for (some part of) clone controller business. clone controller posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#360pcm

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virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

IBM bureaucracy

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: IBM bureaucracy
Date: 03 Mar 2019
Blog: Facebook
IBM created "IBU" (independent business units), supposedly to address the heavy bureaucracy issues. AWD was one such IBU and would try to use the IBU card at Austin plant site, but the uniform response was IBU can bypass others bureaucracy but not theirs (which seem to be the default response for all). Then for RS/6000 microchannel, AWD was told they couldn't do their own microchannel cards, they had to help their IBM brethern and use PS2 microchannel cards. Problem was that CPD was fighting hard to restrict PS2 to dumb terminal paradigm. AWD had done their own 4mbit token-ring card for the (AT-bus) PC/RT. The PS2 microchannel 16mbit T/R card was designed for hundreds of stations sharing the same 16mbits, doing dumb terminals. As a result, the PC/RT 4mbit token-ring card had higher throughput than the PS2 16mbit token-ring card (PC/RT could be faster server than RS/6000, joke was RS/6000 wouldn't be any faster than PS2, limited to PS2 cards). As a work-around AWD eventually came out with the RS/6000 730 ... with a VMEBUS (instead of microchannel), which met that they could use industry standard, high performance workstation VMEBUS cards. 801, risc, romp, rios, pc/rt, rs/6000, etc posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#801

disclaimer: at the univ. I had taken 2hr intro computers/fortran and then within a year was hired fulltime to be responsible for the IBM academic and administration mainframe systems. Before I graduate, I'm hired fulltime into small group in Boeing CFO office to help with the formation of Boeing Computer Services (all dataprocessing moved into independent business unit to better monetize the investment, including offering services to non-Boeing entities). I thought that Renton datacenter was possibly largest in the world, couple hundred million in IBM mainframes (60s $$$), 360/65s arriving faster than they could be installed, boxes constantly staged in the hallways around the machine room. Polical battles between CFO (who had 360/30 for payroll) and the head of Renton datacenter (with enormous boatload of IBM 360/65s). There was also a disaster scenario with Mt. Rainier heats up and the resulting mudslide takes out the Renton datacenter ... so things were in the works to duplicate Renton at the new 747 plant at Paine field (double the cost & number of those mainframes)

topic drift: I was introduced to John Boyd in the early 80s and he would talk about being very vocal against electronics across the trail. Possibly as punishment, he was put in command of "spook base" (about the time I was at Boeing). One of his biographies says that "spook base" was $2.5B "windfall" for IBM (ten times Renton, again 60s $$$, about seven times that in current dollars). Boyd posts and URLs
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subboyd.html

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virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Bureaucracy and Agile

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Bureaucracy and Agile
Date: 03 Mar 2019
Blog: Facebook
some four decades ago, congress passes import quotas on foreign autos, reducing reducing competition, and enormously increasing profits with expectation that they would use the money to remake themselves ... however they just pocketed the money and continued busy as usual. As a result, early 80s, there was call for 100% unearned profit tax on the US auto industry.

Then 1990, the industry has the C4 taskforce to (finally?) look at completely remaking themselves and because they were planning on heavily leveraging technology, they invited major technology vendors to send representatives. One of the issues was the US industry was taking 7-8yrs from start to rolling off the line, with two efforts offset 3-4 years (so it looks like something is coming more frequently, with cosmetic changes in between). Toyota had cut that time in half in the 80s and in 1990 was in the process of cutting it in half again (18-24months) ... allowing it to adapt more quickly to new technologies and changing consumer preferences.

from more recent auto bailouts, they weren't successful in make-over ... too many stakeholders and vested interests trying to preserve status quo. C4 taskforce posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#auto.c4.taskforce

I was introduced to John Boyd in the early 80s and would sponsor Boyd's briefings at IBM (and I get sucked into military strategy conferences, even after he passes still at Marine Corps University) ... part was about former military officers that were steeped in rigid, heavy-weight, top-down, command&control, were starting to contaminant US corporations. Other briefing was parts of OODA-loop which he originated. Boyd posts (& URLs)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subboyd.html

My post today in military stategy discussion

something I periodically quote as possibly precursor to Boyd's OODA-loop ... from 1846 (free ebook):
https://www.amazon.com/Elements-Instruction-Fortification-Embracing-ebook/dp/B002RKSO9K/
loc5019-20:
A rapid coup d'oeil prompt decision, active movements, are as indispensable as sound judgment; for the general must see, and decide, and act, all in the same instant.
... snip ...

followed by long discussion of lots of great conquerors started in their teens; that Napoleon started as officer in his teens as did many of his generals (and were still quite young) ... most of the opposition was headed by generals in their 60s-80s .... does mention that Wellington was same age as Napoleon and studied at the same military schools in France ... some implication about can't teach old dogs, new tricks.

Potentially Boyd turns "see" into "observe" and adds "orientation" ... both coup d'oeil and "fingerspitzengefahl" ... speed is frequently important, but can be trade-off confusing the enemy with changing the tempo. Adding "orientation", also allows Boyd to talk about needing to constantly observing from every possible facet (as countermeasure to orientation/confirmation bias).

almost finished with Chernow's Grant and has several references to west point academics ambivalent(?) about Grant's finger-feel for war ... somewhat similar to MBAs & consulting houses ambivalence about Toyota TBS (difficulty turning it into something they can charge for, .. akin to Muth's "school solutions" in "Command Culture", contrasted to exercises formulating solutions).

How Toyota Turns Workers Into Problem Solvers
http://hbswk.hbs.edu/item/how-toyota-turns-workers-into-problem-solvers
To paraphrase one of our contacts, he said, "It's not that we don't want to tell you what TPS is, it's that we can't. We don't have adequate words for it. But, we can show you what TPS is."

We've observed that Toyota, its best suppliers, and other companies that have learned well from Toyota can confidently distribute a tremendous amount of responsibility to the people who actually do the work, from the most senior, experienced member of the organization to the most junior. This is accomplished because of the tremendous emphasis on teaching everyone how to be a skillful problem solver.

... snip ...

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Economic Mess

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Economic Mess
Date: 03 Mar 2019
Blog: Facebook
risk managers were being forced by some of the business people to fiddle the inputs until they got the desired results; GIGO, garbage-in, garbage-out.

1999 I was asked to help try and stop the coming economic mess. I was told that some investment bankers had walked away "clean" from the S&L crises, were then running Internet IPO "mills" (invest a few million, hype, IPO for a few billion, they needed to then fail to leave the field clear for the next round of IPOs) and were predicted to get into securitized mortgages next.

I was to improve the integrity of securitized mortgages supporting documents as countermeasure. They then find they can pay for triple-A rating (when rating agencies knew they weren't worth triple-A, from testimony at Oct2008 congressional hearings) and can start doing no-documentation, liar loans (triple-A trumps supporting documents, the no longer have to care about borrowers' qualifications and/or loan quality). Triple-A significantly helps being able to sell over $27T 2001-2008 into bond market, including selling to entities restricted to "safe" investments, like large pension funds.

Decade later, Jan2009, I'm asked to HTML'ize the Pecora Hearings (30s senate hearings into '29crash, scanned the fall before at Boston Public Library) with lots of internal HREFs and URLs between what happened this time and what happened then (comment that the new congress may have an appetite to do something). I work on it awhile and then get a call that it won't be needed after all (reference to capital hill buried under enormous mountains of wallstreet cash, also there may only be 2-3 honest members left).

from the law of unintended consequences ... related to doing the no-documentation liar loans (so most of the time, there is no actual real information for doing any sort of realistic risk calculation), is the largest fines have been for the robo-signing mills fabricating the missing documents necessary for foreclosures.

CP/67 science center trivia: Fall 2008, SECTREAS gets congress to appropriate $700B supposedly to buy offbook toxic assets from the too big to fail (however, the four largest TBTF were still carrying $5.2T in offbook toxic assets ... so $700B wouldn't hardly dent the problem, SECTREAS use TARP for other things, and it was up to FEDRES to buy trillions in toxic assets at 98cents on the dollar).

In 1968, there were two CP/67 online commercial service bureau spin-offs from the science center ... both of them quickly moved up value stream specializing in the financial industry. One of the spin-offs over the years acquired the pricing services division from one of the rating agencies ... and was mentioned in JAN2009 in article about doing the offbook toxic assets risk/pricing evaluation ... but never actually happened (since there was no documentation to base the evaluation). Other trivia: early fall 2008, some tens of billions in offbook toxic assets had been sold for 22cents on the dollar, if the TBTF had been force to "mark to market" ... they would have declared insolvent and shutdown (FEDRES basically buying at near face value, as opposed to calculated valuation, to avoid shutting them down. Scientific center posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech

"Confidence Men"
https://www.amazon.com/Confidence-Men-Washington-Education-ebook/dp/B0089LOKKS/
has several references that essentially wallstreet was using the EHM (economic hit men) debt strategy against the American public. Other references were about new president having to choose between the economic A-team (Volcker et al) and the B-team. The A-team was instrumental in getting him elected, but the A-team would have held wallstreet and the too-big-to-fail accountable, which would have likely taken down most of those institutions (so new president chooses the b-team that wasn't going to hold anybody responsible).

mildly IBM PROFS related (Iran-Contra):

VP and former CIA director repeatedly claims no knowledge of
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iran%E2%80%93Contra_affair
because he was fulltime administration point person deregulating financial industry ... creating S&L crisis
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Savings_and_loan_crisis
along with other members of his family
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Savings_and_loan_crisis#Silverado_Savings_and_Loan
and another
http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9D0CE0D81E3BF937A25753C1A966958260

S&L crises posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#s&l.crisis

last decade (after turn of century) another family member is president and presides over the economic mess 70 times larger than the S&L crises. S&L crisis had 1000 criminal convictions with jailtime, proportionally the economic mess should have 70,000 (criminal convictions with jailtime), so far nobody.

all the stuff about computer power, risk modeling, etc, has been obfuscation and misdirection ... it was greed and corruption.

Oct2008 congressional hearing into major role that rating agencies played in the economic mess ... testimony that they were selling triple-A rating on stuff that they knew wasn't worth triple-A (significantly enabling over $27T 2001-2008).

Sarbanes-Oxley trivia: Rhetoric on floor of congress was that Sarbanes-Oxley would prevent future ENRONs and guarantee that executives and auditors did jailtime, but it required SEC to do something. Possibly because even GAO knew that SEC wasn't doing anything, it started doing reports of public company fraudulent financial filings ... even increased after SOX went into effect (and nobody doing jailtime).

Less well know was that SOX also required that SEC do something about the rating agencies ... but they did about as much about the rating agencies ... as they did about public company fraudulent financial filings.

Number 1 on times list of those responsible for economic mess ... ran mortgage originator, specialized in paying for triple-A and selling into the bond market (in aggregate all the players were able to do over $27T 2001-2008, NRA/CRA by comparison did well under $500B during the same period, <2%), securitzing, paying for triple-A and selling into the bond market met that major originators were no longer depository institutions regulated by FDIC
http://content.time.com/time/specials/packages/article/0,28804,1877351_1877350_1877339,00.html

#2 on times list for those responsible for the economic mess
http://content.time.com/time/specials/packages/article/0,28804,1877351_1877350_1877330,00.html
Now better known for GLBA which included repeal of Glass-Steagall (enabling too big to fail, used afterwards to not hold those accountable), however he is on the list for legislation blocking regulation of derivatives (CDS gambling bets), originally described as favor for ENRON. The chair of CFTC suggested regulating derivatives, who was then quickly replaced by #2's wife, while he got legislation blocking any regulation. The wife then resigns and joins ENRON board and audit committee.

With regard to rating agencies, it wasn't the computers, it was the "misaligned business process". Oct2008 testimony was that ratings are for the benefit of the buyers and use to be paid for by the buyers. Then the rating agencies changed to having the sellers pay for the ratings ... now the rating agencies are aligned with the sellers, even though the ratings were supposedly for the benefit of the buyers. Testimony was that it is almost impossible to regulate when the business processes are misaligned (and the players are motivated to do the wrong thing).

economic mess posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#economic.mess
enron posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#enron
sarbanes-oxiley posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#sarbanes.oxley
TBTF (too big to fail, too big to prosecute, too big to jail) posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#too-big-to-fail

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

This Paper Map Shows The Extent Of The Entire Internet In 1973

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: This Paper Map Shows The Extent Of The Entire Internet In 1973
Date: 05 Mar 2019
Blog: Facebook
This Paper Map Shows The Extent Of The Entire Internet In 1973
https://www.zerohedge.com/news/2019-03-03/paper-map-shows-extent-entire-internet-1973

The internal network was larger than arapnet/internet from just about the beginning until some time mid-80s. When arpanet converted to internetworking protocol in 1983, it had two hundred some computers when the internal network had passed 1000

old post with misc. 1983 internal network details ... some of the weekly network host/node updates ... as well as list of corporate locations that had one or more nodes added in 1983
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006k.html#8

The internal network was not SNA/VTAM ... In 1987 CPD was distributing lots of misinformation internally as part of getting the internal network converted to SNA/VTAM. By this time, it would been much more efficient and less expensive to have converted

The internal network was not SNA/VTAM ... In 1987 CPD was distributing lots of misinformation internally as part of getting the internal network converted to SNA/VTAM. By this time, it would been much more efficient and less expensive to have converted to TCP/IP .... like they did for the corporate sponsored university BITNET for BITNET2. Old email related to CPD misinformation as part of getting internal converted to SNA/VTAM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006x.html#email870302
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011.html#email870306

going on in the same period when there was all the CPD misinformation about how NSF networking could be SNA/VTAM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006w.html#email870109

ARPANET had IMP network nodes (with HOST protocol talking to the IMPs) and converted to internetworking protocol (TCP/IP) on 1Jan1983 ... at a time when there was approx. 100 IMPS network nodes and some 250 connected computers (when internal network was rapidly approaching 1000 nodes/computers).

