< 2018 Newsgroup postings (07/01 - 09/13) Lynn Wheeler

List of Archived Posts

2018 Newsgroup Postings (07/01 - 09/13)

Service Bureau Corporation
Service Bureau Corporation
Frank Heart Dies at 89
Firm that Audits the Fed's Financial Statements Hit with $625 Million in Damages for Negligence in Bank-Fraud Case Brought by the FDIC
Ron Paul On 'The Dollar Dilemma': Where To From Here?
Computers, anyone?
The Pentagon Is Building a Dream Team of Tech-Savvy Soldiers
The History of Junk Bonds and Leveraged Buyouts
Rash of Fortnite cheaters infected by malware that breaks HTTPS encryption
Buying Victory: Money as a Weapon on the Battlefields of Today and Tomorrow
Companies buying back their own shares is the only thing keeping the stock market afloat right now
OT: Trump
Companies buying back their own shares is the only thing keeping the stock market afloat right now
Computers, anyone?
On The Deficit, GOP Has Been Playing Us All For Suckers
Frank Heart Dies at 89
America Celebrates Lateral Move From Monarchy To Corporate Rule
Pentagon to outsource all strategy to Booz Allen Hamilton (warning satire?)
Online Computer Conferencing
America's War for the Greater Middle East: A Military History
Manned Orbiting Laboratory Declassified: Inside a US Military Space Station
Manned Orbiting Laboratory Declassified: Inside a US Military Space Station
Manned Orbiting Laboratory Declassified: Inside a US Military Space Station
Manned Orbiting Laboratory Declassified: Inside a US Military Space Station
Harvard Professors Expose 'The Real Problem With Stock Buybacks'
Why You Should Trust Your Gut, According to the University of Cambridge
SEC Knifes Its Whistleblower Program
Wearing a tie cuts circulation to your brain
These Are the Best Companies to Work For in the U.S
These Are the Best Companies to Work For in the U.S
These Are the Best Companies to Work For in the U.S
Suggestion Awards
12 Russian Agents Indicted in Mueller Investigation
old grudges, Computers, anyone?
oriental old grudges, Computers, anyone?
OT: Trump
OT: Trump
The history of the MONITOR tops-10)
oriental old grudges, Computers, anyone?
IRS spent $380m but took 'limited or no action' on offshore tax dodges
Yar, thar she blows: Corp-cash-stealing email whaling attacks now a $12.5bn industry
1958 Crisis in education
Bill Black: Trump Sees Europe as a "Foe" Because of Key Misinformed Advisor
How Plan to Replace LIBOR Will Cement Fed's Role as Global Central Banker
Kabuki Dance
DEC introduces PDP-6 [was Re: IBM introduces System/360]
DEC introduces PDP-6 [was Re: IBM introduces System/360]
The Outsourced System Making Big Bucks off of "Zero Tolerance"
Multimillion-dollar award against PwC is window into typically secret auditor settlements
DEC introduces PDP-6 [was Re: IBM introduces System/360]
OT: Trump
usenet history, was 1958 Crisis in education
The ABCs of Hacking a Voting Machine
Updated Green Card
Tachyum Prodigy: performance from architecture
usenet history, was 1958 Crisis in education
NATO is a Goldmine for the US/Military Industrial Complex
NATO is a Goldmine for the US/Military Industrial Complex
Watch Your Debit and Credit Cards: Thieves Get Craftier With Skimmers
Excess Management Is Costing the U.S. $3 Trillion Per Year
Excess Management Is Costing the U.S. $3 Trillion Per Year
Canada's Telephone network, 1938 [ping Michael]
The big flaw: auditing in crisis
EBCDIC Bad History
Mystery of the Underpaid American Worker
System recovered from Princeton/Melinda backup/archive tapes
something like a 360, was PDP 11/40 system manual
Donald Trump, Gun-Runner for Hire
Before Snowden, an NSA Spy Tried to Incite Change From the Inside
different architecture, was PDP 11/40 system manual
meanwhile in eastern Asia^WEurope, was tablets and desktops was Has Microsoft
PDP 11/40 system manual
Top CEOs' compensation increased 17.6 percent in 2017
System/R, SQL/DS, DB2, HA/CMP
meanwhile in eastern Asia^WEurope, was tablets and desktops was Has Microsoft
meanwhile in eastern Asia^WEurope, was tablets and desktops was Has Microsoft
meanwhile in eastern Asia^WEurope, was tablets and desktops was Has Microsoft
Top CEOs' compensation increased 17.6 percent in 2017; The ratio of CEO-to-worker compensation grew to 312-to-1
meanwhile in eastern Asia^WEurope, was tablets and desktops was Has Microsoft
First Computer User Group Is Founded, 22August1955
Art Laffer's Chinese Curve Ball
An Endless Highway of Death
Why Is the White House Trying to Block a Key Election Security Bill?
The Pentagon's New Stealth Bookkeeping
Top CEOs' compensation increased 17.6 percent in 2017
History of Virtualization
History of Virtualization
White-Collar Criminals Got Off Scot-Free After the 2008 Financial Crisis
Beware of Tech Companies Bearing Privacy Laws
White-Collar Criminals Got Off Scot-Free After the 2008 Financial Crisis
The time has come to nationalise auditing
The (broken) economics of OSS
It's 1983: What computer would you buy?
It's 1983: What computer would you buy?
It's 1983: What computer would you buy?
The (broken) economics of OSS
The (broken) economics of OSS
The (broken) economics of OSS
It's 1983: What computer would you buy?
It's 1983: What computer would you buy?
The (broken) economics of OSS
White-Collar Criminals Got Off Scot-Free After the 2008 Financial Crisis
Can we learn from financial lessons of 90 years ago?
The (broken) economics of OSS
The (broken) economics of OSS
White-Collar Criminals Got Off Scot-Free After the 2008 Financial Crisis
The (broken) economics of OSS
The LLC Loophole; In New York, where an LLC is legally a person
The United States' Perpetual War in Afghanistan
Pigs Want To Feed at the Trough Again: Bernanke, Geithner and Paulson Use Crisis Anniversary to Ask for More Bailout Powers
Pigs Want To Feed at the Trough Again: Bernanke, Geithner and Paulson Use Crisis Anniversary to Ask for More Bailout Powers
Pigs Want To Feed at the Trough Again: Bernanke, Geithner and Paulson Use Crisis Anniversary to Ask for More Bailout Powers
Pigs Want To Feed at the Trough Again: Bernanke, Geithner and Paulson Use Crisis Anniversary to Ask for More Bailout Powers
The Supreme Court Is Headed Back to the 19th Century
Pigs Want To Feed at the Trough Again: Bernanke, Geithner and Paulson Use Crisis Anniversary to Ask for More Bailout Powers
Economists Should Stop Defending Milton Friedman's Pseudo-science
Census Bureau Reveals Grim Facts about Real Earnings of Men
The rich want to use money to solve problems, except the problems that made them rich
IBM today

Service Bureau Corporation

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Service Bureau Corporation
Date: 01 July 2018
Blog: Facebook
Service Bureau Corporation
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Service_Bureau_Corporation
In 1973, as a result of another lawsuit over the fear, uncertainty and doubt (FUD) created by IBM's pre-announcement of a nonexistent System/360 Model 92, IBM sold SBC for $16 million to Control Data Corporation,[2] which had a small service bureau business of its own.
... snip ...

a slightly different
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Control_Data_Corporation
In the meantime, IBM announced a new System/360 model, the Model 92, which would be just as fast as CDC's 6600. Although this machine did not exist, sales of the 6600 dropped drastically while people waited for the release of the mythical Model 92. Norris did not take this tactic, dubbed as fear, uncertainty and doubt (FUD), lying down, and in an extensive antitrust lawsuit launched against IBM a year later, he eventually won a settlement valued at $80 million.[19] As part of the settlement, he picked up IBM's subsidiary, Service Bureau Corporation (SBC), which ran computer processing for other corporations on its own computers. SBC fitted nicely into CDC's existing service bureau offerings.[20]
... snip ...

the article also wanders off into:
After the delivery of the 6600 IBM took notice of this new company. In 1965 IBM started an effort to build a machine that would be faster than the 6600, the ACS-1. Two hundred people were gathered together on the U.S. West Coast to work on the project, away from corporate prodding, in an attempt to mirror Cray's off-site lab. The project produced interesting computer architecture and technology, but it was not compatible with IBM's hugely successful System/360 line of computers. The engineers were directed to make it 360-compatible, but that compromised its performance. The ACS was canceled in 1969, without ever being produced for customers. Many of the engineers left the company, leading to a brain-drain in IBM's high-performance departments.
... snip ...

this has a completely different view of canceling ACS-360
https://people.cs.clemson.edu/~mark/acs_end.html

... that IBM executives were afraid that it would advance the state of the art too fast and IBM would loose control of the market. At the bottom, it has ACS-360 features that show up in ES/9000 more than 20yrs later.

recent posts mentioning ACS-360 and ACS-END
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018b.html#80 BYTE Magazine Pentomino Article
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018c.html#27 Software Delivery on Tape to be Discontinued
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018c.html#29 Software Delivery on Tape to be Discontinued
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018d.html#22 The Rise and Fall of IBM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018d.html#42 Mainframes and Supercomputers, From the Beginning Till Today

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Service Bureau Corporation

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Service Bureau Corporation
Date: 01 July 2018
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#0 Service Bureau Corporation

In 1985, Bert Moldow was instructor in communications at IBM's SRI (downtown manhatten) and con'ed me in to giving an all day seminar on our high speed data transport project ... from long ago and far away ...

Date: 85/01/17 16:25:47
To: WHEELER

Lynn,

If you recall the last time I was out in San Jose I mentioned that I would like you to give the pitch on "High Speed Data Transport" to my up and coming class on Survey of Computer Networks. We can cover travel and will arrange for a hotel for you. Would you be available Feb. 7 or 12? I currently have other dates but would like to have this early in the course. Bert Moldow (SRI)

... snip ... top of post, old email index

I got the redeye from SFO to Kennedy, spent all day talking at SRI and was back on the west coast less than 24hrs after I had left. Before that in the late 70s and early 80s, I got blamed for online computer conferencing on the internal network (folklore is that when the corporate executive committee was told about online computer communication and the internal network, 5of6 wanted to fire me).

other trivia, early 70s, my wife worked on gov. contracts; PLI cross-compiler for Litton computers and for BBN, SIGMA5/SIGMA7 lashup. BBN then asked her to go to Cambridge to interview for the IMP/ARPANET group, but she didn't want to leave DC area. She eventually joined IBM gburg in 1973 on Future System project, working for Les Comeau (who had been involved in the original virtual machine implementations at the cambridge science center)). As FS imploded she co-authered AWP39, "peer-to-peer" networking architecture white paper with Bert. This was about the time the communication group was working on SNA ... AWP39 had to qualify with "peer-to-peer" ... since communication group had co-opted "network" for something that wasn't a system, wasn't a network, and wasn't an architecture.

HSDT posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#hsdt
Future System posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#futuresys

AWP39 posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004n.html#38 RS/6000 in Sysplex Environment
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004p.html#31 IBM 3705 and UC.5
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005p.html#8 EBCDIC to 6-bit and back
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005p.html#15 DUMP Datasets and SMS
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005p.html#17 DUMP Datasets and SMS
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005q.html#27 What ever happened to Tandem and NonStop OS ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005u.html#23 Channel Distances
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006h.html#52 Need Help defining an AS400 with an IP address to the mainframe
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006j.html#31 virtual memory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006k.html#9 Arpa address
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006k.html#21 Sending CONSOLE/SYSLOG To Off-Mainframe Server
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006l.html#4 Google Architecture
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006l.html#45 Mainframe Linux Mythbusting (Was: Using Java in batch on z/OS?)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006o.html#62 Greatest Software, System R
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006r.html#4 Was FORTRAN buggy?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006r.html#9 Was FORTRAN buggy?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006t.html#36 The Future of CPUs: What's After Multi-Core?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006u.html#28 Assembler question
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006u.html#55 What's a mainframe?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007b.html#9 Mainframe vs. "Server" (Was Just another example of mainframe
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007b.html#48 6400 impact printer
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007d.html#55 Is computer history taugh now?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007h.html#35 sizeof() was: The Perfect Computer - 36 bits?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007h.html#39 sizeof() was: The Perfect Computer - 36 bits?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007l.html#62 Friday musings on the future of 3270 applications
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007o.html#72 FICON tape drive?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007p.html#12 JES2 or JES3, Which one is older?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007p.html#23 Newsweek article--baby boomers and computers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007q.html#46 Are there tasks that don't play by WLM's rules
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007r.html#10 IBM System/3 & 3277-1
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007v.html#53 folklore indeed
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008d.html#71 Interesting ibm about the myths of the Mainframe
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008e.html#73 Convergent Technologies vs Sun
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008i.html#97 We're losing the battle
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009e.html#56 When did "client server" become part of the language?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009i.html#26 Why are z/OS people reluctant to use z/OS UNIX?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009l.html#3 VTAM security issue
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009l.html#7 VTAM security issue
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009q.html#83 Small Server Mob Advantage
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010d.html#62 LPARs: More or Less?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010e.html#5 What is a Server?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010g.html#29 someone smarter than Dave Cutler
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010q.html#73 zLinux OR Linux on zEnterprise Blade Extension???
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011l.html#26 computer bootlaces
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011m.html#6 What is IBM culture?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011n.html#2 Soups
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#41 Where are all the old tech workers?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012h.html#17 Hierarchy
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012i.html#25 Can anybody give me a clear idea about Cloud Computing in MAINFRAME ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012k.html#23 How to Stuff a Wild Duck
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012k.html#41 Cloud Computing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012m.html#24 Does the IBM System z Mainframe rely on Security by Obscurity or is it Secure by Design
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012o.html#52 PC/mainframe browser(s) was Re: 360/20, was 1132 printer history
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013g.html#44 What Makes code storage management so cool?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013n.html#19 z/OS is antique WAS: Aging Sysprogs = Aging Farmers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014.html#99 the suckage of MS-DOS, was Re: 'Free Unix!
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014e.html#15 Last Gasp for Hard Disk Drives
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014m.html#25 Microsoft Open Sources .NET, Saying It Will Run on Linux and Mac
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015g.html#96 TCP joke
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015h.html#99 Systems thinking--still in short supply
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016d.html#48 PL/I advertising
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016e.html#124 Early Networking
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#55 The ICL 2900
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#29 ARM Cortex A53 64 bit
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017e.html#62 [CM] What was your first home computer?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018b.html#13 Important US technology companies sold to foreigners

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Frank Heart Dies at 89

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Frank Heart Dies at 89
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Mon, 02 Jul 2018 12:56:21 -0700
Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com> writes:
other drift, early 70s, my wife worked for BBN on gov. contracts; SIGMA5/SIGMA7 lashup, PLI cross-compiler for Litton computers. They then asked her to go to Cambridge to inteview for the IMP/ARPANET group, but she didn't want to leave DC area. She eventually left and joined IBM gburg in 1973 on Future System project, working for Les Comeau (who had been involved in the original virtual machine implementations at the cambridge science center).

re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018d.html#108 Frank Heart Dies at 89

more trivia: when FS blew up ... past posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#futuresys

my wife co-authored AWP39 (architecture white paper) "peer-to-peer networking" with Bert Moldow. They had to qualify it with "peer-to-peer" because the communication group had co-oped "networking" for SNA (we joke that it wasn't a system, it wasn't a network and it wasn't an architecture, it was terminal control infrastructure).

she was also one of the "ASP" catchers in the IBM gburg group for turning into JES3 and co-author of "JESUS" (JES unified systems) ... all the features of JES2 & JES3 that the respective customers could live w/o ... for various reasons never came to fruition. all sorts of past HASP, JES, NJI/NJE, etc posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#hasp

she then gets con'ed into going to POK to be in charge of loosely-coupled (mainframe for cluster) architecture where she did peer-coupled shared data architecture. She didn't remain very long, in part because 1) constant battles with communication group trying to force her to use SNA for loosely-coupled operation and 2) little uptake ... except for IMS hot-standby, until SYSPLEX and Parallel SYSPLEX.

IMS
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM_Information_Management_System
recent availability
https://www.ibm.com/developerworks/community/blogs/RohitShetty/entry/high_availability_cold_warm_hot?lang=en
parallel sysplex
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM_Parallel_Sysplex

mid-80s, IMS hot-standby could be up and operational almost immediately ... but it had communication group problem. The stand-by VTAM then had to recreate all the terminal sessions ... establishing sessions in VTAM was enormously heavy-weight process ... and for large operations (say a few tens of thousands of ATM machines) it could take over 90mins.

I was roped into working with a baby bell that had built a NCP/VTAM emulator on series/1 with a whole bunch of additional features. It ran real networking between series/1s ... but emulated 37x5/NCP to host VTAM and spoofed cross-domain ownership of resources (terminals). Among other things, it could fake shadow sessions to stand-by machine ... which would make "real" IMS hot-standby almost immediate.

We were working on turning it out as an IBM "TYPE-1" product on Series/1 with follow-on plans to port it to the (unannounced) RS/6000. We had done everything we thought possible to brickwall off attempts by the communication group to kill the effort ... what the communication group did next to kill it can only be described as truth is stanger than fiction.

a couple old posts about Series1 NCP/VTAM (PU4/PU5)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#67 System/1 ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#70 Series/1 as NCP (was: Re: System/1 ?)

peer-coupled shared data posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#shareddata

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Firm that Audits the Fed's Financial Statements Hit with $625 Million in Damages for Negligence in Bank-Fraud Case Brought by the FDIC

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Firm that Audits the Fed's Financial Statements Hit with $625 Million in Damages for Negligence in Bank-Fraud Case Brought by the FDIC
Date: 02 July 2018
Blog: Facebook
Firm that Audits the Fed's Financial Statements Hit with $625 Million in Damages for Negligence in Bank-Fraud Case Brought by the FDIC
https://wolfstreet.com/2018/07/02/pwc-audits-federal-reserve-financial-statements-slammed-with-625-million-damages-for-negligence-in-detecting-bank-fraud-brought-by-fdic/
Today's ruling was about the amount of the award. In December, Judge Rothstein had already ruled that PwC had negligently failed to design and perform the audits, based on PwC's own admissions, to detect the $2.3-billion fraud scheme between Colonial and Taylor Bean. It was the first time that a federal district judge ruled that an audit firm was liable for failing to detect a fraud under the Sarbanes-Oxley act.
... snip ...

Rhetoric on the floor of congress was that Sarbanes-Oxley would prevent future ENRONs and guarantee that executives and auditors did jail time, but it required SEC to do something, Possibly because even GAO didn't believe SEC was doing anything, it started doing reports of fraudulent financial filings, even showing increase after SOX goes into effect (and nobody doing jailtime).
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sarbanes%E2%80%93Oxley_Act

There were jokes at the time that SOX was really just an enormous gift to the audit industry, with significant increased audit requirements along with significant increased audit fees (and nothing else would actually change).

ENRON posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#enron
Sarbanes-Oxley posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#sarbanes-oxley
Financial Reporting Fraud posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#financial.reporting.fraud

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Ron Paul On 'The Dollar Dilemma': Where To From Here?

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Ron Paul On 'The Dollar Dilemma': Where To From Here?
Date: 02 July 2018
Blog: Facebook
Ron Paul On 'The Dollar Dilemma': Where To From Here?
https://www.zerohedge.com/news/2018-06-23/ron-paul-dollar-dilemma-where-here
The current financial chaos brought back the debate over the exact role gold should play in the international monetary system. There are many signs that various governments are considering using gold as an alternative to the fiat dollar. China for the past three years has been a net seller of dollar denominated assets and a major importer of gold. It is making an effort to popularize a gold Yuan to be used in place of the dollar in international oil transactions. China may well have more clout in this endeavor than is generally realized. Other countries like Russia, India and Brazil are cheering the Chinese on and are net purchasers of gold. The US, picking a fight in a senseless trade war with China, only adds to that country's resolve to stand up to our domineering attitude.
... snip ...

old article, The sorry tale of the US Dollar's long downwards spiral -- how did this happen?
http://financialcryptography.com/mt/archives/001062.html

Fiat money
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fiat_money

Dealing with Federal Reserve people in financial standards meetings, they would be very specific that they weren't an institution of the US government (i.e. association of the wallstreet banks).

Triumphant plutocracy; the story of American public life from 1870 to 1920
http://archive.org/details/triumphantpluto00pettrich
loc754-62:
In 1872, the ring of bankers in New York sent the following circular to every bank in the United States: "Dear Sir: It is advisable to do all in your power to sustain such prominent daily and weekly newspapers, especially the agricultural and religious press, as will oppose the issuing of greenback paper money, and that you also withhold patronage or favors from all applicants who are not willing to oppose the Government issue of money. Let the Government issue the coin and the banks issue the paper money of the country, for then we can better protect each other. To repeal the law creating National Bank notes, or to restore to circulation the Government issue of money, will be to provide the people with money, and will therefore seriously affect your individual profit as bankers and lenders. See your Congressman at once, and engage him to support our interests that we may control legislation."
... snip ...

something similar, the original rhetoric on the floor of congress that the primary purpose of GLBA (now better known for the repeal of Glass-Steagall) was that if you already had a banking charter, you got to keep it, but if you don't have one, you won't be able to get one; aka preventing new banking competition (specifically calling out WalMart and Microsoft).
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gramm%E2%80%93Leach%E2%80%93Bliley_Act

Early part of century WalMart said it would get a Utah ILC (which were grandfathered to bank nationally) for its own credit card merchant bank (eliminating have to pay merchant bank interchange fees). Wallstreet campaigned with the community banking association to have all its members lobby congress to pass legislation blocking WalMart from acquiring Utah ILC (otherwise all community banks would be affected). In actuality, it would just affect WalMart's wallstreet merchant Too Big To Fail.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Industrial_loan_company

From the law of unintended consequences ... SECTREAS convinced congress to pass TARP to purchase off-book toxic assets (TBTF bailout). However, just the four largest TBTF were carrying $5.2T off-book toxic assets YE2008 and only $700B had been appropriated for TARP. TARP was then used for other things and it was left to the Federal Reserve to do the bailout. The Federal Reserve bought trillions in toxic assets and provided tehns of trillions in ZIRP funds. For this the Federal Reserve was restricted to just helping those with banking charters, and some of their best friends didn't have one. The Federal Reserve freely gave them banking charters ... which theoritically would have been in violation of GLBA.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zero_interest-rate_policy

The claim is that TBTF have been making $300B/yr off ZIRP funds, but it required the Federal government have huge trillions in debt. 2002 Cognress let Fiscal Responsibility Act expire, required spending couldn't exceed tax revenue, on its way to eliminating all federal debt. 2010 CBO report was that 2003-2009, federal revenue was cut by $6T and spending increased for $6T for $12T gap compared to fiscal responsibility budget (first time taxes were cut to not pay for two wars). The TBTF no longer needed to attract deposits for funds to loan (making money off the spread on deposit interest and loan interest), ZIRP provided all the money they needed ... as a result, TBTF no longer needed to pay competitive deposit interests.

Lords of Finance: The Bankers Who Broke the World
https:/www.amazon.com/Lords-Finance-Bankers-Broke-ebook/dp/B001QIGZEK/

It somewhat discusses end of 1800s up through start of start of WW2 to provide setting for the Great Depression. It references gold standard put a cap on central banks arbitrarily printing money ... and worked well from end of 1800s up through part of WW1 ... because the production of new gold approximately kept pace with the expansion of world economy. However, it pointed out that was somewhat a fortunate coincidence.

US went into WW1 with something like half the gold reserves of England. England lost about half its gold reserves with the spending on WW1 and US came out of WW1 with at least five times the gold reserves (because of all European purchases and loans). As a result there was enormous mismatch.

(triple-A rated) toxic (assets) CDOs posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#toxic.cdo
too big to fail ("too big to prosecute", "too big to jail") posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#too.big.to.fail
ZIRP posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#zirp
fiscal responsibility act
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#fiscal.responsibility.act

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Computers, anyone?

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Computers, anyone?
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Tue, 03 Jul 2018 10:55:56 -0700
mausg writes:
It is?.. AFAIK, the first 4 numbers of a credit card identify the bank, so I used to hve problems in the UK wth CCs, the suspicious people the other end would say, Thats not an Ulster bank card, it a Natwest one, and refuse it.

longer list
https://www.bindb.com/bin-list.html

note, other drift, interchange fee charged merchants is made up of charges for the "issuing bank" (credit card), "merchant bank" (for merchant that accepts card) and "network" (where the "issuing bank" and "merchant bank" are different and need the network to transmit the transaction between merchant and issuing). "On-us" transactions don't have the "network" fee (where the "issuing bank" and the "merchant bank" are the same).

this is motivation for "co-branded" card ... with merchant name also on the card ... use "co-branded" card at the associated merchant reduces the cost for the merchant (since they will be "on-us" transaction).

it use to be that the card associations were non-profit operations that provided the interchange network (connecting merchants and issuing) and publicity (and part of the interchange fee was to cover the cost of operating the interchange network). Consolidation, outsourcing, etc had resulted in over 90% of transactions being done at one of six datacenters ... that had direct network connections ... and very few transactions continued to flow over the card association networks ... but the card associations continued to charge network fee ... in part because the card associations change to "for profit" operations.

There have been some number of big legal battles on eliminating paying the network part of interchange fees ... when the transactions no longer transition over card association network (somewhat using the excuse that the definition of "on-us" transactions only mentioned that it applied when issuing and merchant bank were the same ... just assumed that it met that transaction didn't flow of card association network).

They other threat to card association profits was the rise of internet. Their network was just part of the rise of "value added networks" in the "60s" and "70s" ... but the advent of internet manage to obsolete nearly all of the VANs during the 90s ... exception primarily was the card association network. The card associations legal maneuvers have been to get their piece of every transactions ... whether it flows over their networks or not ... and would even prefer to the "on-us" exception eliminated.

other trivia: one of the reasons for changing the name of the airline control program (ACP) to transaction processing facility (TPF) was the use of ACP by non-airlines (card associations and others) for their network transaction and routing processor (also change from ACP being free software and TPF being charged for)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transaction_Processing_Facility

the above says card association "authorization" ... but authorization is a function of the issuing bank. card association does provide an optional "stand-in" function if it is unable to contact the issuing bank for transactions routed thru their network ... however it won't actually have access to the account credit limit ... just some "BIN" associated rules.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Payment_card_number

slightly related, 23june1969 unbundling announcement started to charge for (application) software, SE services, etc (they managed to make the case that kernel/system software still be free). past unbundling posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#unbundle

The future system effort in the 1st part of 70s, was going to completely replace 370 & completely different. Internal politics was shutting down 370 activity ... and the lack of new 370 products during this period is credited with given clone processors market foothold. FS posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#futuresys

The rise of clone processors is then credited for change to starting to charge for operating system (kernel) software.

other trivia: I had done bunch of stuff (scheduling, page replacement, path length optimization, disk scheduling, etc) as undergraduate in the 60s, which was picked up and including in IBM's CP67. In the transition from CP67 to VM370, lots of stuff was dropped and/or greatly simplified. All during the FS period, I continued to work on 370 stuff (even ridiculing FS activities). When FS imploded, the mad rush to get stuff back into the 370 product pipelines contributed to selecting lots of my stuff for release. A large package of my stuff was selected as guinea pig to starting to charge for kernel software (and I got to spend a lot of time with lawyers and business people on kernel software charging policies).

scheduling posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#fairshare
page replacement posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#wsclock

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

The Pentagon Is Building a Dream Team of Tech-Savvy Soldiers

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: The Pentagon Is Building a Dream Team of Tech-Savvy Soldiers
Date: 03 July 2018
Blog: Facebook
The Pentagon Is Building a Dream Team of Tech-Savvy Soldiers
https://www.wired.com/story/pentagon-dream-team-tech-savvy-soldiers/?mbid=nl_070218_daily_list_p

the other side is Boyd story ... where he revitalized fighters (apparently horribly offending the bomber crowd) ... first E/M theory, then redesign of F15 and then the F16 & F18. When Boyd passed, he had been pretty much disowned by the USAF and it was the Marines at Arlington.
http://radio-weblogs.com/0107127/stories/2002/12/23/genghisJohnChuckSpinneysBioOfJohnBoyd.html
http://www.theamericanconservative.com/articles/john-boyds-art-of-war/

Boyd posts & URLs
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subboyd.html

also the rapidly spreading success of failure culture ... frequently involving dataprocessing and cyber
http://www.govexec.com/excellence/management-matters/2007/04/the-success-of-failure/24107/

success of failure posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#success.of.failure

significantly accelerated by private-equity companies after turn of the century acquiring beltway bandits and gov. contractors (including company that will employ Snowden)
http://www.motherjones.com/politics/2007/10/barbarians-capitol-private-equity-public-enemy/
Lou Gerstner, former ceo of ibm, now heads the Carlyle Group, a Washington-based global private equity firm whose 2006 revenues of $87 billion were just a few billion below ibm's. Carlyle has boasted George H.W. Bush, George W. Bush, and former Secretary of State James Baker III on its employee roster.
... snip ...

Private-equity owned companies are under enormous pressure to cut corners and other measures to increase profits passed up to their private-equity owners. Beltway bandits and government contractors are under restriction to not use money from gov. contracts for lobbying congress ... however money passed up to private-equity owners don't seem to have similar restriction ... which also explains their hiring high profile politicians to help with lobbying. This also explains huge uptic in outsourcing gov to for-profit companies after turn of century ... intelligence 70% of the budget and over half the people (also private-equity owned companies that had contracts to do security clearances were found to be filling out the paperwork, but not actually doing the background checks)
http://www.investingdaily.com/17693/spies-like-us

private equity posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#private.equity

We had been involved, but didn't realize it at the time. IC-ARDA (since renamed IARPA) released an unclassified BAA that basically said that none of the tools at the agency did what was required. We weren't aware of the BAA, but just before it closes we get a call asking if we would respond. We get a response in and then some meetings at the agency showing we can do what was required (little strange since I've never had clearance and never worked for the government, although they've used a lot of my software over the years, dating back to when I was undergraduate in the 60s). Then everything goes quiet. Some time later, we hear that agency executives told the primary investigator/analyst that he hadn't sufficiently proven to them that the tools he had didn't do the job. It wasn't until the success of failure article appears that we get some idea of what was going on.

other refs:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Andrews_Drake
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ThinThread
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trailblazer_Project

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

The History of Junk Bonds and Leveraged Buyouts

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: The History of Junk Bonds and Leveraged Buyouts
Date: 03 July 2018
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018d.html#110 The History of Junk Bonds and Leveraged Buyouts

Why The Carpet Is About To Be Pulled From Under The Junk Bond Market
https://www.zerohedge.com/news/2018-07-03/why-carpet-about-be-pulled-under-junk-bond-market
Today Blackrock reached a similar conclusion - get out of HY and into IG despite the recent pain - however due to more fundamental reasons: "investment grade valuations have become more attractive relative to those of high yield. Yields for short-maturity investment grade corporates are now well above the level of U.S. inflation. We see these assets again playing their traditional portfolio role--principal preservation, especially in an increasingly uncertain macro environment."
... snip ...

aka "HY" or "high yield" or "junk" and IG or "investment grade".

private equity posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#private.equity

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Rash of Fortnite cheaters infected by malware that breaks HTTPS encryption

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Rash of Fortnite cheaters infected by malware that breaks HTTPS encryption
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Tue, 03 Jul 2018 17:20:32 -0700
Rash of Fortnite cheaters infected by malware that breaks HTTPS encryption
https://arstechnica.com/information-technology/2018/07/rash-of-fortnite-cheaters-infected-by-malware-that-breaks-https-encryption/

For our HA/CMP product ... past posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#hacmp
we were working on both technical/scientific cluster scaleup with national labs and commercial cluster scaleup with RDBMS vendors, including Oracle ... old post with reference to JAN1992 cluster scaleup meeting in Ellison's conference room
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/95.html#13

Within a few weeks, cluster scaleup is transferred, announced as IBM supercomputer for technical/scientific *ONLY* and we were told we couldn't work on anything with more than four processors ... we depart a vew months later.

Two of the Oracle people (from the Ellison meeting) have also left and are at a small client/server startup responsible for something called the "commerce server". We are brought in as consultants because they want to do payment transactions on the server, the startup had also invented this technology called "SSL" they want to use, the result is now frequently called "electronic commerce". I wrote a whole rash of posts from the period about "comfort certificates" ... the "merchant digital certificates" (part of "SSL/HTTPS") provided users comfort with the appearance of security.

part of the series in this collection of SSL digital certificate posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subpubkey.html#sslcerts
including in this post collection
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aepay4.htm
from
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aepay4.htm#comcert
through
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aepay4.htm#comcert16

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Buying Victory: Money as a Weapon on the Battlefields of Today and Tomorrow

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Buying Victory: Money as a Weapon on the Battlefields of Today and Tomorrow
Date: 04 July 2018
Blog: Facebook
Buying Victory: Money as a Weapon on the Battlefields of Today and Tomorrow
https://mwi.usma.edu/buying-victory-money-weapon-battlefields-today-tomorrow/
In April 2003, two US Army sergeants in Baghdad stumbled upon a hidden stash containing $650 million in uncirculated US $100 bills, likely stockpiled by senior Iraqi officials.
...
Fifteen years after CERP's beginning, a US-advised offensive has defeated ISIS in Iraq, liberating the city of Mosul but leaving much of it in ruins. A recent Iraqi plan to rebuild Mosul would take years and cost $100 billion (half of the total cost of the Marshall Plan when adjusted for inflation).
... snip ...

have to destroy Mosul in order to save it. also, The Road Not Taken: Edward Lansdale and the American Tragedy in Vietnam, pg459/loc8358-60:
A few years later, at the height of the American war in 1968, an anonymous Army major would be quoted saying, "It became necessary to destroy the town to save it." The philosophy embodied in those chilling words was already evident in Operation Starlite.
... snip ...

Various reports that some $60B in pallets of shrink wrapped $100 bills air lifted to Iraq. Some amount used during "surge" as tribute and bribes to reduce violance (out of Romans play book with "barbarians") ... but what happens when the money stops?

military-industrial(-congressional) complex posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#military.industrial.complex

recent posts mentioning "road not taken"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018d.html#0 The Road Not Taken: Edward Lansdale and the American Tragedy in Vietnam
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018d.html#98 tablets and desktops was Has Microsoft
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018d.html#101 The Persistent Myth of U.S. Precision Bombing

posts mentioning shrink-wrapped $100 bills:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011i.html#67 U.S. can't account for $8.7 billion of Iraq's money: audit
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012l.html#97 What a Caveman Can Teach You About Strategy
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013c.html#86 A Matter of Mindset: Iraq, Sequestration and the U.S. Army
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013e.html#65 What Makes an Architecture Bizarre?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013g.html#51 What Makes collecting sales taxes Bizarre?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014d.html#68 The Pentagon Spent $2.7 Billion on an Intelligence System That Doesn't Work
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015f.html#76 Pentagon remains stubbornly unable to account for its billions
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016.html#50 Thanks Obama
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016b.html#110 The Koch-Fueled Plot to Destroy the VA
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016e.html#11 "Computer & Automation" later issues--anti-establishment thrust
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#40 Stop Believing in the Many Myths of the Iraq Surge
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#42 Profitable Companies, No Taxes: Here's How They Did It
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#13 The Pentagon still uses computer software from 1958 to manage its contracts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017e.html#1 How Desert Storm Destroyed the US Military
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017f.html#52 [CM] What was your first home computer?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017f.html#56 [CM] What was your first home computer?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017g.html#48 SS Trust Fund
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017h.html#20 Military Contractors
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017h.html#38 Disregard post (another screwup; absolutely nothing to do with computers whatsoever!)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017h.html#103 Iraq, Longest War
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017h.html#115 When It Comes to the War in the Greater Middle East, Maybe We're the Bad Guys
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017i.html#10 The General Who Lost 2 Wars, Leaked Classified Information to His Lover--and Retired With a $220,000 Pension
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017i.html#14 How to spot a dodgy company - never trust a high achiever
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018.html#12 Predicting the future in five years as seen from 1983
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018c.html#88 The G.O.P. Tax Cut Is Draining the Treasury Even Faster Than Expected
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018c.html#104 Iran shrink-wrapped $100 Payments
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018d.html#10 Fears of an Aggressive Iran Are Far Older Than the Islamic Republic Is
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018d.html#88 The Pentagon Can't Account for $21 Trillion (That's Not a Typo)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018d.html#96 tablets and desktops was Has Microsoft

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Companies buying back their own shares is the only thing keeping the stock market afloat right now

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Companies buying back their own shares is the only thing keeping the stock market afloat right now
Date: 04 July 2018
Blog: Facebook
Companies buying back their own shares is the only thing keeping the stock market afloat right now
https://www.cnbc.com/2018/07/02/corporate-buybacks-are-the-only-thing-keeping-the-stock-market-afloat.html

Stockman (Reagan's budget director in the 80s), "The Great Deformation: The Corruption of Capitalism in America"
https://www.amazon.com/Great-Deformation-Corruption-Capitalism-America-ebook/dp/B00B3M3UK6/

spends a lot of time on stock buybacks; stock buyback posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#stock.buyback

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

OT: Trump

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: OT: Trump
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Wed, 04 Jul 2018 14:01:47 -0700
Charlie Gibbs <cgibbs@kltpzyxm.invalid> writes:
Nah, they just have a different definition of "fiscal responsibility": they're responsible for spending, we're responsible for paying.

2002, congess lets the fiscal responsibility act expire (spending can't exceed revenue, on its way to eliminating all federal debt).
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PAYGO#Statutory_PAYGO_(1990%E2%80%932002)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Omnibus_Budget_Reconciliation_Act_of_1990
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Balanced_Budget_Act_of_1997

past posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#fiscal.responsibility.act

the first major act after fiscal responsibility act lapses is Medicare Part-D. CBS 60mins had segment on it, 18 republicans responsible for getting the act passed ... just before the final vote they add one sentence to the bill (and prevent CBO from distributing report on the change) which prevents competitive bidding. They show drugs under part-d that are three times the price of the identical drugs under competitive bidding. They also find that all 18 have resigned withing 6 months of the bill passing. past posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#medicare.part-d

The US Comptroller General then starts including in speeches that nobody in congress is capable of middle school arithmetic (for how badly they savage the budget) and that part-d comes to be a long term $40T item that totally swamps everything else. past posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#comptroller.general

2010, CBO reports that 2003-2009, taxes cut by $6T and spending increased $6T, for $12T budget gap compared to the fiscal responsible budget (first time that taxes were cut to not pay for two wars).

post today on aspect of war in Iraq (have to destroy something in order to save it)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#9 Buying Victory: Money as a Weapon on the Battlefields of Today and Tomorrow

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Companies buying back their own shares is the only thing keeping the stock market afloat right now

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Companies buying back their own shares is the only thing keeping the stock market afloat right now
Date: 04 July 2018
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#10 Companies buying back their own shares is the only thing keeping the stock market afloat right now

Big buyback motivation is it reduces the number of stocks, juicing the value/stock and propping up price/stock ... and top executives bonus plans tied to price/stock. Stockman's book (The corruption of Capitalism in America) was that it became epidemic after the start of century ... typical example was IBM over extended period spent 122% of earnings on buybacks and dividends, spent less on capital investment than its depreciation and amortization charges, and shrank R&D spending by 2%/year. It is obviously a short term strategy but the executives plan on being long gone by the time consequences come home to roost. sotck buyback posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#stock.buyback

2002, congess lets the fiscal responsibility act expire (spending can't exceed revenue, on its way to eliminating all federal debt).
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PAYGO#Statutory_PAYGO_(1990%E2%80%932002)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Omnibus_Budget_Reconciliation_Act_of_1990
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Balanced_Budget_Act_of_1997

past posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#fiscal.responsibility.act

The US Comptroller General then starts including in speeches that nobody in congress is capable of middle school arithmetic (for how badly they savage the budget). 2010 CBO reports that 2003-2009, taxes cut by $6T and spending increased $6T, for $12T budget gap compared to the fiscal responsible budget (first time that taxes were cut to not pay for two wars).
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#comptroller.general

2008 there was tv broadcast (cbs?) economist conference roundtable about congress selling tax loopholes was major contribution to them being called the most corrupt institution on earth. Also the increasing numbers of tax loopholes, it was costing 3% of GDP lost in tax accountants dealing with the loopholes and another 3% lost in businesses making non-optimal decisions. Going to straight flat-tax (eliminating all loopholes), while having some shortcomings, they would be more than offset by gaining back 6% of GDP and hopefully eliminating the enormous corruption. However, they commented that congress is so corrupt they would find some way. Apparently the most corrupt (and make the largest amount) are those on the House tax committee. One of the issues is that so many tax loopholes have been sold that congress' tax loophole business is dropping off ... and now members of congress are working on ways that instead of one time payments, that businesses make reoccurring payments every year for their tax loopholes (apparently congress are considered cheap crooks, supposedly business make up to $1000 for every dollar spent on loopholes, 100,000% ROI).

Since then the tax revenue wasn't restored and only modest cuts in the spending increases from the early part of last decade, and more recently even more tax loopholes&cuts (so the rate of debt increases is increasing).

What did corporate America do with that tax break? Buy record amounts of its own stock; The White House promised '70 percent' of the tax cut would go to workers. It didn't.
https://www.nbcnews.com/business/economy/what-did-corporate-america-do-tax-break-buy-record-amounts-n886621
"More than 70 percent of this [tax cut] will be returned to workers," said White House Press Secretary Sarah Huckabee Sanders at a January press conference after the bill came into effect.
... snip ...