Folklore some of the reasons for the conversion to internetworking protocol: 1) single, homogeneous, centralized controlled network (drastically inhibiting growth), 2) when anything happened in the network, the IMP administrative protocol chatter would totally saturate all of their 56kbit links (increased non-linear with number of nodes).

internal network posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#internalnet
internet posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#internet

Note SJR had the first gateway to ARPANET/Internet (actually CSNET) ... starting fall 1982, prior to the cutover to internetworking protocol 1Jan1983. Long-winded collection of old posts on the subject
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/internet.htm

co-worker at the science center responsible for the technology used in internal network (and corporate sponsored BITNET, also larger than ARPANET/Internet for a period) ... we transferred to SJR in 1977. The last collected post in "internet.htm" is article in 1999 SJMN about he lost battle in the early 80s to move IBM to TCP/IP.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/internet.htm#31
also
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#140
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000.html#85

He leaves IBM not long later ... although I'm able to hire him back as consultant for HSDT efforts.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#hsdt

1000 nodes

1000th node globe

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Bureaucracy and Agile

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Bureaucracy and Agile
Date: 03 Mar 2019
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#55 Bureaucracy and Agile

RS/6000 higher processor throughput than 3090 .... and as I've periodically outlined, the reason that 3090 had to significantly increase the number of 3090 channels was to offset the enormous 3880 disk controller channel busy (marketing then respins the enormous increase in number of channels, compared to prior mainframe generations, as huge I/O capacity). 801/risc, romp, rios, power, power/pc posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#801

in the 3090 time-frame .... the father of RISC drags me into idea he had about "wide" disk head. initial 3380 had 20 track spacing between 3mbyte/sec transfer data tracks, next 3380 doubled the number of cylinders by cutting data track spacing in half, and then tripled by cutting data track spacing again. He wanted to do "wide head" that handled 18 closely spaced tracks ... each group had 16 data tracks plus a servo track ... the wide head would read/write the 16data tracks as following servo tracks on each side.

The problem was that it would be read/write all 16 data tracks simultaneously, each data track at 3mbyte/sec, for aggregate of 48mbytes/sec ... but 3090 only had 3mbyte/sec channels.

We then did HIPPI 100mbyte half-duplex (like ibm channels but 100mbyte/sec instead of 3mbyte/sec) for RS/6000 .... relatively quickly followed by FCS which was serial, full duplex 100mbyte/sec (100mbyte/sec concurrently in each direction) ... burying mainframe CPU as well as I/O capability.

HIPPI channel
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HIPPI
Fibre Channel
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fibre_Channel

Disclaimer: In 1988 I was asked to help LLNL standardize some serial stuff they were playing with .... which quickly becomes FCS (including some stuff I had done in 1980). Note that later, some mainframe channel people become involved in FCS and define a heavy-weight protocol (that drastically reduces the native throughput), that eventually is announced as FICON.

Latest publish numbers is "peak I/O" benchmark for z196 that got 2M IOPS using 104 FICON (running over FCS) ... this was at the time when a FCS was announced for e5-2600 blade claiming over million IOPS (two such FCS having higher throughput than 104 FICON).

posts referencing FICON
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#ficon

past wide disk head posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009k.html#75 Disksize history question
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011.html#57 Speed of Old Hard Disks
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011.html#60 Speed of Old Hard Disks
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012e.html#103 Hard Disk Drive Construction
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012m.html#58 General Mills computer
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014h.html#9 Demonstrating Moore's law
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#54 GREAT presentation on the history of the mainframe
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#60 Optimizing the Hard Disk Directly
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#71 Software as a Replacement of Hardware
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#88 Paging subsystems in the era of bigass memory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017g.html#80 Running unsupported is dangerous was Re: AW: Re: LE strikes again
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017g.html#95 Hard Drives Started Out as Massive Machines That Were Rented by the Month
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017i.html#19 How to spot a dodgy company - never trust a high achiever
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018b.html#111 Didn't we have this some time ago on some SLED disks? Multi-actuator
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018c.html#83 Economists and the Powerful: Convenient Theories, Distorted Facts, Ample Rewards
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018d.html#12 3390 teardown
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018d.html#17 3390 teardown
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018f.html#33 IBM Disks

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

This Paper Map Shows The Extent Of The Entire Internet In 1973

Refed: **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: This Paper Map Shows The Extent Of The Entire Internet In 1973
Date: 05 Mar 2019
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#57 This Paper Map Shows The Extent Of The Entire Internet In 1973

Original TCP/IP mainframe product was implemented in VS/PASCAL ... and communication group fought hard to prevent its release ... and when lost, claimed that it was a communication product and had to be done through them. Released product got 40kbytes/sec throughput using nearly whole 3090 processor. I then did the enhancements for RFC1044 and some tuning tests at Cray Research between 4341 and Cray got sustained channel throughput using only modest amount of 4341 processor (possibly 500 times improvement in bytes moved per instruction executed).

rfc1044 posts
http://www.garlic .com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#1044

Sometime later communication group hired a silicon valley contractor to implement TCP/IP support in VTAM. When he first demo'ed it, TCP/IP had significantly higher throughput than LU6.2. He was then told that everybody knows that LU6.2 has significantly higher throughput than a "correct" TCP/IP implementation, and they would only be paying for a "correct" implementation.

past posts mentioning "correct" TCP/IP implementation
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002k.html#19 Vnet : Unbelievable
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006f.html#13 Barbaras (mini-)rant
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007h.html#8 whiny question: Why won't z/OS support the HMC 3270 emulator
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007q.html#45 Are there tasks that don't play by WLM's rules
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007s.html#50 Running REXX program in a batch job
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009r.html#0 Small Server Mob Advantage
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011f.html#29 TCP/IP Available on MVS When?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012j.html#23 Simulated PDP-11 Blinkenlight front panel for SimH
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012n.html#68 Should you support or abandon the 3270 as a User Interface?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013g.html#17 Tech Time Warp of the Week: The 50-Pound Portable PC, 1977
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013j.html#66 OSI: The Internet That Wasn't
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013k.html#17 OSI: The Internet That Wasn't
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013l.html#54 Mainframe On Cloud
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015g.html#42 20 Things Incoming College Freshmen Will Never Understand
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015g.html#91 IBM 4341, introduced in 1979, was 26 times faster than the 360/30
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015g.html#96 TCP joke
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016c.html#43 All is Lost At IBM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017k.html#38 CMS style XMITMSG for Unix and other platforms
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#63 EBCDIC Bad History

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Grant (& Conkling)

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Grant (& Conkling)
Date: 06 Mar 2019
Blog: Facebook
Grant (& Conkling)
https://www.amazon.com/Grant-Ron-Chernow-ebook/dp/B06W2J89PV/
pg970/loc16891-95:
Of all the Stalwarts with whom Grant forged an alliance, perhaps the most improbable was Roscoe Conkling, a foe of civil service reform. Born in Albany, Conkling had trained as a lawyer and served as mayor of Utica before being elected to the House in 1858 and the Senate in 1867. Grant made peace with Conkling at a time when New York's large block of electoral votes was critical to winning national elections. Tall and handsome with a theatrical air, Conkling was a strutting peacock with foppish curls.

pg970/loc16900-16907:
Despite his superior manner, Conkling's political acumen made him a useful mentor for Grant, who detected virtues in Conkling that escaped others, regarding him "as the greatest mind . . . that has been in public life since the beginning of the government." 30 Hamilton Fish understood the attraction, saying Conkling's advice to Grant was always smart, if distinctly partisan. 31 The journalist John Russell Young noted how Conkling and Grant grew strangely enamored of each other: "For Conkling Grant has a romantic affection, and this was returned by Conkling in a manner almost womanly, which was curious considering his imperious, high-toned, impetuous, yet noble character." 32 Grant's son Jesse echoed this assessment: "Conkling and my father loved each other."
... snip ...

The War Lovers: Roosevelt, Lodge, Hearst, and the Rush to Empire, 1898
https://www.amazon.com/War-Lovers-Roosevelt-Hearst-Empire-ebook/dp/B00351DSG4/
pg26/loc281-85:
In 1878, in the winter of Theodore's sophomore year at Harvard, his father died. The cause was metastatic colon cancer, but in Roosevelt's mind his father had been fatally weakened by a foray into the treacherous world of politics. A would-be reformer, Theodore Senior was appointed by President Rutherford B. Hayes to clean up the corrupt Customs House of New York, but he was thwarted and publicly embarrassed by the machine of Roscoe "Boss" Conkling and made to appear a naive pawn in a game played by political professionals.
... snip ...

The Rise of Theodore Roosevelt
https://www.amazon.com/Rise-Theodore-Roosevelt-Book-ebook/dp/B004DEPH3E/
pg69/loc1772-77:
Theodore Senior, who had himself just turned forty-six, was as politically naive as his son. He assumed at first that the Collectorship was a reward for distinguished services to New York City, but disillusionment came rapidly. President Hayes, it turned out, had chosen him merely as a symbol of the Administration's commitment to Civil Service Reform. By elevating this decent and incorruptible man up to public office, Hayes hoped to embarrass Senator Roscoe Conkling, boss of the corrupt New York State Republican machine, who was demanding the reappointment of Chester A. Arthur as Collector. The fact that Arthur was himself decent and incorruptible only increased the savagery of the resultant battle for Senate confirmation. Roosevelt lay helpless as a pawn between the clashing forces of Old Guard "Spoils-men" and Reform Republicans.
... snip ...

We the Corporations: How American Businesses Won Their Civil Rights
https://www.amazon.com/We-Corporations-American-Businesses-Rights-ebook/dp/B01M64LRDJ/
pgxiii/loc45-50:
IN DECEMBER 1882, ROSCOE CONKLING, A FORMER SENATOR and close confidant of President Chester Arthur, appeared before the justices of the Supreme Court of the United States to argue that corporations like his client, the Southern Pacific Railroad Company, were entitled to equal rights under the Fourteenth Amendment. Although that provision of the Constitution said that no state shall "deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law" or "deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws," Conkling insisted the amendment's drafters intended to cover business corporations too.

pgxiii/loc50-53:
Laws that referred to "persons" have "by long and constant acceptance . . . been held to embrace artificial persons as well as natural persons," Conkling explained. This long-standing practice was well known to "the men who framed, the Congress which proposed, and the people who through their Legislatures ratified the Fourteenth Amendment."

pgxiii/loc53-56:
Conkling's claim was remarkable. The Fourteenth Amendment had been adopted after the Civil War to guarantee the rights of the freed slaves, not to protect corporations. Conkling, however, had unusual credibility with the justices. For two decades, he had been the leader of the Republican Party in Congress and was often said to be the most powerful man in Washington. He had twice been nominated to the Supreme Court himself, most recently in the spring of the same year he appeared on behalf of the Southern Pacific Railroad.

pgxiv/loc67-69:
There was just one small problem with Conkling's account of the drafting of the Fourteenth Amendment: it was not true. The drafters of the Fourteenth Amendment did not try to secret into the Constitution broad new protections for corporations, nor was the wording of the amendment ever altered in the way Conkling suggested.
... snip ...

'Corporations Are People' Is Built on an Incredible 19th-Century Lie
https://www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2018/03/corporations-people-adam-winkler/554852/

More railroaded (from Grant) pg988/loc17345-54:
That the stain of corruption in Washington spread beyond Grant's cabinet was confirmed right before the election when the New York Sun, exposing "The Kings of Frauds," uncovered the electrifying Crédit Mobilier scandal, which involved the building of the transcontinental railroad. During the Johnson administration, the Union Pacific Railroad had set up a dummy construction company, Crédit Mobilier, with the same executives as the parent railroad. The directors of Crédit Mobilier awarded themselves lavish salaries, all covered by government payments that far exceeded the actual cost of constructing the railroad. As Charles Francis Adams Jr. explained: "They receive money into one hand as a corporation, and pay it out into the other as a contractor." 140 Attaching fellow legislators to the swindle, Massachusetts congressman Oakes Ames had distributed Crédit Mobilier stock to them at knockdown prices. After the story broke, Congress instituted an investigation in December 1872 that tainted House Speaker James G. Blaine, Congressman James Garfield, and Grant's current and future vice presidents, Schuyler Colfax and Henry Wilson.
... snip ...

Railroad hyperbole echoes all the way down to the dot-com frenzy
http://phys.org/news/2012-01-railroad-hyperbole-echoes-dot-com-frenzy.html
and
https://www.amazon.com/Railroaded-Transcontinentals-Making-America-ebook/dp/B0051GST1U

posts mentioning "How American Businesses Won Their Civil Rights"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018c.html#52 We the Corporations: How American Businesses Won Their Civil Rights
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018c.html#54 We the Corporations: How American Businesses Won Their Civil Rights
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018c.html#94 Barb
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018d.html#46 Mission Command Is Swarm Intelligence
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018d.html#58 We must stop bad bosses using migrant labour to drive down wages
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018d.html#95 More Immigration
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#16 America Celebrates Lateral Move From Monarchy To Corporate Rule
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#36 OT: Trump
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#72 Top CEOs' compensation increased 17.6 percent in 2017
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#107 The LLC Loophole; In New York, where an LLC is legally a person
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#113 The Supreme Court Is Headed Back to the 19th Century
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018f.html#8 The LLC Loophole; In New York, where an LLC is legally a person, companies can use the vehicles to blast through campaign finance limits
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018f.html#9 A Tea Party Movement to Overhaul the Constitution Is Quietly Gaining
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018f.html#22 A Tea Party Movement to Overhaul the Constitution Is Quietly Gaining
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018f.html#70 Is LINUX the inheritor of the Earth?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018f.html#78 A Short History Of Corporations
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#4 Noncompliant: A Lone Whistleblower Exposes the Giants of Wall Street
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#35 The Myth of Capitalism
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#44 People are Happier in Social Democracies Because There's Less Capitalism

posts mentioning Railroaded &/or other posts mentioning Conkling:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#57 The Myth of Work-Life Balance
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#62 Railroaded
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#70 Regulatory Agency logo
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#79 Bain: A consulting firm too hot to handle? (Fortune, 1987)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#2 Occupy the SEC (Securities & Exchange Commission)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#62 Why Is Finance So Big?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#48 IBM cuts more than 1,000 U.S. workers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012g.html#22 Psychology Of Fraud: Why Good People Do Bad Things
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012g.html#73 Monopoly/ Cartons of Punch Cards
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012g.html#76 Monopoly/ Cartons of Punch Cards
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012g.html#84 Monopoly/ Cartons of Punch Cards
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012h.html#29 Monopoly/ Cartons of Punch Cards
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012h.html#31 How do you feel about the fact that today India has more IBM employees than US?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012h.html#32 Monopoly/ Cartons of Punch Cards
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012h.html#37 Monopoly/ Cartons of Punch Cards
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012i.html#1 Monopoly/ Cartons of Punch Cards
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012i.html#66 Monopoly/ Cartons of Punch Cards
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012p.html#11 IBM Is Changing The Terms Of Its Retirement Plan, Which Is Frustrating Some Employees
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014.html#84 Royal Pardon For Turing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014b.html#73 Royal Pardon For Turing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014m.html#37 Income Inequality
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014m.html#39 LEO
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015.html#59 IBM Data Processing Center and Pi
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015b.html#42 Future of support for telephone rotary dial ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015f.html#45 1973--TI 8 digit electric calculator--$99.95
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#49 How Finance Behaves like a Parasite Toward the Economy
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018.html#108 GE's $31 billion pension nightmare

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Employees Come First

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Employees Come First
Date: 06 Mar 2019
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009.html#10 Employees Come First
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009.html#12 Employees Come First

more/repeat Boyd from upthread

When he was instructor at Nellis, he was considered possibly best fighter pilot in world. When he passed, he had been pretty much disowned by the USAF and it was the Marines at Arlington (1990, commandant leveraged Boyd for make-over of the Corps) and all his effects went to Quantico ... so it was somewhat surprising they later dedicate Boyd hall at Nellis.

we still have had conferences at Quantico and facebook discussion groups about military strategy and what is wrong. A recent work, A New Concept of War, John Boyd, the U.S. Marines, and Maneuver Warfare
https://www.usmcu.edu/Portals/218/ANewConceptionOfWar.pdf?ver=2018-11-08-094859-167

Written by a Boyd acolyte, graduate of the 1st USAF academy class and on fast track to general, when he says Boyd destroys his career by challenging him to do what is right, forced to retire early and the "bad guys" rewarded
https://www.amazon.com/Pentagon-Wars-Reformers-Challenge-Guard-ebook/dp/B00HXY969W/
HBO dramatizes
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Pentagon_Wars
NYT article: Corrupt from top to bottom
https://www.nytimes.com/1993/10/03/books/corrupt-from-top-to-bottom.html
"there is little that the military-industrial complex won't do in pursuit of profit". Gun Seller is novel by Hugh Laurie (TV's "House") ... is about the subject, measures that the MIC will go to and also mentions Boyd and OODA-loop
https://www.amazon.com/Gun-Seller-Hugh-Laurie-ebook/dp/B000SEGK0M/
John Boyd's Art of War; Why our greatest military theorist only made colonel.
https://www.theamericanconservative.com/articles/john-boyds-art-of-war/
and
https://www.theamericanconservative.com/articles/40-years-of-the-fighter-mafia/
http://www.aviation-history.com/airmen/boyd.htm
Spinney tribute to John Boyd (for those with subscriptions)
http://www.usni.org/magazines/proceedings/1997-07/genghis-john
lives free at
http://radio-weblogs.com/0107127/stories/2002/12/23/genghisJohnChuckSpinneysBioOfJohnBoyd.html

from dedication of Boyd Hall, sort of equivalent to IBM's wild ducks:
There are two career paths in front of you, and you have to choose which path you will follow. One path leads to promotions, titles, and positions of distinction.... The other path leads to doing things that are truly significant for the Air Force, but the rewards will quite often be a kick in the stomach because you may have to cross swords with the party line on occasion. You can't go down both paths, you have to choose. Do you want to be a man of distinction or do you want to do things that really influence the shape of the Air Force? To be or to do, that is the question.
... snip ...

Boyd posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subboyd.html

"wild duck" posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007b.html#38 'Innovation' and other crimes
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007h.html#25 sizeof() was: The Perfect Computer - 36 bits?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008h.html#18 IT full of 'ducks'? Declare open season
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011h.html#30 IBM Centennial Film: Wild Ducks
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011h.html#33 Happy 100th Birthday, IBM!
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011i.html#79 Innovation and iconoclasm
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011m.html#1 What is IBM culture?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011m.html#45 What is IBM culture?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011n.html#93 John R. Opel, RIP
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011p.html#105 5 ways to keep your rockstar employees happy
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011p.html#121 The Myth of Work-Life Balance
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012b.html#59 Original Thinking Is Hard, Where Good Ideas Come From
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012b.html#72 Original Thinking Is Hard, Where Good Ideas Come From
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012f.html#3 Time to Think ... and to Listen
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012h.html#7 Leadership Trends and Realities: What Does Leadership Look Like Today
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012h.html#17 Hierarchy
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012i.html#26 Top Ten Reasons Why Large Companies Fail To Keep Their Best Talent
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012k.html#19 SnOODAn: Boyd, Snowden, and Resilience
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012k.html#23 How to Stuff a Wild Duck
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012k.html#24 How to Stuff a Wild Duck
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012k.html#26 How to Stuff a Wild Duck
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012k.html#28 How to Stuff a Wild Duck
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012k.html#31 History--punched card transmission over telegraph lines
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012k.html#42 The IBM "Open Door" policy
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012k.html#65 How do you feel about the fact that India has more employees than US?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013.html#12 How do we fight bureaucracy and bureaucrats in IBM?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013n.html#72 In Command, but Out Of Control
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013o.html#3 Inside the Box People don't actually like creativity
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013o.html#4 Inside the Box People don't actually like creativity
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013o.html#68 "Death of the mainframe"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014.html#52 IBM Wild Ducks
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014b.html#93 Maximizing shareholder value: The Goal that changed corporate America
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014b.html#97 Where does the term Wild Duck come from?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014b.html#98 How to groom a leader?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014b.html#105 Happy 50th Birthday to the IBM Cambridge Scientific Center
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014c.html#52 First 2014 Golden Goose Award to physicist Larry Smarr
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014c.html#53 Not Wild Ducks but Wild Geese - The history behind the story
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014c.html#54 IBM layoffs strike first in India; workers describe cuts as 'slaughter' and 'massive'
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014d.html#8 Microsoft culture must change, chairman says
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014d.html#91 IBM layoffs strike first in India; workers describe cuts as 'slaughter' and 'massive'
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014h.html#33 Can Ginni really lead the company to the next great product line?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014h.html#59 The Tragedy of Rapid Evolution?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014h.html#65 Are you tired of the negative comments about IBM in this community?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014h.html#68 Over in the Mainframe Experts Network LinkedIn group
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014h.html#79 EBFAS
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014h.html#80 The Tragedy of Rapid Evolution?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014i.html#7 You can make your workplace 'happy'
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014j.html#48 Is coding the new literacy?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014l.html#56 This Chart From IBM Explains Why Cloud Computing Is Such A Game-Changer
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015.html#80 Here's how a retired submarine captain would save IBM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015g.html#17 There's No Such Thing as Corporate DNA
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015g.html#60 [Poll] Computing favorities
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016e.html#14 Leaked IBM email says cutting 'redundant' jobs is a 'permanent and ongoing' part of its business model
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016e.html#96 IBM Wild Ducks
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#56 Wild Ducks
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#93 An OODA-loop is a far-from-equilibrium, non-linear system with feedback
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017j.html#23 How to Stuff a Wild Duck
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#33 Cluster Systems

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

instruction clock speed

From: lynn@GARLIC.COM (Anne & Lynn Wheeler)
Subject: Re: instruction clock speed
Newsgroups: bit.listserv.ibm-main
Date: 7 Mar 2019 15:21:32 -0800
charlesm@MCN.ORG (Charles Mills) writes:
It is not possible now. A single instruction may literally add no time at all to some instruction sequence.

My imperfect model is that main storage is the new disk. Figure that instructions take no time at all and memory accesses take forever.


I go even further ... that the current latency to access memory in processor cycles is compareable to 60s letency to access disk in 60s processor cycles (on cache miss).

A few decades ago, RISC started doing multi-stage pipeline, concurrent execution (with multiple execution units), out-of-order execution, branch prediction speculative execution, hyperthreading, etc ... in part for offsetting cache misses and inceasing memory access latency (sort of equivalent to 60s software multitasking ... but in the hardware processor).

The poster child has been 360/195 & 370/195 that did pipeline with out-of-order execution ... but no branch prediction and speculative execution. I got roped into project to hyperthread 195 (that never shipped). Conditional branches drained the pipeline .... most codes only ran 370/195 at half speed .... because of the stalls associated with conditional branches in most codes, throughput was cut in half.

The idea was that simulating two processor (hyperthread) ... each running at half speed, it would achieve full throughput. This is discussion about the end of ACS/360 (executives were afraid that it would advance of the computer state-of-the-art too fast and IBM would loose control of the market) "Sidebar: Multithreading" towards the bottom of the page ... followed by ACS/360 features that show up in ES/9000 some 20-odd years later.
https://people.cs.clemson.edu/~mark/acs_end.html

Two decades ago, the Intel processors started decomposing Intel instructions into risc micro-ops for actual decoding ... which largely negated the difference between Intel & risc throughput.

IBM says that about half the throughput increase from (mainframe) z10 to z196 processors was starting to introduce things like (risc-like) out-of-order execution.

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

instruction clock speed

From: lynn@GARLIC.COM (Anne & Lynn Wheeler)
Subject: Re: instruction clock speed
Newsgroups: bit.listserv.ibm-main
Date: 7 Mar 2019 19:11:48 -0800
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#62 instruction clock speed

if you want to look at other various ... Jan1979, I was con'ed into doing benchmarks on engineering 4341 for national lab that was looking at getting seventy for a compute farm (sort of leading edge of coming cluster supercomputing tsunami).

in the wake of Future System failure, the was mad rush to get products back into 370 pipeline (internal politics had been shutting down 370 efforts) and 3033 (168-3 logic mapped to 20% faster chips) and 3081 were kicked off in parallel. some history
http://www.jfsowa.com/computer/memo125.htm

they took 158 engine w/o the 370 microcode and just the integrated channel microcode for the 303x (external) channel director. then the 3031 is a 158 engine with just the 370 microcode (no integrated channel microcode) and a 2nd 158 engine with the integrated channel microcode (and no 370 microcode). A 3032 is 168-3 configured to use channel director for external channels ... and 3033 is 168-3 logic remapped to 20% faster chips.
158 45.54 secs 3031 37.03 secs 4341 36.21 secs 168-3 9.1 secs 91 6.77 secs

and real historic cdc6600 35.77 secs

158-3 (158 engine running both 370 and integrated channel microcode) was 45.54 secs compared to 3031 (that was two 158 engines, one for 370 mcode only and one for channels mcode only) was 37.03 secs.

misc. old 4341 email
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/lhwemail.html#4341

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

23june1969 unbundling

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: 23june1969 unbundling
Date: 10 Mar 2019
Blog: Facebook
23June1969 unbundling starting to charge for SE services, maintenance, (application) software (managed to make case that kernel software should still be free). SE training had been sort of apprentice program with large group of SEs at customer site. After unbundling, couldn't figure out how not to charge for apparentice SEs ... which was major motivation for the original HONE program. CP67 datacenters with branch office online access practice running guest (os/360) virtual machines.

However, science center had also ported APL\360 to CP67/CMS for CMS\APL and they started doing a lot of APL-based sales&marketing support applications. Eventually the branch online sales&marketing APL-based applications came to dominate all HONE activity and the guest virtual machine use just withers away.

unbundling posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#unbundle
science center posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech
HONE (&/or APL) posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#hone

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

23june1969 unbundling

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: 23june1969 unbundling
Date: 10 Mar 2019
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#64 23june1969 unbundling

more 23june1969 unbundling
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_IBM#1969:_Antitrust,_the_Unbundling_of_software_and_services
At the time, the unbundling of services was perhaps the most contentious point, involving antitrust issues that had recently been widely debated in the press and the courts. However, IBM's unbundling of software had long-term impact. After the unbundling, IBM software was divided into two main categories: System Control Programming (SCP), which remained free to customers, and Program Products (PP), which were charged for. This transformed the customer's value proposition for computer solutions, giving a significant monetary value to something that had hitherto essentially been free. This helped enable the creation of a software industry.[151][152]

Similarly, IBM services were divided into two categories: general information, which remained free and provided at the discretion of IBM, and on-the-job assistance and training of customer personnel, which were subject to a separate charge and were open to non-IBM customers. This decision vastly expanded the market for independent computing services companies.

... snip ...

unbundling posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#unbundling

So Future System project in the first part of 70s major motivation was countermeasure to clone controllers (& completely different than 360/370). Internal politics was killing of 370 efforts (since FS would replace all 370s) ... but the lack of 370 products during this period is credited with giving the clone processors a market foothold. The rise of clone processor in the mid-70s, then can be considered motivation for decision for starting to charge for kernel/SCP software.

Future System posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#futuresys

trivia1: I had done a lot of changes to IBM software as undergraduate in the 60s ... both to OS/360 and CP67 (lots of CP67 enhancements shipped in product). In the morph from CP67 to VM/370 a lot of stuff was dropped and/or greatly simplified. After the death of FS, there was mad rush to get stuff back into 370 product pipeline, which was likely responsible for picking up a lot of stuff that I had been doing for internal datacenters for product release. Part of which was decided to package as the "resource manager" and was selected as the guinea pig for starting to charge for SCP software.

resource manager posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#fairshare

trivia2: CP67 delivered to univ had 1052 & 2741 terminal support (including automatic terminal identification, switching line/port scanner type using controller SAD CCW). Univ. had some number of TTY/ASCII terminals, and I had to add TTY terminal support, including extending auto terminal identification to TTY. I then wanted to do single dial-in number "hunt group" for all terminals, which didn't quite work since IBM took short cut and hard wired terminal line speed to each port (even though could switch scanner type). This somewhat motivated univ. to start clone controller poject, doing 360 channel interface board for Interdata/3 programmed to emulate IBM controller ... but adding automatic line speed. This gets enhanced to Interdata/4 for the channel interface and cluster of Interdata/3s for line/port interfaces. Interdata (and later Perkin-Elmer) market this as clone controller and four of us get written up for (some part of) clone controller business.

clone controller posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#360pcm

clone controllers motivate "Future System" which gives rise to clone processors which motivates change to charge for SCP software, and my "resource manager" is 1st guinea pig.

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Token-Ring

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Token-Ring
Date: 10 Mar 2019
Blog: Facebook
The new Almaden Research was heavily provisioned with CAT5 assuming 16mbit T/R. However they found that running ethernet over the same CAT5 had higher aggregate LAN throughput as well as lower latency.

The other problem was that communication group was trying to enforce the dumb terminal paradigm and the $900 microchannel 16mbit T/R card (design point was 300+ stations all sharing common 16mbit T/R doing dumb terminal protocol) ... had lower per card throughput than $69 ethernet card (could get 8+mbit/sec). AWD had done their own 4mbit T/R card for the PC/RT ... but were forced to use all standard PS2 microchannel cards for the RS/6000. Even the PC/RT 4mbit T/R card had higher per card throughput than the microchannel 16mbit T/R card. Claim that if RS/6000 was forced into being limited to only PS2 microchannel cards, it wouldn't run (most things) any faster than PS2. As work around corporate mandates, AWD eventually came out with RS/6000 730 ... that had VMEbus ... and then was able to use industry standard high performance workstation cards.