Poster child was home depot supposedly saying the repatriated money would go to worker bonuses ... each worker getting $1000 bonus. However the home depot website actually says workers will get UP TO $1000 bonus ... but also says nearly all of it goes to stock buybacks ... even if EVERY worker got $1000 bonus, it would only be 3% of what is going to buybacks (but looks to be more like 1%). No "investment" just bonuses to line executive pockets.

recent posts mentioning Home Depot
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018.html#104 Tax Cut for Stock Buybacks
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018b.html#18 Important US technology companies sold to foreigners
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018b.html#21 Important US technology companies sold to foreigners
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018b.html#70 Important US technology companies sold to foreigners
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018b.html#71 Important US technology companies sold to foreigners
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018b.html#78 Important US technology companies sold to foreigners

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Computers, anyone?

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Computers, anyone?
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Wed, 04 Jul 2018 19:06:56 -0700
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#5 Computers, anyone?

little more recent drift:

Visa, Mastercard Near Settlement Over Card-Swipe Fees; Visa, Mastercard and a number of banks that issue debit and credit cards including JPMorgan Chase, Citigroup and Bank of America would pay the merchants around $6.5 billion
https://www.wsj.com/articles/visa-mastercard-near-settlement-over-card-swipe-fees-1530193694

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

On The Deficit, GOP Has Been Playing Us All For Suckers

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: On The Deficit, GOP Has Been Playing Us All For Suckers
Date: 04 July 2018
Blog: Facebook
On The Deficit, GOP Has Been Playing Us All For Suckers
https://www.forbes.com/sites/stancollender/2018/04/15/on-the-deficit-gop-has-been-playing-us-all-for-suckers/

some more background. spring 2009, IRS said they were going after 52,000 wealthy Americans that owned $400B on money illegally stashed overseas (this was separate from the loopholes at the start of the century that allowed trillions to be "legally" stashed overseas). then 2011, the new speaker of the house in weekend local DC radio interview said he was placing the new (republican tea party) party darlings on the house tax committee as reward (because those members get the most money). not long later there was press that the house was cutting the appropriations for the IRS unit responsible for recovering the $400B. Afterwards there were sporadic news stories about TBTFs being fined a few billion for aiding the illegal tax evasion ... but nothing about the recovery of the $400B.

also at least by sometime in the late 80s, corporations (with labor intensive operations) were creating subsidiaries with few employees but where majority of the profit was booked (as countermeasure to wage increases). In the first half of the 90s, airlines were showing losses on airline operations (because of fuel cost increases) but parent company was showing enormous profit because airline operations had all the costs, but majority of the profit had been moved to computerized ticketing subsidiaries (which more than offset the losses in airline operations). This even allowed airline to declare bankruptcy for the airline operations and dump their employee pension plan on the government (even when parent was making profit); some retired pilots saying they took 80% cut in pension
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pension_Benefit_Guaranty_Corporation

New loopholes after the turn of the century even allowed the profit making subsidiary to be moved offshore to avoid taxes. Poster child was large equipment maker that made in the US and sold and delivered to customers in the US ... then created "distributorship" in tax haven. The equipment is made in the US and then transferred to the books of the distributorship at cost ... which sells to the customers in the US (and is directly delivered to customers in the US), but all the profit is booked in the tax haven. The money (and equipment) never even leave the US shore, just shows on the books in the tax haven ... but invested on wallstreet.
https://www.icij.org/
https://www.icij.org/investigations/
https://www.icij.org/investigations/luxembourg-leaks/

recent related posts:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#10 Companies buying back their own shares is the only thing keeping the stock market afloat right now<
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#12 Companies buying back their own shares is the only thing keeping the stock market afloat right now<

tax evasion, fraud, avoidance, havens posts
http://www.garilc.com/~lynn/submisc.html#tax.evasion
TBTF (too big to prosecute, too big to jail)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#too.big.to.fail

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Frank Heart Dies at 89

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Frank Heart Dies at 89
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Thu, 05 Jul 2018 09:31:05 -0700
Charles Richmond <numerist@aquaporin4.com> writes:
Of course, Will Crowther is best known for his part in writing Colossal Cave Adventure, something it seems he does *not* want to talk about publicly.

re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018d.html#108 Frank Heart Dies at 89
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#2 Frank Heart Dies at 89

wiki entry
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Crowther_(programmer)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adventure_game#Text_adventures_(1976%E2%80%931989)

I first saw copy of adventure at tymshare in the 70s ... they had got it off stanford sail pdp10 and ported it to vm370/cms. I get a copy and made it available on IBM internal systems ... people that can prove they got all points, I would send source. within short time PLI versions start showing as well as versions with lots more points.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tymshare

other trivia; his wife nancy worked for IBM in cambridge (CROWTHER@CAMBRIDG) ... at the IBM Cambridge Science Center and the IBM side of Project Athena. Both IBM and DEC had provided $25M to project athena and got deputy/assist directors ... and provided some number of additional people ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Crowther_(programmer)#Rest_of_career
project athena
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Project_Athena

CAS was IBM deputy/assist director at Project Athena. I periodically mention him for having invented compare&swap instruction when he was working on fine grain multiprocessor locking for CP67 (compare and swap chosen because they are charlie's initials, CAS). compare and swap instruction
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Compare-and-swap
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Compare-and-swap#Implementations
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CP/CMS
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_CP/CMS

past posts mentioning multiprocessor and/or compare-and-swap
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#smp
past posts mentioning cambridge science center
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech

for even more drift ... 1999/2000 we were on assignment in Seattle working with a number of companies on online/internet financial ... including a company that specialized in Kerberos (from project athena)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kerberos_(protocol)

the company had brought in a new CEO ... who had previous been head of IBM POK mainframe and then head of IBM Boca PS2/OS2 (some accounts from that period have him in conflict with head of microsoft). At the time the company also had a microsoft contract to do the kerberos implementation/port for windows.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kerberos_(protocol)#Microsoft_Windows
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Integrated_Windows_Authentication

we then have a couple booths at 1999 world-wide retail banking show ... old press references
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#217 AADS/X9.59 demo & standards at BAI (world-wide retail banking) show
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#224 AADS/X9.59 demo & standards at BAI (world-wide retail banking) show

other AADA/X9.59 ref
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/x959.htm

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

America Celebrates Lateral Move From Monarchy To Corporate Rule

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: America Celebrates Lateral Move From Monarchy To Corporate Rule
Date: 05 July 2018
Blog: Facebook
America Celebrates Lateral Move From Monarchy To Corporate Rule
https://consortiumnews.com/2018/07/04/america-celebrates-lateral-move-from-monarchy-to-corporate-rule/

We the Corporations: How American Businesses Won Their Civil Rights
https://www.amazon.com/We-Corporations-American-Businesses-Rights-ebook/dp/B01M64LRDJ/

pgxiv/loc74-78:
Between 1868, when the amendment was ratified, and 1912, when a scholar set out to identify every Fourteenth Amendment case heard by the Supreme Court, the justices decided 28 cases dealing with the rights of African Americans--and an astonishing 312 cases dealing with the rights of corporations.

pgxviii/loc132-36:
For most of American history, the Supreme Court failed to protect the dispossessed and the marginalized, with the justices claiming to be powerless in the face of hostile public sentiment. As we will see, however, the court's record on corporate rights was much different. In 1809, the Supreme Court decided the first case on the constitutional rights of corporations, decades before the first comparable cases for women or racial minorities. And unlike women and minorities, who lost nearly all of their early cases, corporations won that first case--and have compiled an impressive list of victories in the years since.

pg229/loc3667-68:
IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY, CORPORATIONS WON LIBERTY RIGHTS, SUCH AS FREEDOM OF SPEECH AND RELIGION, WITH THE HELP OF ORGANIZATIONS LIKE THE CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.
... snip ...

Tobacco industry is fighting back against anti-tobacco with scientists for hire, Merchants of Doubt
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Merchants_of_Doubt
http://www.merchantsofdoubt.org/
https://www.amazon.com/Merchants-Doubt-Handful-Scientists-Obscured-ebook/dp/B003RRXXO8/

but loosing out to Nader and public citizen groups.

pg278/loc4393-94:
"CHAPTER 9 The Corporation's Justice"
... snip ...

Has tobacco industry then fighting back with board member appointed to supreme court and "capturing" the national chamber of commerce for corporations to gain 1st amendment rights.

"The Influence Machine: The U.S. Chamber of Commerce and the Corporate Capture of American Life"
https://www.amazon.com/dp/B00NDTUDHA/

other past posts mentioning chamber of commerce:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007e.html#56 Grilled Turkey
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007t.html#52 Newsweek article--baby boomers and computers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009o.html#48 Opinions on the 'Unix Haters' Handbook'
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009o.html#56 Opinions on the 'Unix Haters' Handbook'
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009p.html#2 Opinions on the 'Unix Haters' Handbook
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012f.html#79 Cartons of Punch Cards
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014m.html#110 LEO
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015f.html#90 1973--TI 8 digit electric calculator--$99.95
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015f.html#91 1973--TI 8 digit electric calculator--$99.95
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015f.html#92 1973--TI 8 digit electric calculator--$99.95
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015g.html#38 1973--TI 8 digit electric calculator--$99.95
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016.html#44 Thanks Obama
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016b.html#102 Qbasic
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016c.html#18 Qbasic
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016h.html#103 Minimum Wage
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016h.html#106 Minimum Wage
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#63 One Nation Under God: How Corporate America Invented Christian America
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#77 Trump's crackdown focuses on people in the U.S. illegally - but not on the businesses that hire them
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#9 Which States Account for Our Trade Deficit with Mexico?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018.html#67 Pushing Out Immigrants Isn't About the Economy
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018b.html#45 More Guns Do Not Stop More Crimes, Evidence Shows
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018b.html#72 Doubts about the HR departments that require knowledge of technology that does not exist
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018c.html#54 We the Corporations: How American Businesses Won Their Civil Rights
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018c.html#94 Barb

recent posts mentioning western union (& large corporations behind huge influx of illegal immigrants to work at less than minimum wage)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018.html#67 Pushing Out Immigrants Isn't About the Economy
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018b.html#7 Important US technology companies sold to foreigners
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018b.html#8 Important US technology companies sold to foreigners
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018b.html#9 Important US technology companies sold to foreigners
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018c.html#54 We the Corporations: How American Businesses Won Their Civil Rights
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018d.html#58 We must stop bad bosses using migrant labour to drive down wages

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Pentagon to outsource all strategy to Booz Allen Hamilton (warning satire?)

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Pentagon to outsource all strategy to Booz Allen Hamilton (warning satire?)
Date: 05 July 2018
Blog: Facebook
Pentagon to outsource all strategy to Booz Allen Hamilton (warning satire?)
https://www.duffelblog.com/2018/07/strategery-getting-outsourced/

note, AMEX was in competition with KKR for private equity LBO takeover of RJR and KKR wins. KKR runs into trouble with RJR and hires away the AMEX president to help turn it around.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barbarians_at_the_Gate:_The_Fall_of_RJR_Nabisco
then IBM has run into trouble and was being reorged into the 13 "baby blues" in preparation for breaking up the company. The board than hires away the former AMEX president, who reverses the breakup and uses some of the same techniques used at RJR
http://www.ibmemployee.com/RetirementHeist.shtml
He later leaves to head up another private equity comapny
http://www.motherjones.com/politics/2007/10/barbarians-capitol-private-equity-public-enemy/
Lou Gerstner, former ceo of ibm, now heads the Carlyle Group, a Washington-based global private equity firm whose 2006 revenues of $87 billion were just a few billion below ibm's. Carlyle has boasted George H.W. Bush, George W. Bush, and former Secretary of State James Baker III on its employee roster.
... snip ...

Private equity companies moved into acquiring gov. contractors and beltway bandits ... and hired prominent politicians to help with lobbying congress on outsourcing ... resulting in enormous explosion in outsourcing last decade. Intelligence, 70% of budget and over half the people (including Carlyle company that employs Snowden)
http://www.investingdaily.com/17693/spies-like-us
which significantly accelerates the rapidly spreading success of failure culture (make more money from a series of failures)
http://www.govexec.com/excellence/management-matters/2007/04/the-success-of-failure/24107/

recent related article
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#6 The Pentagon Is Building a Dream Team of Tech-Savvy Soldiers

success of failure posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#success.of.failure
private equity posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#private.equity
Gerstner posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#gerstner
military-industrial(-congressional) complex posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#military.industrial.complex

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Online Computer Conferencing

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Online Computer Conferencing
Date: 06 July 2018
Blog: Facebook
trivia ... I was blamed for online computer conferencing (precursor to social media) in the late 70s and early 80s (40yrs ago) on the internal network (larger than arpanet/internet from just about the beginning until sometime mid-80s). Folklore is that when the corporate executive committee was told about online computer conferencing (and the internal network), 5of6 wanted to fire me.

However somewhat as a result, a researcher was paid to study how I communicated, sat in back of my office for 9months taking notes on how I communicate (face-to-face, telephone, etc) and got copies of all my incoming and outgoing email and logs of all my instant messages. Besides IBM research reports, the material was also used for some number of papers & books and Stanford PHD (joint between language & computer AI, Winograd was adviser on the AI side). The researcher had previously been a ESL (english as 2nd language) teacher ... and commented that I have all the characteristics of a non-native English speaker ... except I have no other natural language ... supposedly this explains my poor grammar, spelling & typos. 1995 book (out-of-print), but also current rewrite is from 2014
https://books.google.com/books/about/Knowledge_Machines.html?id=60EHtgEACAAJ

CMC posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#cmc

... other trivia, note that there was then an attempted effort to get me named to the highest corporate technical position, but with 5 of the executive committee wanted to fire me, it was never going to happen. However the 6th on the corporate executive committee started provided funding out of his office, as if I had the title. Part of money went to what I called HSDT program ... which included working with the director of national science foundation to provide high-speed interconnect for the NSF supercomputer centers. We were suppose to get $20M for the NSF supercomputer interconnect, then congress cuts the budget, and some other things happen ... and finally NSF releases an RFP. Internal politics prevent us from bidding. The NSF director tries to help by writing the company a letter (with support from other agencies), copying the CEO, but that just makes the internal politics worse (as does comments that what we already have running is at least 5yrs ahead of all RFP responses). As regional networks connect into the centers, it morphs into the "NSFNET Backbone" (precursor to modern internet).
https://www.technologyreview.com/s/401444/grid-computing/
I previously posted copy of the preliminary announcement (28Mar1986) here
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002k.html#12
misc. old related email from the period
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/lhwemail.html#nsfnet

HSDT posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#hsdt
NSFNET posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#nsfnet

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

America's War for the Greater Middle East: A Military History

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: America's War for the Greater Middle East: A Military History
Date: 06 July 2018
Blog: Facebook
America's War for the Greater Middle East: A Military History
https://www.amazon.com/Americas-War-Greater-Middle-East-ebook/dp/B0174PRIY4/
loc109-12:
The history that follows, an account of U.S. military efforts to determine the fate and future of the Greater Middle East, is itself a preliminary walk around, or through, a comparably large subject. If nothing else, America's War for the Greater Middle East seeks to reveal how remarkably far we have to go to understand what those efforts have produced and what they have cost.
... snip ...

Iran elected leader was going to review the Anglo-Persian contracts ... CIA Confirms Role in 1953 Iran Coup
http://nsarchive.gwu.edu/NSAEBB/NSAEBB435/
including
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kermit_Roosevelt,_Jr.
in
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1953_Iranian_coup_d%27%C3%A9tat
and to help keep the shah in power, US (including Norman Schwarzkopf senior) trained
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SAVAK
Eventually people revolt against the extremely violent and repressive American supported regime.

CIA director Colby refuses to approve "Team B" analysis claiming huge Russian military capability, justifying huge US military spending increase.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Team_B

Team B posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#team.b

White House Chief of Staff Rumsfeld replaces Colby with somebody (Bush1) that will agree with "Team B" analysis. Rumsfeld then resigns to become SECDEF (and is replaced by his assistant Cheney). In the 80s, Bush1 is VP and Rumsfeld is involved in supporting Iraq in the Iran/Iraq war
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iran%E2%80%93Iraq_War
including WMDs (picture of Rumsfeld and Saddam)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_support_for_Iraq_during_the_Iran%E2%80%93Iraq_war

In the early 90s, Bush1 is president and Cheney is SECDEF. Sat. photo recon analyst told white house that Saddam was marshaling forces to invade Kuwait. White house said that Saddam would do no such thing and proceeded to discredit the analyst. Later the analyst informed the white house that Saddam was marshaling forces to invade Saudi Arabia, now the white house has to choose between Saddam and the Saudis.
https:/www.amazon.com/Long-Strange-Journey-Intelligence-ebook/dp/B004NNV5H2/

This century, Bush2 is president, Cheney is VP, Rumsfeld is SECDEF and one of the "Team B" members is deputy SECDEF (and major architect of Iraq policy).
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul_Wolfowitz

Originally the invasion was justified on Iraq supporting Al Qaeda and it would only cost $50B (now heading for 100 times that). That was then changed to WMDs. last decade before invasion, cousin of white house chief of staff Card ... was dealing with the Iraqis at the UN and was given evidence that WMDs (tracing back to US in the Iran/Iraq war) had been decommissioned. the cousin shared it with Card, Powell and others ... then is locked up in military hospital, book was published in 2010 (before decommissioned WMDs were declassified)
https:/www.amazon.com/EXTREME-PREJUDICE-Terrifying-Story-Patriot-ebook/dp/B004HYHBK2/

NY Times series from 2014, the decommission WMDs (tracing back to US from Iran/Iraq war), had been found early in the invasion, but the information was classified for a decade
http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2014/10/14/world/middleeast/us-casualties-of-iraq-chemical-weapons.html

WMD posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#wmc

Military-industrial complex wanted the invasion so badly that corporate representatives were telling former Soviet block countries that if they voted for the invasion in the UN, they would get "directed appropriations" USAID (i.e. can only be spent on military arms from US companies) and NATO membership.
https:/www.amazon.com/Prophets-War-Lockheed-Military-Industrial-ebook/dp/B0047T86BA/
Invaders were told to bypass ammo dumps looking for (fabricated) WMDs. From the law of unintended consequences, when they got around to going back, over a million metric tons had evaporated, later large artillery shells start showing up in IEDs.

military-industrial(-congressional) complex posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#military.industrial.complex

a little topic drift, in the 80s, VP Bush1 had repeatedly denied any knowledge of
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iran%E2%80%93Contra_affair
because he was fulltime administration point person deregulating financial industry ... creating S&L crisis
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Savings_and_loan_crisis
along with other members of his family
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Savings_and_loan_crisis#Silverado_Savings_and_Loan
and another
http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9D0CE0D81E3BF937A25753C1A966958260

S&L crises posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#s&l.crisis

last decade, another family member presides over the economic mess, 70 times larger than the S&L crisis (that had 1000 criminal convictions with jailtime), proportionally there should have been 70,000 criminal convictions (with jailtime).

economic mess posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#economic.mess

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Manned Orbiting Laboratory Declassified: Inside a US Military Space Station

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Manned Orbiting Laboratory Declassified: Inside a US Military Space Station
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Sat, 07 Jul 2018 10:55:12 -0700
Manned Orbiting Laboratory Declassified: Inside a US Military Space Station
https://www.space.com/34661-manned-orbiting-laboratory-declassified-photos.html

There was a special three-processor (triplex) 360/67 done for MOL program. Standard 360/67 multiprocessor "channel director" had configuration switches that could reconfigure memory, processors, i/o channels, etc for various reasons (including removing failed components from configurations). The channel director configuration switches were visible by software in the "control register" values. The MOL triplex 360/67 channel director was enhanced so that software could change the switch settings by changing the values in the control registers.

360/67 functional characteristics. 360/67 was originally designed to have up to four processors (although all production multiprocessors only was for 2-processors, except for the one built for MOL) and multiprocessor configuration had unique 360 features, like all processors could address all channels. Pg 31-33 shows control register values (for up to four processor configuration)
http://bitsavers.org/pdf/ibm/360/funcChar/A27-2719-0_360-67_funcChar.pdf

image of 360/67 "blue card" (inside also gives control register layout for up to four processor configuration)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/folds.jpg

67 'blue card' & vmshare card

trivia ... at the science center, I had gotten the "blue card" from one of the inventors of GML (i.e. invented at the science center in 1969, GML chosen because they are the first letters of the inventors last name).

science center posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech
GML posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#sgml
Multiprocessor (&/or compare-and-swap) posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#smp

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Manned Orbiting Laboratory Declassified: Inside a US Military Space Station

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Manned Orbiting Laboratory Declassified: Inside a US Military Space Station
Date: 07 Jul 2018
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#29 Manned Orbiting Laboratory Declassified: Inside a US Military Space Station

GML/SGML/HTML topic drift, there is this periodic discussion about original html/sgml morph or application ... the explanation was that making it an sgml application would have taken much longer and required more resources. HTML tags were defined to have sgml-like definitions with none of overhead and infrastructure ... making it much quicker to implement and deploy
http://infomesh.net/html/history/early
... from above, then 1992 & later:
However, HTML suffered greatly from the lack of standardization, and the dodgy parsing techniques allowed by Mosaic (in 1993). If HTML had been precisely defined as having to have an SGML DTD, it may not have become as popular as fast, but it would have been a lot architecturally stronger.
... snip ...

also references
https://www.w3.org/MarkUp/html-spec/index.html

other trivia, 1st webserver in the us was on the SLAC VM370/CMS system
http://www.slac.stanford.edu/history/earlyweb/history.shtml

topic drift: I had HSDT project in early 80s and was working with NSF director for interconnecting the NSF supercomputer centers. We were suppose to get $20M, but then congress cuts the budget, some number of things happen ... and then NSF finally releases RFP ... Preliminary Announcement (28Mar1986) previously posted here:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002k.html#12
three parts, the supercomputer center interconnect, supercomputer applications, regional network connection.
https://www.technologyreview.com/s/401444/grid-computing/

Internal politics prevent us from bidding. The NSF Director tries to help by writing the company a letter (with support from other agencies), but that just makes the internal politics worse (as does comments that what we already have running is at least 5yrs ahead of all RFP responses ... to build something new). As the regional networks connect into the centers, it morphs into the NSFNET backbone, precursor to the modern internet.

The National Supercomputer Application Center
http://www.ncsa.illinois.edu/
develops MOSAIC. Then some of the people come out to silicon valley to do a MOSAIC startup ... then NCSA complains and they have to change the name.

We had been working with Oracle on commercial HA/CMP cluster scaleup (as well as national labs for technical/scientic cluster scaleup) ... old ref of Jan1992 meeting in Ellison's conference room
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/95.html#13
then cluster scaleup is transferred (and announced as IBM Supercomputer for technical/scientific *ONLY*) and we are told we can't work with anything with more than four processors ... we leave the company a few months later.

Two of the Oracle people (from the Ellison meeting) have left and are at a small client/server startup responsible for something called "commerce server". We are brought in as consultants because they want to do payment transactions on the server, the startup had also invented this technology they called "SSL" they want to use, the result is now frequently called "electronic commerce".

trivia question: who owned the name "NETSCAPE" and provided it when NCSA force them to change their name????

GML, SGML, HTML posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#sgml
NSFNET posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#nsfnet
HA/CMP posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#hacmp

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Manned Orbiting Laboratory Declassified: Inside a US Military Space Station

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Manned Orbiting Laboratory Declassified: Inside a US Military Space Station
Blog: Facebook
Date: 07 Jul 2018
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#29 Manned Orbiting Laboratory Declassified: Inside a US Military Space Station
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#30 Manned Orbiting Laboratory Declassified: Inside a US Military Space Station

... drift on history part of decade old article on the subject in IBM System Mag (although they garbled some of the details)
http://www.ibmsystemsmag.com/mainframe/stoprun/Stop-Run/Making-History/

random tidbits, I took 2hr intro to fortran class as undergraduate, they then hire me student programmer for bunch of 360 programming, then within year, hire me fulltime responsible for mainframe production academic and administration systems (one of the things I did was completely take apart OS/360 SYSGEN and redo it in order to optimally place files & PDS members for optimal disk performance). Old post with part of 1968 SHARE presentation on work on OS/360 as well as CP/67
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/94.html#18 CP/67 & OS MFT14

Then Boeing hires me fulltime into small group in CFOs office to help with Boeing Computer Services (consolidate all dataprocessing into independent business group to better monetize the investment, including offering services to non-Boeing entities). Just Renton datacenter has something like $200M-$300M in IBM mainframe and 360/65s were arriving faster than they could be installed, boxes constantly queued in hallways around machine room. When I graduate instead of staying at Boeing, I join the IBM science center at MIT. One of my hobbies after joining IBM was enhanced production operating systems for internal datacenters ... lots of internal R&D labs in the US and overseas, world-wide sales&marketing support HONE sysems, etc, and freely allowed to visit their locations. HONE (&/or APL) posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#hone

Also get to give presentations at SHARE and visit lots of customers. Also work on various SMP projects ... one was 16-way 370 and we con the 3033 processor engineers to help in their spare time. Everybody thot it was great until somebody told head of POK that it could be decades before POK favorite son operating system had effecitve 16-way support (first shipped, more than 20yrs later, 2000, 16-way z900) and some of us are "invited" to never visit POK again (I could still sneak into POK and go processor engineer weekly bicycle ride).

1977 transfer to San Jose Research ... get to work on original sql/relational at SJR, work on other DBMS at STL, get to play disk engineer across the street in bldg 14&15. Disk development testing was on lots of stand-alone mainframes prescheduled 7x24. They had tried MVS for concurrent testing ... but MVS had 15min MTBF even with single testing. I offered to rewrite input/output supervisor to be bullet proof and never fail ... for any amount of on-demand, concurrent testing ... greatly improving productivity. Then because everything was running under my software, the kneejerk would be to claim a problem was mine and call me ... and mostly I had to diagnose their hardware problems. Bldg15 product test, got early engineering models for channel/disk I/O testing ... so I had free access to 3033, 4341, etc. I got con'ed into doing early benchmarking on engineering 4341 for LLNL that was looking at getting 70 for compute farm (sort of the leading edge of the coming cluster supercomputing tsunami). Posts getting to play disk engineer in bldg 14&15
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#disk

Late 70s/early 80s, blamed for online computer conferencing (precursor to social media) on the internal network (larger than arpanet/internet from just about beginning until sometime mid-80s), hundreds of people from all over the company were sending me email. Folklore is when corporate executive committee is told about online computer conferencing (and internal network), 5of6 want to fire me. Somewhat as punishment made to report to YKT and have to commute to east coast a couple times a month (monday on west coast, monday night redeye to kennedy, return on friday afternoon). online computer conferencing posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#cmc

Note I had offered MVS FBA support ... but was told even if fully tested & integrated, I needed $26M business case changing pubs & education ($200M-$300M in incremental new sales) ... and since IBM was already selling every disk they could make, FBA support would just mean that it changed from CKD to FBA (I couldn't use life-cycle & development costs in justification). CKD & FBA posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#dasd

When REX(REXX) first came out I wanted to demonstrate it wasn't just another pretty scripting language ... as demonstration I would re-implement large assembler program (IPCS) in rex working half time over 3months that was ten times faster and ten times more function. I finished early so I started library of automated scripts that would search for typical failure signatures/modes. I thought it would be released to customers ... but it wasn't for whatever reason, even when nearly every internal datacenter and PSR in the company used it. I eventually got permission to give talks on its implementation at customer user group meetings ... and within a couple months similar customer implementations started appearing. This is old email from 3092 group wanting to ship it with 3092.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010e.html#email861031
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010e.html#email861223

3092 weren't aware that I had been communicating with the 3090 processor engineers back to the 16-way/3033 days. "DUMPRX" posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#dumprx

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virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Manned Orbiting Laboratory Declassified: Inside a US Military Space Station

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Manned Orbiting Laboratory Declassified: Inside a US Military Space Station
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Sun, 08 Jul 2018 12:14:15 -0700
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#29 Manned Orbiting Laboratory Declassified: Inside a US Military Space Station
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#30 Manned Orbiting Laboratory Declassified: Inside a US Military Space Station
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#31 Manned Orbiting Laboratory Declassified: Inside a US Military Space Station

Lockheed(?) Sunnyvale was working on MOL and the triplex 360/67. There was a cp67-360/67 meeting sponsored in Sunnyvale that included some of the Lockheed(?) and IBM people on the project. There must have also been some people from Monterey NPG ... but I don't remember. When MOL was canceled, an IBMer on the project joined the IBM cambridge science center at MIT.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manned_Orbiting_Laboratory

He is also person the that invented compare-and-swap instruction when he was working on fine grain multiprocessor locking for CP/67 (Compare-And-Swap chosen because CAS are his initials). CSC attempted to get CAS added to (new) 370 architecture ... but it was originally rejected. The 370 architecture owners said the POK favorite son operating system people said that CAS was needed for multiprocessor support, that test-and-set instruction was more than sufficient. They said to justify it for 370, we would have to come up with some justifications that didn't require multiprocessor. thus was born the example uses for large multithreaded applications (whether they ran on single processor or multiprocessor configurations) ... examples that still appear in mainframe principles of operation appendix.
http://publibz.boulder.ibm.com/cgi-bin/bookmgr_OS390/BOOKS/dz9zr003/A.6?DT=20040504121320

Other trivia: ... before windows there was ms/dos
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MS-DOS
before ms/dos there was seattle computer
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seattle_Computer_Products
before seattle computer there was cp/m,
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CP/M
before cp/m, kildall worked on cp67/cms at npg (gone 404, but lives on at the wayback machine)
http://web.archive.org/web/20071011100440/http://www.khet.net/gmc/docs/museum/en_cpmName.html
npg
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Naval_Postgraduate_School
cp67/cms (aka precursor to vm/370)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CP/CMS
before cp67/cms ... there was virtual machine, interactive computing cp/40
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/cp40seas1982.txt

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virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Harvard Professors Expose 'The Real Problem With Stock Buybacks'

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Harvard Professors Expose 'The Real Problem With Stock Buybacks'
Blog: Facebook
Date: 08 Jul 2018
The Real Problem With Stock Buybacks; Many critics say buybacks crimp investment. But the real problem is that they transfer wealth from shareholders to executives, two professors say.
https://www.wsj.com/articles/the-real-problem-with-stock-buybacks-1530903118

Harvard Professors Expose 'The Real Problem With Stock Buybacks'
https://www.zerohedge.com/news/2018-07-08/harvard-professors-expose-real-problem-stock-buybacks
Executives can use repurchases to enrich themselves because disclosure requirements are woefully inadequate. When executives trade personally, they must publicly disclose the details of each trade within two business days. The spotlight created by such real-time, fine-grained disclosure helps curb trading abuses by executives. By contrast, the SEC only requires a firm to report, in each quarterly filing, the number of shares repurchased in each month of the quarter and the average price paid per share. Investors see this filing a month or so into the next quarter, one to four months after the buybacks occur. And they never see individual repurchases, just aggregate transaction data. Researchers can detect the existence of buyback abuses across a large sample of public firms, but investors cannot easily identify the particular executive teams using repurchases to line their own pockets.
... snip ...

stock buyback posts httP//www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#stock.buyback

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Why You Should Trust Your Gut, According to the University of Cambridge

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Why You Should Trust Your Gut, According to the University of Cambridge
Blog: Facebook
Date: 08 Jul 2018
Why You Should Trust Your Gut, According to the University of Cambridge
https://bigthink.com/articles/why-you-should-trust-your-gut-according-to-the-university-of-cambridge

Past experience basis for Boyd's orientation ,,, however Boyd would also say that it is necessary to constantly observe from every possible facet as countermeasure to orientation bias ... especially the kind where orientation is based on repeated (nearly) identical circumstances ... and then circumstances change (and the orientation/gut is no longer valid).
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OODA_loop

Note this sort of also wanders into Kahneman's "Thinking Fast and Slow"
https://www.amazon.com/Thinking-Fast-Slow-Daniel-Kahneman-ebook/dp/B00555X8OA/
one viewpoint can be survival/adaptation ... brain is most energy intensive organ of the body ... rewiring brain so that it shortcuts something that is done/repeated often 1) conserves energy and 2) increases reaction performance. This also wanders into coup d'oeil and "fingerspitzengefuhl" ... which can sometimes can be considered intuition. Intuition can be "gut feeling" ... but it can also be logical process for which there isn't words.
https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2018/jul/07/big-tech-politics-language
http://hbswk.hbs.edu/item/how-toyota-turns-workers-into-problem-solvers

Boyd posts & web URLs
http:/www.garlic.com/~lynn/subboyd.html

recent Toyoto posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018c.html#45 Counterinsurgency Lessons from Malaya and Vietnam: Learning to Eat Soup with a Knife
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018d.html#8 How to become an 'elastic thinker' and problem solver
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018d.html#44 Mission Command Is Swarm Intelligence
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018d.html#82 Quality Efforts

recent Kahneman posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018.html#25 Trump's Infrastructure Plan Is Actually Pence's--And It's All About Privatization
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018b.html#51 More Guns Do Not Stop More Crimes, Evidence Shows
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018b.html#82 The Real Reason the Investor Class Hates Pensions
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018b.html#87 Where Is Everyone???
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018c.html#81 What Lies Beyond Capitalism And Socialism?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018c.html#83 Economists and the Powerful: Convenient Theories, Distorted Facts, Ample Rewards

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

SEC Knifes Its Whistleblower Program

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: SEC Knifes Its Whistleblower Program
Blog: Facebook
Date: 09 Jul 2018
SEC Knifes Its Whistleblower Program
https://www.nakedcapitalism.com/2018/07/sec-knifes-whistleblower-program.html

note before that, Sarbanes-Oxley also called for whistleblower. In Madoff hearings, they had the person that unsuccessfully tried for a decade to get SEC to do something about Madoff ... he also pointed out that tips turn up 13 times more fraud than audits.

also note congressional rhetoric was that Sarbanes-Oxley would prevent future ENRONs and guarantee that executives and auditors did jailtime ... but required SEC do something. Possibly because even GAO didn't believe SEC was doing anything, it started doing reports of fraudulent financial filings even show increased after SOX going into effect ... and nobody doing jailtime

whistleblower posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#whistleblower
enron posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#enron
Sarbanes-Oxley posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#sarbanes-oxley
financial report fraud posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#financial.reporting.fraud
madoff posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#madoff

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Wearing a tie cuts circulation to your brain

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Wearing a tie cuts circulation to your brain
Blog: Facebook
Date: 12 Jul 2018
Wearing a tie cuts circulation to your brain
https://bigthink.com/ned-dymoke/wearing-a-tie-cuts-circulation-to-your-brain

When I graduated and first joined IBM, I drank the kool-aid and got 3piece suits for customer calls. I'd do technical presentations at SHARE and lots of customers liked me to wander by their shops and talk technology. One was manager of one of the largest (true blue, all-IBM) financial datacenters on the east coast. At one point, the branch manager horribly offended that customer. The customer decided it would teach IBM a lesson and be the first non-university customer to order an Amdahl machine (it would be a lonely red system in a vast sea of blue systems). I got called in and told to go live onsite at the customer for 6-12 months. I said I was really good friends with the customer and knew it would change nothing. I was told that the branch manager was really good sailing buddy of IBM's CEO and I needed to do this to obfuscate why the customer was ordering an Amdahl machine. I said I still couldn't see any reason to do it (hold people accountable rather than pervasive "old boys" networks). I was told that if I didn't obfuscate why the customer was ordering an Amdahl machine, it would ruin the branch manager's career (best buds with IBM CEO) and I could forget about having any career in IBM. I never wore a 3piec suit again, a long career offending lots of people in IBM.

Ferguson & Morris, "Computer Wars: The Post-IBM World", Time Books, 1993 .... reference to the "Future System" project 1st half of the 70s, was going to completely replace 370 and 370 efforts were being shutdown, the lack of 370 products during the period is credited with giving clone processor makers market foothold:
... and perhaps most damaging, the old culture under Watson Snr and Jr of free and vigorous debate was replaced with sycophancy and make no waves under Opel and Akers. It's claimed that thereafter, IBM lived in the shadow of defeat
...
But because of the heavy investment of face by the top management, F/S took years to kill, although its wrong headedness was obvious from the very outset. "For the first time, during F/S, outspoken criticism became politically dangerous," recalls a former top executive.
... snip ...

and the 1st non-university, large commercial, true-blue IBM customer to order one, they tried to blame on me ... obfuscation and misdirection away from the branch manager. I had also continued to work on 370 stuff all through the FS period, even periodically ridiculing the FS work ... which also wasn't exactly career enhancing activity.

they even managed to give "empty suits" a bad name.

semi-related ... end of ACS-360 .... top management was worried it would advance the state of art too fast and they would loose control of the market ... so it was shutdown. Amdahl then leaves IBM and starts his own company. At the bottom, it lists ACS-360 features that show up in ES/9000 more than two decades later
https://people.cs.clemson.edu/~mark/acs_end.html

The lack of 370 products during the FS period ... along with giving clone processor makers market foothold ... was significant contributor to the development of IBM FUD (fear, uncertainty, and doubt) marketing skills.

trivia: FS started not long after I joined IBM ... and I never did drink that kool-aid ... but did drink the kool-aid about 3piece suits for customer visits. At the time there was a long running cult film down at central sq ... and I would draw comparison between that film and the FS effort. This was in the period when nearly all the money was going to FS and people were being told that if they wanted promotions or raises they would have to transfer to FS.

Some of the top FS people visited the science center and they would describe some radically complex new idea ... and I would comment that I already had something better than that running on 370.

FS posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#futuresys
science center posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech

posts specifically mentioning IBM CEO's branch manager sailing buddy
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013l.html#22 Teletypewriter Model 33
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014i.html#52 IBM Programmer Aptitude Test
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016.html#41 1976 vs. 2016?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016e.html#95 IBM History
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016h.html#86 Computer/IBM Career
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#92 An OODA-loop is a far-from-equilibrium, non-linear system with feedback
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#49 IBM Career
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018.html#55 Now Hear This--Prepare For The "To Be Or To Do" Moment
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018c.html#27 Software Delivery on Tape to be Discontinued

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

These Are the Best Companies to Work For in the U.S

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: These Are the Best Companies to Work For in the U.S.
Blog: Facebook
Date: 12 Jul 2018
These Are the Best Companies to Work For in the U.S.; Technology companies and airlines ranked highest among employees this year.
https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2018-07-12/these-are-the-best-companies-to-work-for-in-the-u-s

Late 80s, a senior disk engineer group a talk scheduled at internal, world-wide, annual, communication group conference ... supposedly on 3174 performance ... however he opened his talk with the statement that the head of the communication group was going to be responsible for the demise of the disk division. The issue was that the communication group had stranglehold on datacenters with corporate strategic ownership of everything that crossed datacenter walls and were fiercely fighting off distributed computing and client/server, trying to preserve their dumb terminal paradigm and install base. The disk division was seeing data fleeing datacenters to more distributed computing friendly platforms with fall in disk sales. The disk division had come up with a number of solution to address the opportunity, but they were constantly being vetoed by the communication group (with their corporate strategic ownership of everything that crossed datacenter walls). The datacenter stranglehold wasn't just affecting disk sales and a few years later the company goes into the red.

past posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#terminal

The efforts of the communication group was significant factor in the down turn of the company and its slide into the red in the early 90s ... a period where the company was being restructured into what this time magazine reference called the 13 "baby blues" ... in preparation for splitting up the company ... "fall of ibm" article from 28Dec1992 "How IBM Was Left Behind" (gone behind paywall, but mostly leaves free at wayback machine)
http://web.archive.org/web/20101120231857/http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,977353,00.html

re: 13 baby blues; ... we had left IBM by that time ... but got a call from the bowels of Armonk explaining the 13 baby blues and would we work on helping with the breakup. The issue was that lots of business units leveraged supplier contract in other units with MOUs. With the breakup, lots of the supplier contracts would be in different corporations and the MOUs had to be cataloged and turned into their own contracts. Before we got started, new CEO was brought in and breakup was reversed.

a few other recent "13 baby blue" posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016.html#2 History question - In what year did IBM first release its DF/DSS backup & restore product?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016g.html#20 How to Fix IBM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#62 Big Shrink to "Hire" 25,000 in the US, as Layoffs Pile Up
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#34 CBS News: WikiLeaks claims to release thousands of CIA documents of computer activity
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018.html#35 AW: Re: Number of Cylinders per Volume
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018d.html#39 IBM downturn

... another

AWD had done their own (AT-bus, 16bit) 4mbit/sec token-ring card for the PC/RT. However for RS/6000, AWD were told they couldn't do their own microchannel cards, but had to help their corporate brethren and use PS2 cards. The joke was that if the RS/6000 had to use PS2 cards, it wouldn't be any faster than PS2. For instance the communication group had designed PS2 16mbit/sec token-ring microchannel cards with design point of terminal emulation with hundreds sharing same 16mbit/sec LAN. As a result the PS2 microchannel 16mbit/sec token-ring card had lower "per-card" throughput than the PC/RT 4mbit/sec token-ring cards (and RS/6000 server had lower throughput than PC/RT server).