801/risc, iliad, romp, rios, pc/rt, rs/6000, power, power/pc posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#801

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Economic Mess

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Economic Mess
Date: 10 Mar 2019
Blog: Facebook
In 1999, I was asked to help try and stop the coming economic mess (we failed, some investment bankers had walked away "clean" from the S&L crises, were then running Internet IPO mills, invest a few million, hype, IPO, get few billion, need to fail so field is open for the next round IPO, were then predicted to get into securitized mortgages). Then in Jan2009 (decade later), I was asked to HTML'ze the Pecora Hearings (30s senate hearings into '29 crash, resulted in jail terms) with lots of HREFs, and URLs between what happened this time and what happened then (comment that the new congress might have appetite to do something). I work on it for awhile (recent facebook memories where I posted progress 10yrs ago) ... but then get a call that it won't be needed after all (comments about enormous mountains of wallstreet cash totally burying capital hill, all but possibly 2-3 members of congress corrupt),

economic mess posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#economic.mess
S&L crises posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#s&l.crisis
'29 crash, Pecora Hearings, FDIC insured and/or Glass-Steagall posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#Pecora&/orGlass-Steagall

CP67 financial trivia: in the 60s, the two online science center online CP67 spinoffs fairly quickly moved up the value stream offering services&data for the financial industry (although none quite spreadsheet). science center did port of apl\360 to cp67/cms as cms\apl ... opening up to real world applications, opening workspace size to virtual address space (rather than typical apl\360 16kbytes) and API for system services (like file i/o) ... had to rewrite apl\360 storage management since it would page thrash in large virtual address space. science center also allowed other IBM locations to use the science center cp67/cms system. One was the Armonk business planning people that loaded the highest security IBM data (detailed customer data) and used CMS\APL for doing business modeling. We did have to demonstrate strong security since the science center system also provided online access to staff, professors, and students at institutions of higher learning in Boston/Cambridge area. Possibly as a result, about that time IBM got a new CSO (formally gov. employee, had been head of presidential detail), and I got asked to run around with him and talk about computer security.

science center posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech
HONE (&/or APL) posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#hone

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

23june1969 unbundling

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: 23june1969 unbundling
Date: 10 Mar 2019
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#64 23june1969 unbundling
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#65 23june1969 unbundling

Other HONE trivia; there were originally multiple US HONE datacenters ... eventually consolidated in single datacenters in Palo Alto in the mid-70s (with clones spouting up all over the world). After joining IBM, one of my hobbies was production enhanced operating systems for internal datacenters ... and HONE was long time customer. Most frequently visited east coast at 1133 and west coast on Wilshire (before consolidation in Palo Alto) ... and also asked to go to Paris for new install at La Defense when EMEA hdqtrs was moved from NY to Paris.

HONE (&/or APL)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#hone

Even with US HONE processors expanding rapidly in the 70s, eventually eight high-end 2-processor POK machines (168-3, and upgrading) in the largest loosely-coupled single-system image with load-balancing and fall-over sharing large disk farm (capability not released to customers until some 30yrs later) ... to provide additional processing for the field ... also had DEMOPKG and DEMO systems going into each region center ... and then the "IC" systems started rapidly sprouting up all over the landscape.

internal network posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#internalnet

One of the reasons that internet initially exceeded number of internal network nodes in the 80s, was workstations & increasingly PCs showing up as TCP/IP nodes ... while internally the communication group was fiercely fighting off client/server and internal workstations & PCs being limited to 3270 terminal emulation.

Also playing factor around the middle-80s, communication group was spreading misinformation about the need to convert the internal network to SNA/VTAM ... which further precluded being able to make IBM/PC full network nodes. It would have been enormously better to have moved the internal network to TCP/IP ... like the corporate sponsored university BITNET did for BITNET2
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BITNET

trivia: for a time, BITNET also was larger than INTERNET (besides the internal network larger than INTERNET).

bitnet posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#bitnet
internet posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#internet

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Digital Planes

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Digital Planes
Newsgroups: uk.radio.amateur, alt.folklore.computers
Date: Sun, 10 Mar 2019 21:26:04 -0700
J. Clarke <jclarke.873638@gmail.com> writes:
The autopilot per se is not safety-critical--if it goes bust the pilot can turn it off. But when the aircraft uses fly-by-wire flight controls the computer going bust means that the pilot has no way to move the control surfaces.

early 747 autopilot touch down within 6ft and repeated hammering of same tarmac location was starting to crack/break ... they eventually start radomizing glide slope to vary touch down on tarmac.

I've periodically mentioned Boyd (introduced in early 80s, and would sponsor his briefings at IBM Research) redid f15 design, cutting weight in half and eliminating swing-wing. The elimination of F15 swing-wing was big part of cutting weight ... similar to what Boeing had done in its passenger supersonic
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boeing_2707
then for YF16 (becomes F16), did unstable/relaxed design (more efficient)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Relaxed_stability but humans don't have
reaction and requires fly-by-wire to maintain
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fly-by-wire
History Of The F-16 Fighting Falcon
http://www.codeonemagazine.com/article.html?item_id=23
But the fundamental strengths of the original design remain. At the heart of every Fighting Falcon is the lightweight fighter concept championed by Col. John Boyd and the other members of what came to be known as the Lightweight Fighter Mafia in the US Air Force and Department of Defense. This group favored simple and small fighter designs that could change direction and speed faster than their potential adversaries -- designs that were harder to detect; designs that were inexpensive to produce, operate, and maintain. The Fighter Mafia advocated using technology to increase effectiveness or reduce cost. They went so far as to question and thoroughly analyze the basic assumptions of how fighters were judged and compared.
...
Fly-by-wire flight controls improved response time and replaced heavy hydro-mechanical systems with lighter and smaller electronic systems. Relaxed static stability, made possible by the fly-by-wire system, greatly enhanced agility and stability. A side-mounted throttle and stick, head-up display, thirty-degree seat back angle, hands-on controls, and bubble canopy improved the pilot's g-tolerance and situational awareness.
... snip ...

Boyd complained that when heads-up display originally added to F16, it hurt pilot's performance (rather than helped) ... it was just scrolling digital numbers ... pilot trying to convert scrolling digital numbers to information was hindering performance more than helping.

Some of the people then would accuse Boyd of being luddite for criticizing "heads-up" display ... w/o understanding what he was talking about ... i.e. when Boyd was instructor at Nellis he was considered possible best fighter pilot ... known as "40 sec" Boyd ... he had open challenge to all fighter pilots ... he would put them on his tail and bet he could reverse the position within 40sec ... he never lost ... always doing it in 20secs or less. Asked why he made the bet 40sec ... it was in case if there was anybody in the world almost as good as he was.

Boyd
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Boyd_(military_strategist)
E/M
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Energy-Maneuverability_theory
Boyd, a U.S. jet fighter pilot in the Korean War, began developing the theory in the early 1960s. He teamed with mathematician Thomas Christie at Eglin Air Force Base to use the base's high-speed computer to compare the performance envelopes of U.S. and Soviet aircraft from the Korean and Vietnam Wars. They completed a two-volume report on their studies in 1964. Energy Maneuverability came to be accepted within the U.S. Air Force and brought about improvements in the requirements for the F-15 Eagle and later the F-16 Fighting Falcon fighters.[2]
... snip ...

OODA-loop
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OODA_Loop

Boyd posts & URLs
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subboyd.html

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

CICS Product 50 Years Old

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: CICS Product 50 Years Old
Date: 11 Mar 2019
Blog: Facebook
I took 2hr semester intro to computers/fortran and within year got hired fulltime supporting mainframe academic and administration system. Univ. library got ONR (office naval research) grant to do online catalog, part of the money was used to get a 2321 datacell. It was also selected to be betatest for the original CICS product ... and I got tasked with debugging it. One particular I remember was original implementation at customer had apparently hard coded undocumented specific BDAM operations and the library had configured different BDAM options (which took awhile for me to figure out). 50yrs ago. Lots of CICS, gone 404, but lives on at wayback machine
http://web.archive.org/web/20071124013919/http://www.yelavich.com/history/toc.htm
http://web.archive.org/web/20050409124902/http://www.yelavich.com/cicshist.htm

CICS &/or BDAM posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#cics

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Family of Secrets

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Family of Secrets
Date: 11 Mar 2019
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#41 Family of Secrets

Election Watchdog Hits Jeb Bush's Super-PAC With Massive Fine for Taking Money From Foreign Nationals; Neil Bush, Jeb's brother, was caught asking a Chinese businessman for money.
https://www.motherjones.com/politics/2019/03/jeb-bush-super-pac-fec-fine-neil-right-to-rise-apic-gordon-tang/

... also (back to the 80s), VP and former CIA director repeatedly claims no knowledge of
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iran%E2%80%93Contra_affair
because he was fulltime administration point person deregulating financial industry ... creating S&L crisis
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Savings_and_loan_crisis
along with other members of his family (Neil)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Savings_and_loan_crisis#Silverado_Savings_and_Loan
and another (Jeb)
http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9D0CE0D81E3BF937A25753C1A966958260

last decade (after turn of century) another family member is president and presides over the economic mess 70 times larger than the S&L crises.

S&L crises posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#s&l.crisis
economic mess posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#economic.mess

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Token-Ring

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Token-Ring
Date: 11 Mar 2019
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#66 Token-Ring

Standard (TCP/IP) installations would add TCP/IP routers (available with few hundred mbit backplane) to limit number of stations sharing common LAN bandwidth long before collisions dropped effective LAN throughput below 16mbit T/R. ... late 80s comparison (similar to the customer executive presentations we were making)

microchannel 16mbit t/r card @$900 (less per card thruput than PC/RT 4mbit TR)

500 * $900 = $450,000

aggregate LAN configuration a couple megabits 2mbit/500 = avg 4kbit/station (& about $250,000/mbit) max. card burst 1mbit

ethernet card @$69 (>8mbit per card thruput)

500 * $69 = $34,500 + $40,000 router w/16 LAN interfaces = $74,500 total

aggregate LAN configuration 16*8mbit=128mbits (& about $582/mbit) 8mbit LAN/30 = avg 266kbit/station (over 50 times T/R) max. card burst 8mbit

Upgrade to $80,000 (total $114,500 compared to $450,000 T/R), a router with 16 ethernet LAN interfaces, a couple 100mbit FDDI interfaces for servers, and a IBM channel interface.

Initial mainframe TCP/IP support from communication group got 40kbyte/sec throughput using nearly whole 3090 processor. I added RFC1044 support and got sustained channel thruput using only modest amount of 4341 CPU (i.e. 1mbyte/sec, say about same as SUN server with dedicated enet LAN into router with 10-20 other LAN interfaces)

RFC1044 posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#1044
internet posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#internet
801/risc, iliad, romp, pc/rt, rios, rs/6000, power, power/pc posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#801

other past posts mentioning pc/rt 4mbit t/r card compared to PS2 microchannel 16mbit t/r card (used by rs/6000)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002g.html#9 IBM MIcrochannel??
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004p.html#59 IBM 3614 and 3624 ATM's
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005h.html#12 practical applications for synchronous and asynchronous communication
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005q.html#20 Ethernet, Aloha and CSMA/CD -
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005q.html#21 Ethernet, Aloha and CSMA/CD -
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005q.html#38 Intel strikes back with a parallel x86 design
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005u.html#50 Channel Distances
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006l.html#35 Token-ring vs Ethernet - 10 years later
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006l.html#36 Token-ring vs Ethernet - 10 years later
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007g.html#81 IBM to the PCM market
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008e.html#21 MAINFRAME Training with IBM Certification and JOB GUARANTEE
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008r.html#37 What if the computers went back to the '70s too?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009j.html#64 A Complete History Of Mainframe Computing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009l.html#15 SNA: conflicting opinions
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009p.html#16 WSJ.com - IBM Puts Executive on Leave
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009r.html#15 Small Server Mob Advantage
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010.html#66 How long before Microsoft goes the way of DEC (and in part, IBM)?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010e.html#67 search engine history, was Happy DEC-10 Day
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010h.html#23 What is the protocal for GMT offset in SMTP (e-mail) header
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010h.html#34 (slightly OT - Linux) Did IBM bet on the wrong OS?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010h.html#63 25 reasons why hardware is still hot at IBM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010o.html#4 When will MVS be able to use cheap dasd
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010o.html#57 So why doesn't the mainstream IT press seem to get the IBM mainframe?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010p.html#34 TCM's Moguls documentary series
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011.html#0 I actually miss working at IBM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011b.html#64 If IBM Hadn't Bet the Company
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011g.html#43 My first mainframe experience
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011i.html#60 Speed matters: how Ethernet went from 3Mbps to 100Gbps... and beyond
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011o.html#35 Soups
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011o.html#90 Has anyone successfully migrated off mainframes?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011p.html#50 Hello?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#92 Has anyone successfully migrated off mainframes?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012e.html#61 "25 Years of IBM's OS/2"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012g.html#37 Hard drives: A bit of progress
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012n.html#70 Under what circumstances would it be a mistake to migrate applications/workload off the mainframe?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012o.html#40 PC/mainframe browser(s) was Re: 360/20, was 1132 printer history
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012p.html#9 3270s & other stuff
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013b.html#32 Ethernet at 40: Its daddy reveals its turbulent youth
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013g.html#84 Metcalfe's Law: How Ethernet Beat IBM and Changed the World
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013i.html#4 IBM commitment to academia
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013m.html#5 Voyager 1 just left the solar system using less computing powerthan your iP
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013m.html#19 Voyager 1 just left the solar system using less computing powerthan your iP
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013n.html#79 wtf ? - was Catalog system for Unix et al
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014h.html#88 The Tragedy of Rapid Evolution?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014l.html#37 Could this be the wrongest prediction of all time?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014m.html#128 How Much Bandwidth do we have?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015c.html#34 30 yr old email
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015d.html#41 Western Union envisioned internet functionality
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015h.html#108 25 Years: How the Web began
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016c.html#83 opinion? Fujitsu USA
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016d.html#15 What Would Be Your Ultimate Computer?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#85 Great mainframe history(?)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#21 ARM Cortex A53 64 bit
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#29 ARM Cortex A53 64 bit
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017f.html#111 IBM downfall
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017g.html#73 Mannix "computer in a briefcase"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017h.html#15 The complete history of the IBM PC, part two: The DOS empire strikes; The real victor was Microsoft, which built an empire on the back of a shadily acquired MS-DOS
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017h.html#113 IBM PS2
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017i.html#36 IBM Shareholders Need Employee Enthusiasm, Engagemant And Passions
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017k.html#15 THE IBM PC THAT BROKE IBM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018d.html#24 8088 and 68k, where it went wrong
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#28 These Are the Best Companies to Work For in the U.S
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#103 The (broken) economics of OSS
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018f.html#25 LikeWar: The Weaponization of Social Media
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018f.html#109 IBM Token-Ring
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#54 IBM bureaucracy

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Backwards compatibility

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Backwards compatibility
Newsgroups: comp.arch
Date: Tue, 12 Mar 2019 09:28:21 -0700
Quadibloc <jsavard@ecn.ab.ca> writes:
Another thing is that the Burroughs machines of the 1960s could do a *lot* of things current hardware can't do. That's because they ran at a higher level than conventional computers. Data was tagged with its type, arrays had descriptors, all in the hardware.