At one point the head of AWD publicly let corporate senior VP what he thought of the directive and left the company shortly later. A work-around to the corporate directive was to come out with a RS/6000 "730" that had a VMEbus (instead of microchannel) ... which met they weren't forced to use the woefully inadequate PS2 cards (it was possible that AWD could have come out with microchannel cards that were even better than the industry VMEbus cards .... but they weren't allowed to). There were lots of high throughput, high-end workstation VMEbus cards ... which helped save the day.

risc 801 project at YKT in mid-70s. then late 70s, there was an effort to move the large variety of internal CISC microprocessors to RISC .... low & mid-range 370, controllers, follow-on to S/38, etc. For various reasons all of those efforts floundered. The 4331/4341 were custom cisc that emulated 370 at avg ten native instructions per 370 instructions. The follow-on 4361/4381 were originally going to be much faster RISC processors that achieved significantly higher simulated throughput. I helped write the white-paper that killed that effort. The issue was that CMOS had advanced to the point that could implement nearly all of 370 directly in a chip (rather than simulate either cisc or risc).

Note that we now have the reverse ... most common well-known non-RISC chips .. a couple decades ago started (hardware) decomposing cisc instructions into risc micro-operations for execution schedule ... largely negating the difference between high-end CISC processors and high-end RISC processors ... big difference is trying to get as much execution going concurrently/overlapped as possible ... and/or how fast can move to latest chip technology ... although software is severely lagging behind.

Part of this is that now cache-miss latency to memory ... when measured in number of processor cycles ... is about the same as 60s disk latency when measured in number of 60s processor cycles (processors trying to overlap execution while other execution is waiting on memory operation).

801/risc, iliad, romp, rios, pc/rt, rs/6000, etc posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#801

before 3705 came out, the IBM cambridge science center tried to get the peachtree processor (used in series/1) to be used for the 3705 ... but they had to do their own that quickly became woefully inadequate.

In 1st part of 80s, I got dragged into turning out a NCP/VTAM implementation that a baby bell had done on Series/1 ... as a type-1 IBM product ... with followon moved to what would become the RS/6000. It had enormous more function/feature than traditional communication group product (in part because the Series/1 was so much more powerful than what communication group was using for 37x5s). We thought that we had walled off all the things that communication group could do to block the effort ... but what they then did can only be described as truth is much stranger than fiction.

Series/1 as NCP/VTAM presentation
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#66 System/1 ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#69 System/1 ?

other "peachtree" posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#63 System/1 ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#106 IBM Mainframe Model Numbers--then and now?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#239 IBM UC info
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000b.html#66 oddly portable machines
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000b.html#79 "Database" term ok for plain files?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001b.html#75 Z/90, S/390, 370/ESA (slightly off topic)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002.html#45 VM and/or Linux under OS/390?????
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002c.html#42 Beginning of the end for SNA?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002h.html#65 Bettman Archive in Trouble
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002k.html#20 Vnet : Unbelievable
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002n.html#32 why does wait state exist?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002q.html#53 MVS History
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003.html#67 3745 & NCP Withdrawl?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003b.html#5 Card Columns
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003b.html#16 3745 & NCP Withdrawl?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003c.html#23 difference between itanium and alpha
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003c.html#76 COMTEN- IBM networking boxes
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004p.html#27 IBM 3705 and UC.5
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005.html#17 Amusing acronym
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005f.html#56 1401-S, 1470 "last gasp" computers?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005m.html#8 IBM's mini computers--lack thereof
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005m.html#14 IBM's mini computers--lack thereof
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005r.html#44 What ever happened to Tandem and NonStop OS ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007g.html#2 The Perfect Computer - 36 bits?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009k.html#70 An inComplete History Of Mainframe Computing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009s.html#52 DEC-10 SOS Editor Intra-Line Editing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010c.html#6 search engine history, was Happy DEC-10 Day
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010g.html#34 someone smarter than Dave Cutler
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011e.html#43 junking CKD; was "Social Security Confronts IT Obsolescence"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012l.html#82 zEC12, and previous generations, "why?" type question - GPU computing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013d.html#57 What Makes an Architecture Bizarre?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014m.html#56 The Road Not Taken: Knowing When to Keep Your Mouth Shut
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015e.html#84 Inaugural Podcast: Dave Farber, Grandfather of the Internet
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015e.html#86 Inaugural Podcast: Dave Farber, Grandfather of the Internet
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015h.html#43 Are we just running in place?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016b.html#82 Qbasic - lies about Medicare
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016d.html#97 Is it a lost cause?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#98 360 & Series/1
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017h.html#99 Boca Series/1 & CPD
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017i.html#52 IBM Branch Offices: What They Were, How They Worked, 1920s-1980s

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

These Are the Best Companies to Work For in the U.S

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: These Are the Best Companies to Work For in the U.S.
Blog: Facebook
Date: 13 Jul 2018
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#28 These Are the Best Companies to Work For in the U.S

some Boyd drift:

I was introduced to John Boyd in the early 80s and would sponsor his briefings at IBM. The first time was just Patterns of Conflict and I tried to do it through plant site employee education. However as I provided them more information (prevailing in competitive environment), they changed their mind. They said that IBM spends a lot of money training managers on how to handle employees and that exposing general employees to Boyd would be counter productive (implying relations between management and employees is a competitive environment) .... they suggested that I restrict audience to just senior members of competitive analysis group (which I didn't, first briefing was in fairly full bldg. 28 auditorium, SJR at the time, before it moved up the hill to the new bldg). Then I got hit because there was unwritten rule that anybody of any distinction had to present at YKT before presenting at SJR.

trivia: 1990 commandant of the marine corps leveraged Boyd for a make-over of the corps. By the time he passed, the USAF pretty much disowned him ... and it was the Marines at Arlington ... and all his effects went to Quantico ... and we have continued to have Boyd themed conferences there. A couple years after he passed, USAF did finally manage to dedicate BOYD Hall at Nellis.

Boyd/IBM repeated story, undergraduate had intro to computer class ... within year, univ. hired me fulltime to be responsible for ibm production mainframe systems. then before I graduate, I was hired fulltime at Boeing into small group in CFO office to help form Boeing Computer Services (consolidate all dataprocessing in independent business unit to better monetize the investment ... including offering dataprocessing services to non-Boeing entities). I thought Renton datacenter possibly largest in the world ($200m-$300M in IBM gear, 60s dollars) and 360/65s were arriving faster than they could be installed, boxes were constantly staged in the hallways around the machine room. Boeing was looking at replicating Renton up at the new 747 plant at Paine Field (there was disaster scenario where Mt. Rainer warms up and the resulting mud slide takes out Renton datacenter). When I graudate, I join the IBM science center at MIT (instead of staying at Boeing).

periodically told Boyd quote:
There are two career paths in front of you, and you have to choose which path you will follow. One path leads to promotions, titles, and positions of distinction.... The other path leads to doing things that are truly significant for the Air Force, but the rewards will quite often be a kick in the stomach because you may have to cross swords with the party line on occasion. You can't go down both paths, you have to choose. Do you want to be a man of distinction or do you want to do things that really influence the shape of the Air Force? To be or to do, that is the question.
... snip ...

Boyd would tell stories that he had been very vocal about electronics across the trail not working ... possibly as punishment, he was put in command of "spook base" (about the same time I was at Boeing). Boyd biography claims "spook base" was $2.5B(!) windfall for IBM (ten times Renton). "Spook base" reference ... gone 404 but lives on at wayback machine
http://web.archive.org/web/20030212092342/http://home.att.net/~c.jeppeson/igloo_white.html
and
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Igloo_White

Boyd posts and URLs
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subboyd.html

some recent BCS posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#90 Old hardware
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017f.html#51 [CM] What was your first home computer?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017g.html#60 Mannix "computer in a briefcase"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017h.html#55 Pareto efficiency
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017j.html#83 Ferranti Atlas paging
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017j.html#104 Now Hear This-Prepare For The "To Be Or To Do" Moment
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018.html#28 1963 Timesharing: A Solution to Computer Bottlenecks
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018.html#55 Now Hear This--Prepare For The "To Be Or To Do" Moment
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018b.html#28 Important US technology companies sold to foreigners
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018c.html#25 OFF TOPIC: Spring Break, 1947
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#22 Manned Orbiting Laboratory Declassified: Inside a US Military Space Station

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

These Are the Best Companies to Work For in the U.S

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: These Are the Best Companies to Work For in the U.S.
Blog: Facebook
Date: 14 Jul 2018
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#27 Wearing a tie cuts circulation to your brain
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#28 These Are the Best Companies to Work For in the U.S
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#29 These Are the Best Companies to Work For in the U.S

more FS and followon trivia ... totally different than 370 and going to completely replace 370 ... 370 efforts were being shutdown (and lack of 370 products is credited with giving clone processors market foothold). Then when FS crashes, there was mad rush to get stuff back into 370 product pipelines; 3033 & 3081 were kicked off in parallel; 3033 was Q&D 168-3 logic mapped to 20% faster chips (some other tweaks got it to 40%-50% faster) and 3081 was some warmed over FS technology ... longer discussion of FS, 3033, & 3081:
http://www.jfsowa.com/computer/memo125.htm

future system posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#futuresys

Endicotts Q&D was 138/148 (sort of equivalent to POK's Q&D 3033, but several years earlier) and I got con'ed into helping with ECPS (placing critical, high-use operating system pathlengths into microcode). Low & mid-range 370s were microprocessors that simulated 370 with avg. of ten 10 native instructions for every 370 instructions. I was told that there was 6kbytes of microcode space available and to select the 6kbytes of highest used operating system code for dropping into microcode. This is old post with analysis of kernel execution that highest used 6kbyte pathlengths accounted for 79.55% of CPU use (i.e. 10:1 speed up reduced it from 79.55% to 7.9%)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/94.html#21

About the same time I was sucked into working on first a 5-way (i.e. 5-processor) multiprocessor implementation and then a 16-way. We got some of the 3033 processor engineers to work on it part time and everyone thought it was really great ... until somebody told the head of POK that it could be decades before the POK favorite son operating system had effective 16-way support (16-way doesn't ship until nearly 25yrs later in 2000 with z900. Then some of us were invited to never visit POK again and the 3033 processor engineers to stop being distracted (although I could still sneak into POK and go bike riding with them).

5-way SMP posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#VAMPS
SMP posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#smp

Enicott's follow-on to 138/148 was 4331/4341 (sort of Enicott's equivalent to 3081, but also several years earlier). I got tasked to do some benchmarks for LLNL on engineering 4341 (before customer ship) that was looking at getting 70 for compute farm (sort of the leading edge of the coming cluster supercomputer tsunami). In the early 80s, I also did presentations on the ECPS implementation at IBM user group meetings (SHARE and the monthly bay area meeting at SLAC). At 1981 Baybunch SLAC meetings I got lots of questions from Amdahl people who were about ready to ship their "HYPERVISOR". One of the issues was that high-end machines ran "horizontal microcode" that was extremely difficult and onerous to program and very human intensive. One of the things that happened in the 3033 time-frame, IBM started releasing lots of little architecture tweaks (and software that wouldn't run w/o the tweaks). Amdahl eventually responded with something called "macrocode" ... layer below the architecture 370 interface, was very similar to 370 programming and ran effectively as fast as horizontal microcode ... and orders of magnitude easier to program. As a result, Amdahl could track the multitude of architecture tweaks much faster than IBM could create them (in part because IBM was still doing all its work in horizontal microcode). In any case, Amdahl's HYPERVISOR (basically a virtual machine subset) was being implemented in MACROCODE.

Once the 3033 was out the door (1977), the 3033 processor engineers start work on Trout "1.5" (which becomes 3090) overlapped with 3081 ... some trout email archived in old posts ... from 18nov1983 ... 3090 first customer ship isn't until nov1985.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003j.html#email831118

3081 had SIE ... larger than original VMASSIST but not as much HYPERVISOR ... however SIE was originally only for internal MVS/XA development and never intended to ship to customers. One of the issues in the 3081 implementation was there was limited microcode space and to enter/exit SIE required paging/swaping microcode (high overhead, high latency operation). This is even old email that 3090 was going to have a high performance SIE for production operation
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006j.html#email810630

In any case, the 3090 engineers never anticipated that they would have to go head-to-head against Amdahl's HYPERVISOR. When they did, it was a significantly harder problem since they were programming in very low level horizontal microcode. They were able to use lots of the SIE implementation ... but had to write a whole lot more code in the low-level, difficult horizontal microcode ... which took quite awhile to develop before they were able to ship. PR/SM didn't ship until 1988, long after Amdahl's HYPERVISOR (1981)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PR/SM

As part of helping with 138/148, Endicott also sucks me into running around the world doing presentation for business planners & forecasters. At the time, US regions would say that with the IBM name, it would sell some percentage more than previous models. However world trade said that w/o additional features it would not sell (because of increased clone competition).

Endicott said that in the US, they had to repeat forecasts because, people doing forecasts would do whatever corporate said was strategic and got promotions (and if they were wrong, manufacturing plants "ate" the difference). In world trade, countries ordered based on forecast, and if they were wrong, the country "ate" the difference (and forecasters could get fired)

posts mentioning macrocode:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013.html#3 Is Microsoft becoming folklore?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013.html#58 Was MVS/SE designed to confound Amdahl?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013f.html#68 Linear search vs. Binary search
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013l.html#27 World's worst programming environment?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013n.html#46 'Free Unix!': The world-changing proclamation made30yearsagotoday
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014d.html#17 Write Inhibit
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014d.html#20 Write Inhibit
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014j.html#19 DG Nova 1200 as console
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014j.html#100 No Internet. No Microsoft Windows. No iPods. This Is What Tech Was Like In 1984
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014m.html#161 Slushware
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015.html#85 a bit of hope? What was old is new again
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015c.html#44 John Titor was right? IBM 5100
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#37 IBM LinuxONE Rockhopper
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017e.html#46 [CM] What was your first home computer?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017i.html#43 learning Unix, was progress in e-mail, such as AOL
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017i.html#54 Here's a horrifying thought for all you management types

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Suggestion Awards

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Suggestion Awards
Blog: Facebook
Date: 14 Jul 2018
When IBM sent out directive that all computer files be given individual security classifications ... I submitted suggestion that instead of classifying CMS files as individual entities ... that CMS areas be treated more like OS/360 PDS files (and the files within CMS areas be treated like PDS members). It was rejected and then two months later new directive specifying my suggestion. I assumed it was just another IBM revenge/retaliation.

Date: 01/11/84 15:55:53
From: wheeler
re: data set classification;

In the past the data set classification requirement (apparently growing out of some OS based "mind"), when applied to CMS, has been interpreted as "meaning" mini-disk, rather than CMS file.

In general, a CMS mini-disk corresponds to more closely to an OS PDS and would therefor be the closest analogy when attempting to translate the regulations from an OS oriented "reality" to a CMS oriented world.

As of this time, I'm not aware of any requirement for OS to individually classify members within a PDS ... just to classify the data-set itself. When applied to TSO, it would mean that TSO users would only have to classify the data set ... not each individual data set member. A CMS mini-disk is closer in use and function to an OS pds/file ... than is individual CMS files are. Individual CMS files, in almost all cases, are analogous to OS PDS members than they are to OS files (for which the regulations were originally written).

Some where in the past 2-4 years, it would appear that people who didn't understand the environment in which the regulations where original written have mis-translated their application to the CMS environment. Prior to this time, the classification requirement has been applied the mini-disk, not an individual CMS file. In the latest go around, possibly because CMS files are called "files" (a word which can be interpreted as one of the possible synonyms for data sets) ... the regulations are being mis-applied by a larger number of people.

In actual practice (dis-regarding all the possible interpretations and semantics associated with the individual words), CMS files are functionally equivalent to OS PDS data-set members ... not OS data-sets. It is mini-disks (not CMS files) which are functionally equivalent OS data-sets.

Within the structure of the OS environment ... and the purpose for which the classification regulations were promulgated, the objective was to cross-check that the installed security procedures were appropriate to the security level of the data. The OS environment provides password and access authorization at the data-set level ... and so the regulations stipulated that the classification of each data-set was required, in order to verify that the appropriate security measures were applied to each of the data sets. As far as I know, nothing has been promulgated which requires classification of individual members within each OS PDS data-set ... specifically because it would be a time-consuming exercise ... serving no useful function.

Within the CMS environment, the security "unit" that has password and/or access control is the mini-disk ... NOT A CMS FILE. Application of the classification regulation can only be justified in being applied to each mini-disk ... NOT EACH CMS FILE. A cms file does not represent a security "unit" ... that characteristic only applies to a mini-disk. Requiring the classification of each individual CMS file is analogous to requiring the classification of each individual OS PDS member ... it is a useless, make-work, time-consuming exercise. If, in fact, the regulation is currently being mis-interpreted, a cost saving SUGGESTION should be submitted ... since it is relatively easy to PROVE the incorrect application of the regulation in this instance ... and if the practice is wide spread, the savings to the corporation would be substantial in people-time-dollars saved through-out the corporation. Who ever authored such a suggestion could be do a substantial $$$ SUGGESTION AWARD.

... snip ... top of post, old email index

The suggestion was rejected saying that the original corporate directive requiring that each data set have security classification because that was the unit of security access ... and CMS files were equivalent. Three months later they changed the ruling that since CMS minidisks are the unit of security access ... that CMS minidisks have security classification (and not each individual CMS files).

past ref
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012k.html#42 The IBM "Open Door" Policy

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

12 Russian Agents Indicted in Mueller Investigation

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: 12 Russian Agents Indicted in Mueller Investigation
Blog: Facebook
Date: 15 Jul 2018
12 Russian Agents Indicted in Mueller Investigation
https://www.nytimes.com/2018/07/13/us/politics/mueller-indictment-russian-intelligence-hacking.html

Russian agents allegedly used Bitcoin to fund the DNC hack
https://www.technologyreview.com/the-download/611648/russian-agents-allegedly-used-bitcoin-to-fund-the-dnc-hack/
America's indictment of Russian hackers underlines the cyber risks facing US politics
https://www.technologyreview.com/the-download/611649/americas-indictment-of-russian-hackers-underlines-the-cyber-risks-facing-us/
Mueller indicts 12 Russians for DNC hack, election interference
https://fcw.com/articles/2018/07/13/russia-cyber-indictments.aspx
Mueller Probe Yields Hacking Indictments for 12 Russian Military Officers GRU hackers used bitcoin to fund US computer network infrastructure supporting and hiding the operation.
https://www.darkreading.com/attacks-breaches/mueller-probe-yields-hacking-indictments-for-12-russian-military-officers/d/d-id/1332297
Justice Dept. indicts 12 Russian spies over 2016 DNC hack; The 12 indictments were sought by US special counsel Robert Mueller.
https://www.zdnet.com/article/justice-dept-indicts-democratic-national-committee-hackers/
What the Latest Mueller Indictment Reveals About Guccifer 2.0, the "Lone Hacker" Who Was Really a Group of Russian Agents
https://slate.com/technology/2018/07/the-mueller-indictment-and-guccifer-2-0-what-we-now-know.html
Indictment bombshell: 'Kremlin intel agents' hacked, leaked Hillary's emails same day Trump asked Russia for help; Charges filed against dozen suspected Russian spies
http://www.theregister.co.uk/2018/07/13/russians_election_tampering/
Russia Indictment 2.0: What to Make of Mueller's Hacking Indictment
https://www.lawfareblog.com/russia-indictment-20-what-make-muellers-hacking-indictment
Mueller indictment: Read the full charges against Russia's GRU intelligence agency
https://www.fastcompany.com/90202249/mueller-indictment-read-the-full-charges-against-russias-gru-intelligence-agency
US charges 12 Russian hackers tied to DNC cyberattacks; The indictments are part of special counsel Robert Mueller's investigation into Russian interference in the 2016 presidential election.
https://www.cnet.com/news/us-charges-12-russian-hackers-tied-to-dnc-cyberattack/

even our military networks leak like sieve, adversaries dance through them, snarfing up detailed designs of nearly all major weapon systems

Chinese Hackers Stole Boeing, Lockheed Military Plane Secrets: Feds
http://www.nbcnews.com/news/investigations/chinese-hackers-stole-boeing-lockheed-military-plane-secrets-feds-n153951
Report: China gained U.S. weapons secrets using cyberespionage
http://www.cnn.com/2013/05/28/world/asia/china-cyberespionage/
Confidential report lists U.S. weapons system designs compromised by Chinese cyberspies
https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/national-security/confidential-report-lists-us-weapons-system-designs-compromised-by-chinese-cyberspies/2013/05/27/a42c3e1c-c2dd-11e2-8c3b-0b5e9247e8ca_story.html
REPORT: Chinese Hackers Stole Plans For Dozens Of Critical US Weapons Systems
http://www.businessinsider.com/china-hacked-us-military-weapons-systems-2013-5
A list of the U.S. weapons designs and technologies compromised by hackers
https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/national-security/a-list-of-the-us-weapons-designs-and-technologies-compromised-by-hackers/2013/05/27/a95b2b12-c483-11e2-9fe2-6ee52d0eb7c1_story.html

I've done a lot of work on financial electronic security. Long ago and faw away we were brought in as consultants to small client/server startup that wanted to do payment transactions on their server, the startup had also invented this technology they wanted to use, the result is frequently called "electronic commerce". I had absolute authority over everything between servers and the payment network gateways, but could only make recommendations on the browser/server side, some of which were almost immediately violated which continue to account for some number of exploits. Over the years I've gotten along much better with the assurance people up at Ft. Meade than the SIGINT people (in part because I don't like backdoors, vulnerabilities, and/or exploits). This is old reference to TD to DDI (for information assurance directorate) was running a panel on assurance in the trusted computing track at IDF and had me give a talk. For a few years, I said I was taking one of their $500 milspec chips, cost reducing by 2-3 orders of magnitude (cents instead of dollars) while making it more secure (this was big financial threat to the to beltway bandits and gov. contracts that collected enormous sums for "security" work). gone 404, but lives on at wayback machine:
http://web.archive.org/web/20011109072807/http://www.intel94.com/idf/spr2001/sessiondescription.asp?id=stp%2bs13

Part of the issue was enormous parts of gov. that have been outsourced to for-profit beltway bandits (especially those owned by private equity companies that had employed prominent politicians to lobby congress) ... intelligence, 70% of the budget and over half the people
http://www.investingdaily.com/17693/spies-like-us
and somewhere along the line realized that they make great deal more money from failures, vulnerabilities, threats, etc, the rapidly spreading success of failure culture, especially involving cyber:
http://www.govexec.com/excellence/management-matters/2007/04/the-success-of-failure/24107/
another reference (including acquiring beltway bandit that will employ Snowden)
http://www.motherjones.com/politics/2007/10/barbarians-capitol-private-equity-public-enemy/
lots of cyber security dating back to when I was undergraduate in the 60s, used by these guys ... but I didn't learn about them until much later
http://web.archive.org/web/20090117083033/http://www.nsa.gov/research/selinux/list-archive/0409/8362.shtml

another reference (including acquiring beltway bandit that will employ Snowden)
http://www.motherjones.com/politics/2007/10/barbarians-capitol-private-equity-public-enemy/
Lou Gerstner, former ceo of ibm, now heads the Carlyle Group, a Washington-based global private equity firm whose 2006 revenues of $87 billion were just a few billion below ibm's. Carlyle has boasted George H.W. Bush, George W. Bush, and former Secretary of State James Baker III on its employee roster.
... snip ...

some past history: AMEX was in competition with KKR for private-equity LBO take-over of RJR and KKR wins. KKR runs into some trouble with RJR and hires away AMEX president to help turn it around.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barbarians_at_the_Gate:_The_Fall_of_RJR_Nabisco
IBM is then gone into the red and was being organized into "13 baby blues" in preparation for breaking up the company. gone behind paywall, but mostly lives free at wayback machine
http://web.archive.org/web/20101120231857/http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,977353,00.html
The board then brings in the former AMEX president, who uses some of the same techniques used at RJR:
http://www.ibmemployee.com/RetirementHeist.shtml
then the former AMEX president leaves IBM to becomes head of one of the largest private-equity companies

success of failure posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#success.of.failure
AMEX president posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#gerstner
military-industrial(-congressional) complex posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#military.industrial.complex
private-equity posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#private.equity

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

old grudges, Computers, anyone?

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: old grudges, Computers, anyone?
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Sun, 15 Jul 2018 12:34:23 -0700
J. Clarke <jclarke.873638@gmail.com> writes:
You mean like the US and the Soviet Union were.

I've seen another version of this--"When choosing an ally, two questions are crucial, can he shoot and will he aim at my enemy".


recent thread elsewhere

"WWII was won with British intelligence, American steel and Russian blood"
https://www.reddit.com/r/AskHistorians/comments/27eufq/wwii_was_won_with_british_intelligence_american/

on the other side, John Foster Dulles played major role in German industry and military from the 20s up through the early 40s ... as agent for wallstreet banks and major

The Brothers: John Foster Dulles, Allen Dulles, and Their Secret World War
https://www.amazon.com/Brothers-Foster-Dulles-Allen-Secret-ebook/dp/B00BY5QX1K/

loc905-7:
Foster was stunned by his brother's suggestion that Sullivan & Cromwell quit Germany. Many of his clients with interests there, including not just banks but corporations like Standard Oil and General Electric, wished Sullivan & Cromwell to remain active regardless of political conditions.

loc938-40:
At least one other senior partner at Sullivan & Cromwell, Eustace Seligman, was equally disturbed. In October 1939, six weeks after the Nazi invasion of Poland, he took the extraordinary step of sending Foster a formal memorandum disavowing what his old friend was saying about Nazism
... snip ...

June1940, Germany had a victory celebration at the NYC Waldorf-Astoria with major industrialists. Lots of them were there to hear how to do business with the Nazis
https://www.amazon.com/Man-Called-Intrepid-Incredible-Narrative-ebook/dp/B00V9QVE5O/

Later 5000 industrialists from across the US had conference (also) at NYC Waldorf-Astoria and in part because they had gotten such bad reputation for the depression and supporting Nazi Germany, they approved a major propaganda campaign to equate capitalism with Christianity, part of the result by the early 50s was adding "in god we trust" to money and "under god" to the pledge of allegiance.
https://www.amazon.com/One-Nation-Under-God-Corporate-ebook/dp/B00PWX7R56/

later John Foster Dulles (during McCarthy era) has been quoted that he wasn't building up Germany because he making enormous amounts of money from it, but so that Germany could stand as counter to communism.

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

oriental old grudges, Computers, anyone?

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: oriental old grudges, Computers, anyone?
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Sun, 15 Jul 2018 12:49:17 -0700
JimP <solosam90@gmail.com> writes:
Well, Stalin had been screaming and grouching about the Allies not helping him. Soviets lost lots more troops and civilians than the other Allies did. He invaded Manchuria as an attempt to grab more land for him. FDR and Churchill didn't really want him in that area that late in the war.

US still believed that they needed Soviets to help defeat Japan (Stalin agreed to help US with Japan after Germany had been defeated). Soviets had 1.5M troops in Manchuria against almost million Japanese troops ... that compares with Okinawa where the US had 600k military against 76,000 Japanese.

Soviet invasion of Manchuria
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soviet_invasion_of_Manchuria
Soviet-Japanese War
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soviet%E2%80%93Japanese_War
At the Yalta Conference in February 1945, Stalin agreed to Allied pleas to enter World War II's Pacific Theater within three months of the end of the war in Europe.
... snip ...

Lots of this was respun during the McCarthy era ...

recent posts:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018b.html#33 Olympics opening ceremony
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018b.html#37 Olympics opening ceremony
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018c.html#45 Counterinsurgency Lessons from Malaya and Vietnam: Learning to Eat Soup with a Knife
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018c.html#82 The Redacted Testimony That Fully Explains Why General MacArthur Was Fired
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018c.html#107 Post WW2 red hunt
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018d.html#89 The China Mission: George Marshall's Unfinished War, 1945-1947
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018d.html#98 tablets and desktops was Has Microsoft
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018d.html#102 The Persistent Myth of U.S. Precision Bombing

military-industrial(-congressional) complex posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#military.industrial.complex

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

OT: Trump

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: OT: Trump
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Sun, 15 Jul 2018 13:21:02 -0700
J. Clarke <jclarke.873638@gmail.com> writes:
Where is "here"? In the United States hospitals are for the most part businesses, either independent or owned by corporations. If a hospital is "redundant" then it will just go broke for lack of income.

It sounds like you're describing another downside to government-run medicine.


during the S&L crises, the industry got such a bad reputation that they changed the name to private equity and "junk bonds" became "high yield" bonds.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barbarians_at_the_Gate:_The_Fall_of_RJR_Nabisco

start of the century that started moving in on beltway bandits and gov. contractors ... putting heavy pressure on their purchases to cut corners every way possible in order to push up more money to their owners
http://www.motherjones.com/politics/2007/10/barbarians-capitol-private-equity-public-enemy/
Lou Gerstner, former ceo of ibm, now heads the Carlyle Group, a Washington-based global private equity firm whose 2006 revenues of $87 billion were just a few billion below ibm's. Carlyle has boasted George H.W. Bush, George W. Bush, and former Secretary of State James Baker III on its employee roster.

then they started to move into health care, buying up hospitals and medical practices (looking to squeeze every dollar possible, like they had in other sectors). Similar to having high profile politicians for lobbying on outsourcing gov ... they've similarly used them for all sorts of subsidies. A primary feature of health care reform for the past couple decades has been "single payer". There was news coverage during the leading up to ACA, after a series of "secret" (or at least non-publicized) lobbying meetings, "single payer" magically evaporated from ACA.

private equity posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#private.equity
S&L crises posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#s&l.crises

a few recent posts mentioning private equity and health care
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016h.html#63 GOP introduces plan to massively cut Social Security
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016h.html#97 In American Towns, Private Profits From Public Works
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016h.html#110 The top 50 hospitals that gouge patients the most
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#99 United Air Lines - an OODA-loop perspective
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017h.html#41 Disregard post (another screwup)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018b.html#29 free, huh, was Bitcoin confusion?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018b.html#31 free, huh, was Bitcoin confusion?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018b.html#34 free, huh, was Bitcoin confusion?

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

OT: Trump

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: OT: Trump
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Sun, 15 Jul 2018 13:43:19 -0700
J. Clarke <jclarke.873638@gmail.com> writes:
Actually this is business schools that teach that a manager's duty is to make as much money as he can for the shareholders. Too many of them interpret this as "make as much short term profit as you can" instead of "grow the company".

Why the "Maximizing Shareholder Value" Theory of Corporate Governance is Bogus
http://www.nakedcapitalism.com/2013/10/why-the-maximizing-shareholder-value-theory-of-corporate-governance-is-bogus.html
If you review any of the numerous guides prepared for directors of corporations prepared by law firms and other experts, you won't find a stipulation for them to maximize shareholder value on the list of things they are supposed to do. It's not a legal requirement. And there is a good reason for that.

Directors and officers, broadly speaking, have a duty of care and duty of loyalty to the corporation. From that flow more specific obligations under Federal and state law. But notice: those responsibilities are to the corporation, not to shareholders in particular.

... snip ...

more "We the Corporations: How American Businesses Won Their Civil RIghts"
https://www.amazon.com/We-Corporations-American-Businesses-Rights-ebook/dp/B01M64LRDJ/
pg245/loc3881-87:
The notion that corporations should devote themselves to maximizing profits is often taken to be one of the bedrock principles of corporate law and governance. In the early history of corporations, however, business corporations were much different; as Blackstone wrote in his Commentaries, corporations could only be formed if they served public purposes. Today, in part because of the Dartmouth College case, that rule no longer applies, and modern business corporations are considered private entities that need not serve any explicitly public objective.
... snip ...

More recently they've managed to invert the role, business schools teach how to monopolize markets and use patents to control innovation and change, preserving status quo. The Price of Inequality: How Today's Divided Society Endangers Our Future (Joseph E. Stiglitz)
https://www.amazon.com/Price-Inequality-Divided-Society-Endangers-ebook/dp/B007MKCQ30/
pg35/loc1169-73:
In business school we teach students how to recognize, and create, barriers to competition -- including barriers to entry -- that help ensure that profits won't be eroded. Indeed, as we shall shortly see, some of the most important innovations in business in the last three decades have centered not on making the economy more efficient but on how better to ensure monopoly power or how better to circumvent government regulations intended to align social returns and private rewards.
... snip ...

Reagan's budget director wrote a book about how the rise in stock buybacks after the turn of the century is part of enormous corporate graft and corruption; stock buybacks use to be illegal because they were found to be an easy way for fraudulently manipulating the market (but fraud has now become the major theme in the US) ... "The Great Deformation: The Corruption of Capitalism in America" ... even IBM seems to be doing more of it than anything else
https://www.amazon.com/Great-Deformation-Corruption-Capitalism-America-ebook/dp/B00B3M3UK6/
pg464/loc9995-10000:
IBM was not the born-again growth machine trumpeted by the mob of Wall Street momo traders. It was actually a stock buyback contraption on steroids. During the five years ending in fiscal 2011, the company spent a staggering $67 billion repurchasing its own shares, a figure that was equal to 100 percent of its net income.

pg465/10014-17:
Total shareholder distributions, including dividends, amounted to $82 billion, or 122 percent, of net income over this five-year period. Likewise, during the last five years IBM spent less on capital investment than its depreciation and amortization charges, and also shrank its constant dollar spending for research and development by nearly 2 percent annually.
... snip ...

inequality posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#inequality
stock buyback posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#stock.buyback

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

The history of the MONITOR tops-10)

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: The history of the MONITOR tops-10)
Newsgroups: alt.sys.pdp10,alt.folklore.computers
Date: Sun, 15 Jul 2018 14:02:52 -0700
John Levine <johnl@taugh.com> writes:
OS/360 QSAM worked pretty much the same way, device I/O in and out of a ring of user space buffers. This shows up in the PL/I LOCATE mode for file I/O, where it gives you a pointer to the record it just read or that you are about to write.

I suppose it still does in z/OS although these days it's likely all faked with copies from memory mapped buffers since modern disks don't have variable sized records like CKD disks did.


z/OS still requires CKD disks ... even tho they haven't been made for decades, emulated (out in the hardware, not back in the system software) on industry standard fixed block disks. Array/disk controllers have CKD configuration setups as to simulated disks specified as some variation on 3380CKD and/or 3390CKD ... simulate 3380 or 3390 track size, simulate 3380 or 3390 tracks per cylinder ... but are allowed to specify number of cylinders (from much less than any real 3380/3390 to significantly more than any real 3380/3390).

Even when there were real disks that claimed to be CKD ... there were already moving to fixed-sized cells (as part of error detecting/correcting) and number of records/track calculations included rounding record size up to cell size.

significantly cutting storage requirements, os/360 i/o applications libraries included building channel programs in user space ... and then passing pointer to the (application built) channel program via EXCP/SVC0. when os/360 moved to virtual memory, EXCP processing faced the same problem that virtual machine cp67/vm370 faced ... channel programs required real addresses ... and the application channel programs were all virtual addresses. The initial OS360 EXCP implementation for virtual memory borrowed CP67's CCWTRANS which builds copy of the passed channel program, substituting real addresses for the virtual (and some fiddling when buffer crosses non-contiguous page boundary).

old posts discussing real & concocted (emulated) 3390 models
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000c.html#19 Hard disks, one year ago today
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002h.html#28 backup hard drive
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005u.html#21 3390-81
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006f.html#3 using 3390 mod-9s
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006o.html#3 MTS, Emacs, and... WYLBUR?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007i.html#33 Internal DASD Pathing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007p.html#37 Writing 23FDs
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011j.html#57 Graph of total world disk space over time?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014b.html#17 Quixotically on-topic post, still on topic
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017i.html#37 learning Unix, was progress in e-mail, such as AOL
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017k.html#42 IBM etc I/O channels?

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

oriental old grudges, Computers, anyone?

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: oriental old grudges, Computers, anyone?
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Sun, 15 Jul 2018 18:27:11 -0700
Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com> writes:
US still believed that they needed Soviets to help defeat Japan (Stalin agreed to help US with Japan after Germany had been defeated). Soviets had 1.5M troops in Manchuria against almost million Japanese troops ... that compares with Okinawa where the US had 600k military against 76,000 Japanese.

re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#34 oriental old grudges, Computers, anyone?

American Caesar: Douglas MacArthur 1880 - 1964
https://www.amazon.com/American-Caesar-Douglas-MacArthur-1880-ebook/dp/B000SEP9OK/
loc8573-76:
Later Yalta would bring out the worst in FDR's critics, but at the time it seemed that he and Churchill had won more concessions from Stalin than anyone had any right to expect. He secretly agreed to join the anti-Japanese coalition. In return, in the Far East the Soviet Union would be given certain privileges in Manchuria, the Kuril Islands, and northern Korea; and recognition of Outer Mongolia's autonomy. Except for the Kurils, the Russians were given nothing they couldn't have had for the taking.
... snip ...

Stilwell and the American Experience in China: 1911-1945
https://www.amazon.com/Stilwell-American-Experience-China-1911-1945-ebook/dp/B00KUQITNE/
loc11110-13:
Roosevelt's concessions at Yalta were reckoned in terms of American lives. He had to give something, for as Stalin frankly said, why should Russia join the war against Japan if she were not to get anything for it?
... snip ...

recent posts mentioning giving china to the communists
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018b.html#33 Olympics opening ceremony
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018c.html#45 Counterinsurgency Lessons from Malaya and Vietnam: Learning to Eat Soup with a Knife
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018c.html#82 The Redacted Testimony That Fully Explains Why General MacArthur Was Fired
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018c.html#107 Post WW2 red hunt
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018d.html#89 The China Mission: George Marshall's Unfinished War, 1945-1947
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018d.html#102 The Persistent Myth of U.S. Precision Bombing

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

IRS spent $380m but took 'limited or no action' on offshore tax dodges

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: IRS spent $380m but took 'limited or no action' on offshore tax dodges
Blog: Facebook
Date: 16 Jul 2018
IRS spent $380m but took 'limited or no action' on offshore tax dodges
https://www.icij.org/blog/2018/07/irs-spent-380m-but-took-limited-or-no-action-on-offshore-tax-dodges/

Spring 2009, IRS announced it was going after $400B owed by 52,000 wealthy Americans on money illegally stashed overseas. Spring 2011, Speaker of House said that they were cutting the budget for the IRS unit responsible for recovering the $400B. Since then there has been periodic news about TBTF fined a few billion for aiding in illegally stashing money overseas ... but nothing about the $400B.

tax evasion, fraud, havens, etc
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#tax.evasion

older posts mentioning 52,000
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011p.html#37 No Jail In UBS Tax Evasion Case
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#29 Mitt Romney avoids U.S tax by using Offshore bank accounts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012h.html#27 Monopoly/ Cartons of Punch Cards
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012h.html#30 Monopoly/ Cartons of Punch Cards
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012h.html#39 Monopoly/ Cartons of Punch Cards
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012h.html#64 Monopoly/ Cartons of Punch Cards
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012k.html#37 If all of the American earned dollars hidden in off shore accounts were uncovered and taxed do you think we would be able to close the deficit gap?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012l.html#20 X86 server
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012l.html#27 PDP-10 system calls, was 1132 printer history

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Yar, thar she blows: Corp-cash-stealing email whaling attacks now a $12.5bn industry

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Yar, thar she blows: Corp-cash-stealing email whaling attacks now a $12.5bn industry
Blog: Facebook
Date: 17 Jul 2018
Yar, thar she blows: Corp-cash-stealing email whaling attacks now a $12.5bn industry
http://www.theregister.co.uk/2018/07/17/email_whaling_attacks/

Mid-90s, financial industry conferences had presentations by consumer online dialup banking about moving to the internet. Basically there was enormous consumer support problems & costs related to serial port modems ... which would (effectively) be offloaded to ISPs. At the same time the commercial online dialup banking operations said that they would *NEVER* move to the internet because of a long list of exploits and vulnerabilities that continue to this day. Note most of commercial operations have since moved to the internet anyway (for one reason or another).

Late 90s and turn of the century, EU had the "FINREAD" financial standard which was a countermeasure to majority of internet banking compromises. Then some financial operations started distributing similar products to their customers. One operation distributed a ("secure") card with chip and free chipcard readers. Then there was enormous backlash over consumer support problems and expense ... resulted in rapidly spreading opinion in the consumer financial industry that chipcards weren't viable (for home/internet use). This rapidly spreading opinion also resulted in abandoning the EU FINREAD standard.

Note this was in period when USB was being developed, in part to address the enormous problems with serial-port devices. It turns out the free chipcard reader give away were serial port devices ... possibly obtained at fire-sale of devices that were being obsoleted by USB. Apparently the institutional knowledge regarding enormous consumer support associated with serial-port had evaporated between 1995 and 2000.

We sponsored a meeting between PC/SC and kernel security groups in Redmond with financial institutions to counter the opinion that (security) chipcards weren't viable in consumer/home market ... that the problems in this particular case were specifically associated with (obsolete) serial-port chipcard readers. The net was that it was too late to reverse the financial industry perception.

posts mentioning dialup-banking
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#dialup-banking

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

1958 Crisis in education

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: 1958 Crisis in education
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Tue, 17 Jul 2018 16:16:20 -0700
JimP <solosam90@gmail.com> writes:
I saw this as far back as 1975. High school grads, straight As, knew next to nothing. A high school grad from a different nearby town, B student, knew lots more than the other one.

Not so bad, from the ones I encountered, in the late 1980s when I was at a 4-year university. But saw a big jump in people who were close to being illiterate, with high school diplomas, in the early 2000s. Some in the US military. Some sergeants and some officers.

I used an apparently terribly difficult word a few months ago out in public. Only my sibling standing nearby had heard the word. The word was 'sibling'. I had to explain it. To adults. Ages varying from 30s to 60s.


I've mentioned before doing some work with major large mid-western state university that said they had "dumbed down" material for entering freshmen three times in the period 1970 through mid-90s (about once a decade making freshman material increasingly "dumb")
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002k.html#45 How will current AI/robot stories play when AIs are real?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003i.html#28 Offshore IT
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005e.html#48 Mozilla v Firefox
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006p.html#23 SAT Reading and Math Scores Show Decline
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007j.html#51 IBM Unionization
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008e.html#37 was: 1975 movie "Three Days of the Condor" tech stuff
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011n.html#18 Great Brian Arthur article on the Second Economy
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012g.html#75 Monopoly/ Cartons of Punch Cards
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#27 US Education

also that in the early 90s, there were studies (including information from 1990 census) that half of the 18 year olds were functionally illiterate
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005g.html#43 Academic priorities
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007g.html#7 U.S. Cedes Top Spot in Global IT Competitiveness
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007n.html#68 Poll: oldest computer thing you still use
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007v.html#29 folklore indeed
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008.html#39 competitiveness
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008s.html#20 Five great technological revolutions
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009o.html#67 I would like to understand the professional job market in US. Is it shrinking?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009s.html#43 Larrabee delayed: anyone know what's happening?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010.html#38 Happy DEC-10 Day
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010q.html#69 No command, and control
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011.html#80 Chinese and Indian Entrepreneurs Are Eating America's Lunch
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011k.html#48 50th anniversary of BASIC, COBOL?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011l.html#36 The Next Convergence: The Future of Economic Growth in a Multispeed World
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011p.html#125 UC-Berkeley and other 'public Ivies' in fiscal peril
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012h.html#18 How do you feel about the fact that India has more employees than US?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012k.html#36 Race Against the Machine
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014h.html#32 How Comp-Sci went from passing fad to must have major
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015h.html#4 Decimal point character and billions
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015h.html#5 Decimal point character and billions

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Bill Black: Trump Sees Europe as a "Foe" Because of Key Misinformed Advisor

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Bill Black: Trump Sees Europe as a "Foe" Because of Key Misinformed Advisor
Blog: Facebook
Date: 18 Jul 2018
Bill Black: Trump Sees Europe as a "Foe" Because of Key Misinformed Advisor
https://therealnews.com/stories/bill-black-trump-sees-europe-as-a-foe-because-of-key-misinformed-adviser
President Trump's belief that the European Union's trade policies are more unfair towards the United States than just about any other trading partner is woefully misinformed and the result of his reliance "nutcase" trade adviser Peter Navarro, says economist Bill Black
... snip ...

Black
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_K._Black
S&L Scandal
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_K._Black#Savings_and_loan_scandal
Keating Five
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Keating_Five
VP and former CIA director repeatedly claims no knowledge of
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iran%E2%80%93Contra_affair
because he was fulltime administration point person deregulating financial industry ... creating S&L crisis
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Savings_and_loan_crisis
along with other members of his family
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Savings_and_loan_crisis#Silverado_Savings_and_Loan
and another
http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9D0CE0D81E3BF937A25753C1A966958260

This century, another family member then presides over the economic mess 70 times larger than the S&L crises. S&L crisis had 1000 criminal convictions with jailtime, proportionally the economic mess should have 70,000. Trivia: in 1999 when I was asked to help try to prevent the coming economic mess (we failed), they had me talk to some of the people involved in the S&L crises.

S&L crises posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#s&l.crisis
economic mess posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#economic.mess
private equity posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#private.equity

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

How Plan to Replace LIBOR Will Cement Fed's Role as Global Central Banker

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: How Plan to Replace LIBOR Will Cement Fed's Role as Global Central Banker
Blog: Facebook
Date: 18 Jul 2018
How Plan to Replace LIBOR Will Cement Fed's Role as Global Central Banker
https://www.nakedcapitalism.com/2018/07/marshall-auerback-plan-replace-libor-will-cement-feds-role-global-central-banker.html
The main banks involved in setting these artificially derived rates were a cartel, which conspired to manipulate LIBOR and not only lied about it but also covered up the cartel and the fraud scheme that was used. This game became exposed in the aftermath of the 2008 financial crisis when the U.S. Department of Justice, the UK's Serious Fraud Office, and a host of other global regulatory bodies began to scrutinize more closely the practices of the global banking behemoths, such as UBS, HSBC and Citigroup.
... snip ...

Libor scandal
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Libor_scandal
Because Libor is used in US derivatives markets, an attempt to manipulate Libor is an attempt to manipulate US derivatives markets, and thus a violation of American law. Since mortgages, student loans, financial derivatives, and other financial products often rely on Libor as a reference rate, the manipulation of submissions used to calculate those rates can have significant negative effects on consumers and financial markets worldwide.
... snip ...

libor posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#libor

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Kabuki Dance

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Kabuki Dance
Blog: Facebook
Date: 18 Jul 2018
Kabuki Dance
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kabuki_dance

Periodically local DC news will refer to DC politics as "Kabuki" ... what you see has little to do with what is really going on, apparent conflict between political parties just distraction for public.

Major Study Finds The US Is An Oligarchy
http://www.businessinsider.com/major-study-finds-that-the-us-is-an-oligarchy-2014-4

Researchers concluded that U.S. government policies rarely align with the preferences of the majority of Americans, but do favour special interests and lobbying organizations: "When a majority of citizens disagrees with economic elites and/or with organized interests, they generally lose."

The study comes after McCutcheon v. Federal Election Commission, a controversial piece of legislation passed in the Supreme Court that abolished campaign-contribution limits, and record low approval ratings for the U.S. Congress.

kabuki posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#kabuki.theater
inequality posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#inequality

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

DEC introduces PDP-6 [was Re: IBM introduces System/360]

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: DEC introduces PDP-6 [was Re: IBM introduces System/360]
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Fri, 20 Jul 2018 14:12:28 -0700
hancock4 writes:
Timesharing in 1969:
https://books.google.com/books?id=ekMxAAAAIBAJ&lpg=PA19&dq=%22burroughs%20b5500%22&pg=PA19#v=onepage&q=%22burroughs%20b5500%22&f=false


CTSS online/interactive timesharing:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Compatible_Time-Sharing_System
By July, 1961[5] a few time sharing commands had become operational on the Computation Center's IBM 709, and in November 1961, Fernando J. Corbató demonstrated at MIT what was called the "Experimental Time-Sharing System". On May 3, 1962, F. J. Corbató, M. M. Daggett and R. C. Daley published a paper about that system at the Spring Joint Computer Conference.[6] Robert C. Daley, Peter R. Bos and at least 6 other programmers implemented the operating system, partly based on the Fortran Monitor System. The system used an IBM 7090, modified by Herbert M. Teager, with added 3 Flexowriters for user consoles, and maybe a timer.
... snip ...

The IBM 7094 and CTSS
http://multicians.org/thvv/7094.html

then some of the CTSS people went to the 5th flr to do MULTICS
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multics
Initial planning and development for Multics started in 1964, in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Originally it was a cooperative project led by MIT (Project MAC with Fernando Corbató) along with General Electric and Bell Labs. It was developed on the first GE 645 computer delivered to MIT in 1965.
... snip ...

Multics history
http://multicians.org/history.html

Multics/Unix related
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multics#Unix

Other CTSS people went to the science center on the 4th flr and did cp40/cms (using modified 360/40 with hardware virtual memory support)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/cp40seas82.txt

which morphs into cp67/cms when standard 360/67 with virtual memory becomes available
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CP/CMS

above history somewhat garbled. There was CP67 "L" floor production system at Cambridge (and I distributed/supported for other internal datacenters). There were the "H" updates to CP67 "L" ... which provided optional 370 virtual machines (new instructions and slightly different format for virtual memory tables). And there was the "I" updates to CP67 "H", which was CP67 modified to run in a 370 machine instead of 360/67 machine. CP67I was regularly running production in CP67H virtual machines a year before the first 370 engineering machine with virtual memory support was available. CP67I with San Jose updates to support 3330 disks & 2305 fixed-head drum (CP67SJ) ran production on large number of internal 370s ... well before VM370 was available.

more CP67 & science center history in Melinda Varian's paper
http://www.leeandmelindavarian.com/Melinda/25paper.pdf

in 1968, there were some science center people joined NCSS to do CP67/CMS commercial online timesharing service bureau
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_CSS

and some other science center people joined with some Lincoln Labs people to form IDC CP67/CMS commerccial online timesharing service bureau ... especially IDC quickly moved up the value stream specializing in services for the financial industry.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interactive_Data_Corporation

trivia: one of the people from the 5th flr joined IDC (out in waltham) ... and then a decade later did spreadsheet:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/VisiCalc

other 4th generation language trivia:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RAMIS_(software)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nomad_software
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FOCUS
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fourth-generation_programming_language

and vm370 commercial online service bureau
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tymshare
TYMSHARE started offering their CMS-based online computer conferencing system "free" to (IBM user group) SHARE
https://www.share.org/
in AUG1976 as VMSHARE, archives here:
http://vm.marist.edu/~vmshare
TYMSHARE on bitsavers:
http://www.bitsavers.org/pdf/tymshare/

science center posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech
commercial online/interactive timesharing posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#timeshare

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

DEC introduces PDP-6 [was Re: IBM introduces System/360]

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: DEC introduces PDP-6 [was Re: IBM introduces System/360]
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Sat, 21 Jul 2018 08:29:47 -0700
David Wade <g4ugm@dave.invalid> writes:
I believe that the model 30 sold in the thousands, a number which I find staggering.....

from
https://people.cs.clemson.edu/~mark/acs_end.html
As the quote above indicates, the ACS-1 design was very much an out-of-the-ordinary design for IBM in the latter part of the 1960s. In his book, Data Processing Technology and Economics, Montgomery Phister, Jr., reports that as of 1968:

Of the 26,000 IBM computer systems in use, 16,000 were S/360 models (that is, over 60%). [Fig. 1.311.2]

Of the general-purpose systems having the largest fraction of total installed value, the IBM S/360 Model 30 was ranked first with 12% (rising to 17% in 1969). The S/360 Model 40 was ranked second with 11% (rising to almost 15% in 1970). [Figs. 2.10.4 and 2.10.5]

Of the number of operations per second in use, the IBM S/360 Model 65 ranked first with 23%. The Univac 1108 ranked second with slightly over 14%, and the CDC 6600 ranked third with 10%. [Figs. 2.10.6 and 2.10.7]

... snip ...

previous post in thread:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#45 DEC introduces PDP-6 [was Re: IBM introduces System/360]

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

The Outsourced System Making Big Bucks off of "Zero Tolerance"

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: The Outsourced System Making Big Bucks off of "Zero Tolerance"
Blog: Facebook
Date: 22 Jul 2018
The Outsourced System Making Big Bucks off of "Zero Tolerance", The Fate of Detained Immigrants is Partly in the Hands of Companies and Nonprofits
http://www.pogo.org/our-work/articles/2018/the-outsourced-system-making-big-bucks-off-of-family-separation.html

a little drift, there was big uptic in gov. outsourcing after the turn of the century ... in part because private-equity were moving into buying up beltway bandits and gov. contractors and lobbying congress (there are laws prohibiting agencies lobbying congress and gov. contractors using funds from gov. contracts to lobby contractors ... but doesn't seem to imply to private equity owners).
http://www.motherjones.com/politics/2007/10/barbarians-capitol-private-equity-public-enemy/
Lou Gerstner, former ceo of ibm, now heads the Carlyle Group, a Washington-based global private equity firm whose 2006 revenues of $87 billion were just a few billion below ibm's. Carlyle has boasted George H.W. Bush, George W. Bush, and former Secretary of State James Baker III on its employee roster.
... snip ...

i.e. hired prominent politicians to help with lobbying congress on outsourcing ... resulting in enormous explosion in outsourcing last decade. Intelligence, 70% of budget and over half the people (including company that employs Snowden). Example, private equity owned companies are frequently under intense pressure to cut corners to pass up as much money as possible to their owners ... companies that contracted to do security clearances where found to be filling out paper work but not actually doing background checks.
http://www.investingdaily.com/17693/spies-like-us
which significantly accelerates the rapidly spreading success of failure culture (make more money from a series of failures)
http://www.govexec.com/excellence/management-matters/2007/04/the-success-of-failure/24107/

Major plank of one of the parties going into the presidential election late last decade was to reverse the enormous outsourcing that had happened earlier in the decade ... while it didn't happen, it seemed to slow down the increase.

Note industry had gotten such a bad reputation during the S&L crises, they had changed the industry name to private equity and "junk bonds" became "high-yield bonds". Business TV news segment last week on "junk bonds" ... the interviewer repeatedly said junk bonds and the banner across the bottom of the screen was junk bonds, however those interviewed constantly repeated "high yield bonds"

Pentagon to outsource all strategy to Booz Allen Hamilton (warning satire?)
https://www.duffelblog.com/2018/07/strategery-getting-outsourced/

private equity posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#private.equity
success of failure posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#success.of.failure
former AMEX president posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#gerstner
S&L crises posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#s&l.crisis

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Multimillion-dollar award against PwC is window into typically secret auditor settlements

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Multimillion-dollar award against PwC is window into typically secret auditor settlements
Blog: Facebook
Date: 23 Jul 2018
Multimillion-dollar award against PwC is window into typically secret auditor settlements; FDIC can't agree to confidential settlements, so public now knows about record $625 million award, unlike many previous deals
https://www.marketwatch.com/story/multimillion-dollar-award-against-pwc-is-window-into-typically-secret-auditor-settlements-2018-07-03

rhetoric on the floor of congress was that Sarbanes-Oxley would prevent future ENRONs and guarantee that top executives and auditors did jailtime, but it required (at least) SEC do something. Possibly because even GAO didn't believe that SEC was doing anything, it started doing reports of fraudulent financial filings, even show they increased after Sarbanes-Oxley goes into effect (and nobody doing jailtime). There was joke at the time, that SOX wouldn't actually change anything, it was actually enormous gift to the audit industry requiring extensive/expensive additional audit requirements.

Sarbanes-Oxley posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#sarbanes.oxley
ENRON posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#enron
financial reporting fraud posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#financial.reporting.fraud

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

DEC introduces PDP-6 [was Re: IBM introduces System/360]

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: DEC introduces PDP-6 [was Re: IBM introduces System/360]
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Mon, 23 Jul 2018 09:20:18 -0700
Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com> writes:
which morphs into cp67/cms when standard 360/67 with virtual memory becomes available
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CP/CMS

above history somewhat garbled. There was CP67 "L" floor production system at Cambridge (and I distributed/supported for other internal datacenters). There were the "H" updates to CP67 "L" ... which provided optional 370 virtual machines (new instructions and slightly different format for virtual memory tables). And there was the "I" updates to CP67 "H", which was CP67 modified to run in a 370 machine instead of 360/67 machine. CP67I was regularly running production in CP67H virtual machines a year before the first 370 engineering machine with virtual memory support was available. CP67I with San Jose updates to support 3330 disks & 2305 fixed-head drum (CP67SJ) ran production on large number of internal 370s ... well before VM370 was available.


re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#45 DEC introduces PDP-6 [was Re: IBM introduces System/360]

Sysadmin sank IBM mainframe by going one VM too deep; Tried to blame it on a bug, but logs don't lie
http://www.theregister.co.uk/2018/07/23/sysadmin_sank_ibm_mainframe_by_going_one_vm_too_deep/

I've heard it in the past as folklore ... but don't believe I've ever met somebody that actually did such a thing. Standard procedure wouldn't give regular users privileged permissions to production machine. Even developers wouldn't have their working user with privileged command permissions to first level machine (it would be poor policy to have regular user with permissions, sort of like giving every user root permissions in unix).

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

OT: Trump

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: OT: Trump
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Wed, 25 Jul 2018 10:39:23 -0700
Peter Flass <peter_flass@yahoo.com> writes:
My question is, why keep inventing new terminology for something that successful developers have been doing since the 1960s, at least? It succeeds in making something simple sound esoteric.

agile/scrum discovers Col. Boyd and OODA-loop, some refs

Defining an Agile delivery plan with the OODA-loop
https://cm.engineering/defining-an-agile-delivery-plan-with-the-OODA-loop-c723b21b4f1c?gi=4a2bd7f330bf
OODA-loop
http://wikispeed.org/2016/10/OODA-loop/
How does Boyd's OODA-loop compare to the discipline of agile project management?
https://www.quora.com/How-does-Boyds-OODA-loop-compare-to-the-discipline-of-agile-project-management
What Lessons Can the Agile Community Learnfrom A Maverick Fighter Pilot?
https://www.scribd.com/document/15670827/John-Boyd-Lessons-from-a-fighter-pilot
OODA: The Mindset of Scrum
http://blog.aglx.consulting/2016/02/20/OODA-the-mindset-of-scrum/
John Boyd and the Origins of "Agility"
https://smartbear.com/blog/collaborate/john-boyd-and-the-origins-of-agility/
So, what is Agile?

Agile is a set of principles and values that have come to be employed in business and computing. But their origin lies in the Korean War, in the lessons learned and taught by John Boyd.

...
Robert Greene has written that the OODA cycle was "deeply relevant to any kind of competitive environment: business, politics, sports, even the struggle of organisms to survive" (February 24, 2007). He's right, and it's important for those of us involved in agile computing and related fields to recognize it.
... snip ...

OODA-loop (Boyd, "Father of F16")
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OODA_loop

some scrum/agile will wander into boyd groups at linkedin and/or facebook. I was originally introduced to Boyd in the early 80s and would sponsor his briefings at IBM. Boyd Posts and some web URLs
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subboyd.html

trivia: The first time, I tried to do the briefings through the plant site employee education ... and initially they agreed. Then as I supplied more information, they changed their mind. They said that IBM spends a great deal of money educating managers on dealing with employees and they viewed exposing general employees to John Boyd briefings it could be detrimental. They suggested that I limit attendance at the briefings to senior members of competitive analysis departments.

... part of long winded post I made yesterday in Boyd group:

In briefings Boyd would talk about former military officers steeped in rigid, top-down, command&control ... were starting to contaminate US corporations (however, this was in period when articles started to appear that MBAs were destroying US companies with their myopic focus on short term results and financial engineering). He would also talk about periodic review of large scale war games ... admirals & generals would spend all year playing golf while their staffs practiced. When it came time for the game, the admirals&generals had no "finger reel" for war room information flow (some subsequent analysis that it was a problem with information overload and how to reduce the information flow to rate that top people could absorb and make decisions, as opposed to not sufficiently practiced). However, the corollary to information overload is decision overload ... both the appropriate information as well as the appropriate decisions. The issue of decision overload is another way approaching mission command. Boyd would talk about pushing decisions down as far as possible to the appropriate level and to the people closest to the problem.

I've periodically referenced of Boyd would sometimes appear to be thinking concurrently with both sides of his brain and carrying on simultaneously different threads in single conversation ... having to infer which sentence belonging to which thread ... in order to respond. This gets into studies about how language and vocabulary can shape/limit how people think ... and the Toyota reference that there aren't words for what they do
http://hbswk.hbs.edu/item/how-toyota-turns-workers-into-problem-solvers

Boyd had coup d'oeil and fingerspitzengefuhl with intuition and instinct ... and plausibly 1846 Halleck
https:/www.amazon.com/Elements-Instruction-Fortification-Embracing-ebook/dp/B002RKSO9K/
loc5019-20:
A rapid coup d'oeil prompt decision, active movements, are as indispensable as sound judgment; for the general must see, and decide, and act, all in the same instant.
... snip ...

So "see, decide, act" implied only single act and lacked the concept of a "mental map" which might be static. Boyd needed to impart continuous operation and also address confirmation/observation bias from a static "mental map"; needed it to be dynamically updated. So get OODA-loop ... where "see" becomes observation and "orientation" (mental map) is added to decide and act. Problem is still not sufficient; in briefings he said that needed to constantly observe from every possible facet (to constantly update "orientation", countermeasure to static "mental map" and confirmation/observation/orientation bias). Also for most people "loop" implies sequential, step-by-step and what he really needed was something that implied not only continuous operation but all parts running simultaneously and asynchronously.

Along with this is something akin to "mission command" ... transition for F16 to unstable airframe required "fly by wire" because human no longer could directly control all the operations needed in real time ... where the "stick" becomes pilot "intent" and "fly by wire" executes all the operations needed, including compensating for failed/damaged components. Again there is lack of vocabulary to convey intent being translated into large number of concurrent and asynchronous activities that can dynamically adapt.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Relaxed_stability
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fly-by-wire
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fly-by-wire#Closed_feedback_loop_control
How the F-16 Became the World's First Fly-By-Wire Combat Aircraft
http://www.f-16.net/articles_article13.html

At 2011 Naval Academy conference there was discussion of military drones completely eliminating the pilot and "intent" being provided by the "mission specialist".

So stepping back, simple example of intuition/instinct is "touch typing" versus "hunt&peck". Lots of "touch typing" teaching was done on keyboards with no letters to eliminate any "hunt&peck". As computers evolved from paper typewriters to screens, "menus" appeared. There is still lots of discussions about "command line" being equivalent to "touch typing" and menus being crutch equivalent to "hunt&peck". Boyd needed a concept/word generalization that went beyond specific actions/contexts, OODA-loop still has the deficiency that "loop" has the connotation for many of sequential, step-by-step rather than continuously, asynchronously.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fly-by-wire#Automatic_stability_systems

Also analogous to "touch typing" versus "hunt&peck", there are periodic discussions about being proficient in computer language ... analogous to proficiency in natural language ... and even going beyond where the abstraction has no direct representation. This showed up last decade in discussion between the CEO of Microsoft and SVP of Intel. M'soft CEO was telling the Intel SVP that they have to stop doing multi-core chips and return to single core (increasingly faster) chips because parallel (concurrent) programming of multiple cores was too hard. Issue is standard programming languages specify things sequentially, step-by-step ... have to step outside the straight programming language to deal efficiently with large number of simultaneously and concurrent operations. The holy grail in dataprocessing for some time has been a programming language with constructs that efficiently represent simultaneous and concurrent operations (analogous to intent of stick in fly-by-wire systems and/or intent in "mission command").

old posts reference m'soft/intel multi-core & parallel programming too hard:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007i.html#78 John W. Backus, 82, Fortran developer, dies
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008f.html#42 Panic in Multicore Land
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012e.html#15 Why do people say "the soda loop is often depicted as a simple loop"?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012j.html#44 Monopoly/ Cartons of Punch Cards
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013.html#48 New HD
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014d.html#85 Parallel programming may not be so daunting
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017e.html#52 [CM] What was your first home computer?

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

usenet history, was 1958 Crisis in education

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: usenet history, was 1958 Crisis in education
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Fri, 27 Jul 2018 09:46:11 -0700
Michael Black <mblack@pubnix.net> writes:
It was google that made the effort to find old archives. I think some of it was related to specific newsgroups, so some one or place would archive a newsgroup they thought were valuable. But I suspect yes, there wasn't an online archive going back to 1981, it was saved to tape and somehow the tape was never reused. Maybe in the early days someone did set out to archive, the traffic was low enough that someone might. But until dejanews started a public archive, usenet really was seen as "temporary". It's hard to believe that it's 22 or 23 years since dejanews came along, which is now longer than the time between the start of usenet, if we use 1981, and dejanew's arrival in 1995 or 1996.

there is TYMSHARE's
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tymshare

CMS-based online computer conferencing from the early 70s ... and started making it free to (IBM user group) SHARE as VMSHARE in AUG1976, archives now at
http://vm.marist.edu/~vmshare

I had also cut a deal with TYMSHARE to get monthly tape dump of all VMSHARE files to putting up on internal network and services (including world wide virtual machine based online sales & marketing HONE system). A major hurdle was overcoming lawyers who were afraid that employees would be contaminated with customer information.

misc. old vmshare related email
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/lhwemail.html#vmshare
archived HONE (&/or APL) related posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#hone

trivia: after MD bought TYMSHARE
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tymshare#Tymshare_sold_to_McDonnell_Douglas
VMSHARE was migrated to McGill University ... old post reference
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006w.html#42 vmshare

and corporate sponsored university BITNET (bitnet used same technology as internal network, originally from co-worder at science center)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BITNET
archived BITNET related posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#bitnet

early 90s, pagesat was doing usenet feed over satellite. I got "free" feed for doing ms/dos and unix drivers (also co-authored article for boardwatch magazine) ... original feed was 9.6kbit ... but image files on usenet was increasing and they doubled feed to 19.2kbit. Old picture
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/pagesat.jpg

pagesat dish

pagesat usenet feed discussion group
https://groups.google.com/forum/#!forum/biz.pagesat

past posts mentioning boardwatch article
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000.html#38 Vanishing Posts...
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000e.html#39 I'll Be! Al Gore DID Invent the Internet After All ! NOT
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001h.html#66 UUCP email
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005l.html#16 Newsgroups (Was Another OS/390 to z/OS 1.4 migration
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006m.html#11 An Out-of-the-Main Activity
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007n.html#17 What if phone company had developed Internet?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007p.html#16 Newsweek article--baby boomers and computers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008m.html#19 IBM-MAIN longevity
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009j.html#19 Another one bites the dust
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009p.html#84 Anyone going to Supercomputers '09 in Portland?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009r.html#74 bulletin board
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010c.html#75 Posts missing from ibm-main on google groups
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012b.html#92 The PC industry is heading for collapse
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013l.html#26 Anyone here run UUCP?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014b.html#67 Royal Pardon For Turing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014e.html#38 Before the Internet: The golden age of online services
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015d.html#57 email security re: hotmail.com
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015h.html#109 25 Years: How the Web began
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016g.html#59 The Forgotten World of BBS Door Games - Slideshow from PCMag.com
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#21 Pre-internet email and usenet (was Re: How to choose the best news server for this newsgroup in 40tude Dialog?)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017g.html#51 Stopping the Internet of noise
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017h.html#110 private thread drift--Re: Demolishing the Tile Turtle

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

The ABCs of Hacking a Voting Machine

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: The ABCs of Hacking a Voting Machine
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Sun, 29 Jul 2018 10:04:54 -0700
The ABCs of Hacking a Voting Machine
https://www.darkreading.com/iot/the-abcs-of-hacking-a-voting-machine/d/d-id/1332386
A hacker who successfully infiltrated a voting machine at last year's DEF CON will demonstrate at Black Hat USA how he did it, as well as what he later found stored on other decommissioned WinVote machines.
... snip ...

The Myth of the Hacker-Proof Voting Machine
https://www.nytimes.com/2018/02/21/magazine/the-myth-of-the-hacker-proof-voting-machine.html
Remote-access software is a type of program that system administrators use to access and control computers remotely over the internet or over an organization's internal network. Election systems are supposed to be air-gapped -- disconnected from the internet and from other machines that might be connected to the internet. The presence of the software suggested this wasn't the case with the Venango machine, which made the system vulnerable to hackers. Anyone who gained remote access to the system could use the software to take control of the machine. Logs showed the software was installed two years earlier and used multiple times, most notably for 80 minutes on November 1, 2010, the night before a federal election.
... snip ...

Hackers break into voting machines within 2 hours at Defcon
https://www.cbsnews.com/news/hackers-break-into-voting-machines-defcon-las-vegas/
"It's really just a matter of plugging your USB drive in for five seconds and the thing's completely compromised at that point," Synack co-founder Jay Kaplan told CNET. "To the point where you can get remote access. It's very simple."
... snip ...

2005, Hardware Hacking a Voting Machine in 4 Minutes
https://slashdot.org/story/06/09/05/160251/hardware-hacking-a-voting-machine-in-4-minutes

from 2006, Major Vulnerability Found in Diebold Election Machines
https://www.schneier.com/blog/archives/2006/05/election_machin_1.html
Report Claims Very Serious Diebold Voting Machine Flaws
https://freedom-to-tinker.com/2006/05/11/report-claims-very-serious-diebold-voting-machine-flaws/

common for companies to sue blocking hacking public presentations/publication of their systems

Federal Judge in DefCon Case Equates Speech with Hacking
https://www.wired.com/2008/08/eff-to-appeal-r/

old posts mentioning denial-of-service, remote access dial-up HVAC system vulnerability, one case took out datacenter that typically originates 1/3rd NYSE transactions (aka turned of datacenter cooling) ... now lots of control system remote access have moved to intrenet
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013h.html#20 How about the old mainframe error messages that actually give you a clue about what's broken
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015e.html#50 old amiga HVAC
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016f.html#88 Why the cloud is bad news for Cisco, Dell, and HP
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#15 The Pentagon still uses computer software from 1958 to manage its contracts

war dialing, finding systems with modems to attack
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/War_dialing

other old posts mentioning war dialing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002b.html#38 "war-dialing" etymology?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002b.html#41 "war-dialing" etymology?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005c.html#48 [Lit.] Buffer overruns
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008m.html#73 Blinkylights
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010n.html#76 Mainframe hacking?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012g.html#50 Cartons of Punch Cards
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012g.html#52 Wardialing statistics( was: "Cartons of Punch Cards" )
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012g.html#62 Caches, was Wardialing statistics(
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015c.html#100 On a lighter note, even the Holograms are demonstrating
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016f.html#88 Why the cloud is bad news for Cisco, Dell, and HP

current varient: Wardriving
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wardriving

other refs:

Phone hacking
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phone_hacking
Remote access tool
https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Remote_access_tool
Cracking of wireless networks
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cracking_of_wireless_networks

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Updated Green Card

From: lynn@GARLIC.COM (Anne & Lynn Wheeler)
Subject: Re: Updated Green Card
Newsgroups: bit.listserv.ibm-main
Date: 29 Jul 2018 12:43:22 -0700
internally, somebody did a online "green card" ... using CMS IOS3270. I provided person with section from the 360/67 "blue card" which included device sense information. More recently I did a Q&D conversion from IOS3270 to HTML
http://wwww.garlic.com/~lynn/gcard.html

some trivia drift:

image of 360/67 blue card and vmshare users guide

67 'blue card' & vmshare card
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/folds.jpg

blue card I got from one of the people that invented GML at the science center in 1969 (G, M, L chosen for the inventors last name). I included more recent 3380 and A220 in the sense information (A220 was channel-extender, I had originally done A220 support for STL who were moving 300 people from the IMS group to offsite bldg with services back into the STL datacenter).

channel-extender posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#channel.extender
science center posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech
GML/SGML/HTML posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#sgml

in Aug1976, TYMSHARE offered its CMS-based online computer conferencing system free to SHARE as "VMSHARE", archives here
http://vm.marist.edu/~vmshare

a decade later, vmshare moved to McGill univ. & BITNET after M/D bought TYMSHARE (ibm-main originated on BITNET later part of the 80s).

BITNET posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#bitnet

I had early on cut a deal with TYMSHARE where they sent me monthly tape of all VMSHARE files for putting up on internal network and systems (including world-wide online sales&marketing support HONE system). The biggest problem I had was with IBM lawyers who were concerned that IBM employees would be contaminated with customer information.

internal network posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#internalnet
HONE posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#hone

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Tachyum Prodigy: performance from architecture

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Tachyum Prodigy: performance from architecture
Newsgroups: comp.arch
Date: Mon, 30 Jul 2018 18:39:19 -0700
MitchAlsup <MitchAlsup@aol.com> writes:
In fact, this was the original Mantra for RISC.

Time period 1981-ish, x86 (maybe even 286) and 68000 were out and it was currently impossible to fit a 32-bit CPU on a single die--therefore micro- code was used to sequence multiplicity of operands to make it appear that a 32-bit instruction had been performed. Microcode was <maybe> 1/2 of the die area. So RISC was born out of the inability of getting good perf out of current architectures. Simplicity was key to getting a whole CPU on a single die.


I've periodically commented that "father of risc" (John Cocke) was doing 801/RISC in the mid-70s as the opposite complexity to the failing/failed Future System project.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM_801

Circa 1980 there was an effort to transition large number of internal microprocessors (follow-on to low/mid range 370s, i.e. 4361/4381 followon to 4331/4341, controllers, AS/400 followon to S/38, etc) ... mostly Iliad chips, For various reasons the efforts floundered and things returned to custom CISC (although resurfaced later half 80s). Some number of engineers left to work on risc at other vendors.

Los Gatos Lab was doing "Blue Iliad" in the early 80s ... first 32-bit, really big and running hot (never finished). One of the people that resigned to go work on snake at HP ... spent his last two IBM weeks trying to help cleanup "blue iliad".

ROMP chip that was going to be the followon for the displaywriter (eventually retargeted for unix workstations, PC/RT)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ROMP
http://domino.watson.ibm.com/tchjr/journalindex.nsf/0/f6570ad450831a2485256bfa00685bda?OpenDocument

Then RIOS with RS/6000.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/POWER1

801, risc, iliad, rios, romp, power, etc
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#801

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

usenet history, was 1958 Crisis in education

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: usenet history, was 1958 Crisis in education
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Fri, 03 Aug 2018 13:06:08 -0700
John Levine <johnl@taugh.com> writes:
It definitely happened, I knew the guy who made the tapes. It was a government agency that didn't want any live connections between their computers and the outside. The tapes probably slowed things down by a few days but in that era it wasn't a big deal.

similar to tapes I was getting for VMSHARE computer conferencing from TYMSAHRE (from aug1976), i've mentioned the biggest problem I had was with IBM lawyers afraid that IBM employees would be contaminated by customer information ... VMSHARE archive
http://vm.marist.edu/~vmshare

but the pagesat (one-way satellite broadcast receive-only) USENET feed that I did the unix & ms/dos drivers for their receive-only modem ... which was purely one-way and wouldn't be "live". pc needed to have 16550 UART
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/16550_UART

recent ref:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#51 usenet history, was 1958 Crisis in education

in the late 70 & early 80s, I had been blamed for online computer conferencing on the internal network (larger than arpanet/internet from just about the beginning until sometime mid=80s). Folklore is that when corporate executive committee was told about online computer conferencing (and the internal network), 5of6 wanted to fire me.

One of the outcomes was official computer conferencing application (recipients could choose between mailing list type of operation or usenet "server" type of operation) and corporate officially sanctioned and moderated newsgroups.

bitnet was corporate sponsored university network using similar technology that was used for internal network (originated at cambridge science center).
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BITNET

the original bitnet listserv was done 1984 ... effectively, just the mailing list part of the internal IBM application (TOOLSRUN)

somebody that had spent sabbatical from IBM france at the science cneter ... then is transferred to Paris and tasked with doing EARN (bitnet in europe) then sent me this email ... looking for online/network-oriented applications.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001h.html#email840320

the current (earn/bitnet) listserv was then done in Paris in 1986
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LISTSERV
http://www.lsoft.com/products/listserv-history.asp
http://www.slate.com/articles/technology/technology/2010/08/the_joy_of_listservs.html

internal network posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#internalnet
bitnet posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#bitnet
science center posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech

total topic drift, the listserv slate article for some reason references this article by James Fallows
https://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2010/07/on-todays-hot-media-stories-sherrod-journolist/60210/

who happened to have written numerous articles about Boyd and the military reform movement ... Boyd posts & web URLs
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subboyd.html

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

NATO is a Goldmine for the US/Military Industrial Complex

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: NATO is a Goldmine for the US/Military Industrial Complex
Blog: Facebook
Date: 04 Aug 2018
NATO is a Goldmine for the US/Military Industrial Complex
https://www.counterpunch.org/2018/08/03/nato-is-a-goldmine-for-the-us-military-industrial-complex/
Even Radio Free Europe, the US government's official broadcaster, acknowledged that "Russia, one of the world's top military spenders, reduced its defense budget by 20 percent in 2016-2017 to $55.3 billion" compared, for example, to the $56.3 billion of France. As SIPRI records, "together, the European NATO members spent over 4 times more on the military in 2017 than Russia," and Nato Watch summed it up by pointing out that the 29 US-NATO countries "collectively spent over 12 times more on the military in 2016 than Russia."
... snip ...

I was introduced to John Boyd in the early 80s, would sponsor his briefings and got to know him pretty well ... we have Boyd-themed meetings at Marine Corps Univ.

40 years of the "fighter mafia" (we went back last December for weds night get together)
https://www.theamericanconservative.com/articles/40-years-of-the-fighter-mafia/
John Boyd's Art of War; Why our greatest military theorist only made colonel.
http://www.theamericanconservative.com/articles/john-boyds-art-of-war/
Here too Boyd had a favorite line. He often said, 'It is not true the Pentagon has no strategy. It has a strategy, and once you understand what that strategy is, everything the Pentagon does makes sense. The strategy is, don't interrupt the money flow, add to it.'
...snip ...

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Boyd_(military_strategist)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OODA_Loop
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Energy%E2%80%93maneuverability_theory
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Patterns_of_Conflict
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lightweight_Fighter_program
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/General_Dynamics_F-16_Fighting_Falcon
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/McDonnell_Douglas_F/A-18_Hornet
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/General_Dynamics_F-16_Fighting_Falcon#Negative_stability_and_fly-by-wire
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fighter_Mafia

In Eisenhower's goodby speech he warned about the military-industrial complex ... US public corporations have myopic short-term focus on results ... every quarter better than the last quarter ... including public military-industrial complex corporations ... even when there is up and down with world conflicts, fabricating excuses to have constantly increasing financial results. Even though Iraq had nothing to do with Al-Qaeda, MIC switched to fabricated WMDs. MIC wanted the invasion so badly that corporate representatives were telling former soviet block countries if they voted for the invasion in UN, they would get NATO membership and directed appropriations USAID (can only spent on US military weapons, scheme that congress has to funnel money to MIC outside DOD budget).
https:/www.amazon.com/Prophets-War-Lockheed-Military-Industrial-ebook/dp/B0047T86BA/

Start of century, White House Chief of Staff Card's cousin was dealing with Iraq in the UN and given proof that the WMDs (tracing back to US in the Iran/Iraq war) were decommissioned. The cousin provided the information to White House, but was then locked up in military hospital. Eventually got out and wrote a book about the decommissioned WMDs published in 2010:
https:/www.amazon.com/EXTREME-PREJUDICE-Terrifying-Story-Patriot-ebook/dp/B004HYHBK2/

It turns out the decommissioned WMDs were found early in the invasion, but the information was kept classified until fall of 2014 (4yrs after Card cousin's book was published)
http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2014/10/14/world/middleeast/us-casualties-of-iraq-chemical-weapons.html

US support Iraq in the iran/iraq war
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iran%E2%80%93Iraq_War
including supplying WMDs
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_support_for_Iraq_during_the_Iran%E2%80%93Iraq_war

CIA director Colby refuses to approve "Team B" analysis greatly exaggerates Russian military capability, justifying huge US military funding increase.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Team_B

White House Chief of Staff Rumsfeld replaces Colby with somebody (Bush1) that will agree with "Team B" analysis. Rumsfeld then resigns to become SECDEF (and is replaced by his assistant Cheney). In the 80s, Bush1 is VP and Rumsfeld is involved in supporting Iraq. In the early 90s, Bush1 is president and Cheney is SECDEF. Sat. photo recon analyst told white house that saddam was marshaling forces to invade Kuwait. White house said that saddam would do no such thing and proceeded to discredit the analyst. Later the analyst informed the white house that saddam was marshaling forces to invade Saudi Arabia, now the white house has to choose between saddam and the Saudis.
https:/www.amazon.com/Long-Strange-Journey-Intelligence-ebook/dp/B004NNV5H2/

This century, Bush2 is president, Cheney is VP, Rumsfeld is SECDEF and one of the "Team B" members is deputy SECDEF (and major architect of Iraq policy).
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul_Wolfowitz

Iraq and weapons of mass destruction
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iraq_and_weapons_of_mass_destruction

Actor playing TV House, wrote a novel that references Boyd and some of the lengths that MIC will go to keeping up the flow of money
https://www.amazon.com/Gun-Seller-Hugh-Laurie-ebook/dp/B000SEGK0M/

Boyd posts and WEB URLs
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subboyd.html
WMD posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#wmds
"Team B" posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#team.b
military-industrial(-congressional) complex posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#military.industrial.complex

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

NATO is a Goldmine for the US/Military Industrial Complex

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: NATO is a Goldmine for the US/Military Industrial Complex
Blog: Facebook
Date: 04 Aug 2018
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#56 NATO is a Goldmine for the US/Military Industrial Complex

Boyd is credited with Desert Storm-1 battle plan, including the left hook cutting off the republican guard retreat. There have been all sort of excuses why the Abrams weren't in position to cut off the retreat. Another possible is that Boyd took the Abrams specs at face value ... but failed to take into account Abrams being so strongly tethered to maint&supply.

other trivia: DS-1 lasted 42 days, but only the last 100 hrs were land war https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gulf_War GAO Air Effectiveness study had A10s taking out Iraqi tanks so easily that the crews were walking away from them ("sitting ducks"). Later description of fierce tank battles with coalition forces taking no damage, don't menion if the Iraqi tanks had anybody home.
http://www.gao.gov/products/NSIAD-97-134
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gulf_War_air_campaign

Burton (Boyd "acolyte", member of 1st USAF academy class on his fast track to general when he says Boyd destroyed his career by challenging him to do what is right) has account of getting A10 30mm DU shells down from nearly $100 to $13, DS-1 million 30mm DU shells total $13M ... about the most cost effective part of DS-1 (also significantly improving Bradley)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Pentagon_Wars
Corrupt From Top to Bottom
https://www.nytimes.com/1993/10/03/books/corrupt-from-top-to-bottom.html

Boyd posts and WEB URLs
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subboyd.html
military-industrial(-congressional) complex posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#military.industrial.complex

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Watch Your Debit and Credit Cards: Thieves Get Craftier With Skimmers

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Watch Your Debit and Credit Cards: Thieves Get Craftier With Skimmers
Blog: Facebook
Date: 04 Aug 2018
Watch Your Debit and Credit Cards: Thieves Get Craftier With Skimmers; New 'shimmers' steal data from chip cards
https://www.consumerreports.org/scams-fraud/thieves-get-craftier-with-skimmers-debit-cards-credit-cards/

1997 IBM worked with card associations for point-of-sale pilot chipcard deployment in the UK. Then 2000, there was a very large pilot deployment of the chipcard on the US east coast. However, this was in the "yes card" vulnerability ... the same point-of-sale exploit that copied magstripe information was used to copy chipcard information ... and effectively it was nearly as trivial to make a counterfeit ("yes card") chipcard as counterfeit magstripe. However, counterfeit magstripe countermeasure was to deactivate the account ... which wouldn't work with the counterfeit chipcard. A counterfeit chipcard always answered "YES" to POS terminal questions 1) was it the correct PIN, 2) do an offline transaction, and 3) is transaction within credit limit (aka regardless what PIN was entered it accepted as correct; always do offline transaction so deactivating account had no effect; and always approve the transaction).