This had overhead. The microprocessors in the computer on your desktop are, architecturally, a lot like a 360/195. (Admittedly, the closest match is the Pentium II; today's machines have OoO integer pipelines too.)


370/195 trivia: early 70s, I got sucked into effort to hyperthread 195 (which never ships). ... this mentions multithreaded here
https://people.cs.clemson.edu/~mark/acs_end.html

195 didn't have branch prediction and speculative execution ... so conditional branches drained pipeline ... and unless carefully tuned, most codes ran at half 195 speed. doing two instruction streams simulating two processors ... each running at half speed would get full 195 throughput.

SMP, compare&swap (&/or hyperthread) posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#smp

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

21 random but totally appropriate ways to celebrate the World Wide Web's 30th birthday

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: 21 random but totally appropriate ways to celebrate the World Wide Web's 30th birthday
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Tue, 12 Mar 2019 10:40:38 -0700
21 random but totally appropriate ways to celebrate the World Wide Web's 30th birthday
https://www.fastcompany.com/90318769/21-ways-to-celebrate-the-world-wide-webs-30th-birthday

First webserver in the US on the SLAC VM370 system:
http://www.slac.stanford.edu/history/earlyweb/history.shtml
http://www.slac.stanford.edu/history/earlyweb/firstpages.shtml

GML invented at the IBM cambridge science center in 1969, decade later morphs into ISO standard SGML, after another decade morphs into HTML at CERN, ref
http://infomesh.net/html/history/early

science center posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech
GML, SGML, HTML posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#sgml

recent early arpanet post
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#57 This Paper Map Shows The Extent Of The Entire Internet In 1973

internal network larger than arpanet/internet from just about the beginning until sometime mid-80s ... internal network posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#internalnet
internet posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#internet

In 80s, I got sucked in the XTP technical advisory board .... transaction protocol that provided minimum 3 packet exchange for reliable delivery (compared to minimum 5 packet exchange for VMTP and minimum 7 packet exchange for TCP). Did lots of other features ... at one point took it to ANSI X3S3.3 for standardization. Was told that ISO rules required that they could only standardize portocols that conformed to OSI model and XTP violated OSI model because 1) supported internetworking (not defined in OSI), 2) bypased transport/network interface layer, and 3) went directly from transport to LAN MAC (not defined in OSI, sits approx. in middle of network layer).

Part of motivation for X3S3.3 was various gov. operations wanted to use it (including Navy for SAFENET) and GOSIP was mandating that TCP/IP be eliminated and everything be moved to ISO standard.

XTP posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#xtphsp

We were doing IBM's HA/CMP working with RDBMS vendors on cluster scaleup (128-way RS/6000). Early 1992, cluster scaleup was transferred, announced as IBM supercomputer, and we were told we couldn't work on anything with more than four processors, we leave a few months later. Later two of the people we had been working with at Oracle show up at small client/server startup responsible for something they called "commerce server". We are brought in as consultants because they want to do payment transatcions on the server, the startup had also invented this technology they called "SSL", the result is now frequently called "electronic commerce".

HA/CMP posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#hacmp

One of the issues was that HTTP&HTTPS had chosen TCP for atomic transaction and TCP had this thing called FINWAIT as part of catching dangling packets after session close (HTTP atomic, minimum 7packet TCP, seesion open, transmit data, session close). Assumption was that sessions were long lived and there wold be few items on FINWAIT list that was linearly scanned ... with HTTP/HTTPS, servers under increasing load could be spending 95% of CPU scanning FINWAIT list. The startup had eventually installed large SEQUENT server which had redone the FINWAIT search some time before ... it took another six months before other vendors starting shipping FINWAIT fixes. One of the things for HTTPS was new TCP/IP stack required new physical media distribution, system shutdown and manual system update. I've claimed this gave HTTPS significant advantage of IPSEC (since HTTPS was part of application distribution). I periodically tried to push XTP, but it had similar issues facing IPSEC (versus HTTPS).

Starting in early 80s, I had program I called HSDT and was using rate-based pacing from the start ... and I also wrote it into XTP specification. About the same time, Van Jacobsen presented slow-start at 1988 IETF meeting ... I would claim that slow-start (instead of rate-based) was used because the platforms used by Van Jacobsen had such poor timer support facilities. Also 1988, ACM SIGCOMM had article showing in large heterogeneous multi-hop networks, window based protocols (like slow-start) were non-stable (including returning ACKs tended to bunch up, opening up multiple back-to-back packet transmissions).

HSDT posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#hsdt

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

21 random but totally appropriate ways to celebrate the World Wide Web's 30th birthday

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: 21 random but totally appropriate ways to celebrate the World Wide Web's 30th birthday
Date: 13 Mar 2019
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#74 21 random but totally appropriate ways to celebrate the World Wide Web's 30th birthday

Starting in early 80s, I had project I called HSDT that was doing T1 and faster speed links (both terrestrial and satellite). We were also working with director of NSF and were suppose to get $20M to interconnect the NSF supercomputer centers. Old email
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006u.html#email860505
Then congress cuts the budget, some other things happen and eventually an RFP is released (in part based on what we already had running). Old post with copy of 28Mar1986 preliminary announcement
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002k.html#12
Internal politics prevent us from bidding, NSF Director tries to help by writing the company a letter (with support from other agencies), but that just makes the internal politics worse (as does comments what we already have running was at least 5yrs ahead of all RFP responses).
https://www.technologyreview.com/s/401444/grid-computing/
as regional network connect into the centers, it morphs into NSF network backbone, precursor to modern internet.

while involved in NSF interconnect, was also involved in the precursor to cluster scaleup, packing as many processor into racks as possible with high-speed interconnect ... I get into conflict with YKT meeting on cluster scaleup at the same time as meeting with NSF director
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007d.html#email850315
other NSF old email
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/lhwemail.html#nsfnet

Gore was involved in getting congressional appropriations for NII, old post about NIIT. Note that NII wanted vendors to provide gear for the NII testbed for free. However, Singapore invited all the US NII participants and paid them enough that it also covered their costs for the US NII testbed.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011n.html#60

... old email about getting caught in schedule conflict so one of the other vendors represented me at LLNL meeting and then came by my office after the meeting to fill me in on what went on.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006x.html#email920129

within days of the above, cluster scaleup was transferred, announced as IBM supercomputer and we were told we couldn't work on anything with more than four processors; we leave IBM a few months later.

HSDT posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#hsdt
NSF posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#nsfnet
also
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#57 This Paper Map Shows The Extent Of The Entire Internet In 1973
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#59 This Paper Map Shows The Extent Of The Entire Internet In 1973

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

How many years ago?

Refed: **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: How many years ago?
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Thu, 14 Mar 2019 11:04:37 -0700
Peter Flass <peter_flass@yahoo.com> writes:
308x machines (I believe) used 370/158 CPUs (I believe) as maintenance and I/O processors. The I/O processors ran special "channel" microcode, and I think the maintenance processor ran modified VM.

IBM future system in first part of 70s was going to completely replace 370 (internal politics killing off 370 efforts, scarcity of new 370 products during FS period is credited with giving clone processor makers, market foothold). When FS imploded, there was mad rush to get 370 products back into the pipeline; 303x & 308x (& 370xa) were kicked off in parallel.

they took 158 engine with just the integrated channel microcode (and no 370 microcode) for the 303x (external) channel director. A 3031 was a 158 engine with 370 microcode (and no integrated channel microcode) and a 2nd 158 engine (as channel director) with just the integrated channel microcode. 3032 was 168-3 repackaged to use channel director as external channels. 3033 was 168-3 logic remapped to 20% faster chips. some more history:
http://www.jfsowa.com/computer/memo125.htm

when the 3033 was out the door, that group started on 3090/trout

IBM field maintenance used bootstrap diagnostic process ... scope components that could then be used to diagnose other components. With 308x and TCMs ... not longer had access to anything ... so resorted to service processor ... was from the "UC" family (used for 37x5 communication controller, short lived 8100, etc) ... that had lots of probes (preinstalled) in the TCMs (thermal conductive modules). All the service processor software had to be developed from scratch. A service processor could be diagnosed/scoped ... and then used to diagnose 308x TCMs. TCM reference
https://www.ibm.com/ibm/history/exhibits/vintage/vintage_4506VV2137.html

I was blamed for online computer conferencing (precursor to modern social media on the internal network (larger than arpanet/internet from just about the beginning until sometime mid-80s) in late 70s and early 80s (folklore is when corporate executive committee was told about online computer conferencing and the internal network, 5of6 wanted to fire me). A very active participate was manager of the service processor for the 3090 ... which started out as 4331 running a highly customized version of VM370 Release 6 (with lots of probes into 3090 TCMs and all screens done in CMS IOS3270). It was possible to scope/diagnose 4331 and then use the 4331 to diagnose the 3090. Before 3090 ships, the 4331 was then upgraded to a pair of redundant 4361s (which weren't scopable, but had two redundant).

Very early in (internal) REX/REXX (before announce and ship to customers), I wanted to show it wasn't just another pretty scripting language. I chose to redo large assembler IPCS (problem/dump analysis), objective was to do rewrite in less than half time over 3months elapsed time that was ten times the function and ten times the performance (slight of hand to make intepreted REX/REXX faster than assembler). I finished early and thot it would ship to customers in place of the existing version. For whatever reasons it didn't, even thog it was in use by nearly every internal datacenters and customer support PSRs. I eventually got permissions to make presentations at user group meetings on its implementation ... and within a few months, non-IBM versions started to appear.

This is old email from 3092 (4361, modified VM370 release 6), 3090 service processor group about including my IPCS with 3092.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010e.html#email861031
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010e.html#email861223

Other 3092 trivia:
https://www.ibm.com/ibm/history/exhibits/mainframe/mainframe_PP3090.html

requires two 3370 FBA disks (one for each 4361) ... even for pure MVS accounts ... which has never had fixed-block disk support ... always required CKD disks .... even to this day, decades after the last real CKD disk was made ... now all CKD are simulated on industry standard fixed-block disks.

future system posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#futuresys
online computer communication posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#cmc
internal network posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#internalnet
DUMPRX posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#dumprx

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

How many years ago?

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: How many years ago?
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Thu, 14 Mar 2019 11:53:03 -0700
tracymnelson writes:
When IBM was rolling out the 3083 series of mainframes, some sites upgrading from a S/370 had the S/370 tasked as the disk controller for a few weeks until the corresponding (3380?) storage controller was available.

re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#76 How many years ago?
other information
http://www.jfsowa.com/computer/memo125.htm

3081 was two processor machine ... and there was never (originally) any intention of having single processor version.

3081 was frame with three boxes, bottom box was (24) channels, middle box was processor 1 and top box was processor 0. 3084 was two 3081 boxes lashed together (for four processors).

problem was that ACP/TPF didn't have multiprocessor support (at the time)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transaction_Processing_Facility

and they were afraid that the whole ACP/TPF market would move to clone processor makers ... which were bringing out newer single processor machines. As a result they first did some software changes to VM370 to improve ACP/TPF throughput in virtual machine running on 3081 (which had significant degradation for all other VM370 customers running multiprocessor) ... pending that they could start shipping a single processor 3081 (3083). At first they just thot of removing the processor1 box in the middle ... but that would have made the frame dangerously top-heavy ... so they eventually had to do some amount of rewiring to move processor0 box to the middle of the frame.

There are configurations where 308x channels could be connected into multichannel 3830 disk controller (shared with existing 370s) ... to have some disk access on existing 3330/3350 strings ... pending installation of new 3880 disk controllers with new 3380 disks.

There was another ACP/TPF of interest. ACP had 70s special RPQ for 3830 disk controller to put logical locks (for multiple loosley-coupled/cluster 370s sharing same disks via 3830 multi-channel interfaces) ... sort of like the later vax/cluster ... much more efficient than the traditional device reserve/release for loosely-coupled operation (while ACP/TPF didn't tightly-coupled, SMP multiprocessor support, it did have fairly sophisticated cluster support). 3830 disk controller had four channel interfaces ... so ACP lock RPQ would work for four system loosely-coupled configuration.

The problem was that corporate disk strategy was for string switch ... were a string of drives was connected to two separate controller, each with four channel interfaces ... for up to eight systems in the same loosely-coupled configurations ... however the ACP lcok RPQ only worked for single controller and wouldn't work for two controllers accessing the same string (forcing to fall back to the less efficient device reserve/release).

little drift: when Charlie was working on CP67 fine-grain multiprocessor locking for CP67 at the science center, he invented compare&swap (chosen because CAS are charlie's initials). initial attempts by science center to get compare&swap to 370 they were rebuffed (told that the POK favorite son operating system people said that 360 test&set was more than sufficient for multiprocessor operation). The 370 architecture owner challenge was come up with compare&swap uses that weren't multiprocessor specific. Thus was born the multithreaded application examples (that still appear in mainframe principles of operation) that are used regardless of running in single or multiple processor environment (especially large DBMS subsystems).

When the internal US online sales&marketing support HONE datacenters were consolidated in Palo Alto in the mid-70s (trivia: when facebook 1st moved into silicon valley, it was into new bldg built next door to old HONE datacenter, however current sat. photos show both bldgs gone), it quickly grew to eight two-processor SMP loosely-coupled cluster systems all sharing same disk farm (at the time largest single-system image with load balancing and fall-over). W/o ACP locking RPQ ... and the significant throughput penalty of device RESERVE/RELEASE ... came up with a channel program equivalent to compare&swap instruction; aka do search data equal and if succesful rewrite the record with new data.

other triva: from when I first joined IBM, one of my hobbies was enhanced production operating systems for internal datacenters and HONE was long-time customer (by mid-70s, HONE clones, mostly singe processors, were starting to sprout up all over the world).