No matter how many times I explained the problems to the people responsible for the US pilot, they went ahead and did it anyway. It wasn't until they actually saw it in action that they pulled back. Then all evidence of the pilot evaporated and it was said that it would be a long time before it was tried again (letting the kinks & exploits be worked out in other parts of the world) ... aka 15 or so yrs before saw again in the US. Actual YES CARD instances were explained at 2003 ATM Integrity Taskforce meeting by federal LEO ... prompting somebody in the audiences to loudly exclaim that they managed to spend billions of dollars to prove that chipcards have more fraud than magstripe (in part, because you couldn't stop the fraud by turning off the account).

YES CARD reference at the bottom of this 2002 cartes trip report
http://web.archive.org/web/20030417083810/http://www.smartcard.co.uk/resources/articles/cartes2002.html
YES CARD posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subintegrity.html#yescard

disclaimer: I did a chip in the late 90s, that had *NONE* of the vulnerabilities of the chips used by card associations ... including skimmed information couldn't be used for fraudulent transactions.

AADS & chipcard reference
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/x959.html#aads

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Excess Management Is Costing the U.S. $3 Trillion Per Year

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Excess Management Is Costing the U.S. $3 Trillion Per Year
Blog: Facebook
Date: 06 Aug 2018
Excess Management Is Costing the U.S. $3 Trillion Per Year
https://hbr.org/2016/09/excess-management-is-costing-the-us-3-trillion-per-year

In the late 70s & early 80s, I was blamed for online computer conferencing on the internal network. Folklore is that when corporate executive committee was told about online computer conferencing (and the internal network), 5of6 wanted to fire me. There was collection of examples of troubled projects that executives would throw significant more people at ... increasing their empire (executive compensation proportional to the empire size) ... then large numbers of middle management and staffs for quality control ... government regulation somewhat obfuscation and misdirection (compared to other factors) ... but what the heck, anything that would increase the empire size.

online computer conferencing postings
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#cmc
internetal network posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#internalnet

The current version (in government) is private-equity buying up gov. contractors and lobbying congress for outsourcing ... including former AMEX president went to head up after leaving IBM (including buying company that will employ Snowden)
http://www.motherjones.com/politics/2007/10/barbarians-capitol-private-equity-public-enemy/
Lou Gerstner, former ceo of ibm, now heads the Carlyle Group, a Washington-based global private equity firm whose 2006 revenues of $87 billion were just a few billion below ibm's. Carlyle has boasted George H.W. Bush, George W. Bush, and former Secretary of State James Baker III on its employee roster.
... snip ...

prominent politicians helping with lobbying congress. Last decade, just intelligence, 70% of the budget and over half the people.
http://www.investingdaily.com/17693/spies-like-us
heavily accelerating the success of failure culture ... make more money off a series of failures
http://www.govexec.com/excellence/management-matters/2007/04/the-success-of-failure/24107/

private-equity posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#private.equity
success of failure posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#success.of.failure

in the congressional hearings into the major role that the rating agencies played in the economic mess last decade, they had testimony 1) that the rating agencies were selling "triple-A" on things that they knew weren't worth triple-A ... and 2) that the rating agencies' business model became misaligned when they switched from buyers paying for the ratings to the sellers paying for the ratings (once sellers were paying, agency interests were aligned with the sellers, even though the ratings were supposedly for the benefit for the buyers) .... and it is much harder to regulate an industry when they are incented to do the wrong thing. The triple-A on securitized "liar loans" largely enabled doing over $27T 2001-2008, including being able to sell to entities restricted to only dealing in "safe" investments (like large pension funds). Recent item on liar loans by banksters last decade
http://neweconomicperspectives.org/2018/08/bank-whistleblowers-united-told-doj-to-use-4506-t-as-kryptonite-v-banksters.html

economic mess posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#economic.mess
triple-A rated (toxic) CDOs posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#toxic.cdo

disclaimer: 1999 I was asked to help try and prevent the coming economic mess (we failed), I was given tutorials on lots of what went on in the 80s S&L crises and who was manipulating IPO mills in the late 90s Internet bubble ... and what to expect after the bubble implodes and what they would get into next.

S&L crises posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#s&l.crisis

The rhetoric on the floor of congress was that Sarbanes-Oxley would prevent future ENRONs and guarantee that executives and auditors did jail time, however it required SEC to do something. Possibly because even GAO doesn't believe SEC was doing anything, it started doing reports of public company fraudulent financial filings, even showing they increased after SOX went into effect (and nobody doing jailtime). Joke was that the more expensive SOX audits wouldn't change anything, just purely a huge gift to the audit industry. Late 2004, there was conferencing in Europe for EU CEOs on how SOX (audit requirements) was starting to contaminate European businesses, where I gave a talk on SOX was a farce. Less well known is that SOX also contained a provision that SEC do something about the rating agencies, but they did about as much about the rating agencies as they did about public company fraudulent financial filings.

ENRON posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#enron
Sarbanes-Oxley posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#sarbanes-oxley
Financial Reporting Fraud posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#financial.reporting.fraud

In the congressional Madoff hearings, they had the person that had tried unsuccessfully for a decade to get SEC to do something about Madoff (SEC hands were finally force when Madoff turned himself in). Congress asked him if new regulations were needed. He said that while new regulations might be needed, much more important was transparency and visibility (plausibly because SEC wasn't doing anything using existing regulations). He also pointed out that tips/whistleblowers turn up 13 times more fraud than audits.
https://www.nakedcapitalism.com/2018/08/wall-street-journal-parrots-secs-excuses-big-delays-whistleblower-payouts.html

madoff posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#madoff
whistleblower posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#whistleblower

disclaimer: mid-90s I was involved in doing financial industry standard and one of the people was from NSCC (before merger with DTC to form DTCC) who asked me about doing secure standard for trading floor transactions. I work on it for awhile and then get a call that it was suspended. A side-effect of the secure standard would have been greatly increased transparency and visibility (mentioned later in Madoff hearings) which was anathema to wallstreet culture.

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Excess Management Is Costing the U.S. $3 Trillion Per Year

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Excess Management Is Costing the U.S. $3 Trillion Per Year
Blog: Facebook
Date: 06 Aug 2018
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#59 Excess Management Is Costing the U.S. $3 Trillion Per Year

2000 I was asked to review a periodic financial industry publication that compared stats for thousands of different measures for the avg. of ten national banks against 20 regional banks. This was after Glass-Steagall had been repealed but before too-big-to-fail was really kicking in. It turns out that the stats for the regional banks were more efficient and profitable than the national banks (having exceed some organizational optimal size). Supposedly wallstreet had pumped something like $240M into congress for GLBA (which included repeal of Glass-Steagall) ... a highly likely explanation was that top executives wanted larger organizations purely because of compensation proportional to organization size (not that it benefited anybody else).

Glass-Steagall posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#Pecora&/orGlass-Steagall

IBM had 14 levels of management for approx. 450,000. Theoretical "span of control" 7 people per level, seven levels for 800K. What was worse is that when IBM created SBS with 2000 people, it also had 14 levels of management (half the employees were director or above). The last year SBS claimed there was a moral problem so they sent 200 (sales & spouses) to the zero percent club in hawaii.

Article talks about EU having better than twice the span of control than US.

I was introduced to Boyd in the early 80s and would sponsor his briefings at IBM ... in his briefings he would observe that US corporations were being contaminated with former military officers from WW2 with their rigid, top-down, command&control ... which evolved into only those at the very top knew what they were doing ... and needed a large bureaucracy to enforce their control. He contrasted the WW2 German military with three percent officers and US with 11% officers growing to 20%. However, about the same there were articles about MBAs were starting to destroy US corporations with their myopic focus on short term results and financial engineer. To counteract the increasing bureaucracy part of rigid, top-down, command&control ... Boyd repeatedly stressed pushing decisions to the lowest possible level with the people closest to the problem.

Boyd posts & URLs
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subboyd.html

How Toyota Turns Workers Into Problem Solvers
http://hbswk.hbs.edu/item/how-toyota-turns-workers-into-problem-solvers
To paraphrase one of our contacts, he said, "It's not that we don't want to tell you what TPS is, it's that we can't. We don't have adequate words for it. But, we can show you what TPS is."

We've observed that Toyota, its best suppliers, and other companies that have learned well from Toyota can confidently distribute a tremendous amount of responsibility to the people who actually do the work, from the most senior, experienced member of the organization to the most junior. This is accomplished because of the tremendous emphasis on teaching everyone how to be a skillful problem solver.

... snip ...

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Canada's Telephone network, 1938 [ping Michael]

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Canada's Telephone network, 1938  [ping Michael]
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Wed, 08 Aug 2018 14:23:21 -0700
hancock4 writes:
The following is a link to a 25 page special section of The Financial Post, a detailed series of articles and ads describing Canada's telephone system (local and long distance, and manufacturing) in 1938. Very interesting.

https://books.google.com/books?id=umg_AAAAIBAJ&lpg=PA22&dq=%22stromberg%20carlson%22%20telephone&pg=PA15#v=onepage&q&f=false


Bell Northern Research
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bell-Northern_Research

was first datacenter (70s, toronto?) I visited that had finger length biometric authentication for entering machine room ... total random past posts that happen to mention BNR
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002i.html#32 IBM was: CDC6600 - just how powerful a machine was it?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003g.html#22 303x, idals, dat, disk head settle, and other rambling folklore
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006u.html#60 Why these original FORTRAN quirks?

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

The big flaw: auditing in crisis

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: The big flaw: auditing in crisis
Blog: Facebook
Date: 08 Aug 2018
The big flaw: auditing in crisis
https://www.ft.com/content/29ccd60a-85c8-11e8-a29d-73e3d454535d

Multimillion-dollar award against PwC is window into typically secret auditor settlements; FDIC can't agree to confidential settlements, so public now knows about record $625 million award, unlike many previous deals
https://www.marketwatch.com/story/multimillion-dollar-award-against-pwc-is-window-into-typically-secret-auditor-settlements-2018-07-03

rhetoric on the floor of congress was that Sarbanes-Oxley would prevent future ENRONs and guarantee that top executives and auditors did jailtime, but it required (at least) SEC do something. Possibly because even GAO didn't believe that SEC was doing anything, it started doing reports of fraudulent financial filings, even show they increased after Sarbanes-Oxley goes into effect (and nobody doing jailtime). There was joke at the time, that Sarbanes-Oxley wouldn't actually change anything, it was actually enormous gift to the audit industry requiring extensive/expensive additional audit requirements. Middle of last decade at a EU conference of CEOs on how Sarbanes-Oxley was starting to contaminate EU companies I talked about how Sarbanes-Oxley wasn't actually changing anything.

Sarbanes-Oxley posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#sarbanes.oxley
ENRON posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#enron
financial reporting fraud posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#financial.reporting.fraud

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

EBCDIC Bad History

From: lynn@GARLIC.COM (Anne & Lynn Wheeler)
Subject: Re: EBCDIC Bad History
Newsgroups: bit.listserv.ibm-main
Date: Thu, 09 Aug 2018 12:06:41 -0700
0000000433f07816-dmarc-request@LISTSERV.UA.EDU (Paul Gilmartin) writes:
About 40 years ago, IBM considered Pascal essential: bitsavers.org/pdf/ibm/370/pascal/SH20-6168-1_VS_PASCAL_Dec81.pdf Pascal/VS uses square brackets, '[' and ']', in the declaration of arrays. Because these symbols are not directly available on many I/O devices, the symbols '(.' and '.)' may be used as an equivalent to square brackets.

I believe the original VM TCP/IP stack (a user developed product) was written in Pascal.


IBM 360 mainframe was originally suppose to be ASCII machine ... but then the "biggest computer goof ever" ... article by the IBM father of ASCII ... he has passed and his website gone 404, but lives on at the wayback machine
https://web.archive.org/web/20180513184025/http://www.bobbemer.com/P-BIT.HTM
more of his historical refs
https://web.archive.org/web/20180513184025/http://www.bobbemer.com/HISTORY.HTM

a couple recents posts on the subject
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018d.html#15 Has Microsoft commuted suicide
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018d.html#22 The Rise and Fall of IBM

IBM's mainframe pascal was implemented by two people at the IBM Los Gatos VLSI lab using MetaWare's TWS (LSG had used TWS for a number of things before doing Pascal), originally purpose for implementing internal VLSI design tools.

One of the implementors then left IBM to do a 3270 clone controller startup ... with lots of interactive functions in the controller to compensate for the horrible TSO interactive human factors ... the IBM/PC then appeared ... IBM/PC with 3270 terminal emulation could do better job and obsoleted their product ... he went on to be VP of software at MIPS and then head of SUN business unit responsible for JAVA.

Later I was trying to talk the other person into doing C-language front-end for the mainframe Pascal backend ... to support the IBM Palo Alto effort to port Berkeley BSD unix to the mainframe. He then left IBM to join Metaware and IBM contracted with Metaware to do the IBM C-compiler. Palo Alto was then directed to change the BSD port from mainframe to PC/RT ... which also used Metaware's C-compiler and shipped as AOS for PC/RT (alternative to AIX, mostly sold into academic market).
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berkeley_Software_Distribution

IBM Palo Alto was also working with UCLA to port their unix work-alike LOCUS to mainframe and IBM/PC ... this shipped as AIX/370 & AIX/386 (completely different than the AWD workstation AIX which was an AT&T base, originally port for PC/RT AIX done by the same company that had done PC/IX for the IBM/PC.)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LOCUS_(operating_system)

There were big fights with IBM communication group trying to get TCP/IP (implemented in Pascal) announced as IBM product (part of their battles against distributed computing and client server, trying to preserve SNA dumb terminal paradigm and install base). Then they switched their approach and claimed that if TCP/IP shipped, it had to be done through the communication group. What came out then used full 3090 processor to get 44kbytes/sec.

I then did the enhancements to support RFC1044 and in some tuning tests at Cray Research between 4341 and Cray, got sustained channel speed throughput using only modest amount of 4341 (something like 500 times improvement in bytes moved per instruction executed). past posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#rfc1044

trivia: later the communication group hired an outside contractor to do TCP/IP implementation in VTAM. He demonstrated implementation that ran much faster than LU6.2. He was then told that everybody knows that a "correct" TCP/IP implementation is much slower than LU6.2 and they would only be paying for a "correct" implementation.

from long ago and far away

IBM 360 mainframe was originally suppose to be ASCII machine ... but then the "biggest computer goof ever" ... article by the IBM father of ASCII ... he has passed and his website gone 404, but lives on at the wayback machine
https://web.archive.org/web/20180513184025/http://www.bobbemer.com/P-BIT.HTM
more of his historical refs
https://web.archive.org/web/20180513184025/http://www.bobbemer.com/HISTORY.HTM

a couple recents posts on the subject
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018d.html#15 Has Microsoft commuted suicide
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018d.html#22 The Rise and Fall of IBM

from long ago and far away

03/22/83 09:01:53
To: distribution

APPLICANT SEMINAR

Tuesday, March 22, 1983

10:00 a.m. - Auditorium A

NETWORK PROTOCOLS IN A VM ENVIRONMENT

The joint study between IBM and the University of Wisconsin involves implementation of the DARPA transport/internet (TCP, IP) and application (FTP, SMTP, TELNET) protocols. The project will enable sites running the IBM VM operating system to communicate with other CSNET sites via the Telenet network. In addition, the protocols can be used to connect VM systems to Arpanet and a variety of local networks. This talk will discuss design, performance, and tuning issues encountered in the course of designing and implementing the protocol architecture in the VM environment.

Ed Wimmers University of Wisconsin

... snip ... top of post, old email index

SJR had first IBM CSNET gateway with UDel in the fall of 1982, old ref
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/98.html#email821022
more udel gateway news about great conversion from IMPs/host protocol to internetworking protocol on 1jan1983
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000e.html#email821230
and the change-over didn't go as smoothly as planned
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000e.html#email830202

other trivia: CSNET was NSF sponsored network
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CSNET
separate/different from the corporate sponsored "BITNET" (also where this ibm-main originated)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BITNET
bitnet & earn (bitnet in europe) posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#bitnet
trivia: listserv originated on bitnet,
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LISTSERV
and current "new" listserv originated in Paris on EARN in 1986
http://www.lsoft.com/corporate/history-listserv.asp

bitnet used similar technology to the internal network ... both were larger than the arpanet/internet for a time in the first part of the 80s (actually the internal network was larger than arpanet/internet from just about the beginning until sometime mid-80s).

An issue with the bitnet wiki reference is that RSCS had its own driver that was much more efficient and throughput than NJE ... JES2 NJE implementation had been intertwined with its job scheduling functions ... it was further notorious than JES2 NJE at different release/version would bring down the host MVS system (in part slight changes in the position of NJE fields would bring down JES2 and the whole Mvs system). For the internal network, they also did a RSCS driver than similated NJE so that MVS systems could be connected into the internal network ... but because of the significant problems those MVS/JES2 systems were kept to boundary nodes to minimize the adverse effects they would have on the rest of the network. However, eventually company stopped shipping the native RSCS drivers so that even RSCS to RSCS had to use the NJE driver (although the internal network continued to use the native RSCS drivers because they had much higher throughput). internal network posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#internalnet
HASP, JES, NJE/NJI, etc posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#hasp

The original NJE source had the identifier "TUCC" in cols 68-71 from the original university HASP implementation. One of the other major problems (besides intermixing NJE & JES job control fields in the header crashing MVS when different release levels were exchanging traffic) was they used spare entries in the 255-entry hasp psuedo device table for network node definitions ... typically only 160-180 entries available ... and would discard incoming/outgoing traffic for nodes not in the table ... when the internal network was growing from 200 to over 1000 nodes (another reason for restricting MVS to boundary nodes, to minimize randomly discarding traffic)

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Mystery of the Underpaid American Worker

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Mystery of the Underpaid American Worker
Blog: Facebook
Date: 09 Aug 2018
Mystery of the Underpaid American Worker
https://www.counterpunch.org/2018/08/09/mystery-of-the-underpaid-american-worker/
The only real mystery is why the economics profession in the US, and the financial journalism field, are so blind to the answer.
... snip ...

inequality posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#inequality

other recent posts

The Koch Brothers Commissioned a Survey of Americans and Found Most Like a $15 Minimum Wage, Free College, and Universal Health Care
https://theintercept.com/2018/08/09/koch-brothers-health-care-free-college/
Koch-Backed Think Tank Finds That "Medicare for All" Would Cut Health Care Spending and Raise Wages. Whoops.
https://theintercept.com/2018/07/30/medicare-for-all-cost-health-care-wages/
Study: 'Medicare for all' projected to cost $32.6 trillion
https://apnews.com/09e06d686a1a481fa76e3fd91f3fcbc2
The study found U.S. health care spending under Sanders' plan would drop over time - about $300 billion lower in 2031.

However, it also found that potential savings would vanish if hospitals and doctors aren't willing to accept lower fees for patients who are now privately insured. In that case, the U.S. would spend about $400 billion more in 2031.

... snip ...

note big issue since the turn of the century is private-equity moving into health care, buying up hospitals, doctor&dental practices, etc., and extracting as much money as possible

Is private equity helping or hurting healthcare?
http://www.modernhealthcare.com/article/20180710/NEWS/180719998
Private equity keeps buying up health care companies. Should patients worry?
https://www.advisery.com/daily-briefing/2018/06/20/private-equity

note that they had gotten such a bad reputation during the S&L Crises that they changed the industry name to private equity and changed "junk bonds" to "high-yield bonds". There was TV business news segment recently on "junk bonds", the interviewer constantly said "junk bonds" and the banner across the bottom of the screen said "junk bonds", but those being interviewed constantly said "high yield bonds". The standard practice is to take out a 100% loan to buy a company and then put the loan on the bought companies' books. This puts enormous debt pressure on the bought companies, along with the fees & commissions that private-equity assess the bought companies. Over half corporate defaults are companies currently or formally in the private equity mill. Article drawing comparison with house flipping, except the private equity seller doesn't have to pay off the mortgage (the loan goes with with sold company), they can even sell for much less than they original paid and still walk away with boat load of money (the funny thing is all these defaults don't seem to affect the credit ratings of the original private equity borrowers).
http://www.nytimes.com/2009/10/05/business/economy/05simmons.html?_r=0

private-equity posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#inequality

specific posts mentioning "economist capture" (by special interests).
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012p.html#64 IBM Is Changing The Terms Of Its Retirement Plan, Which Is Frustrating Some Employees
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013.html#20 The Big Fail
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013.html#57 How to Cut Megabanks Down to Size
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013.html#73 More Whistleblower Leaks on Foreclosure Settlement Show Both Suppression of Evidence and Gross Incompetence
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013b.html#44 Adair Turner: A New Debt-Free Money Advocate
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013i.html#89 What Makes an Architecture Bizarre?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013k.html#29 The agency problem and how to create a criminogenic environment
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013l.html#1 What Makes a Tax System Bizarre?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013l.html#48 Ex-Wall Street chieftains living large in post-meltdown world
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013l.html#52 Lehman Brothers collapse: was capitalism to blame?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013m.html#76 The Scholars Who Shill for Wall Street
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013o.html#81 Academics Who Defend Wall St. Reap Reward
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014b.html#3 Royal Pardon For Turing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014b.html#50 Royal Pardon For Turing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014b.html#57 Royal Pardon For Turing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014c.html#68 Economists and our responsibilities to society
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015.html#24 Forget the McDonnells. We're ignoring bigger, more pernicious corruption right under our noses
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015g.html#67 Economics Has a Math Problem
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015g.html#73 Economists' Tribal Thinking
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015h.html#28 rationality
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016c.html#84 Wells Fargo "Admits Deceiving" U.S. Government, Pays Record $1.2 Billion Settlement
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016d.html#26 How the computer transformed economics. And didn't
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017g.html#19 Financial, Healthcare, Construction, Education complexity
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017g.html#49 Shareholders Ahead Of Employees
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017g.html#79 Bad Ideas
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017h.html#9 Corporate Profit and Taxes
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017h.html#92 'X' Marks the Spot Where Inequality Took Root: Dig Here
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017h.html#116 The Real Reason Wages Have Stagnated: Our Economy Is Optimized For Financialization
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017i.html#47 Retirement Heist: How Firms Plunder Workers' Nest Eggs
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017i.html#71 When Working From Home Doesn't Work
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018.html#25 Trump's Infrastructure Plan Is Actually Pence's--And It's All About Privatization
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018c.html#81 What Lies Beyond Capitalism And Socialism?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018c.html#83 Economists and the Powerful: Convenient Theories, Distorted Facts, Ample Rewards

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

System recovered from Princeton/Melinda backup/archive tapes

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: System recovered from Princeton/Melinda backup/archive tapes
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Sun, 12 Aug 2018 08:25:32 -0700
recent email update
CP-67 CP/67 3.2 CMS System disk (with some read errors) CMS Listings (2 reels, 800 BPI) with some read errors CP/67 CMS source (2 reels, 800 BPI) with no read errors

NOTE: these tapes contain only CMS source -- not CP


and
OS/VS2 Rel. 1.7k (SVS) DLIBs optional source materials

Also, in that collection were the following tapes of various "user mods" and contributions to SHARE, etc. related to the IBM products:

SVS Mods Tape dated 9-19-77 SVS SLAC SIOF Mods dated 6-13-79 Waterloo VM Mods Library Tape Rel. 2, from 11-09-76 Waterloo VM Mods Library Tape Rel. 3, from 02-12-79 Waterloo VM Mods Library Tape Rel. 5., from 10-22-79 SHARE VM Workshop Tools tape from 1989 SHARE VM Workshop Waterloo Tape from 1989

... recovered by CHM/bitsavers/kossaw ... and also copy at living computer museum. semi-related old archived email about providing Melinda files from my archived tapes (before Almaden research dataceenter operational problem where they were mounting random tapes as scratch).
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006w.html#email850906
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006w.html#email850908
in this post
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006w.html#42

some topic drift in following post
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006w.html#43
and this email about upgrading BITNET and EARN (bitnet in europe)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006w.html#email850607

we had been working with NSF director on interconnecting the NSF supercomputer centers and were suppose to get $20M. Then congress cuts the budget, some other things happen and finally they release an RFP (in part based on what we already had running). Preliminary Announcement in this past post
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002k.html#12
however internal politics prevent us from bidding. The NSF director tries to help by writing the company a letter (with support from other agencies), but that just makes the internal politics worse (as does comments that what we already had running was at least 5yrs ahead of all RFP responses). As regional networks connect into the centers, it evolves into the NSFNET backbone, precursor into the modern internet. also some more description
https://www.technologyreview.com/s/401444/grid-computing/

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

something like a 360, was PDP 11/40 system manual

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: something like a 360, was PDP 11/40 system manual
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Mon, 13 Aug 2018 12:15:54 -0700
John Levine <johnl@taugh.com> writes:
I can assure you that Fortran G, H, and X and PL/I F and X certainly did. That's why you could call a subroutine written in one language from another.

On Linux systems that use ELF objects there's another calling sequence that handles the PLT and GOT needed for position independent code.


I've periodically complained about difficulty in doing position independent code for CMS ... because CMS leveraged OS/360 compilers and lots of applications ... by providing OS/360 simulation ... we use to joke that the 64kbytes of OS/360 system services simulation was much more efficient than the MVS 8mbytes of OS/360 system services simulation.

While TSS/360 had lots of significant performance problems and inefficiencies ... it did at least support position independent paradigm.
http://www.bitsavers.org/pdf/ibm/360/tss/

past/archived posts on problems doing position independent code in CMS (first with CP67/CMS and later with VM370/CMS)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#adcon

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Donald Trump, Gun-Runner for Hire

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Donald Trump, Gun-Runner for Hire
Blog: Facebook
Date: 14 Aug 2018
Donald Trump, Gun-Runner for Hire
https://www.nakedcapitalism.com/2018/08/donald-trump-gun-runner-hire.html

Actor playing TV House, wrote a novel that references Boyd, OODA-loop and some of the lengths that MIC will go to keeping up the flow of money
https://www.amazon.com/Gun-Seller-Hugh-Laurie-ebook/dp/B000SEGK0M/
John Boyd's Art of War; Why our greatest military theorist only made colonel.
http://www.theamericanconservative.com/articles/john-boyds-art-of-war/
Here too Boyd had a favorite line. He often said, 'It is not true the Pentagon has no strategy. It has a strategy, and once you understand what that strategy is, everything the Pentagon does makes sense. The strategy is, don't interrupt the money flow, add to it.'
... snip ...

Boyd posts & URLs
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subboyd.html
military-industrial complex
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#military.industrial.complex

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Before Snowden, an NSA Spy Tried to Incite Change From the Inside

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Before Snowden, an NSA Spy Tried to Incite Change From the Inside
Blog: Facebook
Date: 15 Aug 2018
Before Snowden, an NSA Spy Tried to Incite Change From the Inside. He Called Himself the "Curmudgeon" of Signals Intelligence.
https://theintercept.com/2018/08/15/nsa-sigint-curmudgeon-sidtoday/

Snowden was constractor sysadm ... and apparently outsourcing to for-profit companies seems to have eliminated multi-person operation as countermeasure to insider threats for sensitive operations that is common in industry.

After the turn of the century ... there was enormous uptic in outsourcing to (frequently private-equity owned) for-profit companies (big factor is that companies can't use money from gov. contracts to lobby congress ... but a private-equity owner doesn't seem to be under lobbying restrictions. 70% of the budget and over half the people
http://www.investingdaily.com/17693/spies-like-us
the change last decade accelerated the rapidly spreading success of failure culture ... outsourcing make more from a series of failures
http://www.govexec.com/excellence/management-matters/2007/04/the-success-of-failure/24107/
also
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/government-elections-politics/united-states-of-secrets/the-frontline-interview-thomas-drake/
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Andrews_Drake
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ThinThread
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trailblazer_Project

some IBM related ... AMEX was in competition with KKR for private equity LBO of RJR and KKR wins. KKR then runs into some problem and hires away the president of AMEX to help
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barbarians_at_the_Gate:_The_Fall_of_RJR_Nabisco
IBM has gone into the red and is being re-orged into 13 "baby blues" in preparation for breaking up the company. The board hires away the former AMEX president who reverses the breakup and resurrects the company ... using some of the same techniques as at RJR.
http://www.ibmemployee.com/RetirementHeist.shtml

then leaves to head up another private-equity company, Barbarians at the Capitol: Private Equity, Public Enemy (including buying beltway bandit that will employ Snowden).
http://www.motherjones.com/politics/2007/10/barbarians-capitol-private-equity-public-enemy/
Lou Gerstner, former ceo of ibm, now heads the Carlyle Group, a Washington-based global private equity firm whose 2006 revenues of $87 billion were just a few billion below ibm's. Carlyle has boasted George H.W. Bush, George W. Bush, and former Secretary of State James Baker III on its employee roster
... snip ...

lots of prominent politicians to lobby congress.

private-equity posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#private.equity
success of failure posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#success.of.failure
whistleblower posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#whistleblower

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

different architecture, was PDP 11/40 system manual

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: different architecture, was PDP 11/40 system manual
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Wed, 15 Aug 2018 19:23:50 -0700
John Levine <johnl@taugh.com> writes:
I've read the manuals too. The card version of BOS was called BPS, and none of BOS, DOS, or TOS, could do multiprogramming until much later versions of DOS. It looks to me like the disk management was even more primitive than DOS, with sets of disk tracks explicitly assigned to files, and it didn't work with more than 32K which suggests they used direct addressing and 16 bit adcons.

re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#66 something like a 360, was PDP 11/40 system manual

There was something like 80-100 card stand-alone BPS loader. It was used by CP/67 kernel.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM_Basic_Programming_Support
BPS was developed by IBM's General Products Division in Endicott, New York. The package included "assemblers, IOCS, compilers, sorts, and utilities but no governing control program." BPS components were introduced in a series of product announcements between 1964 and 1965.[1]:pp.319-321

BPS came in two versions -- a strictly card system and a tape based system which, contrary to the stated goals, kept a small supervisor permanently resident.[2]:p.14

Programming languages available were Assembler, RPG, and FORTRAN IV (subset). Tape FORTRAN required 16 KiB of memory.[2]:p.5 There were also two versions of the BPS assembler, with the tape version having enhanced capabilities.

BPS also had a "disk" counterpart called BOS. It also required 8 KiB of memory and supported disks such as the IBM 2311.

The group responsible for BPS/BOS went on to develop DOS/360 and TOS/360 as a supposed "interim" solution when it became evident that OS/360 would be too large to run on 16 KiB systems.

... snip ...

references BPS/BOS documents
http://bitsavers.org/pdf/ibm/360/bos_bps/

When CP/67 was installed at univ. jan1968, all the source was on os/360. Assemble updates/changes on os/360 ... generating TXT deck for each source. Default was do diagnal stripe across top of each TXT deck with module identifier. TXT Cards were kept in card tray ... slightly over box of cards. BPS loader at the front, followed by PSA (page zero storage definition, interrupt handlers, and misc. other code). Last TXT deck was CPINIT ... default BPS behavior was transfer to the last module/program loaded (or entry specified by LDT loader control card). That entry would write memory image to disk which would have IPL restart into CPINIT address that would reverse the process and start CP/67.

In summer of 1967, I made several (lower-used) CP/67 kernel routines "pageable" ... broken into 4k segments, but would execute non-virtual ... so couldn't cross page boundary and had to use SVC call interrupt that would handle translating original address to its new page location (and if required, first bring the page into storage). Objective was to reduce CP67 fixed kernel requirements, especially for running on 256kbyte 360/67 (getting fixed kernel down to almost 60kbyte).

CP/67 console routine was something over 20k bytes, command would be decoded and then transfer to the specific command function. I broke the command functions into 4k segments with external entry for each command ... that could be called by the kernel command decoder.

Turns out BPS loader had limit of 255 external entry symbols ... and breaking up console went over the limit. I then had to do hack that there was single entry for each 4k page group of console commands with internal branch routine to the specific command.

Next distribution of CP67 (spring 1968) had (finally) moved all the source to CMS ... and made update/changes much simpler.

After graduating and transfer to science center ... past posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech

I found a copy of BPS source in card file cabinent in the storage area in the storage area that occupied part of the top floor of 545 tech sq. I updated the source to handle more than 255 entries. I also found out that BPS loader passed address of its table of enternal entries. I then modified CPINIT to copy the BPS external entry table to the end of pageable area ... so it was saved on the disk along with the rest of kernel image.

None of this was included in CP67 customer product distribution, but VM370 did adopt a subset of the pageable functions for its first release.

mentionin CP67 pageable kernel support, some older posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001b.html#23 Linux IA-64 interrupts [was Re: Itanium benchmarks ...]
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001l.html#32 mainframe question
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002b.html#44 PDP-10 Archive migration plan
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002n.html#71 bps loader, was PLX
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002p.html#56 cost of crossing kernel/user boundary
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002p.html#64 cost of crossing kernel/user boundary
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003f.html#12 Alpha performance, why?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003f.html#14 Alpha performance, why?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003f.html#20 Alpha performance, why?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003f.html#23 Alpha performance, why?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003f.html#26 Alpha performance, why?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003f.html#30 Alpha performance, why?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003n.html#45 hung/zombie users ... long boring, wandering story
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004b.html#26 determining memory size
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004g.html#45 command line switches [Re: [REALLY OT!] Overuse of symbolic constants]
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004o.html#9 Integer types for 128-bit addressing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005f.html#10 Where should the type information be: in tags and descriptors
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005f.html#16 Where should the type information be: in tags and descriptors

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

meanwhile in eastern Asia^WEurope, was tablets and desktops was Has Microsoft

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: meanwhile in eastern Asia^WEurope, was tablets and desktops was Has Microsoft
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Thu, 16 Aug 2018 17:58:16 -0700
J. Clarke <jclarke.873638@gmail.com> writes:
The Blitz was not comparable to what was done to Germany. The heaviest night of the Blitz was fewer than 500 medium bombers dropping 711 tons of bombs. For the Allies that would be a small raid. 700 or more _heavy_ bombers was typical. And the Germans never came close to achieving what happened to Dresden or Hamburg (or most of Japan).

John Foster Dulles
https://www.amazon.com/Brothers-Foster-Dulles-Allen-Secret-ebook/dp/B00BY5QX1K/
played major role in rebuilding German's industry and military from 20s up through the early 40s. When his brother advised him to quit Germany, he said his major clients, not just the wallstreet banks, but major corporations like Standard Oil and GE wanted him to remain regardless of conditions. From the law of unintended consequences, when the US 1943 strategic bombing program needed industry and military targets in Germany, they got the information from wallstreet.

1/3rd of total US WW2 spending went to strategic 4engine heavy bombing, so there was lots of work to try and justify the cost ... starting with claims that strategic bombing of germany would win the war w/o having to invade europe. however, strategic bombing from 5-6miles up was almost impossible to hit target (even with norden bomb sights).

possibly to show results, McNamara was then LeMay's staff planning fire bombing cities (would hit something) in Germany and then in Japan. Later McNamara quotes LeMay that if US had lost WW2, they would be the ones charged for warcrimes.

strategic bombing of Omaha beach:
https://ssi.armywarcollege.edu/pubs/display.cfm?pubID=1075
loc2582-85:
The bomber preparation of Omaha Beach was a total failure, and German defenses on Omaha Beach were intact as American troops came ashore. At Utah Beach, the bombers were a little more effective because the IXth Bomber Command was using B-26 medium bombers. Wisely, in preparation for supporting the invasion, maintenance crews removed Norden bombsights from the bombers and installed the more effective low-level altitude sights.
... snip ...

strategic heavy bombing also claimed they wouldn't need long range fighers ... all the money could go to strategic 4engine heavy bombers loc1763-68:
Although the AAF attacks did create a disruption of the German economy, it proved to be only temporary. Repair, dispersion, and purchases from foreign sources quickly replaced the damaged capacity. The most serious problem resulting from these raids for the Allies was the cost in trained personnel and aircraft. In the August 17, 1943, attacks on Schweinfurt and Regensburg, unescorted American bombers lost 60 of the 306 B-17s that reached the targets. An additional 27 airplanes suffered serious damage.26 A second attack on Schweinfurt lost a further 60 B-17s out of 291 aircraft. The AAF unescorted bomber attacks against Luftwaffe production facilities proved disastrous.27
... snip ...

found they did need to invade Europe and needed more infantry (and not so many pilots and aircrew), loc4585-88:
For example, the AAF trained more pilots and aircrew members than were needed for the demands of the war. The War Department staff began to recognize that they had underestimated the number of combat arms Soldiers necessary to win the war. In 1944, the AAF transferred about 24,000 air cadets to Army ground forces to be retrained as infantrymen.7
... snip ...

sort of like the next decade claiming there was bomber gap with Soviets (justifying 30% DOD budget increase) ... thing to remember about U2 flts were that they provided Eisonhower with information to debunk the bomber gap claims.

World War II at Sea: A Global History
https://www.amazon.com/World-War-II-Sea-History-ebook/dp/B07BH2WKQ9/
pg770/loc11094-99:
Over the next three weeks, the B-29s delivered firebomb attacks against several more Japanese cities, including Nagoya, Osaka, and Kobe. With the planes coming in low and at night, fighter escorts were unnecessary because the Japanese did not have effective night fighters. LeMay even had the machine guns on the B-29s removed so the planes could carry more incendiaries. That meant that even before Iwo Jima was secured, the principal justification for attacking the island in the first place had been overtaken by events. Back in January, LeMay had told Spruance, "Without Iwo Jima I couldn't bomb Japan effectively." He very likely believed it when he said it, though it turned out not to have been true.
... snip ...

military-industrial(-congressional) complex posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#military.industrial.complex

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

PDP 11/40 system manual

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: PDP 11/40 system manual
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Fri, 17 Aug 2018 21:27:07 -0700
Peter Flass <peter_flass@yahoo.com> writes:
Cable length was the big problem. If you put the core too far from the CPU you had to go with slow memory. Each <mumble>K of core needed its own frame. One of the larger machines had the boxes of core arranged in an "X" around the CPU to try to reduce cable length. I'm not sure about core, but I think some large shops put disk controllers one floor down from the CPU and dropped the channel cables thru the floor to reduce distance.

packaging distance ... happened for 3090 ... plus some 3880 disk controller channel overhead. 3880/3380 increased transfer speed but also doubled max. channel cable distance (by expanding number of bytes transferred in single handshake). however they went from a very fast horizontal microcode controller for 3830 to a very slow verticial microcode controller for 3880 ... with a hardware side-path for data transfer. The increased data transfer reduced channel busy, but the increased 3880 controller overhead more than offset the increased transfer speed.

3090 assumed 3880 would be same as 3830 controller but with 3380 3mbyte/sec transfer ... however 3880 controller operations were significantly slower ... significantly driving up channel busy. As a result, 3090 trying to have balanced throughput configuration had to significantly increase number of channels as (partial) offset to the signifciantly higher 3880 channel busy (which required additional expensive TCM, joke was 3090 would charge off the manufacturing cost for the additional TCM to the 3880 controller group). Marketing then try to resping the enormous increase as channels as terrific I/O capability (when it was somewhat the opposite).

Also needed significantly more real storage for caching more data & pages ... helping reduce needed 3880 disk I/O. However, the packaging distance for the additional real storage exceeded processor memory spec latency. As a result they came up with "expanded store" wide fast bus with the higher latency but treated as electronic paging devices with synchronous 4k move to/from instruction (elapsed time for syncrhonous move instruction was orders of magnitude less than MVS IO+interrupt pathlength).

Note 3090 trying to move into scientific market ... addeded vector processing feature/registers/instructions ... but scientific market also had HIPPI (100mbyte/sec channel) disk arrays
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HIPPI

3090 I/O wasn't even remotely capable of handling HIPPI speeds. They finally came up with rube goldberg hack that cut HIPPI into the side of expanded store bus ... using the synchronous transfer instruction for peak/poke i/o paradigm.

3090
http://www.bitsavers.org/pdf/ibm/3090/G580-1005-0_The_IBM_3090_Processor_Family_Jul87.pdf
3090 principles of op (1403/3211 printer version)
http://www.bitsavers.org/pdf/ibm/370/princOps/GA22-7000-10_370_Principles_of_Operation_Sep87.pdf

about the time the scientific group in kingston was cutting HIPPI into the 3090 expanded store bus, I was also working with high-speed access into Clementi's engineering & scientific kingston lab with half dozen floating post system boxes (with disk arrays, which may have helped spur the effort to hook disk arrays into 3090). misc. past posts mentioning Clementi:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013i.html#14 The cloud is killing traditional hardware and software
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014b.html#4 IBM Plans Big Spending for the Cloud ($1.2B)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014c.html#63 11 Years to Catch Up with Seymour
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014c.html#72 11 Years to Catch Up with Seymour
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014j.html#35 curly brace languages source code style quides
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016e.html#95 IBM History
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017h.html#50 System/360--detailed engineering description (AFIPS 1964)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017j.html#92 mainframe fortran, or A Computer That Never Was: the IBM 7095
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018b.html#47 Think you know web browsers? Take this quiz and prove it

past posts mentioning having HSDT project doing T1 & faster links
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#hsdt
including working with director of NSF for high speed links for NSF supercomputer centers ... misc. old email
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/lhwemail.html#nsfnet

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Top CEOs' compensation increased 17.6 percent in 2017

Refed: **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Top CEOs' compensation increased 17.6 percent in 2017
Blog: Facebook
Date: 17 Aug 2018
CEOs' compensation increased 17.6 percent in 2017; The ratio of CEO-to-worker compensation grew to 312-to-1
https://www.epi.org/press/top-ceos-compensation-increased-17-6-percent-in-2017/

in some places during the economic mess, it had spiked to 1000:1 after having been 20:1 for long time in the US and 10:1 in most of the rest of the world. Around the turn of the century, I was asked to review a periodic financial industry publication that showed thousands of measures for the avg of 20 regional banks compared to ten largest national banks. The regional numbers showed more profitability and efficiency than the national banks (as if national banks had exceed some optimal efficiency size). This was just after Glass-Steagall had been repealed enabling Too Big To Fail (aka Too Big To Manage) as if motivation was CEO compensation is proportional to size of organization regardless of efficiency or profitability.

too big to fail ("too big to prosecute", "too big to jail") posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#too.big.to.fail
inequality posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#inequality

Original US definition for "corporations" were entities that operated in the public interest. Then special interests were making big push to extend rights of corporations to entities that operated in purely self interest ... as well as give these "self interest" corporations, rights as people under the constitution. Example was that for the first 50yrs of the 14th amendment, 20 times more corporation 14th admendment cases were brought before the supreme court than cases for minorities (and they had much higher favorable ruling percentage). One of the original corporation 14th amendment cases, part of the argument was the 14th deliberation memos & records showed that they had intended to give corporations the same rights as people. However, much later when others went back to look at the deliberation records, no such intention could be found (but by then it was too late, there were significant prior supreme court rulings).
https://www.amazon.com/We-Corporations-American-Businesses-Rights-ebook/dp/B01M64LRDJ/
some of these prominent corporations are people supreme court rulings involved railroads ... additional ref:
http://phys.org/news/2012-01-railroad-hyperbole-echoes-dot-com-frenzy.html
https://www.amazon.com/Railroaded-Transcontinentals-Making-Modern-America-ebook/dp/B0051GST1U/

Railroad hyperbole echoes all the way down to the dot-com frenzy
http://phys.org/news/2012-01-railroad-hyperbole-echoes-dot-com-frenzy.html
What would have happened if the transcontinental railroad had not been built there and then?

"I think if we had waited 30 or 40 years, it would have been much better," he said. There are examples of railroads that made sense, most notably regional railways such as the Great Northern that carried products to and from places where there were people, supplies and demand. But the transcontinental railway was another matter. It was built ahead of demand by people who understood nothing about transportation or the economy.

"'Build them and they will come' just doesn't work," White said.

If the railroads had been built differently, a few decades later, he said, American Indians would have had more time to adjust to the inevitable, and their reservations would have been structured more advantageously to them. There would have been no senseless cattle industry and overgrazing, no mining industry with its booms and busts, and no migration to lands that could not support settlement. And, continuing the hypotheticals, all this would have taken place during the Progressive Era, meaning there would have been no massive corruption.

... snip ...

recent posts mentioning corporations are people
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018c.html#52 We the Corporations: How American Businesses Won Their Civil Rights
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018c.html#93 Barb
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018c.html#94 Barb
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#16 America Celebrates Lateral Move From Monarchy To Corporate Rule
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#36 OT: Trump

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

System/R, SQL/DS, DB2, HA/CMP

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: System/R, SQL/DS, DB2, HA/CMP
Blog: Facebook
Date: 17 Aug 2018
some of the CTSS people went to the 5th flr for Project MAC and did MULTICS and others went to the IBM science center (CSC) on the 4th flr and did virtual machines (CP40 & CP67, precursor to VM370), internal network, invented GML in 1969 (a decade later morphs into ISO SGML standard and another decade morphs into HTML at CERN) and bunch of other stuff. The first relational product ships from 5th flr on MULTICS in 1976 while SJR was doing System/R on VM370 370/145 . I join CSC in 1970 and then transfer to SJR in 1977. I get roped into doing some amount of System/R ... as well as completely different kind of relational (that never ships, but was used at Los Gatos Lab for some VLSI design project). Some amount of conflicts with IMS group trying to show that System/R shouldn't ship. Then the "official" followon for IMS was EAGLE ... and while corporation was concentrating on EAGLE, managed to do tech transfer ("under the radar") to Endicott for SQL/DS. Then when EAGLE implodes, there is request how fast could SQL/DS be ported to MVS ... which is announced as DB2 (originally for decision support *only*).

System/R posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#systemr

Later was doing RS/6000 cluster (& cluster scaleup) support for both commercial and technical markets. Was working with Oracle because DB2 cluster support aka loosely-coupled, but was non-portable. There was portable "DB2" being developed for OS2 but was very primitive and lacked any sort of cluster support. ORACLE had common source base for UNIX and VMS (including VAX-cluster) and to simplify its port to HA/CMP cluster, I did API that implemented VAX-cluster semantics (but avoiding VAX-cluster shortfalls, based on lot of input from Oracle & Ingress and our own loosely-coupled experience). This old post references JAN1992 meeting in Ellison's conference room discussing Oracle cluster support for 128-way HA/CMP. One of the Oracle people in the room claims to have been in STL and did the port of SQL/DS to MVS.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/95.html#13

However, the MVS DB2 group was complaining if commercial HA/CMP cluster scaleup was allowed to proceed, it would be at least 5yrs ahead of them. Within a few weeks of the Ellison meeting, cluster scaleup was transferred, announced as IBM supercomputer (for scientific/technical *ONLY*) and we were told we couldn't work on anything with more than four processors. From the annals of never release any software before its time, nearly 20yrs later there is "DB2" cluster scaleup shipping for RS/6000.

HA/CMP posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#hacmp

Major force in System/R was Jim Gray and when he leaves SJR for Tandem, he is palming bunch of stuff on me, DBMS consulting with IMS group, working with some System/R beta customers, etc. A lot more System/R history
http://www.mcjones.org/System_R/

Trivia: my wife had been in the JES group (and one of the catchers of ASP for JES3) and then was con'ed to going to POK to be in charge of of loosely-coupled where she did peer-coupled shared data architecture. She didn't remain very long because 1) little uptake (except for IMS hot-standby until SYSPLEX and Parallel SYSPLEX) and 2) constant battles with communication group trying to force her into using SNA/VTAM for loosely-coupled operation.

Peer-coupled shared data posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#shareddata

more trivia: one of my hobbies from 1970 on was producing & supporting enhanced operating systems for internal datacenters and world-wide online sales&marketing support HONE was long time customer. In the mid-70s, the US HONE datacenters were consolidated in Silicon Valley (trivia: when facebook moves to silicon valley, it was in new bldg next door to the old HONE datacenter). By late 70s, HONE had eight large POK 2-way SMP mainframes (16 processors) all sharing large disk farm in largest single-system in the world, with load-balancing and fall-over. Then in the early 80s, it was extended to geographic/disaster survivability with 2nd datacenter in Dallas and then 3rd datacenter in Boulder.

HONE (&/or APL) posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#hone

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

meanwhile in eastern Asia^WEurope, was tablets and desktops was Has Microsoft

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: meanwhile in eastern Asia^WEurope, was tablets and desktops was Has Microsoft
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Sat, 18 Aug 2018 10:25:43 -0700
JimP <solosam90@gmail.com> writes:
Some Soviet units didn't rape. And some bragged about it, watch the series 'World At War'. The Soviet soldiers said it was payback for what the Germans did as they invaded the Soviet Union. But not all Germans did those crimes.

there are some claims that Japan didn't surrender because of the A-bombs (Tokyo fire-bombing was already worse than the A-bombs) ... but because Russians were getting close to invading (that it would be better to surrender to US than waiting for Russian invasion).

US had cut a deal with Stalin to attack Japan after finishing off Germany. Soviets had 1.5M in Manchuria against 1M Japanese compared to US had 600K for Okinawa against 76k Japanese ... and if Japan hadn't surrendered when they did, they would have Russians invading their homeland.

First half of (USNavy) Milton Miles book about being set into China to set up the coast watchers and then training 50,000 guerillas to fight Japanese ... and the 2nd half of the book was about how the OSS&USArmy (wanted to take over interface with the nationalist, and both USNavy and Nationalists rebuffed them, then) supported the communists and how they gave China to the communists.

However, other accounts were that it was part of the deal with Stalin for attacking Japan (why china was given to the communists).

military-industrial(-congressional) complex posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#military.industrial.complex

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

meanwhile in eastern Asia^WEurope, was tablets and desktops was Has Microsoft

Refed: **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: meanwhile in eastern Asia^WEurope, was tablets and desktops was Has Microsoft
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Sat, 18 Aug 2018 14:59:36 -0700
Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com> writes:
there are some claims that Japan didn't surrender because of the A-bombs (Tokyo fire-bombing was already worse than the A-bombs) ... but because Russians were getting close to invading (that it would be better to surrender to US than waiting for Russian invasion).

re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#75 meanwhile in eastern Asia^WEurope, was tablets and desktops was Has Microsoft

relatively recent account (May2013) from Foreign Policy ... relatively long winded analysis

The Bomb Didn't Beat Japan - Stalin Did. Have 70 years of nuclear policy been based on a lie?
https://foreignpolicy.com/2013/05/30/the-bomb-didnt-beat-japan-stalin-did/

other details: Soviet-Japanese War
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soviet%E2%80%93Japanese_War
Surrender of Japan
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Surrender_of_Japan
and
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Surrender_of_Japan#August_9:_Soviet_invasion_and_Nagasaki

and upthread post
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#70 meanwhile in eastern Asia^WEurope, was tablets and desktops was Has Microsoft

they were going to bypass Iwo Jima, but LeMay said he had to have Iwo Jima for airbase to firebomb Japanese cities. Turns out it wasn't true and LeMay never used Iwo Jima.

military-industrial(-congressional) complex posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#military.industrial.complex

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

meanwhile in eastern Asia^WEurope, was tablets and desktops was Has Microsoft

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: meanwhile in eastern Asia^WEurope, was tablets and desktops was Has Microsoft
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Sat, 18 Aug 2018 22:57:43 -0700
Dan Espen <dan1espen@gmail.com> writes:
From Wikipedia:

Iwo Jima was strategically important: it provided an air base for Japanese fighter planes to intercept long-range B-29 Superfortress bombers, and it provided a haven for Japanese naval units in dire need of any support available. In addition, it was used by the Japanese to stage air attacks on the Mariana Islands from November 1944 through January 1945.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Iwo_Jima

LeMay isn't mentioned.


re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#74 meanwhile in eastern Asia^WEurope, was tablets and desktops was Has Microsoft
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#75 meanwhile in eastern Asia^WEurope, was tablets and desktops was Has Microsoft

again reference from post upthread,
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#70 meanwhile in eastern Asia^WEurope, was tablets and desktops was Has Microsoft

World War II at Sea: A Global History
https://www.amazon.com/World-War-II-Sea-History-ebook/dp/B07BH2WKQ9/
pg770/loc11094-99:
Over the next three weeks, the B-29s delivered firebomb attacks against several more Japanese cities, including Nagoya, Osaka, and Kobe. With the planes coming in low and at night, fighter escorts were unnecessary because the Japanese did not have effective night fighters. LeMay even had the machine guns on the B-29s removed so the planes could carry more incendiaries. That meant that even before Iwo Jima was secured, the principal justification for attacking the island in the first place had been overtaken by events. Back in January, LeMay had told Spruance, "Without Iwo Jima I couldn't bomb Japan effectively." He very likely believed it when he said it, though it turned out not to have been true.
... snip ...

McNamara was LeMay's staff planning fire bombing German and then Japanese cities ... McNamara this century said that LeMay had told him if US had lost the war, it would have been them being tried for war crimes.

then, additional from around the web:

Iwo Jima
http://www.cv6.org/1945/iwo/default.htm
For the AAF, there was no question that Iwo Jima must be seized. "Without Iwo Jima I couldn't bomb Japan effectively," AAF Major General Curtis LeMay explained to Fifth Fleet commander Admiral Raymond Spruance. For Spruance, that settled any doubts in his mind. The Marines would go in, and the Navy would back them up.
... snip ....

The B-29 Superfortress in the American Air Campaign: January 1- March 3, 1945
http://www.thehistoryreader.com/modern-history/b-29-superfortress-american-air-campaign-january-1-march-3-1945/
LeMay told Adm. Raymond Spruance that, "without Iwo Jima, I cannot bomb Japan," although he had been doing so before the invasion started.
... snip ...

this references demolishing the specious justifications for Iwo Jima

The Ghosts of Iwo Jima
http://books.stonebooks.com/reviews/060618/
How did the military justify such sacrifices in Operation Detachment? In the original proposal, Iwo Jima was simply to have served as a base for fighters to escort B-29 bombing missions to Japan. In the event, that never worked out as planned, partly because of changes in B-29 tactics, such as General LeMay's introduction in March of low-altitude firebombing at night. Consequently, staffs scrambled for new reasons to explain why commanders had thrown away so many Marines to capture the island. Burrell identifies ten separate justifications -- ranging from fighter escort to use of Iwo as an emergency landing field --- offered by various sources. He then proceeds to demolish each specious argument in succession with an imposing array of facts.
... snip ...

another example changing justification for Iwo Jima ... and being demolished

Worth the Cost? Justificaton of the Iwo Jima Invasion
http://www.historynet.com/worth-the-cost-justificaton-of-iwo-jima-invasion.htm
Admiral Spruance's 1945 after-action report to Admirals Chester W. Nimitz and Ernest J. King stated only one requisite for Operation Detachment: "to operate with greatest effectiveness and with minimum attrition, fighter cover for the long range bombers was required at the earliest practicable time." Yet when interviewed for his 1974 biography, Spruance argued that the battle was necessary to stop Iwo Jima's advance-warning system--specifically, its radar facility. Regardless of how he arrived at this conclusion, Iwo Jima's radar facility, with its range of around 60 miles, did not impede B-29 operations.
... snip ...

other random tidbit

The Pacific War Companion, From Pearl Harbor to Hiroshima
https://mxdoc.com/the-pacific-war-companion-from-pearl-harbor-to-hiroshima-dan.html
AAF Major-General Curtis LeMay personally appealed to Spruance to take Iwo Jima as a base for fighter escorts, as well as an emergency field for bombers too badly damaged to return to the Marianas.26 Although they remained concerned about predictions of excessively high casualties, Spruance and Nimitz, who had moved to a forward headquarters in Guam in January 1945, eventually accepted the AAF rationale for Iwo Jima.
... snip ....

military-industrial(-congressional) complex posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#military.industrial.complex

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Top CEOs' compensation increased 17.6 percent in 2017; The ratio of CEO-to-worker compensation grew to 312-to-1

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Top CEOs' compensation increased 17.6 percent in 2017; The ratio of CEO-to-worker compensation grew to 312-to-1
Blog: Facebook
Date: 19 Aug 2018
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#72>Top CEOs' compensation increased 17.6 percent in 2017

John Foster Dulles played major role in rebuilding German's industry and military from 20s up through the early 40s. When his brother advised him to quit Germany, he said his major clients, not just the wallstreet banks, but major corporations like Standard Oil and GE wanted him to remain regardless of conditions. From the law of unintended consequences, when the US 1943 strategic bombing program needed industrial and military targets in Germany, they got the information from wallstreet.
https://www.amazon.com/Brothers-Foster-Dulles-Allen-Secret-ebook/dp/B00BY5QX1K/

Later, 5000 industrialists from across the US had conference at NYC Waldorf-Astoria and in part because they had gotten such bad reputation for the depression and supporting Hitler and Nazi Germany, they approved a major propaganda campaign to equate capitalism with Christianity, including in the early 50s it leads to adding "In God We Trust" on money and "under God" in the allegiance.
https://www.amazon.com/One-Nation-Under-God-Corporate-ebook/dp/B00PWX7R56/

Stop whining about "the politics of envy". Executive pay is indefensible
https://www.theguardian.com/business/2018/aug/19/executive-pay-indefensible-stop-whining-about-politics-of-envy
The upshot is that the gap between executives and the rest has exploded. In 1965, the gap between what a US chief executive earned and the average worker's pay was 20 to one. Data last week showed that ratio is now 312 to one. The bosses running the top 350 companies are not only pulling away from their employees: they are also pulling away from the 0.1% of top earners.
... snip ...

Why do American CEOs get paid so much? https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2018/aug/20/american-ceos-pay-dysfunction-finance
The EPI report makes the easy, transparent and irrefutable argument that CEO pay is unrelated to skill. It's an artifact of the general mood of the stock market and of the specific fads and power of technology, finance and oil. But we don't need this evidence to overthrow the tired talking point of an efficient (labor) market. If the great financial crisis didn't blow that one up for you, nothing will.
... snip ...

Semi-related was that during the economic mess, the financial services industry tripled in size as percent of GDP ... aka providing no additional benefit and sucking an enormous amount of money out as they nearly take the economy down.

economic mess posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#economic.mess
inequality posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submsic.html#inequality

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

meanwhile in eastern Asia^WEurope, was tablets and desktops was Has Microsoft

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: meanwhile in eastern Asia^WEurope, was tablets and desktops was Has Microsoft
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Mon, 20 Aug 2018 11:23:31 -0700
John Levine <johnl@taugh.com> writes:
I believe what the article says but it's a huge unwarranted leap to say that therefore the US shouldn't have dropped the bomb. We had only a rough idea of what was going on in Japan, we didn't know whether Stalin would actually attack the Japanese home islands, and our goal was to end the war with the minimum loss of Allied and particularly US lives.

If the bombs gave Hirohito the excuse he needed to surrender to the US rather than keep fighting, well, OK.


re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#74 meanwhile in eastern Asia^WEurope, was tablets and desktops was Has Microsoft
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#75 meanwhile in eastern Asia^WEurope, was tablets and desktops was Has Microsoft

additional accounts has the group that made the surrender decision were still being told that it wasn't a-bomb ... believed that it was just another massive fire bombing fire storm (japan had their own a-bomb program so they understood what a-bomb was, but they were still analysing the events) ... also quotes LeMay after the two a-bomb dropped and before the surrender, asked for 5,000 heavy strategic bombers because he wanted to completely saturate fire bomb every inch of Japan (analogous to what they had said that strategic bombing could win the european war w/o having to invade europe).

part of this goes back to 1/3rd of total US WW2 spending was for the strategic bombing program ... and they were desperate to show some return on investment. They had earlier claimed that it wasn't necessary to spend any money on long range fighter escorts, and all the money could go to heavy bombers. British accounts has them trying to convince the US that Germany had learned the lesson about needing long range fighter escorts the hard way (in the battle for britain), but the US seemed intent on wanting to learn the lesson the hard way also.

Decade later, the USAF had fabricated the "bomber gap" with soviets justifying 30% DOD budget increase for USAF bombers. It was U2 flts that provided Eisenhower photos to debunk the "bomber gap" claims.

also
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#70 meanwhile in eastern Asia^WEurope, was tablets and desktops was Has Microsoft
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#76 meanwhile in eastern Asia^WEurope, was tablets and desktops was Has Microsoft

and of course later there was the "Team B" Soviet analysis (part of justifying enormous DOD budget increase) that the director of CIA Colby wouldn't approve. White House Chief of Staff Rumsfeld then gets Colby replaced with Bush who would approve "Team B" analysis, then Rumsfeld resigns to become SECDEF (and is replaced by his assistant Cheney).
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Team_B

team b past posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#team.b
military-industrial(-congressional) complex posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#military.industrial.complex

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

First Computer User Group Is Founded, 22August1955

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: First Computer User Group Is Founded, 22August1955
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Wed, 22 Aug 2018 12:06:52 -0700
The First Computer User Group Is Founded
http://www.computerhistory.org/tdih/August/22/
Following a Los Angeles symposium hosted by IBM, a group of representatives from seventeen groups that had ordered the IBM 704 mainframe computer met at the RAND Corporation in Santa Monica, California. The outcome of the meeting was the first computer user's group, SHARE. The name was chosen to promote the idea of sharing information and programs between installations. The group grew quickly, eventually producing new software and documentation for their IBM computers.
... snip ...

SHARE
https://www.share.org/

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Art Laffer's Chinese Curve Ball

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Art Laffer's Chinese Curve Ball
Blog: Facebook
Date: 24 Aug 2018
Art Laffer's Chinese Curve Ball; Egged on by misguided advice, the Trump administration is bringing a knife to a gunfight in its competition with China
http://www.atimes.com/article/art-laffers-chinese-curve-ball/
In 2007 he was still bullish on US stocks. I told him that the financial system was about to crash (at the time I was working in the bowels of the hedge fund world, manufacturing some of the toxic waste that would blow up in 2008). He thought I was mad; after all, taxes were low and the Republicans were in office. How could anything go wrong? On July 18, 2007 I appeared on Larry Kudlow's CNBC show and warned of a "trillion-dollar AAA asset bubble" that would bring down the banking system. Larry didn't believe me, either.
... snip ...

1999 I was asked to try and help block the coming economic mess (we failed). Basically some investment bankers that had walked away clean from the S&L crises were then running Internet IPO mills invest, hype, IPO, fail, so landscape open for next round) and predicted next to get into securitized mortgages. I was to help improve the integrity of supporting documents as countermeasure. However, paying for triple-A ratings (when they and the rating agencies knew they weren't worth triple-A, from Oct2008 congressional hearings) allowed them to start doing no-documentation, liar loans (w/o documentation, there was no issue of documentation integrity). The triple-A ratings were significant factor in being able to do over $27T 2001-2008, including being able to sell to operations restricted to only dealing in "safe" investments, like large pension funds.

other trivia: VP and former CIA director repeatedly claims no knowledge of
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iran%E2%80%93Contra_affair
because he was fulltime administration point person deregulating financial industry ... creating S&L crisis
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Savings_and_loan_crisis
along with other members of his family
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Savings_and_loan_crisis#Silverado_Savings_and_Loan
and another
http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9D0CE0D81E3BF937A25753C1A966958260

last decade another family member presides over the economic mess 70 times larger than the S&L crises. S&L crisis had 1000 criminal convictions with jailtime, proportionally the economic mess should have 70,000.

economic mess posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#economic.mess
triple-A rated (toxic) CDO posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#toxic.cdo
S&L crisis posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#s&l.crises

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

An Endless Highway of Death

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: An Endless Highway of Death
Blog: Facebook
Date: 24 Aug 2018
An Endless Highway of Death
https://www.counterpunch.org/2018/08/24/an-endless-highway-of-death/
Without going over the entire situation in too great detail, let is be said that Iraqi President Saddam Hussein had moved his troops into Kuwait over a dispute about oil drilling and money owed Iraq by Kuwait. He had mobilized those troops with the understanding that the United States would not oppose the move. Hussein claimed that his understanding came from a meeting with US envoy April Glaspie regarding the debt owed to Iraq by Kuwait.
... snip ...

In the early 90s, Bush1 is president and Cheney is SECDEF. Sat. photo recon analyst told white house that saddam was marshaling forces to invade Kuwait. White house said that saddam would do no such thing and proceeded to discredit the analyst. Later the analyst informed the white house that saddam was marshaling forces to invade Saudi Arabia, now the white house has to choose between saddam and the Saudis.
https://www.amazon.com/Long-Strange-Journey-Intelligence-ebook/dp/B004NNV5H2/

leading up: CIA director Colby refuses to approve "Team B" analysis greatly exaggerates Russian military capability, justifying huge US military funding increase.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Team_B

White House Chief of Staff Rumsfeld replaces Colby with somebody (Bush1) that will agree with "Team B" analysis. Rumsfeld then resigns to become SECDEF (and is replaced by his assistant Cheney). In the 80s, Bush1 is VP and Rumsfeld is involved in supporting Iraq (in Iran/Iraq war)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iran%E2%80%93Iraq_War
including supplying WMDs
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_support_for_Iraq_during_the_Iran%E2%80%93Iraq_war

This century, Bush2 is president, Cheney is VP, Rumsfeld is SECDEF and one of the "Team B" members is deputy SECDEF (and major architect of Iraq policy).
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul_Wolfowitz

also White House Chief of Staff Card's cousin was dealing with Iraq in the UN and given proof that the WMDs (tracing back to US in the Iran/Iraq war) were decommissioned. The cousin provided the information to White House, but was then locked up in military hospital. Eventually got out and wrote a book about the decommissioned WMDs published in 2010:
https://www.amazon.com/EXTREME-PREJUDICE-Terrifying-Story-Patriot-ebook/dp/B004HYHBK2/

It turns out the decommissioned WMDs were found early in the invasion, but the information was kept classified until fall of 2014 (4yrs after Card cousin's book was published)
http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2014/10/14/world/middleeast/us-casualties-of-iraq-chemical-weapons.html

military-industrial(-congressional) complex posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#military.industrial.complex
"Team B" posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#team.b
WMD posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#wmds

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Why Is the White House Trying to Block a Key Election Security Bill?

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Why Is the White House Trying to Block a Key Election Security Bill?
Blog: Facebook
Date: 24 Aug 2018
Why Is the White House Trying to Block a Key Election Security Bill?; Despite significant bipartisan support, the Election Security Act hit a massive roadblock this week
https://www.rollingstone.com/politics/politics-news/election-security-2018-715204/

White House blocks bill that would protect elections
https://www.yahoo.com/news/white-house-blocks-bill-protect-elections-173459278.html
The Trump White House Doesn't Want Untainted Elections
https://www.esquire.com/news-politics/politics/a22822766/white-house-oppose-secure-elections-act/
A Senate bill to stop election interference got squashed. It might be the White House's fault.
https://www.vox.com/2018/8/23/17774296/2018-election-security-cyberattacks-white-house-russia-iran
U.S. election security steps hobbled by Congress-White House funding fight
https://www.reuters.com/article/us-usa-election-security/us-election-security-steps-hobbled-by-congress-white-house-funding-fight-idUSKCN1L72FN

older

The Cybersecurity 202: The fight over election security comes to the Senate floor
https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/powerpost/paloma/the-cybersecurity-202/2018/07/30/the-cybersecurity-202-the-fight-over-election-security-comes-to-the-senate-floor/5b5dd0ad1b326b0207955e1b/

logical fallacies
https://yourlogicalfallacyis.com/shop

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

The Pentagon's New Stealth Bookkeeping

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: The Pentagon's New Stealth Bookkeeping
Blog: Facebook
Date: 26 Aug 2018
The Pentagon's New Stealth Bookkeeping
https://www.pogo.org/analysis/2018/08/the-pentagons-new-stealth-bookkeeping

recent references to older POGO

The Pentagon Labyrinth: 10 Short Essays to Help You Through It (2010)
http://dnipogo.org/labyrinth/
Our $1 Trillion National Security Budget (2015)
https://www.pogo.org/analysis/2015/02/our-1-trillion-national-security-budget

military-industrial complex posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#military.industrial.complex

past posts mentioning Pentagon Labyringth
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011d.html#83 End of an era
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011e.html#18 End of an era
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011e.html#65 End of an era
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011f.html#28 US military spending has increased 81% since 2001
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011h.html#43 Happy 100th Birthday, IBM!
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011k.html#42 Senator urges DoD: Do better job defending F-35
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011k.html#49 50th anniversary of BASIC, COBOL?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011k.html#88 Justifying application of Boyd to a project manager
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011l.html#34 Scotland, was Re: Solving the Floating-Point Goldilocks Problem!
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012b.html#75 The Winds of Reform
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012i.html#24 Interesting News Article
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012o.html#1 OT: Tax breaks to Oracle debated
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013e.html#43 What Makes an Architecture Bizarre?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013h.html#43 Is newer technology always better? It almost is. Exceptions?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013k.html#59 John Boyd's Art of War
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015h.html#70 Department of Defense Head Ashton Carter Enlists Silicon Valley to Transform the Military
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016.html#48 Thanks Obama
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#60 Why Does Congress Accept Perpetual Wars?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017h.html#109 Iraq, Longest War
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017i.html#64 The World America Made

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Top CEOs' compensation increased 17.6 percent in 2017

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Top CEOs' compensation increased 17.6 percent in 2017
Blog: Facebook
Date: 27 Aug 2018
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#72 Top CEOs' compensation increased 17.6 percent in 2017
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#77 Top CEOs' compensation increased 17.6 percent in 2017

I was introduced to John Boyd in the early 80s and used to sponsor his briefings. First time was just Patterns of Conflict which made for a long day, but he was developing Organic Design For Command and Control. The 2nd time, he wanted to do both ... which really made for a long day.

He would comment that former military officers, heavily indoctrinated with rigid, top-down, command&control were starting to contaminate US corporate culture ... in part only the people at the very top know what they are doing ... which also has since been used to justify the explosion in ratio of top executive compensation to avg. worker. Note that was also about the same time that articles were starting to appear that MBAs (and their myopic focus on financial engineering and short term results) were starting to destroy US corporations.

inequality posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#inequality
stock buyback posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#stock.buyback

40 years of the "fighter mafia" (we went back last December for weds night get together)
https://www.theamericanconservative.com/articles/40-years-of-the-fighter-mafia/
John Boyd's Art of War; Why our greatest military theorist only made colonel.
http://www.theamericanconservative.com/articles/john-boyds-art-of-war/

other
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Boyd_(military_strategist)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OODA_Loop
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Energy%E2%80%93maneuverability_theory
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Patterns_of_Conflict
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lightweight_Fighter_program
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/General_Dynamics_F-16_Fighting_Falcon
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/McDonnell_Douglas_F/A-18_Hornet
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/General_Dynamics_F-16_Fighting_Falcon#Negative_stability_and_fly-by-wire
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fighter_Mafia

Boyd presentations
https://slightlyeastofnew.com/439-2/
http://dnipogo.org/john-r-boyd/

Boyd posts and WEB URLs
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subboyd.html

trivia: before doing work for YF16 & YF17 prototypes (which become F16 & F18), he had redone the F15 design. F15 had started off with F111 swing wing ... but Boyd was able to show that whatever the benefits of the swing wing was more than offset by the weight of the (wing) pivot ... eliminating the pivot, cut the F15 weight nearly in half.

other example: "pure research" is long term investment (which doesn't fit with MBAs' obsession with quarterly results); end of research in research
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benoit_Mandelbrot

Mandelbrot left IBM in 1987, after 35 years and 12 days, when IBM decided to end pure research in his division.[25] He joined the Department of Mathematics at Yale, and obtained his first tenured post in 1999, at the age of 75.[26] At the time of his retirement in 2005, he was Sterling Professor of Mathematical Sciences

... snip ...

military-industrial(-congressional) complex posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#military.industrial.complex

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

History of Virtualization

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: History of Virtualization
Blog: Facebook
Date: 27 Aug 2018
History of Virtualization
https://www.idkrtm.com/history-of-virtualization/
In response to the need from MIT and Bell Labs, IBM designed the CP-40 main frame. The CP-40 was never sold to customers, and was only used in labs. However, it is still important since the CP-40 later evolved into the CP-67 system; which is the first commercial Main Frame to support Virtualization. The Operating system which ran on the CP-67 was referred to as CP/CMS. CP Stands for Control Program, CMS stands for Console Monitor System. CMS was a small single-user operating system designed to be interactive. CP was the program which created Virtual Machines. The idea was the CP ran on the Mainframe, and created Virtual Machines which ran the CMS; which the user would then interact with.
... snip ...

(Comeau, RIP) CP/40 presentation given at SEAS
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/cp40seas1982.txt

Some of the MIT CTSS people
http://multicians.org/thvv/7094.html
went to the 5th flr of tech sq for project mac to do Multics
http://multicians.org/history.html
others went to IBM science center on the 4th flr and did virtual machines, internal network, lots of online and performance work.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CP/CMS

other trivia: before ms/dos
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MS-DOS
there was seattle computer
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seattle_Computer_Products
before seattle computer, there was cp/m
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CP/M
before developing cp/m, kildall worked on cp67/cms at npg (gone 404, but lives on at the wayback machine)
http://web.archive.org/web/20071011100440/http://www.khet.net/gmc/docs/museum/en_cpmName.html
npg
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Naval_Postgraduate_School

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

History of Virtualization

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: History of Virtualization
Blog: Facebook
Date: 28 Aug 2018
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#85 History of Virtualization

should also note Alan Auroux, on assignment at CSC from Grenoble.

Old archived email about Melinda wanted copy of the original multi-level source update procedures (mostly done in execs)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006w.html#email850906
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006w.html#email850908
in this post
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006w.html#42

I pulled them off one of my CSC archive tapes. It was very timely since I had them triple-replicated, but all in the Almaden datacenter tape library and a few months later, Almaden had an operational problem where random tapes were being mounted as scratch ... and lost *ALL* my CSC archive.

The multi-level source update procedures were part of joint project with Endicott to develop 370 virtual machines. There was the "L-level" updates which were the CP67 enhancements for CSC floor/production system. There were the "H-level" updates which added support for 370 virtual machines. There were the "I-level" updates which modified CP67 to run on 370 machine architecture (rather than 360/67). Normal testing was CMS in CP67-I virtual machine, which ran in CP67-H virtual machine, which ran in a CP67-L virtual machine, which ran on 360/67 real machine. A major reasons for running CP67-H in a virtual machine rather than the real hardware was CSC also had a lot of non-employees (students, staff from Cambridge area educational institutions, MIT, Harvard, BU, etc) using the systems and didn't want them accidentally discovering the virtual 370 features.

science center posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#545tech

Note virtual CP67-I testing (i.e. CP/67 running 370 architecture) was in regular use, a year before the first engineering 370/145 with virtual memory architecture was operational in Endicott.

Alan did a lot of the CP67-H and CP67-I work and went to Endicott for the first 145 engineering test. The first IPL failed and a little diagnostic found that the engineers had reversed the implementation of two of the new "B2" opcodes; CP67-I was quickly patched to correspond with the 145 (incorrect) implementation and then IPL'ed and ran successfully. Larry McHenry and Pete Sih came out from San Jose to learn CP67-I and took a copy back with them and added 3330 and 2305 device support which becomes CP67/SJ. CP67/SJ was used extensively on 370 machines inside IBM ... before VM370 became available.

Other trivia: while Endicott had first hardware 370 virtual memory implementation ... POK was having a lot more problems. 370/165 was running into a lot of problems retrofitting the full 370 virtual memory architecture (to 370/165) and suggested a lot of features could be eliminated ... otherwise there would be a big slip in 370 virtual memory announcement. When corporate agreed, all the other machines that had already implemented full 370 virtual memory architecture had to go back and remove the additional features ... also any software that had already implemented support ... had to be redone. Note that VM370 CMS had already been done using the (shared) segment protection feature ... which was one of the features removed for 370/165 ... and they had to go back and do a really ugly hack to protect (CMS) shared segments.

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

White-Collar Criminals Got Off Scot-Free After the 2008 Financial Crisis

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: White-Collar Criminals Got Off Scot-Free After the 2008 Financial Crisis
Blog: Facebook
Date: 28 Aug 2018
White-Collar Criminals Got Off Scot-Free After the 2008 Financial Crisis -- and That Helped Fuel President Trump's Rise
https://www.nakedcapitalism.com/2018/08/white-collar-criminals-got-off-scot-free-2008-financial-crisis-helped-fuel-president-trumps-rise.html

1999 I was asked to try and help block the coming economic mess (we failed). Basically some investment bankers that had walked away clean from the S&L crises were then running Internet IPO mills (invest, hype, IPO, fail, so market open for next round) and predicted next to get into securitized mortgages. I was to help improve the integrity of supporting documents as countermeasure. However, paying for triple-A ratings (when they and the rating agencies knew they weren't worth triple-A, from Oct2008 congressional hearings) allowed them to start doing no-documentation, liar loans (w/o documentation, there was no issue of documentation integrity). The triple-A ratings were significant factor in being able to do over $27T 2001-2008, including being able to sell to operations restricted to only dealing in "safe" investments, like large pension funds ... and major contribution to

America's Broken Retirement System is a Recipe for Political Chaos
https://www.nakedcapitalism.com/2018/08/americas-broken-retirement-system-recipe-political-chaos.html

A decade later Jan2009, I was asked to HTML'ize the Pecora Hearings (30s senate hearings into '29 crash, scanned the fall before at Boston Public Library) with lots of internal HREFs and URLs between what happened this time and what happened then (comments that the new congress might have appetite to do something). I work on it for awhile and then get call saying that it won't be needed after all (comments about enormous mountains of wallstreet money totally burying capital hill).

Glass-Steagall posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#Pecora&/orGlass-Steagall

other trivia: VP and former CIA director repeatedly claims no knowledge of
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iran%E2%80%93Contra_affair
because he was fulltime administration point person deregulating financial industry ... creating S&L crisis
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Savings_and_loan_crisis
along with other members of his family
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Savings_and_loan_crisis#Silverado_Savings_and_Loan
and another
http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9D0CE0D81E3BF937A25753C1A966958260

last decade another family member presides over the economic mess 70 times larger than the S&L crises. S&L crisis had 1000 criminal convictions with jailtime, proportionally the economic mess should have 70,000.

other trivia: VP and former CIA director repeatedly claims no knowledge of
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iran%E2%80%93Contra_affair
because he was fulltime administration point person deregulating financial industry ... creating S&L crisis
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Savings_and_loan_crisis
along with other members of his family
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Savings_and_loan_crisis#Silverado_Savings_and_Loan
and another
http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9D0CE0D81E3BF937A25753C1A966958260

last decade another family member presides over the economic mess 70 times larger than the S&L crises. S&L crisis had 1000 criminal convictions with jailtime, proportionally the economic mess should have 70,000.

economic mess posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#economic.mess
(triple-A rated) toxic (assets) CDOs posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#toxic.cdo
S&L crises posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#s&l.crisis

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Beware of Tech Companies Bearing Privacy Laws

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Beware of Tech Companies Bearing Privacy Laws
Blog: Facebook
Date: 28 Aug 2018
Beware of Tech Companies Bearing Privacy Laws; Federal regulations are the right idea. But Silicon Valley shouldn't get to write them
https://slate.com/technology/2018/08/facebook-and-googles-plan-for-a-new-federal-privacy-law-is-really-about-protecting-themselves.html

two decades ago, we were brought in to help wordsmith some cal. legislation. At the time they were working on "electronic signature", data breach notification, and "opt-in" personal information sharing. "Electronic signature" had some lobbying from digital signature industry that wanted their products to be mandated in the legislation (didn't happen).

electronic signature posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subpubkey.html#signature

Several participants had done detailed public privacy surveys and found the #1 issue was "identity theft", primarily the form involving fradulent financial transactions as the result of data breaches. at the time little or nothing was being done about the breaches and it was hoped that the breach notifications would motivate corrective action. A major issue is that normally entities take security measures in "self-protection", in the case of the breaches, the institutions weren't at risk, it was the public.

identity.theft posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#identity.theft

Since then several other states have passed similar legislation and a dozen or so federal "breach notification" bills have been introduced (that would preempt state laws), but none of those have passed. The federal "breach notification" bills are evenly divided between those similar to the original Cal. state legislation and those that would effectively eliminate any notification (by carefully specifying that the breach has to involve a large combination of personal data that never occurs in real life).

data breach notification posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#data.breach.notification

However, before the Cal. "opt-in" sharing (requires record of each individual agreeing to the sharing) passes, an (federal preemption) "opt-out" sharing provision (sharing is allowed unless there is record of individual objecting) was added to GLBA (now better known for repeal of Glass-Steagall). At a national privacy conference last decade held in Washington DC, there was a panel discussion with all the FTC commissioners. Somebody in the audience got up and asked them if they were going to do anything about GLBA "opt-out" sharing. He said he worked for a call center technology company used by most major financial institutions. He said that the "opt-out" call-in lines had been setup so no record is ever kept (so there would never be a record of people objecting to their information being shared). The FTC commissioners just ignored him. It was at the Renaissance Hotel on 9th, couple blocks up the street from the Spy Museum (that evening had reception with the FTC commissioners at the Spy Museum).