SMP &/or compare&swap posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#smp
HONE &/or APL posts
subtopic.html#hone
science center posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

370 virtual memory

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: 370 virtual memory
Date: 14 Mar 2019
Blog: Facebook
Big part of CICS attraction was that it gathered up lots of resources at startup and then provided its own light-weight, superfast system services, attempting to use as little of OS/360 bloated resources.

A IBM customer on ibm-main discussion group asked me if I could track down virtual memory decision. Along the way, it was pointed out that MVT storage management was so bad that a typical 1mbyte, 370/165 only ran with four regions (each region four times larger than typically used). Moving MVT to virtual memory would allow increasing the number of regions by factor of four times (increasing throughput) with little or no paging (i.e. large virtual address space would be countermeasure to the terrible MVT storage management, only needed real storage for that actual used). Old post with description by somebody (who has since passed) directly involved:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011d.html#73

370/165 MVT example was then to add virtual memory to all 370s. However that hit a snag, 165 group came back that for 165 to implement the full 370 virtual memory architecture it would delay the announce by six months. Decision was then made to drop back to the 165 subset, and all the other platforms had to remove the dropped features ... and any software that had implementation for the full architecture had to rewrite for just the 165 subset. There was also significant hardware effort/cost to retrofit customer 165s as 370/165-II with virtual memory.

Part of the issue was that I was complaining that large systems were increasingly becoming I/O bound (and to fully utilize resources required increasing multiple concurrent programming levels and/or number of regions). By early 80s, I was claiming that disk relative system throughput had declined by factor of ten times since the 60s (disks got 3-5 faster, but machines had gotten 50 times faster). Some GPD disk executive took exception to my claims and assigned the division performance group to refute my claims. After a few weeks they came back and essentially said I had understated the problem. This report was then respun for SHARE presentation about how to optimize disk configurations for throughput. old post with early 80s comparison for throughput of 360/67 CP/67 with 3081 VM/370
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/93.html#31
old posts with pieces of (respun report for) SHARE presentation B874
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006f.html#3
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006o.html#68

CICS &/or BDAM posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#cics

Initially moving MVT was VS2/SVS ... basically MVT layed out in 16mbyte virtual address space ... not too different from MVT running in 16mbyte virtual machine ... except a little bit of code moved into MVT to build virtual page tables and handle page fault.

The biggest bit of software was adding channel program translation to EXCP .... the issue was channel programs had been built by software libraries running in (now virtual) application space and passed to EXCP. However, channels required all the addresses to be real (and all the CCWs passed to EXCP now had virtual addresses).

Turns out this is the same problem faced by CP/67 for virtual machine SIO operation, make a copy of the channel programs replacing all virtual addresses with real addresses. So they hack the CP/67 CCWTRANS routine into the side of EXCP.

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

How many years ago?

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: How many years ago?
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Thu, 14 Mar 2019 18:19:43 -0700
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#76 How many years ago?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#77 How many years ago?

1980, STL is planning on moving 300 people from the IMS (DBMS) group to offsite bldg, and I get con'ed into doing channel-extender support ... allowing local channel attached controllers at the offsite bldg. The group had tried "remote" 3270 support, but found the human factors totally unacceptable (up and running, they couldn't tell difference between channel attached in STL and channel attached at offsite bldg).

The hardware vndor then tries to get IBM to let them ship my support, but there are some guys in POK playing with some serial stuff and were afraid that if it was in the field, it would make it more difficult to justify releasing their stuff ... and get release vetoed.

In 1988, I'm asked to help LLNL standardize some serial stuff they are playing with which quickly becomes fibre-channel standard (including some stuff that I had done in 1980).

The POK people finally get their stuff released in 1990 with ES/9000 as ESCON, when it is already obsolete.

Part of the issue is half-duplex protocol with enormous amount of back&forth chatter that keeps the channel busy ... protocol chatter latency taking increasing blocking throughput as bandwidth increases.

FCS native I/O allows data streaming concurrently in both directions (full-duplex) and I/O programs downloaded/streamed to device controllers (any protocol chatter is purely local, rather than chatter latency over fibre-channel serial).

Later POK engineers get involved in fibre-channel standard and defined an extremely heavy-weight protocol that drastically cuts the native throughput, which eventually ships as FICON. Most recent publicized numbers is "peak I/O" benchmark for z196 that used 104 FICON (over 104 fibre channel) to get 2M IOPS. At the same time there was fibre-channel announced for e5-2600 blade claiming over million IOPS (two such FCS with more throughput than 104 FICON, running over 104 FCS).

The 3880 disk controller (replacing 3830) had extremely slow processor for doing control operations and protocol chatter (with special hardware bypass for 3mbyte/sec data transfer). The 3090 configured number of channels for balanced throughput based on assumption that 3880 controller would be similar to 3830 but with 3mbyte/sec data transfer. 3090 group eventually finds out that the channel busy for 3880 protocol chatter has enormously increased ... and to compensate for that enormous increase in 3880 controller channel busy, they have to significantly increase number of 3090 channels ... which requires an additional TCM (expensive manufacturing item). Semi-facetious, the 3090 group said they would charge off the cost of the additional (3090 channel) TCM to the 3880 controller group.

IBM marketing then respins the significant increase in number of channel (for 3090) to give it much higher I/O capacity (when it really was to offset the significant increase in channel busy from 3880 slow protocol chatter).

channel.extender post
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#channel.extender
posts referencing FICON
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#ficon

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

LUsers

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: LUsers
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Sun, 17 Mar 2019 15:17:58 -0700
Andreas Kohlbach <ank@spamfence.net> writes:
Russia had the biggest part comparing to what the Americans, British and French had each.

3/4s of german military was against the russians & 2/3rds of japan military was against china. Roosevelt cut a deal with Russia that they would enter the war against japan after defeat of germany (because US didn't think they could win against japan w/o russian help). Then Russia had 1.5M soldiers in Manchuria fighting 1M japanese ... compared to 600k Americans at Okinawa fighting 76k Japanese.

McNamara had been LeMay's staff planning fire bombing german and then japanese cities. Some references that Japan may have surrendered, not because of the a-bombs, since they had already suffered more from the fire bombing than the a-bombs ... but because Russia was about to invade. McNamara then leaves for auto industry, but returns as SECDEF for Vietnam where Laos becomes the most bombed country in the world (more tonnage than dropped on Germany and Japan combined).

military-industrial(-congressional) complex posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#military.industrial.complex

recent refs
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014.html#38 Royal Pardon For Turing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014l.html#62 How Comp-Sci went from passing fad to must have major
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014l.html#63 How Comp-Sci went from passing fad to must have major
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016c.html#74 Qbasic
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016h.html#85 US vs German Armies
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017e.html#22 Ironic old "fortune"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017f.html#17 5 Naval Battles That Changed History Forever
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017h.html#43 Disregard post (another screwup; absolutely nothing to do with computers whatsoever!)

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

LUsers

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: LUsers
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Sun, 17 Mar 2019 17:04:35 -0700
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#80 LUsers

gets into proportion of Japan effort in China and Russian effort against Germany
https://www.amazon.com/Wars-Asia-1911-1949-ebook/dp/B0096R1NZ4/

Milton Miles book ("A Different Kind of War") first half was about going into china to setup coastal watchers but then spent much of the rest training 50,000 guerrillas fighting the Japanese. He then spends the last half of the book about how OSS (Donovan) and Army (Wedemeyer) gave china to the communists. They came in and wanted to take over the whole (nationalists) operation. The US Navy and Nationalists rebuffed them, so to get something they could take credit for, they support the communists.
https://www.amazon.com/different-kind-war-little-known-guerrilla/dp/B0007IYOFW/
https://books.google.com/books/about/A_Different_Kind_of_War.html?id=U4pBAAAAIAAJ

This covers a lot of Soviets in WW2, including Manchuria (after Germans had been defeated) "free pdf"
https://history.army.mil/html/books/070/70-89-1/index.html
kindle
https://www.amazon.com/HISTORICAL-PERSPECTIVES-OPERATIONAL-ART-ANTHOLOGY-ebook/dp/B0086W3GX2/

Marshall backs Wedemeyer & the Army, Wedemeyer testimony Dec 1947, possibly realizes what was done wrong
http://web.archive.org/web/20110203103817/http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,804381,00.html
Marshall is SECSTATE (1947-1949) and State puts out white paper trying to absolve State of blame for giving China to the communists
https://archive.org/details/VanSlykeLymanTheChinaWhitePaper1949

What if the Kuomintang Had Won the Chinese Civil War?
https://thediplomat.com/2015/12/what-if-the-kuomingtang-had-won-the-chinese-civil-war/

There would have been no Korean war, no domino theory, no vietnam?

However, helping chinese communists may have been part of deal with Stalin (to come in against Japan).

From the law of unintended consequences, As Japan was being pushed backed, Chinese Army units that had been in occupied territory tried to come over to the Nationalists, but was vetoed by US Army and so they went over to Mao. Later it was these units that that were sent into Korea to fight the US.

part of "red menace" mania furthered by the "equating capitalist with Chistianity" propaganda (rewriting history, distraction and misdirection) ... which contributes to adding "in god we trust" to money and "under god" to the pledge of allegiance in the 50s.

John Foster Dulles played major role in rebuilding Germany's economy, industry and military 20s thru early 40s. The Brothers: John Foster Dulles, Allen Dulles, and Their Secret World War,
https://www.amazon.com/Brothers-Foster-Dulles-Allen-Secret-ebook/dp/B00BY5QX1K/
loc905-7:
Foster was stunned by his brother's suggestion that Sullivan & Cromwell quit Germany. Many of his clients with interests there, including not just banks but corporations like Standard Oil and General Electric, wished Sullivan & Cromwell to remain active regardless of political conditions.

loc938-40:
At least one other senior partner at Sullivan & Cromwell, Eustace Seligman, was equally disturbed. In October 1939, six weeks after the Nazi invasion of Poland, he took the extraordinary step of sending Foster a formal memorandum disavowing what his old friend was saying about Nazism
... snip ...

June1940, Germany had a victory celebration at the NYC Waldorf-Astoria with major industrialists. Lots of them were there to hear how to do business with the Nazis
https://www.amazon.com/Man-Called-Intrepid-Incredible-Narrative-ebook/dp/B00V9QVE5O/

Later 5000 industrialists from across the US had conference (also) at NYC Waldorf-Astoria and in part because they had gotten such bad reputation for the depression and supporting Nazi Germany, they approved a major propaganda campaign to equate capitalism with Christianity
https://www.amazon.com/One-Nation-Under-God-Corporate-ebook/dp/B00PWX7R56/

military-industrial(-congressional) complex posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#military.industrial.complex
perpetual war posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#perpetual.war

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

The Sublime: Is it the same for IBM and Special Ops?

Refed: **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: The Sublime: Is it the same for IBM and Special Ops?
Date: 17 Mar 2019
Blog: Facebook
The Sublime: Is it the same for IBM and Special Ops?
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IUNm852We0o&feature=youtu.be

well, early to mid 70s, IBM had aggressive innovation (that included a lot of fantasy) project called Future Systems, targeted as countermeasure to competition ... Ferguson & Morris, "Computer Wars: The Post-IBM World", Time Books, 1993 .... reference to the "Future System" project ...
and perhaps most damaging, the old culture under Watson Snr and Jr of free and vigorous debate was replaced with sycophancy and make no waves under Opel and Akers. It's claimed that thereafter, IBM lived in the shadow of defeat
...
But because of the heavy investment of face by the top management, F/S took years to kill, although its wrong headedness was obvious from the very outset. "For the first time, during F/S, outspoken criticism became politically dangerous," recalls a former top executive.
... snip ...

aka including demise of (previous CEOs) Watsons' "wild ducks" innovators (akin to Boyd's "To be or to do"), I refused to be part of the Future System effort, continued to do other things ... even periodically ridiculing Future Systems efforts.

future system posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#futuresys

In the late 70s and early 80s, I was also blamed for online computer conferencing (precursor to modern social media) on the internal network (larger than arpanet/internet from just about the beginning until sometime mid-80s). Folklore is that when the corporate executive committee was told about online computer conferencing (300 fairly active, but read possibly by 20,000) and the internal network, 5of6 wanted to fire me. Possibly part of what saved me was from the time I first joined IBM, one of my hobbies was enhanced production operating systems for internal datacenters ... so parts of IBM ran on critical systems I supplied (under the radar, happened w/o top executives even being aware).

Also in the early 80s, I was introduced to John Boyd and would sponsor his briefings at IBM.

Boyd posts and URLs
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subboyd.html

IBM has long down hill slide and then gets a new CEO in the early 90s to resurrect the company, but it is more about big business financial engineering including (previously used)
http://www.ibmemployee.com/RetirementHeist.shtml
The new CEO then shows up in DC, buying up government contractors & beltway bandits (including company that will employ Snowden), hiring prominent politicians to lobby congress to outsource government to their companies
http://www.motherjones.com/politics/2007/10/barbarians-capitol-private-equity-public-enemy/
Lou Gerstner, former ceo of ibm, now heads the Carlyle Group, a Washington-based global private equity firm whose 2006 revenues of $87 billion were just a few billion below ibm's. Carlyle has boasted George H.W. Bush, George W. Bush, and former Secretary of State James Baker III on its employee roster.
... snip ...

just intelligence, 70% of budget and over half the people (including Snowden)
http://www.investingdaily.com/17693/spies-like-us
helping accelerate the rapid spreading success of failure culture, lots more profit from series of failures.
http://www.govexec.com/excellence/management-matters/2007/04/the-success-of-failure/24107/

... besides the success of failure culture (to increase revenue), PE companies are under heavy pressure to cut corners every way possible to push money up to their PE owners ... PE companies that were doing outsourced security clearances were found to be doing paper work but not actually doing background investigations. Semi-facetious conjecture did PE use wargaming to explore these alternative strategies to increase revenue.

gerstner posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#gerstner
pension posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#pension
private equity posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#private.equity

We were peripherally involved, but didn't realize until the success of failure articles. 2002, we get a call asking us if we would respond to an unclassified BAA by IC-ARDA (since renamed IARPA) which was about to close (that basically said that none of the tools they had did the job). We get in the response and have some meetings showing that we could do what was required ... and then nothing. We initially wondered why the agency allowed the BAA to be released (if they weren't going to do anything, possibly anticipating that nobody would respond which would help damp down complaints). Disclaimer: I don't have clearance, although agencies have used my software back to my undergraduate days in the 60s.