Glass-Steagall posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#Pecora&/orGlass-Steagall

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

White-Collar Criminals Got Off Scot-Free After the 2008 Financial Crisis

Refed: **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: White-Collar Criminals Got Off Scot-Free After the 2008 Financial Crisis
Blog: Facebook
Date: 28 Aug 2018
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#87 White-Collar Criminals Got Off Scot-Free After the 2008 Financial Crisis

Past failures to punish white-collar crime helped produce Trump
http://www.atimes.com/past-failures-to-punish-white-collar-crime-helped-produce-trump/
Of course, one shouldn't ignore the role of the Republican Party in terms of fomenting this degradation of the rule of law (clearly George W Bush's gutting of the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), his refusal to devote more fiscal resources to the hiring of additional Federal Bureau of Investigation field officers to probe financial fraud, and his appointments of Goldman Sachs' Hank Paulson and attorney general Alberto Gonzalez all contributed to this "criminogenic environment").
... snip ...

Rhetoric in congress was that Sarbanes-Oxley would prevent future ENRONs and guarantee that executives and auditors did jail time, but it required SEC to do something. Possibly because even GAO didn't believe SEC was doing anything, it started doing reports of public company fraudulent financial filings, even showing uptic after SOX goes into effect (and nobody doing jail time).

ENRON posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#enron
Sarbanes-Oxley posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#sarbanes-oxley
Financial Reporting Fraud posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#financial.reporting.fraud

In the Madoff hearings they had the person that tried unsuccessfully for a decade to get SEC to do something about Madoff (SEC hands were forced when Madoff turned himself in). Congress asked him if new regulations were needed. He said that while new regulations might be needed, more important was transparency and visibility (possibly since SEC didn't seem to be enforcing existing regulations).

madoff posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#madoff

economic mess posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#economic.mess

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

The time has come to nationalise auditing

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: The time has come to nationalise auditing
Blog: Facebook
Date: 31 Aug 2018
The time has come to nationalise auditing
http://www.taxresearch.org.uk/Blog/2018/08/30/the-time-has-come-to-nationalise-auditing/

Congressional rhetoric was that Sarbanes-Oxley would prevent future ENRONs and guarantee that executives and auditors did jail time, however it required SEC to do something. Possibly because even GAO didn't believe SEC was doing anything, GAO started doing reports of public company fraudulent financial filings, even showing increase after SOX goes into effect (and nobody doing jail time). There was joke at the time, that SOX was just big gift to the audit industry (significantly increased audit requirements, but wouldn't actually change anything), congress just felt so badly over one of the "big five" going out of business.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Big_Five_auditors#Big_Five
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arthur_Andersen
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enron

Middle of last decade, I was asked to participate in EU conference for corporate and exchange executives on SOX spreading into Europe (EU companies doing business with US companies). I was relatively caustic about SOX resulting in any fundamental change.

Less well known is that SOX also required SEC to do something about rating agencies that played major role in economic mess last decade. SEC did as much about rating agencies as they did about public company fraudulent financial filings.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sarbanes%E2%80%93Oxley_Act

recent reference
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#87 White-Collar Criminals Got Off Scot-Free After the 2008 Financial Crisis
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#89 White-Collar Criminals Got Off Scot-Free After the 2008 Financial Crisis

ENRON posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#enron
Sarbanes-Oxley posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#sarbanes-oxley
Financial Reporting Fraud posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#financial.reporting.fraud
economic mess posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#economic.mess

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

The (broken) economics of OSS

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: The (broken) economics of OSS
Blog: Facebook
Date: 02 Sep 2018
The (broken) economics of OSS
https://medium.com/@mattklein123/the-broken-economics-of-oss-5a1b31fc0182
In the early days of computing, primarily driven by academics, much of the intellectual property created was born out of the belief that all software should be free and open. During the late 70s and early 80s, proprietary software licensing took hold (driven by IBM, Microsoft, Apple, and others), and with it, the parallel free software movement that brought GNU, Linux, and eventually most of the software we use today in modern infrastructure computing (see Wikipedia for a more detailed history).
... snip ...

Driving by legal actions, 23June1969 IBM had the unbundling announcement, starting to charge for (application) software (although IBM managed to make the case that operating system/kernel software should still be free), SE services, maintenance, etc. unbundling posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#unbundling

In the early 70s, IBM had the Future System effort, including tight integration of all components (in part as countermeasure to clone controllers), to completely replace 360/370 and totally different. Ferguson & Morris, "Computer Wars: The Post-IBM World", Time Books, 1993 .... reference to the "Future System" project 1st half of the 70s, was going to completely replace 370 and 370 efforts were being shutdown, the lack of 370 products during the period is credited with giving clone processor makers market foothold ... also significantly tested IBM sales "FUD" (fear, uncertainty and doubt) marketing:
... and perhaps most damaging, the old culture under Watson Snr and Jr of free and vigorous debate was replaced with sycophancy and make no waves under Opel and Akers. It's claimed that thereafter, IBM lived in the shadow of defeat
...
But because of the heavy investment of face by the top management, F/S took years to kill, although its wrong headedness was obvious from the very outset. "For the first time, during F/S, outspoken criticism became politically dangerous," recalls a former top executive.
... snip ...

With the failure of FS, there was mad rush to get products back into 370 pipeline, including kicking off (Q&D) 303x and 3081 in parallel. 303x (external) channel director was 370/158 engine with integrated channel microcode, but w/o 370 microcode. 3031 was 370/158 engine with 370 microcode but w/o integrated channel microcode (and 2nd 158 engine for channel director). 3032 was 370/168 reconfigured to work with channel director for external channels. 3033 started out as 168 logic remapped to 20% faster chips. 3081 started out being some warmed over Future System hardware.
http://www.jfsowa.com/computer/memo125.htm
FS posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#futuresys

I had continued to work on 370 stuff all during the FS period, even periodically ridiculing FS activities (which wasn't exactly career enhancing activity). The failure of FS contributed to decision to release a lot of stuff I had been done doing the FS period. Apparently the rise of clone processors also resulted in the decision to transition to charging for kernel software and some of my stuff got selected for guinea pig (and I got to spend a lot of time with lawyers and business people on kernel software charging). some (related) posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#fairshare

The transition to kernel charging had been completed by early 80s and then came the transition to "Object Code Only" (no more shipping source) and the "OCO-wars" with customers.

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

It's 1983: What computer would you buy?

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: It's 1983:  What computer would you buy?
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Sun, 02 Sep 2018 16:16:24 -0700
Quadibloc <jsavard@ecn.ab.ca> writes:
Some of those were coming down in price. The DECSYSTEM-20 computers, and after them, the VAX, were not too bad for their day, so that might be the first thing I'd look at. But one would have to buy more than one to support 1,000 terminals.

I've mentioned before that mid-range mainframes had big uptic in the late 70s through mid-80s (when market started to shift to larger PCs and workstations). IBM 4300s sold approx. same numbers as VAX in this periods in the orders of one to few machines ... big difference were large corporations ordering hundreds of 4300s at a time for placing out in departmental areas (sort of the leading edge of the coming distributed computing tsunami).

old post with decade of VAX sales, sliced&diced by year, model, US/non-US (can see by 1987, mid-range market moving)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002f.html#0

old email about doing benchmark for national lab looking at getting 70 4300s for computer farm (sort of the leading edge of the coming cluster supercomputing tsunami).
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006y.html#email790212
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006y.html#email790212b
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006y.html#email790220
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006y.html#email790226

other email about USAFDC was going to talk about USAFDS was coming by to talk about getting 20 4341s.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001m.html#email790404

by the time they got around to coming around that fall, it had grown to 210 4341s. One of the things I could needle the MULTICS people about because it was major MULTICS instllation.
http://www.multicians.org/site-afdsc.html

old 4300 email
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/lhwemail.html#43xx

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

It's 1983: What computer would you buy?

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: It's 1983: What computer would you buy?
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Sun, 02 Sep 2018 16:53:32 -0700
Richard Thiebaud <thiebauddick2@aol.com> writes:
Out of curiosity, could any IBM mainframe support 1000 terminals in 1983? If so, what would its configuration likely have been?

re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#92 It's 1983: What computer would you buy?

very dependent on what kind of I/O going on.

I've periodically pontificated that original CKD & OS/360 design was trading off excess I/O capacity against scarce real storage ... and by mid-70s that trade-off was starting to invert (multi-track search for VTOC & PDS directries busied the channel, controller, and device for the duration of the (possibly full cylinder) search ... 20track (2314) and 19tracks (3330) at 60revs/sec (1/3rd sec) ... search for location of data on disk (as opposed to caching in real storage). past CKD, FBA, multi-track posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#dasd

By 1983, I was pontificating that relative system throughput of disk had declined by order of magnitude (disks got 3-5 times faster, systems got 50 times faster). old post with part of the analysis
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/93.html#31

comparing 360/67 cp/67 (w/80 uses) to 3081 vm/370 (w/320 users) ... based on CPU, it would have had 4,000 users, but number of users were proportional to system I/O, not system CPU.

some disk division executives took exception to my comments and assigned the division performance group to refute the numbers ... however after a few weeks they came back and essentially said that I had slightly understated the problem. They then respun the analysis for SHARE 63 presentation (B874) on configuring I/O for improved system throughput. Old posts with pieces of B874
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006f.html#3
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006o.html#68

Late 70s, I was called into large national retailer (after all the other company experts had passed through). They had several IBM 168s in loosely-coupled configuration sharing disk farm. Peak load during the day, system throughput almost ground to a halt. They brought me into classroom with class tables totally covered with foot high piles of system activity print-outs. After 30-40 minutes, I noticed that in periods of extreme throughput degradation a specific 3330 disk had aggregate peak (sum activity across all systems) of 7+ IOs/sec. Turns out it was the store application library (shared by all systems) with three cylinder PDS directory. Average depth of search was 1.5cylinders done by multi-track search ... 2 IOs/sec & about .5secs when nothing else went on that device, controller and channel. Split the application library into PDS files (& 3330s) and then create separate clone for each system.

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

It's 1983: What computer would you buy?

Refed: **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: It's 1983: What computer would you buy?
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Mon, 03 Sep 2018 19:01:42 -0700
drb@ihatespam.msu.edu (Dennis Boone) writes:
I'd guess some large airlines probably hit that mark. It looks like some form of sysplex was available for 3090 models, for example. For a pure IBM solution, therefore, multiple processors in a plex, dasd controllers with the assorted options for locking, lots of comms hardware to mux all those terminals home. In the credit card networks, apparently Series/1 machines were used by issuers as concentrators for transactions which were forwarded to e.g. Visa. Software: TPF or PARS.

The definition of "terminal" probably gets interesting here, if we're talking about airlines, never mind card processing.

Maybe Lynn can set me straight.


re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#92 It's 1983: What computer would you buy?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#93 It's 1983: What computer would you buy?

3090 is 1985. 1983 would be 3081 ... problem with (light-weight) ACP/TPF didn't have multiprocessor support at that time (initially 3081 was multiprocessor only and there was some fear that whole ACP/TPF market would move to clone vendors that were coming out with new, faster single processor systems) ACP/TPF got some scaleup by having multiple loosely-coupled (mainframe for cluster) systems sharing same disk farm (with sets of terminals pre-allocated/directed to specific systems).
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transaction_Processing_Facility

There were MVS/IMS systems with 10,000-60,000 terminals in this time-frame ... like ATM cash machines ... with preloaded single (or very small number) application that required extremely trivial number of I/Os per transaction (aka not generalized interactive computing)

This is VTAM/NCP emulation done by baby bell in the early 80s ... supporting large customers that might have over 60,000 terminal configurations ... that was implemented on multiple distributed Series/1 ... providing terminal connectivity routing between specific terminals and multiple target mainframes (not necessarily single mainframe).
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#67
emulated cross-domain with "terminal resource" owned by emulated VTAM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#70

IMS hot-standby was interested because they could fall-over in a couple minutes but VTAM session establishment was really heavyweight and increased non-linear with number of "terminals" ... getting all terminals sessions re-established could take 90-120 minutes. The series/1 emulation could do pre-established "shadow" session with the hot-standby system ... so IMS hot-standby (including VTAM sessions) could all be done in few minutes. We thought turning it out as type-1 product was firewalled off from the communication group killing the effort ... but what the communication group did next to kill the product can only be described as truth is stranger than fiction.

Note: this is different from mastercard use of series/1 for its interchange network (routing transactions between merchant bank processing and issuing bank processing ... aka merchant point-of-sale connect/dial their merchant processor ... which will then forward transaction over interchange network to the issuing/consumer bank processing ... which then is returned over interchange network to merchange processing and finally to merchant point-of-sale terminal). trivia: merchant&issuing bank processing used to thousands of locations ... but by turn of century, consolidation and outsourcing resulted in over 90% of all US transaction processing being done in six datacenters (with their own direct interconnect). Before that the card associations were charging "interchange fees" for use of their networks interconnecting merchant & issuing processing ... after turn of the century there were some legal battles over paying interchange fees when there was very little use of card association networks.

This is old reference to Jim Gray's analysis of the 3830 ACP/TPF locking feature ... logical/symbolic locks in the (70s disk) controller ... each 3830 with four-channel switch allowing connectivity up to four systems.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008i.html#email800325

Note 3830 ACP locking feature not part of official IBM strategy which included "string switch" ... each string of disks were connected to two different disk controllers ... allowing path connectivity for up to eight different systems (string switch to two controllers with each controller connected to four different systems). Problem was that ACP locking feature only worked with single controller and didn't provide for serialization across activity on the 2nd controller (on string switch to same disk). This left falling back to heavy weight device reserve/release for loosely-couple/cluster operation.

HONE was the (virtual machine based) world-wide online sales&marketing support system. In the mid-70s, all the US HONE datacenters were consolidated in Palo Alto (trivia, when facebook first moves into silicon valley, it is into new bldg built next door to the old HONE datacenter). By the late 70s, they were operating eight two-processor (high-end) mainframe systems in loosely-coupled (mainframe for cluster) with dynamic load-balancing and fall-over in the largest single-system image at that time (each disk was on string switch connected to two 3830 controllers and each 3830 controller connected to four different systems).

The heavyweight device reserve/release convention would have severely impacted throughput. What was done was create a compare&swap paradigm using CKD search data equal CCW convention. Symbolic locking fields were predefined as data on each disk, systems would read this data, update it and then do channel program that had search data equal, and if succesful do a write updating the record (otherwise, it would reread the record).

This was all branch offices, regional hdqtrs, and sales/marketing division hdqtr in the US with at least few thousand terminals (in 70s, branch office people had to share terminals). One of the issues with HONE was majority of the applications were done in (computation intensive) APL ... which contributed to congiruation with eight large two-processor mainframes (16 total) in single system image configuration. Some of the more significant computational applications were eventually redone in Fortran HX that could be called from APL.

trivia: my wife was in the gburg JES group and one of the catchers for ASP turning into JES3 ... also one of the authors of JESUS (JES unified systems) ... all the features in JES2&JES3 systems that the respective customers couldn't live w/o. She was then con'ed into going to POK to be in charge of loosely-coupled architecture where she did peer-coupled shared data architecture ... some past posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#shareddata

she didn't remain long because 1) little uptake (except for IMS hotstandby until SYSPLEX and Parallel SYSPLEX) and 2) constant battles with communication group trying to force her into using SNA/VTAM for loosely-coupled operation.

Sysplex/parallel sysplex reference
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM_Parallel_Sysplex

trivia: compare&swap (instruction) was originally done by charlie when he was working on CP/67 fine-grain multiprocessor locking at the science center (compare-and-swap was chosen because CAS are charlie's initials) compare&swap and/or multiprocessor posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#smp

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

The (broken) economics of OSS

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: The (broken) economics of OSS
Blog: Facebook
Date: 03 Sep 2018
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#91 The (broken) economics of OSS

TSS/360 & Future System were memory mapped filesystem with synchronous page fault fetches and little or no asynchronous overlapped execution ... which extremely limited filesystem/disk throughput. This a little like caches with synchronous cache miss and no cache fetch hints and/or out-of-order execution attempting to mitigate cache miss latency.

Also lots of people were throwing in every blue sky idea with little or no idea about how it might actually be implemented. Also had capability/object kind of storage access ... getting to actual data could require five storage accesses (because of the levels of indirection). One of the final nails in the FS coffin was study by Houston Scientific Center that showed that Eastern (airline reservation) System/One that ran on 370/195 ... if it was moved to FS machine made out of the fastest hardware then available (370/195), it would have throughput of 370/145 (10-30 times slowdown).

3081 is 370 microcode running on some processor technology from FS era. It had something like two <5mip processors (could even be slower than previous 3033, but in much smaller package, aka single frame). They doubled processor cache sizes ("3081k") and claimed two 7mip processors ... but lots of stuff ran more like two processor 3033.
http://www.jfsowa.com/computer/memo125.htm

The folklore is when FS imploded, some of the people retreated to rochester to do a simplified FS subset for the office products division as S/38 (low-end tab market) ... where 10-30 times processor&disk slowdown wouldn't be noticed. However, one of the S/38 simplification was all disks were in common filesystem pool with scatter allocation. As a result, system had to be taken down for complete filesystem backup of all disks as single entity ... and any single disk failure required complete filesystem restore. As S/38 configurations grew, single disk failure could result in 24hr downtime while system was restored. Because single disk failure became so catastrophic, S/38 became early adopter of RAID (IBM disk engineer 1977 patent).

Future System posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#futuresys

AS/400 was combined followon to S/38 & (primarily) S/36 products, dropping some number of S/38 features.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM_System_i

Other trivia, late 70s, early 80s there was an effort to migrate low-end & mid-range processors (including AS/400) as well as controllers off custom CISC to 801/RISC. For various reasons all of these efforts floundered, and they returned to business as usual with custom CISC. AS/400 finally does migrate to 801/RISC (power/pc) a decade later.

801/risc, iliad, romp, rios, power, power/pc, etc posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#801

more trivia: when I did original CMS page-mapped filesystem (that Jerry helped with) originally for CP67/CMS ... I supported paradigm with lots of asynchronous activity ... even in 3081/3380 time-frame I could demonstrate vm370/CMS with three times loaded throughput of the standard vm370/cms filesystem on the same hardware.

page-mapped filesystem posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#mmap

even more trivia: "vertical microcode" is the native hardware instruction that implements the higher level architecture. All low-end and mid-range 370 processors were "vertical microcode" implementation that averaged ten native instructions for every 370 instruction. For 138/148 followon to 370 135/145 and was told there was 6kbytes "microcode" space for moving highest executed portion of vm370 kernel instructions into native instructions (on approx. byte-for-byte basis). Following is analysis of vm370 kernel instruction paths ... sorted by frequency done for "ECPS" effort ... showing 6kbytes of vm370 kernel instruction cutoff at 79.55% of total kernel CPU use ... moving to microcode gained a ten times speedup (i.e. a one mips 370 required approx. 10mips native processor):
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/94.html#21

Other trivia: Tymshare
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tymshare
did 370 capability-based GNOSIS operating system that could have lots of throughput and performance (in part by going to higher level abstractions).
http://cap-lore.com/CapTheory/upenn/Gnosis/Gnosis.html

disclaimer: when MD bought Tymshare, I was brought in to evaluate GNOSIS as part of its spinoff to Key Logic as KeyKos. The original GNOSIS implementation for online commercial service bureau had enormous accounting pathlengths for complex charging and remittance for 3rd party application developers. Stripping that out for KeyKos allowed for applications that could run faster than IBM's customer APF/TPF operating system (but still with the capability-based security features).
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transaction_Processing_Facility

original 370 was announced w/o virtual memory ... lots of 370s shipped w/o it. It was relatively easy to upgrade/add virtual memory to 135&145, and a little bit harder to add it to 155 ... however 370/165 was having loads of problems with retrofitting full virtual memory architecture to 165 and would significantly slip 370 virtual memory announce. Eventually decision was made to drop 370 virtual memory features necessary to get 165 back on schedule ... even at that required a bunch of hardware added to 165 (already installed) to make it 370/165-II. That also required other models remove the dropped features and any software using the dropped features had to be reworked to correspond to the 165 subset. 165 had 64kbyte & 1mbyte segment options implemented ... however initial OS/360 MVT was mapped to VS2/SVS as single 16mbyte virtual address space. VM370/CMS would use 64kbyte segments ... and later MVS would use 1mbyte segments (but by that time, most MVS systems were on 168).

The impact on VM370/CMS was that read/only protected shared segments was one of the things dropped from original 370 virtual memory architecture ... VM370/CMS shared segments then had to do some really ugly hack to emulate shared segment protect.

Old account of justification adding virtual memory to all 370s ... basically MVT storage allocation was so bad, that regions were required to be four times larger than normally used. Upgrading to virtual memory (originally VS2/SVS) allowed four times as many regions with little or no paging:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011d.html#73

I had done a design for 370 with a whole lot more stuff in microcode .... including multiprocessor scheduling/dispatching partially masking how many real processors were in configuration in complex (ala 432) ... but never shipped. A big thing of that design as well as s/38 ... was it was all "microcode" (native software) and could be updated by just shipping new floppy disk.

iAPX432 gave talk in first part of 80s at Asilomar ACM SIGOPS conference ... one of their points was their really complex advanced features were in silicon and to patch required replacing the processor chip.

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

The (broken) economics of OSS

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: The (broken) economics of OSS
Blog: Facebook
Date: 03 Sep 2018
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#91 The (broken) economics of OSS
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#95 The (broken) economics of OSS

Amdahl did ACS/360 ... but was canceled when executives decided that ACS/360 would advance state of the art too fast and IBM could loose control of the market.
https://people.cs.clemson.edu/~mark/acs_end.html

Amdahl leaves shortly afterwards. A few years later (during Future System period), Amdahl gave talk to large audience in MIT auditorium. One of the students asked him how did he convince the money people invest in his clone processor startup. He said that he said that customers had already invested billions in 360 software and that even if IBM totally walked away from 360 (which could be construed as knowing that IBM was doing FS which was totally different from 370 and replace 370, although Amdahl has said he knew nothing about FS), there was sufficient 360 software to keep him in business through end of the century.

The lack of 370 products during the FS period is credited with giving the clone processor makers market foothold. After FS failure there was mad rush to get products back into 370 pipeline ... kicking off Q&D 303x and 3081 efforts in parallel.

The original 23June1969 unbundling announcement (starting to charge for software, other stuff), managed to make the case that kernel software should still be free. unbundling posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#unbundling

After (FS) giving clone makers market foothold, that decision was change to start charging for kernel software. FS posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#futuresys

Also there was whole series of tiny architecture changes that the latest operating systems required or wouldn't run.

In response, Amdahl did macro code, a level between low level machine horizontal microcode and 370 ... but with 370 instruction semantics ... making it trivial to track/implement the large number of minor architecture tweaks that were constantly coming out. Macro code also made it relatively simple to come out with hypervisor support (original PR/SM LPAR implementation). It took significant more effort for 3090 to eventually respond with PR/SM LPAR.

The downturn in mainframes in the late 80s pretty much did in the clone mainframe makers and nearly took down IBM in the early 90s when it went into the red (IBM was being reorganized into the 13 "baby blues" in preparation for breaking up the company, until new CEO was brought in).

part of downturn in mainframe, late 80s, senior disk engineer got talk scheduled at annual, world-wide internal communication group conference supposedly on 3174 performance, but opened the talk with the statement that the head of the communication group was going to be responsible for the demise of the (mainframe) disk division. The issue was that the communication group had stranglehold on datacenters with corporate strategic ownership of everything that crossed datacenter walls and were fiercely fighting off distributed computing and client/server, trying to preserve their dumb terminal paradigm and install base. The disk division was seeing data fleeing datacenters to more distributed computing friendly platforms with fall in disk sales. The disk division had come up with a number of solution to address the opportunity, but they were constantly being vetoed by the communication group. The mainframe datacenter stranglehold wasn't just affecting disk sales and a few years later the company goes into the red. dumb terminal paradigm/emulation posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#terminal

Large cloud megadatacenters for more than a decade have been claiming they assemble their own server systems for 1/3rd the cost of brand name servers. A couple years ago, server chip makers announced that they were shipping over half their chips directly to big cloud megadatacenters ... this was possibly final motivation for IBM selling off its server business. A big difference has been that cloud megadatacenters viewed server systems as a cost as opposed to profit. The big cloud megadatacenters have so radically reduced their server costs (possibly less than $1/BIPS compared to mainframe in the $100,000+/BIPS range) ... that power&cooling is increasingly becoming major cost for cloud megadatacenter (industry benchmarks now with power/transaction in addition to system cost/transaction)

recent cloud megadatacenter posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018.html#36 When did the home computer die?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018.html#46 VSE timeline [was: RE: VSAM usage for ancient disk models]
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018b.html#104 AW: mainframe distribution
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018c.html#24 Old word processors
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018c.html#46 Slashdot: Business under-investing in I.T
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018c.html#106 Has Microsoft commuted suicide
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018d.html#4 MORGAN STANLEY: Tech giants are investing way more 'aggressively' in data centers than anyone thought, and it's driving double-digit growth
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018d.html#27 The Medici Effect

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

The (broken) economics of OSS

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: The (broken) economics of OSS
Blog: Facebook
Date: 04 Sep 2018
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#91 The (broken) economics of OSS
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#95 The (broken) economics of OSS
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#96 The (broken) economics of OSS

FS had most of the major (technical) people in the company behind it. This is reference to decision to make all 370s virtual memory ... but also gets into the official strategy related to VS2R1(SVS) move to VSR2(MVS) was on glide path to VS2R3(FS) and references to Bob Evens role in it.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011d.html#73

and from Ferguson & Morris, "Computer Wars: The Post-IBM World", Time Books, 1993 .... reference to the "Future System" project 1st half of the 70s, was going to completely replace 370 and 370 efforts were being shutdown, the lack of 370 products during the period is credited with giving clone processor makers market foothold:
... and perhaps most damaging, the old culture under Watson Snr and Jr of free and vigorous debate was replaced with sycophancy and make no waves under Opel and Akers. It's claimed that thereafter, IBM lived in the shadow of defeat
...
But because of the heavy investment of face by the top management, F/S took years to kill, although its wrong headedness was obvious from the very outset. "For the first time, during F/S, outspoken criticism became politically dangerous," recalls a former top executive.
... snip ...

Amdahl did ACS/360 ... but was canceled when executives decided that ACS/360 would advance state of the art too fast and IBM could loose control of the market ... note at end, references some number of ACS/360 features showing up more than 20yrs later in ES/9000.
https://people.cs.clemson.edu/~mark/acs_end.html

Amdahl leaves shortly afterwards. A few years later (during Future System period), Amdahl gave talk to large audience in MIT auditorium. One of the students asked him how did he convince the money people to invest in his clone processor startup. He said that he told them that customers had already invested billions in 360 software and that even if IBM totally walked away from 360 (which could be construed as knowing that IBM was doing FS which was totally different from 370 and replace 370, although Amdahl has said he knew nothing about FS at the time), there was sufficient 360 software to keep him in business through end of the century.

This includes an account that the major motivation for FS was tight integration of components as countermeasures to clone controllers.
https://www.ecole.org/en/session/49-the-rise-and-fall-of-ibm
IBM tried to react by launching a major project called the 'Future System' (FS) in the early 1970's. The idea was to get so far ahead that the competition would never be able to keep up, and to have such a high level of integration that it would be impossible for competitors to follow a compatible niche strategy. However, the project failed because the objectives were too ambitious for the available technology. Many of the ideas that were developed were nevertheless adapted for later generations. Once IBM had acknowledged this failure, it launched its 'box strategy', which called for competitiveness with all the different types of compatible sub-systems. But this proved to be difficult because of IBM's cost structure and its R&D spending, and the strategy only resulted in a partial narrowing of the price gap between IBM and its rivals.
... snip ...

triva: as undergraduate, I added TTY/ASCII to CP/67 terminal support, which included automatic terminal type recognition by using SAD CCW to switch line/port scanner. I then wanted to have single dial-in number ("hunt group") for all terminals. It didn't quite work, since while it was possible to dynamically change line/port scanner, IBM controllers had hard-wired speed for each line/port. This prompted the university to start a clone controller effort, building channel interface board for Interdata/3 and programming Interdata/3 to emulate mainframe terminal controller ... including SAD CCW to change line/port scanner, but also adding dynamic line-speed determination. This was then enhanced to have Interdata/4 to handle channel interface and cluster of Interdata/3 handling ports. Interdata then marketed this as clone controller, and later when Perkin-Elmer bought Interdata, it was marketed under PE-logo. Four of us then get written up as responsible for (some part of) IBM clone controller business. Around the turn of the century, I toured a datacenter that (still) had one of these boxes handling most of merchant dial-up point-of-sale terminals on the east coast. some past posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#360pcm

During FS period, internal politics was killing off 370 efforts. The lack of 370 products during the FS period is credited with giving the clone processor makers market foothold. After FS failure there was then mad rush to get products back into 370 pipeline ... kicking off Q&D 303x and 3081 efforts in parallel.

I had been asked to poll IBMers on decision to do virtual memory for all 370 ... some other parts of reply not in
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011d.html#73
AOS was part of the war between Scotty Locken and Don Gavis over who was going to build the operating system for virtual hardware. Of course, the argument that convinced Bob Evans that it was a good idea we based on CP67 measurements, but that was immediately forgotten. AFOS was TSS running on 32-bit 168s, and it was a sight to behold. On performance and schedule, Locken won hands down, but the TSS group was too small to do the whole job, and Locken's plan would have used the existing OS/360 team to complete the package. This was where Gavis won, because he could do both OS/VS and OS/360 with the same resources, while Locken's plan would have abandoned OS/360 (both flavors - MFT II and MVT) at release 19, leaving the hardware plan high and dry. As a consolidation prize, the AFOS design was used as the starting point for the FS operating system, about which the less said the better.
...
Anyway, this is hard to document, all I can say is that I was there, attended the meetings where the decisions were made, and picked up the pieces as FS crumbled.
... snip ...

FS posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#futuresys

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

It's 1983: What computer would you buy?

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: It's 1983: What computer would you buy?
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Tue, 04 Sep 2018 16:35:41 -0700
Richard Thiebaud <thiebauddick2@aol.com> writes:
At what point could a mainframe or group of mainframes handle 1000 time-sharing users (probably as CMS)?

re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#92 It's 1983: What computer would you buy?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#93 It's 1983: What computer would you buy?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#94 It's 1983: What computer would you buy?

HONE did late 70s with eight two-processor systems in single system image .. around aggregate nearly 40MIPS ... they were 3mip processors ... but IBM reduced processor cycle time by 10% for two processor SMP cache machines ... to listen for cross-cache invalidation signals .. aka two processor SMP started at 1.8 times single processor machine ... actual handling cross-cache invalidation signals could reduce to 1.6 times single processor or about 39MIPs (for HONE configuration). SMP posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#smp

as previous post reference to old post with 1983 comparison
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/93.html#31

the CSC cp67/cms 360/67 had 45 2314 disk arms for 80 user, or avg. two users/arm. vm370/cms 3081 (around 10-14MIPS) had 32 3380 disk arms for 320 uses or avg 10 users per disk arm. except for specialized workloads, generalized CMS time-sharing is somewhat random access throughput per disk arm ... even tho 2314 went from 29mbytes to 630MB per disk arm (about 20times, original 3380), 3380 then doubled capacity by cutting inter data track spacing in half and doubling number of tracks ... and then tripled capacity by further cut in inter data track spacing and tripling tracks with capcity of 1890MB per disk arm.

The original work on systems moving from 3330s to 3380s showed that 3380s needed to be kept at 80% capacity. A 64 3330-II (200mbyte/disk, 12.8gbyte) congiruation could be mapped to 21 3380s (for amount of data) ... but needed 26 3380s to do the same number of aggregate I/Os as 64 3330s.

A two processor 3090 is 32MIPs
http://www.roylongbottom.org.uk/mips.htm#anchorIBM8

... but more critical would be possible 100 3380 disk arms (three times 3081, 320 user system).

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

It's 1983: What computer would you buy?

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: It's 1983: What computer would you buy?
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Tue, 04 Sep 2018 17:43:46 -0700
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#92 It's 1983: What computer would you buy?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#93 It's 1983: What computer would you buy?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#94 It's 1983: What computer would you buy?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#98 It's 1983: What computer would you buy?

caveats:

the CMS numbers aren't terminals ... number is active CMS log'ed on users (much less than the connected terminals).

some lighter weight environments could have 450 CMS (logged on active) users on 3081k with 32 3380 drives (instead of just 320)

I referenced that my paged-mapped (didn't ship to customers) had a bunch of throughput enhancements that got 2-3 times effective throughput of standard CMS filesystem ... so could imagine 3090 with 1,000 users on 3090-200 with 50 3380 drives (rather than 100).

there were lots of configurations that supported several tens of thousand of "terminals" ... but tended to be specialized environments as opposed to generalized interactive computing.

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

The (broken) economics of OSS

Refed: **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: The (broken) economics of OSS
Blog: Facebook
Date: 04 Sep 2018
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#91 The (broken) economics of OSS
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#95 The (broken) economics of OSS
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#96 The (broken) economics of OSS
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#97 The (broken) economics of OSS

with some amount of loosely-coupled (mainframe for cluster) ... including discussion of Jim Gray's analysis of ACP 3830 disk controller locking feature
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008i.html#email800325

some of the CTSS people went to the 5th flr for Project MAC and did MULTICS and others went to the IBM science center (CSC) on the 4th flr and did virtual machines (CP40 & CP67, precursor to VM370), internal network, invented GML in 1969 (a decade later morphs into ISO SGML standard and another decade morphs into HTML at CERN) and bunch of other stuff. The first relational product ships from 5th flr on MULTICS in 1976 while SJR was doing System/R on VM370 370/145 . I join CSC in 1970 and then transfer to SJR in 1977. I get roped into doing some amount of System/R ... as well as completely different kind of relational (that never ships, but was used at Los Gatos Lab for some VLSI design project). Some amount of conflicts with IMS group trying to show that System/R shouldn't ship. Then the "official" followon for IMS was EAGLE ... and while corporation was concentrating on EAGLE, managed to do tech transfer ("under the radar") to Endicott for SQL/DS. Then when EAGLE implodes, there is request how fast could SQL/DS be ported to MVS ... which is announced as DB2 (originally for decision support *only*).

The IMS people were claiming that System/R doubled DBMS disk space (for indexes) and increased I/O 4-5 times (for processing index). Criticsm of IMS that it exposed record location as part of data (eliminating index and I/O overhead) but reqired significant administration people time to manage all this infrastructure information as part of DBMS. In the 80s, price for disk space significantly dropped and processor storage significantly increased (cache indexes) while explosion in DBMS put severe strain on scarce people skills ... tipping scales from IMS to RDBMS for lots of operation. System/R posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#systemr

Later was doing RS/6000 HA/CMP (& cluster scaleup) support for both commercial and technical markets. Was working with Oracle because DB2 cluster support aka loosely-coupled, but was non-portable. There was portable "DB2" being developed for OS2 but was very primitive and lacked any sort of cluster support. ORACLE had common source base for UNIX and VMS (including VAX-cluster) and to simplify its port to HA/CMP cluster, I did API that implemented VAX-cluster semantics (but avoiding VAX-cluster shortfalls, based on lot of input from Oracle & Ingress and our own loosely-coupled experience). This old post references JAN1992 meeting in Ellison's conference room discussing Oracle cluster support for 128-way HA/CMP. One of the Oracle people in the room claims to have been in STL and did the port of SQL/DS to MVS.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/95.html#13

However, the MVS DB2 group was complaining if commercial HA/CMP cluster scaleup was allowed to proceed, it would be at least 5yrs ahead of them. Within a few weeks of the Ellison meeting, cluster scaleup was transferred, announced as IBM supercomputer (for scientific/technical *ONLY*) and we were told we couldn't work on anything with more than four processors. Other trivia, one of the Oracle people in the meeting claims that when he was at STL, he did the tech transfer of SQL/DS to STL for DB2.

Oracle would do fast commit ... with log record written, but w/o record written to DBMS location. However, to move record to another processor, it had to first be written to disk, and then record from disk by other processor. I did the work that would support transfering most current record to another processor (w/o having to first writing to disk) and some log gorp to merge records from different system logs into correct sequence during failure/recovery. Everybody was apprehensive about that at the time, so didn't get used. However, decade later, I was contacted about working on fast commit across cluster. HA/CMP posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#hacmp

MTS trivia: Lincoln Labs (2nd CP/67 installation) also did LLMPS ... a utility on the lines of DEBE but with multi-tasking supervisor and contributed to SHARE library (I have copy of the SHARE LLMPS manual). Lore is that MTS started using LLMPS as its core base.

As talked about in some detail in the AFC (google archive) thread, internal world-wide, sales&marketing online HONE did single-system image eight two-way in late 70s (but never shipped to customers, something shipped finally around 2010, 30yrs later). I mentioned that after joining IBM, one of my hobbies was doing production enhanced operating systems for internal datacenters and HONE was long time customer from almost their beginning.

HONE posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#hone
posts from afc thread
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#93 It's 1983: What computer would you buy?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#94 It's 1983: What computer would you buy?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#98 It's 1983: What computer would you buy?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#99 It's 1983: What computer would you buy?

Part of the issue was in the wake of failure of FS and kicking off the Q&D 3033 & 3081 efforts, head of POK managed to convince corporate to kill VM370 product, transfer all the people from the VM370 development group to POK to work on MVS/XA (or otherwise MVS/XA wouldn't be able to ship on time). Endicott did manage to save VM370 product mission, but had to reconstitute a development group from scratch.

POK was not planning on tell the VM370 development people until just prior to the move to minimize the number of people that managed to escape. However the info leaked and lots managed to escape, many to DEC (this was about the time VAX/VMS was starting and the joke is that the head of POK was one of the biggest contributors to VMS). There was a witch hunt to find who leaked the information, fortunately for me, nobody gave up the leaker.

Endicott didn't do SMP ... but tried to do loosely-coupled ... with POK constantly trying to knee-cap them. Five cluster 4341 was more powerful than 3033, much cheaper, and much less environmentals ... I was con'ed into do 4341 benchmarks for national lab early 1979 (before 4341 first ship) that was looking at getting 70 4341 for computer farm (sort of the leading edge of cluster supercomputer tsunami). However, in the 80s large corporations (including IBM) was ordering hundreds of 4341s at a time for placing out in departmental areas (inside IBM departmental conference rooms becoming scarce resource because taken over for 4341 computer room). ... leading edge of the coming distributed computing tsunami.

IBM San Jose folklore
http://www.cnn.com/TECH/computing/9907/08/1971.idg/index.html

370 microcode load was generalized corporate requirement, while San Jose more pressing requirement was microcode load for 3830 (DASD) controller.

When I transferred from the IBM Science Center (4th flr, Multics was on 5th flr) to San Jose Research (bldg28) in 1977, they let me wander around silicon valley, PASC in Palo Alto, Consolidated US HONE across the back parking lot from PASC, STL (DBMS), LSG VLSI, DASD development and product test (bldg 14&15) ... besides a lot of customers (slac, tymshare, LSI logic, etc) and give talks at monthly user group meetings held at slac (and BS with Amdahl engineers at Palo Alto watering holes after meetings).

14&15 were doing development&test using stand-alone processors prescheduled 7x24 around the clock. They had once tried to do it under MVS, but in that environment MVS had 15min MTBF. I offered to redo IO supervisor so it was bullet proof and never fail ... so they could do any number of on demand concurrent testing. This had a downside that when they had a problem, they would blame it on me ... and I would have to go over and diagnose their problems. Eventually they insisted that I sit in on design meetings as well as conference calls with POK channel engineers.

getting to play disk engineer in bldg 14&15
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#disk

Also in 68-69, TSS/360 was official virtual memory 360/67 systems ... and they were frequently trying to kneecap CP67. At that time there was approx. 12 total people working on CP67, CMS, applications and answering the phone compared to about 1200 on TSS/360.

science center posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech

Charlie had been SE on Lockheed MOL (manned orbital laboratory) effort that had triplex 360/67 with a lot of FAA/ATC type enhancements (software update control registers reflected in changes to controller that handle connectivity with processors, memory banks, channels, etc) before coming to science center. Standard 360/67 can sense the SMP controller configuration settings in control registers (see 360/67 func characteristics on bitsavers) ... but the triplex was enhanced to also change the configuration settings by changing values in control registers

Charlie invented compare&swap instruction while he was doing work on CP/67 fine-grain multiprocessor locking (compare&swap named because CAS are charlie's initials). Initial effort to get compare&swap added to 370 was rebuffed because the POK favorite son operating system said that test&set was more than adequate. 370 architecture owners said to justify compare&swap for 370, had to come up with some non-SMP uses, thus was invented the multi-threaded application uses (that still are included in principles of operation).

SMP and/or compare&swap posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#smp

IBM had very tight (cache) memory consistency ... 2-processor slowed the processor cycles down by 10% (1.8 single processor) for cache to listen for cross-cache invalidations ... processing any cross-cache invalidations slowed things down even further (maybe 1.6 single processor) ... then software serialization could slow it down even further ... MVS was frequently 1.2 times single processor. Two-processor I did for HONE could get close to 1.8 times (including some tricks having to do with processor affinity improving cache hit rate).

I did some work on low-end 5-way non-cache processor SMP (never announced). We then had 16-way with cache machine with very weak memory consistency that everybody was really fantastic (and had got some of the 3033 processor engineers to work on it in their spare time, this was before 3033 first shipped) ... until somebody told the head of POK that it could be decades before the POK favorite son operating system had (effective) 16-way support. Head of POK then invited some of us to never visit POK again (16-way mainframe finally ships in 2000 with z900).

They tied two 3081s together for 4-way 3084 ... but instead of each processor having to listen for cache invalidates from one other processors, it now has to listen for signals from three other processors (and had a lot of slowdown). 3090 for six way has to do a lot more innovation.