Watch Thy Neighbor
https://foreignpolicy.com/2016/03/11/watch-thy-neighbor-nsa-security-spying-surveillance/
wiki pages:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Andrews_Drake
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ThinThread
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trailblazer_Project

success of failure posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#success.of.failure

old reference to agencies & IBM ... gone 404, but lives on at wayback machine (I didn't know about them at the time)
http://web.archive.org/web/20090117083033/http://www.nsa.gov/research/selinux/list-archive/0409/8362.shtml

and Boyd references

Boyd: The Fighter Pilot Who Changed the Art of War
https://www.amazon.com/Boyd-Fighter-Pilot-Who-Changed-ebook/dp/B000FA5UEG/
pg281/loc4905-6:
He stalked the office, staring at his underlings, then suddenly walking up to them, sticking a bony finger into their chest, and saying things such as, "If your boss demands loyalty, give him integrity. But if he demands integrity, then give him loyalty."
... snip ...

and from dedication of Nellis (USAF weapons lab) Boyd Hall, 17Sep1999, sort of equivalent to IBM's wild ducks:
There are two career paths in front of you, and you have to choose which path you will follow. One path leads to promotions, titles, and positions of distinction.... The other path leads to doing things that are truly significant for the Air Force, but the rewards will quite often be a kick in the stomach because you may have to cross swords with the party line on occasion. You can't go down both paths, you have to choose. Do you want to be a man of distinction or do you want to do things that really influence the shape of the Air Force? To be or to do, that is the question.
... snip ...

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

The Sublime: Is it the same for IBM and Special Ops?

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: The Sublime: Is it the same for IBM and Special Ops?
Date: 17 Mar 2019
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#82 The Sublime: Is it the same for IBM and Special Ops?

old "pentagon paper" like event: 370/145 were shipping with "XLATE" in the rollers for PSW light bits on front console ... customers guessed that it stood for translate or virtual memory. Copy of virtual memory architecture document somehow found its way to industry publication. There was then a "pentagon paper" type witch hunt for the leak ... which I guess never found anything. However, as a result ... IBM retrofitted all company copying machines with machine identification number under the glass (which would show up on all copies made). More than decade later, this is example (still in effect, copy I made of Gray's study of system availability, hardware had gotten so reliable, that major outages were software, environmental, people mistakes) each page tagged with IBM copying machine id:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/grayft84.pdf

Also apparently as a result, they decided to try and limit Future System document to soft copy, documentation was only available on highly modified vm370 systems, extreme security for restricted uses and only work with specific restricted 3270 terminal (display only, before terminal emulation). One weekend I have some (virtual memory) test time in a machine room with such a system and went by Friday afternoon to make sure every thing was set up. They started taunting me that their system was so secure that if I was left in the machine room alone all weekend that even I couldn't access the documents. So it is the only time I succumb to such taunts ... I said less than five minutes ... most of the time was disabling all (online) access to the machine from outside the machine room ... and then I use the front console to flip a single bit in storage (which results in nullifying their carefully constructed security).

disclaimer: all during the Future System period I continued to work on 360/370 period ... and would periodically ridicule FS (which wasn't exactly career enhancing activity) ... even claiming I already had stuff running better than what they were proposing

future system posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#futuresys

in the past I've posted about industrial espionage and government sueing a foreign clone maker; because they had approached.me, I had 3hr FBI interview ... I had put the approach off when I told them that I had recently submitted draft revision for IBM Business Conduct Guidelines ... because I didn't think they were strong enough (which I had actually done). It was about original 370/xa specs (referred to as 811 for their nov1978 publication date) ... I had copies of all the IBM confidential registered documents ... I wandered if somebody from IBM security had leaked names of everyone with registered document

Aka ... registered documents have double lock process ... and IBM security does periodic audits that they are still in your possession... aka plant security will have names & inventory of everybody with registered documents ar location

Mention less frequently is case where somebody left with detailed specs for new unannounced disk to clone disk maker and IBM sued them for a couple billion. Judge ruled that people couldn't be blamed for walking off with something worth a couple billion just laying around ... had to demonstrate security proportional to value

Early 80s ... floating heads, 3370s FBA, 3380s. triva: I've posted before about somebody was running "air bearing" (for floating heads) simulation on SJR 370/195 ... but even with priority was only getting a couple turn arounds a month. bldg. 15 (product test) had gotten the first engineering 3033 (outside POK) ... and it was running one of my systems (I had rewritten input/output supervisor to make it bullet proof and never fail for bldg 14, disk development and bldg15, product test ... enabling on-demand, multiple concurrent testing, greatly improving productivity). Since disk testing only used a couple percent cpu, setup private online service on 3033 with a spare string of 16 3330 drives. We got things setup so he could run simulation on 3033. Although 3033 had little less than half the processing throughput of 195 ... he could still get several turn arounds a day (instead a month).

security proportional to risk posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#security.proportional.to.risk

posts mentioning IBM's Pentagon Paper like posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000e.html#15 internet preceeds Gore in office.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000f.html#55 X86 ultimate CISC? No. (was: Re: "all-out" vs less aggressive designs)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002n.html#15 Tweaking old computers?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010n.html#73 Mainframe hacking?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010p.html#58 TCM's Moguls documentary series
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010p.html#59 TCM's Moguls documentary series
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010q.html#3a The Great Cyberheist
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010q.html#4 Plug Your Data Leaks from the inside
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011.html#24 Julian Assange - Hero or Villain
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011.html#25 Julian Assange - Hero or Villain
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011.html#27 Searching for John Boyd
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011b.html#16 WikiLeaks' Wall Street Bombshell
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012e.html#77 Just for a laugh... How to spot an old IBMer
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012l.html#99 PDP-10 system calls, was 1132 printer history
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012p.html#33 Historians: The Paper Trail through History
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013c.html#75 Still not convinced about the superiority of mainframe security vs distributed?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013f.html#59 Crypto Facility performance
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014g.html#18 350 DBAs stare blankly when reminded super-users can pinch data
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014g.html#102 Fifty Years of nitpicking definitions, was BASIC,theProgrammingLanguageT
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015e.html#87 These hackers warned the Internet would become a security disaster. Nobody listened
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017e.html#63 [CM] What was your first home computer?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017f.html#87 How a few yellow dots burned the Intercept's NSA leaker
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017g.html#56 What is the most epic computer glitch you have ever seen?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017g.html#74 Running unsupported is dangerous was Re: AW: Re: LE strikes again
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017g.html#75 Running unsupported is dangerous was Re: AW: Re: LE strikes again

"air bearing" posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001n.html#39 195 was: Computer Typesetting Was: Movies with source code
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002j.html#30 Weird
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002n.html#63 Help me find pics of a UNIVAC please
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002o.html#74 They Got Mail: Not-So-Fond Farewells
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003b.html#51 Disk drives as commodities. Was Re: Yamhill
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003b.html#52 Disk drives as commodities. Was Re: Yamhill
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003j.html#69 Multics Concepts For the Contemporary Computing World
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003m.html#20 360 Microde Floating Point Fix
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003n.html#45 hung/zombie users ... long boring, wandering story
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004.html#21 40th anniversary of IBM System/360 on 7 Apr 2004
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004b.html#15 harddisk in space
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004o.html#15 360 longevity, was RISCs too close to hardware?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004o.html#25 CKD Disks?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005.html#8 [Lit.] Buffer overruns
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005f.html#4 System/360; Hardwired vs. Microcoded
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005f.html#5 System/360; Hardwired vs. Microcoded
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005o.html#44 Intel engineer discusses their dual-core design
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006.html#29 IBM microwave application--early data communications
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006c.html#6 IBM 610 workstation computer
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006d.html#0 IBM 610 workstation computer
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006d.html#13 IBM 610 workstation computer
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006d.html#14 IBM 610 workstation computer
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006l.html#6 Google Architecture
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006l.html#18 virtual memory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006s.html#42 Ranking of non-IBM mainframe builders?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006t.html#41 The Future of CPUs: What's After Multi-Core?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006u.html#18 Why so little parallelism?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006x.html#27 The Future of CPUs: What's After Multi-Core?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006x.html#31 The Future of CPUs: What's After Multi-Core?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007e.html#43 FBA rant
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007e.html#44 Is computer history taught now?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007f.html#46 The Perfect Computer - 36 bits?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007i.html#83 Disc Drives
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007j.html#13 Interrupts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007j.html#64 Disc Drives
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007l.html#52 Drums: Memory or Peripheral?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008k.html#77 Disk drive improvements
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008l.html#60 recent mentions of 40+ yr old technology
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009c.html#9 Assembler Question
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009k.html#49 A Complete History Of Mainframe Computing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009k.html#75 Disksize history question
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009r.html#51 "Portable" data centers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011.html#16 Looking for a real Fortran-66 compatible PC compiler (CP/M or DOS or Windows, doesn't matter)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011.html#36 CKD DASD
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011.html#57 Speed of Old Hard Disks
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011.html#60 Speed of Old Hard Disks
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011c.html#26 If IBM Hadn't Bet the Company
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011d.html#63 The first personal computer (PC)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011f.html#87 Gee... I wonder if I qualify for "old geek"?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011n.html#36 Last Word on Dennis Ritchie
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011p.html#26 Deja Cloud?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011p.html#134 Start Interpretive Execution
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012o.html#59 ISO documentation of IBM 3375, 3380 and 3390 track format
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012o.html#70 bubble memory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013g.html#23 Old data storage or data base
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014l.html#78 Could this be the wrongest prediction of all time?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015b.html#61 ou sont les VAXen d'antan, was Variable-Length Instructions that aren't
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016c.html#3 You count as an old-timer if (was Re: Origin of the phrase "XYZZY")
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016f.html#39 what is 3380 E?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#71 Software as a Replacement of Hardware
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017g.html#95 Hard Drives Started Out as Massive Machines That Were Rented by the Month
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018.html#41 VSAM usage for ancient disk models
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018b.html#80 BYTE Magazine Pentomino Article
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018f.html#57 DASD Development
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#38 long-winded post thread, 3033, 3081, Future System

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

IBM 5100

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: IBM 5100
Date: 17 Mar 2019
Blog: Facebook
in the following, should be palo alto science center, not the los gatos lab
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM_5100

s370/125 trivia: In the 60s as undergraduate I had done some work on reduce CP67 kernel size for 256kbyte & 512kbyte 360/67 .... which was one of the things that got lost in morph to vm370. A customer wanted VM370 on 256kbyte 370/125 ... but it didn't quite boot. I got asked to go into the customer (shipping company in NYC) and get it working. Turns I could cut fixed storage kernel size about almost 1/3rd ... but the other problem was 115&125 had mis-implemented the new CLCL & MVCL 370 instructions ... and the MVCL instruction was used by the VM370 boot processor (used to clear storage and determine size of real storage). I patched code to use some other instructions.

360 instructions prechecks starting and ending address of storage locations and aborts instruction before starting if either ehave problem. 370 was the same except for "long" instructions which were supposed to be incrementally executed. VM370 set MVCL starting "to" address and length of 16mbytes, and the from address with length of zero bytes and pad character of zero. The MVCL instruction should have cleared storage until it reached the end ... and which time it program checks with the end of storage in the "to" address register. The incorrect 370 115/125 implementation MVCL like 360, aborted the execution before it starts (because the start plus length ending address was invalid) instead of doing the (new) 370 ("long") incremental execution.

Later I got asked to help with multiprocessor version of 125 (never announced or shipped). Boeblingen gots hand slapped for doing 9 position memory bus ... 115 had all the microprocessors the same with different microcode loads ... 370 simulation for one processor, and controller microcode loads for the other processors. The 125 was same as 115 except the microprocessor running 370 microcode load was 50% faster. Would have 2-5 of the faster microprocessors with 370 microcode load ... and I did superset of what I was working on for the 138/148 ECPS microcode load ... ECPS reference:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/94.html#21

360/370 mcode posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#mcode
125 multiprocessor posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#bounce
smp &/or compare&swap posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#smp

San Jose had done 8in diskette initially used for controller microcode load ... which was then also used by several 370 models for "IMPL" (initial microprogram load, *NOT* ICPL
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_floppy_disk#The_8-inch_disk

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virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

LUsers

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: LUsers
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Mon, 18 Mar 2019 10:22:55 -0700
Brian Reay <no.sp@m.com> writes:
You mean: The Russians spent decades screwing up their own country under Communism then, when they realised their error and screwed up changing it, still couldn't accept responsibility for THEIR mistakes.

re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#80 LUsers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#81 LUsers

then there is Harvard was hired to send over people to teach capitalism ... however those sent over were intent on capitalistic looting ... which gave rise to Putin and their oligarchs ... as <b>countermeasure</b> to our oligarchs (intent on looting Russia). "Is Harvard Responsible For Rise of Putin" ... after the fall of the soviet union, those sent over to teach capitalism were more intent on looting the country. John Helmer: Convicted Fraudster Jonathan Hay, Harvard's Man Who Wrecked Russia, Resurfaces in Ukraine
https://www.nakedcapitalism.com/2015/02/convicted-fraudster-jonathan-hay-harvards-man-who-wrecked-russia-resurfaces-in-ukraine.html
If you are unfamiliar with this fiasco, which was also the true proximate cause of Larry Summers' ouster from Harvard, you must read an extraordinary expose, How Harvard Lost Russia, from Institutional Investor. I am told copies of this article were stuffed in every Harvard faculty member's inbox the day Summers got a vote of no confidence and resigned shortly thereafter.
... snip ...

How Harvard lost Russia; The best and brightest of America's premier university came to Moscow in the 1990s to teach Russians how to be capitalists. This is the inside story of how their efforts led to scandal and disgrace (gone 404, but lives on wayback machine)
https://web.archive.org/web/20160325154522/http://www.institutionalinvestor.com:80/Article/1020662/How-Harvard-lost-Russia.html
Mostly, they hurt Russia and its hopes of establishing a lasting framework for a stable Western-style capitalism, as Summers himself acknowledged when he testified under oath in the U.S. lawsuit in Cambridge in 2002. "The project was of enormous value," said Summers, who by then had been installed as the president of Harvard. "Its cessation was damaging to Russian economic reform and to the U.S.-Russian relationship."
... snip ...

I got drawn into plans on how to (i was somewhat on the periphery of this part of discussions how to) deploy 5000 brick&morter banks (@$1M) around the country as part of creating a democratic capitalist environment ... but that evaporates when the rest implodes with the capitalist looting

Things had started out well (but went down hill after the looting efforts) .... after wall fell there was extraordinary cooperation and program to teach Russia about capitalism, From CSPAN, talks about extraordinary cooperation between US & Russia military in the 90s, 25th Anniversary Implementation of Nunn-Lugar Act
https://www.c-span.org/video/?419918-3/implementation-nunnlugar-ac
Nunn-Lugar
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nunn%E2%80%93Lugar_Cooperative_Threat_Reduction

capitalist looting has long history ... even predating banana republics

US version that started with "War Is a Racket" and "Economic Hitman"
https://www.amazon.com/New-Confessions-Economic-Hit-Man-ebook/dp/B017MZ8EBM/
wiki entry
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Confessions_of_an_Economic_Hit_Man
also references Butler's "War Is a Racket"
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/War_Is_a_Racket
and "perpetual war" (for the military-industrial complex)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perpetual_war

US version, more
https://www.amazon.com/Confessions-Economic-Hit-Man-ebook/dp/B001AFF266
pg89/loc1598-1601:
I knew what none of them could possibly know, that the corporatocracy, its band of EHMs, and the jackals waiting in the background would never allow the little guys to gain control. I only had to draw upon the examples of Arbenz and Mossadegh--and more recently, upon the 1973 CIA overthrow of Chile's democratically elected president, Salvador Allende. In fact, I understood that the stranglehold of global empire was growing stronger, despite OPEC--or, as I suspected at the time but did not confirm until later, with OPEC's help.

pg217/loc3378-80:
However, by the late 1980s it was apparent that Saddam was not buying into the EHM scenario. This was a major frustration and a great embarrassment to the first Bush administration. Like Panama, Iraq contributed to George H. W. Bush's wimp image. As Bush searched for a way out, Saddam played into his hands.
... snip ...

EHM story is to convince countries to start massive infrastructure projects predicting benefits far in excess of possible. Country gets loans to pay for projects and companies skim massive profits. Country can't keep up with payments. US gov goes in and helps them restructure payments in return for special considerations.

and then last decade used it in the US: Confidence Men: Wall Street, Washington, and the Education of a President.
https://www.amazon.com/Confidence-Men-Washington-Education-ebook/dp/B0089LOKKS/
has several references that essentially wallstreet was using the EHM debt strategy against the American public. Other references were about new president having to choose between the economic A-team (Volcker et al) and the B-team. The A-team was instrumental in getting him elected, but the A-team would have held wallstreet and the too-big-to-fail accountable, which would have likely taken down most of those institutions.

Confidence Men
https://www.npr.org/templates/transcript/transcript.php?storyId=140594464

(US) economic mess posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#economic.mess
military-industrial(-congressional) complex posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#military.industrial.complex
perpetual war posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#perpetual.war
posts about fabricated WMDs used to justify IRAQ2
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#wmds

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Trump's tax law threatens charities. The poor will pay

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Trump's tax law threatens charities. The poor will pay.
Date: 18 Mar 2019
Blog: Facebook
Trump's tax law threatens charities. The poor will pay.
https://publicintegrity.org/business/trumps-tax-law-threatens-charities-the-poor-will-pay/

some of them are little messes, some of them are big messes ... but they accumulate and now it is enormous mess. 2008, national TV news broadcast roundtable at annual economist conference ... calling for flat rate taxes and elimination of (nearly) all deductions. The scenario was that generations of special interest tax provisions has resulted in tax code that costs 6% of GDP (going to flat rate tax and no deductions), 3% lost to cost of dealing with the enormously complex tax code (heavily laden with special exemptions) and 3% lost in non-optimal business decisions to comply with tax code. Claim was that gaining back 6% of GDP would more than offset the loss of any "beneficial" tax provisions.

Campaigning against flat rate were tax preparing industry and Ireland (relatively recent special tax exemptions that allowed corporations to "off-shore" US profits to foreign tax havens). However it was noted that legislature tax committee is one of the largest beneficiary of $$$ from lobbyists and special industry ... major factor in congress being called the most corrupt institution on earth ... so there would be major resistance by congress to eliminate a major source of their wealth.

Claim is that a major factor in public display of party conflict is "kabuki theater" (little of what you see has anything to do with what really goes on), one party threatening to eliminate special tax provisions (big spike in contributions by special interests to both parties to keep tax exemptions in place).

tax evasion, avoidance, fraud, havens, etc. posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html##tax.evasion
kabuki theater posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#kabuki.theater
inequality posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#inequality

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virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

LUsers

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: LUsers
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Mon, 18 Mar 2019 16:19:58 -0700
hancock4 writes:
In my opinion, McNamara was a war criminal for Vietnam: 1) He failed to understand the real political situation over there-- that the South Vietnamese govt was illegitimate. 2) He blindly accepted lies by commanders to keep their cushy assignments, and that everything was going great. He lied to Johnson (who then lied to the American people). 3) He ramped up troops without any real plan. He attempted to fight a WW II style war which was totally unsuited to the political and tactical environment. 4) He kept the war going long after it was clear it was fruitless.

(Let's be clear that the North Vietnamese and Communists over there were brutal murderers and out for conquest. However that was not and shouldn't have become the U.S.' problem.)


re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#80 LUsers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#81 LUsers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2019.html#85 LUsers

McMaster's 1997 book (Phd thesis), quite critical of Johnson, McNamara, Westmoreland, body count, and whole counterinsurgency program (when Johnson was asked what they were suppose to do in Vietnam, he consistently replies, "kill more viet cong" ... also long litany of Johnson & McNamara lying to congress).
https://www.amazon.com/Dereliction-Duty-Johnson-McNamara-Chiefs-ebook/dp/B004HW7834/

Doesn't get as far as Nixon's "treason" in manipulating peace talks to improve his winning election (but does talk about Johnson lying about vietnam and manipulating opinion to help him win election). From (then) recently declassified info, basically advisers didn't see US could win (wasn't military issue) ... but it would be worse position in world opinion if didn't try.

There are random claims that early counterinsurgency was winning (by special forces and others) ... but Westmoreland wanted regular Army military actions.

Counterinsurgency Lessons from Malaya and Vietnam: Learning to Eat Soup with a Knife
https://www.amazon.com/Counterinsurgency-Lessons-Malaya-Vietnam-Learning-ebook/dp/B000QECG20/

loc1628-30:
The American army's involvement in the Second Indochina War from 1950 to 1972 demonstrates the triumph of the institutional culture of an organization over attempts at doctrinal innovation and the diminution of the effectiveness of the organization at accomplishing national objectives.

loc1631-33:
The concept that success in counterinsurgency consisted of separating the insurgents from popular support never took root. The U.S. Army proceeded with its historical role of destroying the enemy army-even if it had a hard time finding it. The United States Army entered the Vietnam War with a doctrine well suited to fighting conventional war in Europe, but worse than useless for the counterinsurgency it was about to combat.

loc1641-43:
The learning cycle was also ineffective in recognizing poor performance, suggesting doctrinal innovation, gaining organizational consensus behind new doctrine, and disseminating the changes throughout the army in Vietnam. Although there was substantial innovation from below, neither the personnel nor the organization of the Military Assistance Advisory Group (MAAG) and of its successor organization, Military Assistance Command-Vietnam (MACV), was conducive to counterinsurgency learning.

and loc2818-20:
Many of these innovations were, if useless, at least not harmful to the achievement of American goals; the same can hardly be said for the use of strategic B-52 bombers in a tactical close air support role, which produced a vast number of civilian causalities and provided duds (5 percent of the bombs failed to explode) for booby traps that killed more than one thousand U.S. soldiers in 1966 alone
... snip ...

Landsdale after having conducted a succesful counterinsurgency in Philippines was brought into Vietnam ... but was constantly hamstrung.

The Road Not Taken: Edward Lansdale and the American Tragedy in Vietnam
https://www.amazon.com/Road-Not-Taken-Lansdale-American-ebook/dp/B073VXL9RV/
pg497/loc9038-42:
When Lodge heard about Lansdale's plans to stage a free election, he launched into a lengthy diatribe about how he and Lyndon Johnson had spent most of their lives rigging elections. "Get it across to the press that they shouldn't apply higher standards here in Vietnam than they do in the U.S.," he instructed aides. 30 One of Lodge's closest aides believed that "Lansdale wanted the reality of elections, while Lodge was convinced we needed only the appearance of a democracy in order to do what we had to do. Which wasn't the same thing."
... snip ...

military-industrial(-congressional) complex posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#military.industrial.complex

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virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Economic Mess

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Economic Mess
Date: 19 Mar 2019
Blog: Facebook
Madoff congressional hearings had the person that tried unsuccessfully for a decade to get SEC to do something about Madoff (SEC hands were forced when Madoff turned himself in, folklore he was looking for government protection from some unsavory characters he had defrauded). Congress asked him if new regulations were necessary. He replied that while new regulations might be necessary, much more important would be transparency and visibility (possibly since SEC was doing so little with the regulations they had) ... any AS/400s would have been part of fabrication and distraction props.

Madoff postings
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#madoff

As the economic mess was imploded ... there were a number of articles about the algorithms for calculating risk was flawed and that is what caused the problem. However, the risk managers were saying that the business people forced them to fiddle the numbers until it came up with the desired results (GIGO, garbage in, garbage out).

There were two online (CP67/CMS) commercial service bureau spinoffs of the IBM cambridge science center in the 60s. Both of them quickly moved up the value stream to specialize in services for the financial industry. One of them (which had previously bought the pricing services division from one of the rating companies), was briefly mentioned in Jan2009 about valuing the offbook toxic assets that were supposedly going to be bought with TARP funds. Then a series of articles about how hard it was to value (toxic) securitized loans&mortgages ... and then nothing.

S&L crises posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#s&l.crisis
science center posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech

In 1999 I had been asked to try and help prevent the coming economic mess (we failed). Some investment bankers had walked away "clean" from the S&L crises and were then running Internet IPO mills (invest a few million, hype, IPO, should then fail, to leave the field clear for next round of IPOs) and were predicted to next get into securitized mortgages. There had been some use of securitized mortgages during the S&L crises to obfuscate fraudulent mortgages. I was to improve the integrity of securitized mortgages supporting documents as countermeasure.

They then find that they can pay the rating agencies for triple-A (when the rating agencies knew they weren't worth triple-A, from Oct2008 congressional hearing testimony). Triple-A rating trumps supporting documents and they can start doing no-documentation, liar loans, securitize, pay for triple-A and immediately sell off into the bond market (including to entities restricted to only dealing in "safe" investments, including major pension funds). The triple-A rating (selling into the bond market) met they no longer have to care about borrowers' qualifications and/or loan quality.

Without supporting documents it was effectively nearly impossible to value the offbook toxic (securitized mortgage) assets leaving "mark-to-market" ... the $60B that CITI had sold early in the fall for 22cents on the dollar. The other problem was only $700B had been appropriated for TARP to buy offbook toxic assets and just the four largest Too Big To Fail was still carrying $5.2T year-end 2008. In any case, the SECTREAS used TARP for other purposes and it was left to the Federal Reserve to handle the "real" bailout (including buying toxic assets for 98cents on the dollar w/o any valuations).

From the law of unintended consequences ... some of the biggest fines for the economic mess was for the "robo-signing" mills, fabricating the "missing" documents.

Other trivia: in the Oct2008 congressional hearings into the major role that the rating agencies played in the economic mess, there was testimony that the ratings are for the benefit of the buyer and previously had been paid for by the buyers, but then the rating agencies changed to the ratings being paid by the sellers ... which misaligned the business process ... so the rating agencies were no longer acting for the benefit of the buyers ... and it is almost impossible to regulate a industry that is motivated to do the wrong thing.

triple-A rated (toxic) CDO posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#toxic.cdo
economic mess posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#economic.mess
TBTF (too big to fail, too big to prosecute, too big to jail) posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#too-big-to-fail

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virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

16 years ago, the US invaded Iraq -- CIA agents already on the ground knew it would be a disaster

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: 16 years ago, the US invaded Iraq -- CIA agents already on the ground knew it would be a disaster
Date: 20 Mar 2019
Blog: Facebook
16 years ago, the US invaded Iraq -- CIA agents already on the ground knew it would be a disaster
https://www.businessinsider.com/cia-agents-in-iraq-knew-us-invasion-would-be-a-disaster-2019-3

Another viewpoint was that the Iraq had learned from Desert Storm (Gulf War in the early 90s) to minimize targets for US Air Power.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gulf_War

And from the law of unintended consequences,
https://www.amazon.com/Prophets-War-Lockheed-Military-Industrial-ebook/dp/B0047T86BA/
invaders were told to bypass ammo dumps looking for WMDs, when they get around to going back, over a million metric tons had evaporated. Later large artillery shells start showing up in IEDs. Also, military-industrial complex wanted a war so badly that corporate reps were telling former eastern block countries that if they voted for IRAQ2 invasion in the UN, they would get membership in NATO and (directed appropriation) USAID that can only be used for purchase of US arms

Army's long-awaited Iraq war study finds Iran was the only winner in a conflict that holds many lessons for future wars
https://www.armytimes.com/news/your-army/2019/01/18/armys-long-awaited-iraq-war-study-finds-iran-was-the-only-winner-in-a-conflict-that-holds-many-lessons-for-future-wars/

GAO air power effectiveness (Gulf War) study has A10 so effectively destroying Iraqi tanks that crews were walking away (sitting ducks). Later accounts of ferocious tanks battles with coalition forces taking no damage, doesn't mention if Iraqi tanks had anybody home.
http://www.gao.gov/products/NSIAD-97-13

last decade (before invasion), cousin of white house chief of staff Card ... was dealing with the Iraqis at the UN and was given evidence that WMDs (tracing back to US in the Iran/Iraq war) had been decommissioned. the cousin shared it with Card, Powell and others ... then is locked up in military hospital, book was published in 2010 (before decommissioned WMDs were declassified)
https://www.amazon.com/EXTREME-PREJUDICE-Terrifying-Story-Patriot-ebook/dp/B004HYHBK2/

NY Times series from 2014, the decommission WMDs (tracing back to US from Iran/Iraq war), had been found early in the invasion, but the information was classified for a decade
http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2014/10/14/world/middleeast/us-casualties-of-iraq-chemical-weapons.html

Note in the 80s during Iran/Iraq war, US supported Iraq & Saddam, including supplying WMDs. Then in 90s, sat. photo recon analyst told white house that saddam was marshaling forces to invade Kuwait. White house said that they didn't believe him and proceeded to discredit the analyst. Later the analyst informed the white house that saddam was marshaling forces to invade Saudi Arabia, now the white house has to choose between saddam and the Saudis.
https://www.amazon.com/Long-Strange-Journey-Intelligence-ebook/dp/B004NNV5H2/

military-industrial(-congressional) complex posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#military.industrial.complex
WMD posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#wmds
perpetual war posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#perpetual.war

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