1988, I'm asked to help LLNL with standardization of some serial stuff they are playing with, which quickly becomes fibre channel standard (including some stuff I had done in 1980 for channel extender, minimizing latency in the enormous mainframe protocol chatter). Then SLAC people want me to participate in SCI standardization ... which does serializtion for both memory bus and various kinds of I/O. SCI standard memory standard has directory-based weak memory consistency for (up to) 64 caches. Data General and Sequant did 256-way 486, 64 four 486 cpu shared cache boards. Convex (later bought by HP) did 64 two PA-RISC cpu shared cahce boards. I did some consulting for Sequent CTO (after leaving IBM and before IBM bought them and shut them down).

fibre channel standard and/or FICON posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#ficon
fibre channel standard wiki
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fibre_Channel
SCI wiki
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scalable_Coherent_Interface

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

White-Collar Criminals Got Off Scot-Free After the 2008 Financial Crisis

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: White-Collar Criminals Got Off Scot-Free After the 2008 Financial Crisis
Blog: Facebook
Date: 05 Sep 2018
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018c.html#97 PwC Whistleblower Alleges Fraud in Audits of Silicon Valley Companies
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#3 Firm that Audits the Fed's Financial Statements Hit with $625 Million in Damages for Negligence in Bank-Fraud Case Brought by the FDIC
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#48 Multimillion-dollar award against PwC is window into typically secret auditor settlements
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#62 The big flaw: auditing in crisis
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#87 White-Collar Criminals Got Off Scot-Free After the 2008 Financial Crisis
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#89 White-Collar Criminals Got Off Scot-Free After the 2008 Financial Crisis
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#90 The time has come to nationalise auditing

Looking Back on the Prosecution Failures after the 2008 Wall Street Crash
http://wallstreetonparade.com/2018/08/looking-back-on-the-prosecution-failures-after-the-2008-wall-street-crash/
'Lehman Weekend': the biggest bankruptcy in American history
https://phys.org/news/2018-09-lehman-weekend-biggest-bankruptcy-american.html
10 Years Later - No Lessons Learned
https://www.zerohedge.com/news/2018-09-04/10-years-later-no-lessons-learned
Tenth Anniversary Of Financial Collapse, Preparing For The Next Crash
https://www.counterpunch.org/2018/09/05/tenth-anniversary-of-financial-collapse-preparing-for-the-next-crash/

economic mess posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#economic.mess

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Can we learn from financial lessons of 90 years ago?

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Can we learn from financial lessons of 90 years ago?
Blog: Facebook
Date: 05 Sep 2018
Can we learn from financial lessons of 90 years ago?
http://www.atimes.com/article/can-we-learn-from-financial-lessons-of-90-years-ago/

1999 was asked to help try and prevent the coming economic mess (we failed). Some number of investment bankers had walked way "clean" from the S&L crises, where then Internet IPO mills (invest a few million, hype, IPO for a few billion, needed to fail to leave field clear for the next round of IPOs), and were predicted to get into securitized mortgages next. I was to improve the integrity of supporting documents as countermeasure. However, they then find they can pay rating agencies for triple-A rating (when the rating agencies knew they weren't worth triple-A, from Oct2008 congressional hearings into the roles that the rating agencies played). Triple-A rating trumps supporting documents and they can start doing no-documentation, liar loans (no documents, no document integrity). Triple-A significantly contributing to being able to do over $27T 2001-2008 (including selling to operations restricted to only dealing with "safe" investments, like large institution pension funds).

Initially, paying for triple-A eliminated any need to care about borrower's qualifications or loan quality. Then they find that they can do securitized mortgages designed to fail, sell to their customers and take out CDS gambling bets that they would fail ... now they cared about borrower's qualification, but maybe not as one might expect. The largest holder of these gambling bets was AIG and negotiating to pay off at 50cents on the dollar. Then the SECTREAS steps in, gets them to sign document that they can't sue those making the gambling bets and to take TARP funds to pay off at face value. The largest recipient of TARP funds was AIG and the largest recipient of face value payoffs was firm formally headed by SECTREAS.

Jan, 2009 (decade later), I was asked to HTML'ize (aka WWW/WEB) the Pecora Hearings (senate hearings into the '29 crash, resulted in glass-steagall and criminal convictions with jailtime) with lots of internal HREFs and URLs between what happen this time and what happen then (comments that the new congress might have appetite to do something). I work on it for awhile, and then get a call that it won't be needed after all (comments that capital hill was totally buried under mountains of wallstreet cash).

VP and former CIA director repeatedly claims no knowledge of
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iran%E2%80%93Contra_affair
because he was fulltime administration point person deregulating financial industry ... creating S&L crisis
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Savings_and_loan_crisis
along with other members of his family
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Savings_and_loan_crisis#Silverado_Savings_and_Loan
and another
http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9D0CE0D81E3BF937A25753C1A966958260

last decade another family member presides over the economic mess 70 times larger than the S&L crises. S&L crisis had 1000 criminal convictions with jailtime, proportionally the economic mess should have 70,000.

#2 on times list of those responsible for the economic mess ... not so much for GLBA but for act that prevented CDO gambling bets from being regulated (originally referred to as "gift" to ENRON). However, GLBA (now better known for repeal of Glass-Steagall, enabling too big to fail, too big to prosecute, too big to jail) original claim was that it was going to prevent issuing new banking charters (gift to banking industry, blocking new competition, specifically mentioning microsoft and walmart).
http://content.time.com/time/specials/packages/article/0,28804,1877351_1877350_1877330,00.html

#2's wife was working as economist for Koch funded institute, when the chair of CFTC proposed regulating the CDS gambling bets, the chair was then quickly replaced with #2's wife ... while he got provision added to the law to prevent regulation (originally referred to as gift to ENRON). When that was done, #2's wife resigned and joined the ENRON board and audit committee. Gramm and the 'Enron Loophole'
http://www.nytimes.com/2008/11/17/business/17grammside.html
Enron was a major contributor to Mr. Gramm's political campaigns, and Mr. Gramm's wife, Wendy, served on the Enron board, which she joined after stepping down as chairwoman of the Commodity Futures Trading Commission.
... snip ...

Phil Gramm's Enron Favor .. gone 404 but lives on at wayback machine
https://web.archive.org/web/20080711114839/http://www.villagevoice.com/2002-01-15/news/phil-gramm-s-enron-favor/
A few days after she got the ball rolling on the exemption, Wendy Gramm resigned from the commission. Enron soon appointed her to its board of directors, where she served on the audit committee, which oversees the inner financial workings of the corporation. For this, the company paid her between $915,000 and $1.85 million in stocks and dividends, as much as $50,000 in annual salary, and $176,000 in attendance fees
... snip ...

economic mess posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#economic.mess
triple-A rated (toxic) CDO posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#toxic.cdo
S&L crisis posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.htm#s&l.crises
Pecora and/or Glass-Steagall posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#Pecora&/orGlass-Steagall
ENRON posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#enron

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

The (broken) economics of OSS

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: The (broken) economics of OSS
Blog: Facebook
Date: 05 Sep 2018
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#91 The (broken) economics of OSS
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#95 The (broken) economics of OSS
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#96 The (broken) economics of OSS
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#97 The (broken) economics of OSS
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#100 The (broken) economics of OSS

Actually, RS/6000 had its problems with PS2. The precursor ROMP with PC/AT bus (PC/RT) did their own cards. Then for RS/6000 with microchannel, AWD were told that they couldn't do their own cards, they had to use PS2 microchannel cards. For the PC/RT, they had done a PC/AT bus (16bit) 4mbit token-ring card ... but for RS/6000, they were forced to use the PS2 microchannel (32bit) 16mbit token-ring card. It turns out the PC/RT 4mbit T/R card, had higher per-card throughput than the PS2 16mbit T/R card (dictated by the communication group as part of its dumb terminal emulation strategy). The joke was if RS/6000 was restricted to only using PS2 cards, it wouldn't have any higher throughput than PS2. As part of strategy to get around corporate mandate, they came out with RS/6000 730, a machine with VMEbus (instead of microchannel) ... and since there were no PS2 VMEbus cards, they could actually use cards designed for high performance.

aka a PC/RT server with its own 4mbit T/R card had higher (LAN) througput than RS/6000 server with PS2 16mbit microchannel card. Similar for "high performance" display cards, SCSI disk controller cards, etc.

801/risc, iliad, romp, rios chips, pc/rt, rs/6000 power, power/c
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#801

The Palo Alto group that was doing port of USB BSD unix to 370 ... got redirected to do the port directly to the native ROMP hardware for "AOS" ... which was less effort than the port for AIX to the abstract machine interface (not even taken into account the PL.8 effort for the abstract machine implementation) .... negating the earlier claims about effort justifying the PL.8 abstract machine implementation. Palo Alto was also working with UCLA on its LOCUS unix work alike ... and did ports to 370 and 386 ... which was released as AIX/370 and AIX/386.

As undergraduate in 60s, I rewrote a lot of CP/67 code ... inculding redoing paging, dispatching, scheduling, ... scheduling was dynamic adaptive resource management ... community referred to as "fair share" since one of the policy was fair share resource ... which was all picked up and shipped in standard product. The transition to VM370 eliminated and simplified a bunch of stuff ... including nearly all the stuff I did as undergraduate. After the failure of FS, there was mad rush to get stuff back in 370 product pipelines, which contributed to decision to release a bunch of stuff that I had moved to vm370 ... old email
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006v.html#email731212
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006w.html#email750102
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006w.html#email750430

ibm cambridge science center
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech

... in the small window before head of POK manages to shutdown the vm370 group (trivia: in the 731212 email, one of the BU co-op students when they graduate, goes out to IDC). As result of litigation, IBM 23June1969 announced unbundling ... starting to charge for (application) software, other stuff (but manages to make case that kernel is still free). With the rise of clone processors during the FS period (internal politics shutting down 370 efforts), they make the decision to start charging for kernel software and my scheduler gets selected for the guinea pig.

unbundling posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#unbundle
fair share scheduling
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#fairshare

Much later, OS2 group contacts Endicott about how to do scheduling. Endicott sends them to me.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007i.html#email871204
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007i.html#email871204b

other trivia: before ms/dos
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MS-DOS
there was seattle computer
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seattle_Computer_Products
before seattle computer, there was cp/m
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CP/M
before developing cp/m, kildall worked on cp67/cms at npg (gone 404, but lives on at the wayback machine)
http://web.archive.org/web/20071011100440/http://www.khet.net/gmc/docs/museum/en_cpmName.html
npg
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Naval_Postgraduate_School

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

The (broken) economics of OSS

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: The (broken) economics of OSS
Blog: Facebook
Date: 06 Sep 2018
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#91 The (broken) economics of OSS
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#95 The (broken) economics of OSS
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#96 The (broken) economics of OSS
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#97 The (broken) economics of OSS
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#100 The (broken) economics of OSS
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#103 The (broken) economics of OSS

Mid-90s at financial conferences, dial-up online banking operations were making presentations that they were moving to internet, in large part the enormous customer support costs associated with supported serial port modems (get offloaded to ISPs) ... commercial/business dial-up online banking claimed that they would never move to internet because of long list of vulnerabilities, even with SSL (however, they eventually move to Internet anyway).

dial-up online banking posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#dialup-banking

Turn of the century (five years later), there was big effort to move to chipcards for authentication/security as countermeasure to most of the vulnerabilities. One of the financial institutions did a give-away of (serial port) chipcard readers ... which resulted in enormous customer complaints (lots of situations of blue screen of death and systems had to be reinstalled from scratch). As a result there was rapidly spreading opinion that chipcards weren't viable in the consumer market and big pullback from hardware tokens/chipcards (and m'soft shutting down its PC/SC group). It turns out the problem wasn't the chipcards, but those give-away serial port cardreaders, apparently the financial institution had gotten a fire sale on (obsolete) cardreaders (about to be replaced with USB) and the institutional knowledge about serial port consumer problems had evaporated in 5yr period.

My wife and I get a meeting scheduled in Redmond with some financial institutions (not the one responsible for cardreader give away), the kernel security group and some of the members of the former PC/SC group to try and reverse the wide-spread opinion; i.e. it wasn't chipcards, it was the specific give-away chipcard readers. Unfortunately it was concluded that it was too late to reverse the damage done by the give-away program.

before that we had gotten agreement with compaq to ship keyboards with builtin chipcard reader on every machine/laptop with major internet merchants help underwrite the incremental cost ... that all collapsed with the serial port give-away

... and

SPM was done for CP/67 originally by IBM Pisa Scientific Center ... started to be used internally for things like VNET and other service virtual machines (virtual appliance), but not shipped to customers. Official product VMCF came out with vm370 release 3 ... followed by IUCV, both combined were still subset of what was supported by SPM. Old email about migrating bunch of CP67 stuff to VM370 base (including SPM).
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006v.html#email731212
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006w.html#email750102
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006w.html#email750430

science center posts:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech

note: author of REXX in the 70s, did 3720-based, multi-user spacewar game that used SPM ... and since it was supported by VNET, it would work for players on the same machine as well distributed players over the network. trivia: almost immediately robot players started to appear that were beating human players. to help level the playing field, added movements that were happening faster than human rate, had non-linear increase in energy use. Old post discussing service virtual machines that includes an intro/overview of SPMS (a CMS SPM untility)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006w.html#16

also includes a discussion of CMSBACK (service virtual machine) that I had done in late 70s and deployed internally inside IBM, later evolves to WSDF (workstation datasave facility), then ADSM and now TSM.

cmsback posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#cmsback

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

White-Collar Criminals Got Off Scot-Free After the 2008 Financial Crisis

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: White-Collar Criminals Got Off Scot-Free After the 2008 Financial Crisis
Blog: Facebook
Date: 06 Sep 2018
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#87 White-Collar Criminals Got Off Scot-Free After the 2008 Financial Crisis
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#89 White-Collar Criminals Got Off Scot-Free After the 2008 Financial Crisis
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#101 White-Collar Criminals Got Off Scot-Free After the 2008 Financial Crisis
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#102 Can we learn from financial lessons of 90 years ago?

After 10 Years Of "Recovery," What Are Central Banks So Afraid Of?
https://www.zerohedge.com/news/2018-09-06/after-10-years-recovery-what-are-central-banks-so-afraid
If the world's economies still need central bank life support to survive, they aren't healthy--they're barely clinging to life.
... snip ...

economic mess posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#economic.mess

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

The (broken) economics of OSS

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: The (broken) economics of OSS
Blog: Facebook
Date: 06 Sep 2018
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#91 The (broken) economics of OSS
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#95 The (broken) economics of OSS
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#96 The (broken) economics of OSS
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#97 The (broken) economics of OSS
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#100 The (broken) economics of OSS
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#103 The (broken) economics of OSS
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#104 The (broken) economics of OSS

Note that 360/67 supported both 24bit and 32bit address virtual memory modes and 360/67 SMP had lots of features like all processors could access/use all channels. 360 SMP and 370 SMP had two processor sharing memory but each processor had dedicated I/O channels. 370 virtual memory only support 24bit addressing mode. It wasn't until 370/xa (3081) that 370 virtual memory addressing was extended to 31bits (i.e. more than 24bits).

Also OS/360 API paradigm was extensively pointer passing ... which required kernel and subsystems to access caller's address space to access&return parameters/results. MVS put 8mbyte image of kernel into every (24bit) 16mbyte address space as a result (net 8mbytes for applications in each application virtual address space). For subsystem in separate virtual address spaces, they created the shared "common segment" in each virtual address space (net 7mbytes for application) where applications would allocate dedicated parameter/return areas for exchanging parameters/results. Common segment requirement was somewhat proportional to workload & number of subsystems, and by 3033 timeframe, customers were having difficulty limiting command segment/area to only 6mbytes (leaving only 2mbytes out of 16mbytes for application) and many were faced with growing to 8mbyte command "area" leaving zero bytes for applications.

In the 70s, there was severe problem in IBM Burlington, they worked hard to keep custom MVS systems that left 7mbytes for their major production FORTRAN VLSI application ... which was also having a great deal of difficulty, any new features would drive it over 7mbytes (preventing it from executing in MVS environment). There was deal to convert all those mainframe to VM370/CMS ... where they would have nearly the full 16mbytes for their application execution.

370/xa provided for "access registers" basically multiple hardware address space pointers where privileged subsystems were invoked/run with secondary address space of the calling application (that it could directly load/store parameters/results) ... multiple instances of each subsystem could be invoked with their own address space plus secondary address space pointer of each calling application.

A subset of 370/xa access registers were retrofitted to 3033 as "dual address space mode" (trying to alleviate pressure on common segment/area totally taking over the 8mbyte application part of 16mbyte address space) ... but that was much easier than the effort/time it took to upgrade subsystems software to actually use it.

370/xa also defined subsystem program "call" and "return" hardware instructions that referenced a system table performed directly swapping address space pointers (w/o requiring kernel call)

recent posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#8 BSAM vs QSAM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#61 Paging subsystems in the era of bigass memory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017e.html#40 Mainframe Family tree and chronology 2
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017e.html#94 Migration off Mainframe to other platform
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017i.html#48 64 bit addressing into the future
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017i.html#57 64 bit addressing into the future
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018.html#92 S/360 addressing, not Honeywell 200
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018.html#96 S/360 addressing, not Honeywell 200
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018.html#97 S/360 addressing, not Honeywell 200
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018c.html#23 VS History

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

The LLC Loophole; In New York, where an LLC is legally a person

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: The LLC Loophole; In New York, where an LLC is legally a person
Blog: Facebook
Date: 07 Sep 2018
The LLC Loophole; In New York, where an LLC is legally a person, companies can use the vehicles to blast through campaign finance limits.
https://www.theinvestigativefund.org/investigation/2018/09/07/the-llc-loophole/?platform=hootsuite
But none of the donations came from Breslin Realty itself. They came instead from a network of 22 limited liability companies that, though all controlled by Breslin, legally operate as separate individuals and so, under New York state's campaign finance laws, can each donate the individual maximum to political campaigns.
... snip ...

Amazon.com: Treasure Islands: Uncovering the Damage of Offshore Banking and Tax Havens
https://www.amazon.com/Treasure-Islands-Uncovering-Offshore-Banking-ebook/dp/B004OA6420/
references corporations are people and can vote in City of London, 32k corporate voters and 9k human voters.

We the Corporations: How American Businesses Won Their Civil Rights
https://www.amazon.com/We-Corporations-American-Businesses-Rights-ebook/dp/B01M64LRDJ/

Originally, US corporations were entities that operate in public interest, but then certain factions wanted those rights extended to entities that can operate in self interest as well "people" rights under constitution.

pg36/loc726-28:
On this issue, Hamiltonians were corporationalists--proponents of corporate enterprise who advocated for expansive constitutional rights for business. Jeffersonians, meanwhile, were populists--opponents of corporate power who sought to limit corporate rights in the name of the people.

pg120|loc1975-78:
The railroad corporations were constitutional first movers who employed innovative tactics to secure new rights. They envisioned the lawsuits as a form of strategic litigation, or what their lawyers called "test cases," to determine whether corporations had the same rights as ordinary people to equal protection and due process under the Fourteenth Amendment.
... snip ..

Thomas Jefferson: The Art of Power
https://www.amazon.com/Thomas-Jefferson-Power-Jon-Meacham-ebook/dp/B0089EHKE8/?

loc5080-83:
Hamilton wanted the bank to be funded by federal deposits but run, in part, for the benefit of private investors. Jefferson and Madison objected. 29 They feared that the Hamiltonian program would enable financial speculators to benefit from commercial transactions made possible by government funds.
... snip ...

recent posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018c.html#52 We the Corporations: How American Businesses Won Their Civil Rights
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018c.html#94 Barb
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#16 America Celebrates Lateral Move From Monarchy To Corporate Rule
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#36 OT: Trump
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#72 Top CEOs' compensation increased 17.6 percent in 2017

inequality posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#inequality

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

The United States' Perpetual War in Afghanistan

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: The United States' Perpetual War in Afghanistan
Blog: Facebook
Date: 09 Sep 2018
The United States' Perpetual War in Afghanistan
https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/north-america/2018-08-20/united-states-perpetual-war-afghanistan

We Are Losing The Afghan War
http://warnewsupdates.blogspot.com/2018/09/we-are-losing-afghan-war.html
The US is losing in Afghanistan
https://www.businessinsider.com/the-us-is-losing-in-afghanistan-but-the-trump-admin-wont-admit-it-2018-9

'Perpetual War' Explained In 140 Seconds
https://www.zerohedge.com/news/2018-07-22/perpetual-war-explained-140-seconds

Smedley's "War is Racket"
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/War_Is_a_Racket
The Perpetual Business Of War
https://www.zerohedge.com/news/2018-04-26/perpetual-business-war
Chuck's Perpetual War
http://chuckspinney.blogspot.com/p/domestic-roots-of-perpetual-war.html
Perpetual war
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perpetual_war
Older "perpetual war"
http://archive.org/details/triumphantpluto00pettrich

loc6265-74:
XXX. THE LEAGUE TO PERPETUATE WAR The war has just begun. I said that when the Armistice terms were published and when I read the Treaty and the League Covenant I felt more than ever convinced of the justice of my conclusion. The Treaty of Versailles is merely an armistice -- a suspension of hostilities, while the combatants get their wind. There is a war in every chapter of the Treaty and in every section of the League Covenant; war all over the world; war without end so long as the conditions endure which produce these documents.
... snip ...

perpetual war posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#perpetual.war
military-industrial(-congressional) complex
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#military.industrial.complex

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Pigs Want To Feed at the Trough Again: Bernanke, Geithner and Paulson Use Crisis Anniversary to Ask for More Bailout Powers

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Pigs Want To Feed at the Trough Again: Bernanke, Geithner and Paulson Use Crisis Anniversary to Ask for More Bailout Powers
Blog: Facebook
Date: 10 Sep 2018
Pigs Want To Feed at the Trough Again: Bernanke, Geithner and Paulson Use Crisis Anniversary to Ask for More Bailout Powers
https://www.nakedcapitalism.com/2018/09/pigs-want-to-feed-at-the-trough-again-bernanke-geithner-and-paulson-use-crisis-anniversary-to-ask-for-more-bailout-powers.html
Recall that Paulson's first TARP proposal was a mere 3 pages demanding $700 billion, more than the hard costs of the Iraq War, and even worse, put the Treasury beyond the rule of law
... snip ...

Turn of the century, they had found that they could pay for triple-A ratings on securitized loans/mortgages that the rating agencies knew weren't worth "triple-A" (from Oct2008 congressional hearings) ... largely enabling being able to do over $27T 2001-2008, including selling to institutions restricted to only dealing in "safe" investments, like large pension funds.

SECTREAS gets $700B TARP funds supposedly to buy off-book toxic assets from TBTF https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Troubled_Asset_Relief_Program however with only $700B it wouldn't put a dent in the problem when just the four largest TBTF were still holding $5.2T ye2008. TARP is used for other purposes and the real TBTF bailout is done by Federal Reserve. The FED fights long legal battle to prevent disclosing what they are doing, buying trillions in toxic assets and providing tens of trillions in ZIRP funds.
https://www.csmonitor.com/USA/2010/1201/Federal-Reserve-s-astounding-report-We-loaned-banks-trillions
When they loose, the FED chairman holds press conference and says that he had assumed that TBTF would use ZIRP funds to help mainstreet, but when they didn't, he had no way to force them (but he didn't stop the ZIRP funds). Note that supposedly chairman had been selected because he was '29 crash scholar, however, something similar had been tried then with the same result, so he should have had no expectation of a different result.

Initially, paying for triple-A eliminated any need to care about borrower's qualifications or loan quality. Then they find that they can do securitized loan/mortgages designed to fail, sell to their customers and take out CDS gambling bets that they would fail, creating enormous demand for dodgy loans/mortgages ... now they cared about borrower's qualification, but maybe not as one might expect. The largest holder of these gambling bets was AIG and negotiating to pay off at 50cents on the dollar. Then the SECTREAS steps in, gets them to sign document that they can't sue those making the gambling bets and to take TARP funds to pay off at face value. The largest recipient of TARP funds was AIG and the largest recipient of face value payoffs was firm formally headed by SECTREAS.

Estimate is that TBTF are making $300B/annum using ZIRP funds to buy treasuries (off the spread between ZIRP and treasuries).
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zero_interest-rate_policy
but it requires enormous federal debt. In 2002 congress lets the fiscal responsibility act (spending can't exceed tax revenue, on its way to eliminating all federal debt.) lapse. 2010 CBO report has 2003-2009, spending increased $6T and taxes cut $6T for $12T gap compared to fiscal responsible budget, first time taxes were cut to not pay for two wars. FED and TBTF want enormous federal debt, special interests want enormous tax cut, and military industrial complex want enormous spending.

Original Iraq justification was Al Qaeda and would only cost $50B ... then it was changed to WMDs. Current estimate for the two wars is passing $5T (with long-term veterans costs), more than 100 times original Iraq estimate.

CIA director Colby refuses to approve "Team B" analysis claiming huge Russian military capability, justifying huge US military spending increase.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Team_B
White House Chief of Staff Rumsfeld gets Colby replaced with somebody (Bush1) that will agree with "Team B" analysis. Rumsfeld then resigns to become SECDEF (and is replaced by his assistant Cheney).

In the 80s, US support Iraq in the iran/iraq war
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iran%E2%80%93Iraq_War
Bush1 is VP and Rumsfeld is involved in supporting Iraq., including supplying WMDs
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_support_for_Iraq_during_the_Iran%E2%80%93Iraq_war
In the early 90s, Bush1 is president and Cheney is SECDEF. Sat. photo recon analyst told white house that saddam was marshaling forces to invade Kuwait. White house said that saddam would do no such thing and proceeded to discredit the analyst. Later the analyst informed the white house that saddam was marshaling forces to invade Saudi Arabia, now the white house has to choose between saddam and the Saudis.
https://www.amazon.com/Long-Strange-Journey-Intelligence-ebook/dp/B004NNV5H2/
This century, Bush2 is president, Cheney is VP, Rumsfeld is SECDEF and one of the "Team B" members is deputy SECDEF (and major architect of Iraq policy).
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul_Wolfowitz
Before the invasion, the cousin of white house chief of staff Card ... was dealing with the Iraqis at the UN and was given evidence that WMDs (tracing back to US in the Iran/Iraq war) had been decommissioned. the cousin shared it with Card, Powell and others ... then is locked up in military hospital, book was published in 2010 (before decommissioned WMDs were declassified)
https://www.amazon.com/EXTREME-PREJUDICE-Terrifying-Story-Patriot-ebook/dp/B004HYHBK2/
NY Times series from 2014, the decommission WMDs (tracing back to US from Iran/Iraq war), had been found early in the invasion, but the information was classified for a decade
http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2014/10/14/world/middleeast/us-casualties-of-iraq-chemical-weapons.html
and military-industrial-complex wanted a war so badly that corporate reps were telling former eastern block countries that if they voted for IRAQ2 invasion in the UN, they would get membership in NATO and (directed appropriation) USAID (can *ONLY* be used for purchase of modern US arms). From the law of unintended consequences, the invaders were told to bypass ammo dumps looking for WMDs, when they got around to going back, over a million metric tons had evaporated.
https://www.amazon.com/Prophets-War-Lockheed-Military-Industrial-ebook/dp/B0047T86BA/

TBTF (too big to fail, too bit of prosecute, too big to jail) posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#too-big-to-fail
(triple-a rated) toxic CDO posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#toxic.cdo
Fed chairman posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#fed.chairman
ZIRP posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#zirp
fiscal responsibility act posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#fiscal.responsibility.act
Economic Mess posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#economic.mess
S&L crises posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#s&l.crises
'29 crash, Pecora Hearings and/or Glass-Steagall posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#Pecora&/orGlass-Steagall

TEAM B posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#team.b
WMD posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#wmds
military-industrial(-congressional) complex posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#military.industrial.complex

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Pigs Want To Feed at the Trough Again: Bernanke, Geithner and Paulson Use Crisis Anniversary to Ask for More Bailout Powers

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Pigs Want To Feed at the Trough Again: Bernanke, Geithner and Paulson Use Crisis Anniversary to Ask for More Bailout Powers
Blog: Facebook
Date: 10 Sep 2018
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#109 Pigs Want To Feed at the Trough Again: Bernanke, Geithner and Paulson Use Crisis Anniversary to Ask for More Bailout Powers

James Grant Responds To The Bernanke-Paulson-Geithner Op-Ed
https://www.zerohedge.com/news/2018-09-10/james-grant-responds-bernanke-paulson-geithner-op-ed
What has been most extraordinary about extraordinary monetary policy is the awkward denial of uncertainty in defense of extraordinary actions. Wanting so badly to manipulate our expectations, the central bankers did not want to leave us any room for doubt... The Fed and other central banks appear to have avoided being candid about the uncertainty in order to maintain their credibility. But this is backwards. They cannot regain their credibility unless they are candid about the uncertainty and how they confront it.
... snip ...

Ten Years After Lehman's Collapse: What caused the Crash of 2008 is now shaping our post-modern 1930s - der Freitag
https://www.zerohedge.com/news/2018-09-10/10-years-later-lehman-still-shaping-our-post-modern-1930s-moment

Economic Mess posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#economic.mess

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Pigs Want To Feed at the Trough Again: Bernanke, Geithner and Paulson Use Crisis Anniversary to Ask for More Bailout Powers

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Pigs Want To Feed at the Trough Again: Bernanke, Geithner and Paulson Use Crisis Anniversary to Ask for More Bailout Powers
Blog: Facebook
Date: 11 Sep 2018
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#109 Pigs Want To Feed at the Trough Again: Bernanke, Geithner and Paulson Use Crisis Anniversary to Ask for More Bailout Powers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#110 Pigs Want To Feed at the Trough Again: Bernanke, Geithner and Paulson Use Crisis Anniversary to Ask for More Bailout Powers

He Was the Resistance Inside the Obama Administration
https://newrepublic.com/article/151159/tim-geithner-resistance-inside-obama-administration

Gerstner was in competition to be next CEO of AMEX and won. The looser then leaves taking their "protegee" and go to Baltimore taking over what has been described as loan sharking business. They make some other acquisitions eventually acquiring CITI in violation of Glass-Steagall. Greenspan gives them a pass while they lobby congress for repeal. They enlist several in washington, including SECTREAS (who Summers and Geithner report to). Once the repeal is underway, the SECTREAS resigns (and is replaced by Summers) and joins CITI in what was described at the time as co-CEO. The "protegee" then leaves and becomes head of one of the other TBTF (between them, well more than half of the $5.2T in off-book toxic assets still held YE2008 by the four largest TBTF).

Geithner then becomes head of NYFED 2003-2009 with responsibilities for these institutions during height of economic mess. Citibank (and others) had several repeated "deferred prosecutions" during the period (fined for some violation, but given get-out-of-jail free if promised to not do it again, then did it again, and they just ignored that there was already "deferred prosecution"). There are stories that NYFED had numerous people onsite at Lehman for months (well before it went under). One NYFED person on site claims to have repeatedly raised major issues about Lehman practices ... and NYFED removed them from their job. There have been numerous questions about long term close ties between the regulators and those that they regulated.

Confidence Men: Wall Street, Washington, and the Education of a President.
https://www.amazon.com/Confidence-Men-Washington-Education-ebook/dp/B0089LOKKS/

has several references that essentially wallstreet was using the EHM debt strategy against the American public. other references were about new president having to choose between the economic A-team (Volcker et al) and the B-team. The A-team was instrumental in getting him elected, but the A-team would have held wallstreet and the too-big-to-fail accountable, which would have likely taken down most of those institutions (so new president chooses the b-team that wasn't going to hold anybody responsible).

economic mess posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#economic.mess
Fed chairman posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#fed.chairman
too big to fail ("too big to prosecute", "too big to jail") posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#too.big.to.fail
regulatory capture posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#regulatory.capture
Gerstner posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#gerstner

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Pigs Want To Feed at the Trough Again: Bernanke, Geithner and Paulson Use Crisis Anniversary to Ask for More Bailout Powers

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Pigs Want To Feed at the Trough Again: Bernanke, Geithner and Paulson Use Crisis Anniversary to Ask for More Bailout Powers
Blog: Facebook
Date: 11 Sep 2018
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#109 Pigs Want To Feed at the Trough Again: Bernanke, Geithner and Paulson Use Crisis Anniversary to Ask for More Bailout Powers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#110 Pigs Want To Feed at the Trough Again: Bernanke, Geithner and Paulson Use Crisis Anniversary to Ask for More Bailout Powers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#111 Pigs Want To Feed at the Trough Again: Bernanke, Geithner and Paulson Use Crisis Anniversary to Ask for More Bailout Powers

The Real Cost of the 2008 Financial Crisis
https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2018/09/17/the-real-cost-of-the-2008-financial-crisis
September 15th marks the tenth anniversary of the demise of the investment bank Lehman Brothers, which presaged the biggest financial crisis and deepest economic recession since the nineteen-thirties. After Lehman filed for bankruptcy, and great swaths of the markets froze, it looked as if many other major financial institutions would also collapse.
... snip ...

... note: Oct2008 congressional hearings into the pivotal role that the rating agencies played in the economic mess found that they were selling "triple-A" on things which they knew weren't worth triple-A, major contributor to being able to do over $27T 2001-2008 (and allowing the buyers to sell questionable products to investors that were restricted to only dealing in safe investments, like large pension funds). Spring of 2008, possibly some investors were becoming aware that rating agencies were selling "triple-A" (on things not worth triple-A) resulting in the muni-bond market freezing. Warren Buffett then steps in and starts offering muni-bond insurance to unfreeze the market.

Ten Years Since Lehman: Biggest Driver of 2008 Financial Crisis Has Only Got Worse
https://www.zerohedge.com/news/2018-09-11/ten-years-lehman-biggest-driver-2008-financial-crisis-has-only-got-worse
The 2008 financial crisis upturned politics - and it's not done yet
https://moneyweek.com/494638/the-2008-financial-crisis-upturned-politics-and-its-not-done-yet/

economic mess posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#economic.mess
(triple-A rated) toxic CDOs posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#toxic.cdo

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

The Supreme Court Is Headed Back to the 19th Century

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: The Supreme Court Is Headed Back to the 19th Century
Blog: Facebook
Date: 11 Sep 2018
The Supreme Court Is Headed Back to the 19th Century
https://www.theatlantic.com/ideas/archive/2018/09/redemption-court/566963/
How Supreme Court Pick Brett Kavanaugh Could Return US Policy to the Era of Robber Barons
https://www.nakedcapitalism.com/2018/09/supreme-court-pick-brett-kavanaugh-return-us-policy-era-robber-barons.html

inequality posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#inequality

recent posts about corporations getting constitutional rights (corporations are people):
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018b.html#45 More Guns Do Not Stop More Crimes, Evidence Shows
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018b.html#102 Hidden History of How US Corporations Gained Legal Personhood and Civil Rights
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018c.html#52 We the Corporations: How American Businesses Won Their Civil Rights
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018c.html#54 We the Corporations: How American Businesses Won Their Civil Rights
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018c.html#94 Barb
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018d.html#46 Mission Command Is Swarm Intelligence
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018d.html#58 We must stop bad bosses using migrant labour to drive down wages
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018d.html#95 More Immigration
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#16 America Celebrates Lateral Move From Monarchy To Corporate Rule
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#72 Top CEOs' compensation increased 17.6 percent in 2017
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#107 The LLC Loophole; In New York, where an LLC is legally a person

other robber baron posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008j.html#80 dollar coins
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009p.html#86 Opinions on the 'Unix Haters' Handbook
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009p.html#87 IBM driving mainframe systems programmers into the ground
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009s.html#13 DEC-10 SOS Editor Intra-Line Editing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010n.html#55 The 10 Highest-Paid CEOs Who Laid Off The Most Employees
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010q.html#66 Ernst & Young sued for fraud over Lehman
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011l.html#51 The Truth About the "Robber Barons"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012g.html#60 Singer Cartons of Punch Cards
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012g.html#80 Monopoly/ Cartons of Punch Cards
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012h.html#27 Monopoly/ Cartons of Punch Cards
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013e.html#7 How to Cut Megabanks Down to Size
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013f.html#21 What Makes weapons control Bizarre?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013k.html#63 What Makes a Tax System Bizarre?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014b.html#73 Royal Pardon For Turing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014m.html#39 LEO
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015f.html#92 1973--TI 8 digit electric calculator--$99.95
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015g.html#57 1973--TI 8 digit electric calculator--$99.95
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016c.html#51 A call for revolution
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#49 How Finance Behaves like a Parasite Toward the Economy
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017f.html#43 MVS vs HASP vs JES (was 2821)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017h.html#1 OT: book: "Capital in the Twenty-First Century"

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virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Pigs Want To Feed at the Trough Again: Bernanke, Geithner and Paulson Use Crisis Anniversary to Ask for More Bailout Powers

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Pigs Want To Feed at the Trough Again: Bernanke, Geithner and Paulson Use Crisis Anniversary to Ask for More Bailout Powers
Blog: Facebook
Date: 12 Sep 2018
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#109 Pigs Want To Feed at the Trough Again: Bernanke, Geithner and Paulson Use Crisis Anniversary to Ask for More Bailout Powers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#110 Pigs Want To Feed at the Trough Again: Bernanke, Geithner and Paulson Use Crisis Anniversary to Ask for More Bailout Powers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#111 Pigs Want To Feed at the Trough Again: Bernanke, Geithner and Paulson Use Crisis Anniversary to Ask for More Bailout Powers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018e.html#112 Pigs Want To Feed at the Trough Again: Bernanke, Geithner and Paulson Use Crisis Anniversary to Ask for More Bailout Powers

triva:

SECTREAS from the 90s (that Summers and Geithner reported to) had previously been head of a major wallstreet financial institution. Then SECTREAS in the following administration (had also been head of same institution) after the turn of the century, same time Geithner was head of NYFED ... so many members of that financial institution were working at Treasury, the joke was Treasury had become its DC branch office.

other trivia:

VP and former CIA director repeatedly claims no knowledge of
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iran%E2%80%93Contra_affair
because he was fulltime administration point person deregulating financial industry ... creating S&L crisis
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Savings_and_loan_crisis
along with other members of his family
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Savings_and_loan_crisis#Silverado_Savings_and_Loan
and another
http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9D0CE0D81E3BF937A25753C1A966958260

last decade (after turn of century) another family member is president and presides over the economic mess 70 times larger than the S&L crises. S&L crisis had 1000 criminal convictions with jailtime, proportionally the economic mess should have 70,000.

even more trivia:

AMEX was in competition with KKR (one of the largest PE companies) for private-equity LBO take-over of RJR and KKR wins. KKR runs into some trouble with RJR and hires away AMEX president to help turn it around.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barbarians_at_the_Gate:_The_Fall_of_RJR_Nabisco
IBM is then gone into the red and was being organized into "13 baby blues" in preparation for breaking up the company. gone behind paywall, but mostly lives free at wayback machine
http://web.archive.org/web/20101120231857/http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,977353,00.html
The board then brings in the former AMEX president, who uses some of the same techniques used at RJR:
http://www.ibmemployee.com/RetirementHeist.shtml
Then the former AMEX president leaves to become the head of another major private-equity company in Washington
http://www.motherjones.com/politics/2007/10/barbarians-capitol-private-equity-public-enemy/
Lou Gerstner, former ceo of ibm, now heads the Carlyle Group, a Washington-based global private equity firm whose 2006 revenues of $87 billion were just a few billion below ibm's. Carlyle has boasted George H.W. Bush, George W. Bush, and former Secretary of State James Baker III on its employee roster.

economic mess posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#economic.mess
S&L crises posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#S&L.crises
former AMEX president posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#gerstner
private-equity posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#private.equity
regulatory capture posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#regulatory.capture

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Economists Should Stop Defending Milton Friedman's Pseudo-science

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Economists Should Stop Defending Milton Friedman's Pseudo-science
Blog: Facebook
Date: 13 Sep 2018
Economists Should Stop Defending Milton Friedman's Pseudo-science
https://evonomics.com/economists-stop-defending-milton-friedmans-pseudo-science/
The result has proved to be disastrous. The fundamental paradigm of economics that emerged from this methodology not only failed to anticipative the Crash of 2008 and its devastating effects, it has proved incapable of producing a consensus within the discipline as to the nature and cause of the economic stagnation we find ourselves in the midst of today.
... snip ...

economic mess posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#economic.mess
ineqaulity posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#inequality

recent Milton Friedman posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018.html#25 Trump's Infrastructure Plan Is Actually Pence's--And It's All About Privatization
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018b.html#82 The Real Reason the Investor Class Hates Pensions
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018b.html#87 Where Is Everyone???
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018c.html#81 What Lies Beyond Capitalism And Socialism?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2018c.html#83 Economists and the Powerful: Convenient Theories, Distorted Facts, Ample Rewards

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virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Census Bureau Reveals Grim Facts about Real Earnings of Men

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Census Bureau Reveals Grim Facts about Real Earnings of Men
Blog: Facebook
Date: 13 Sep 2018
Census Bureau Reveals Grim Facts about Real Earnings of Men
https://wolfstreet.com/2018/09/12/real-earnings-of-men-women-income-distribution/
Median household income in 2017, adjusted for inflation (via CPI), inched up a measly 1.8% to $61,372. "Household income" is the entire pre-tax "money income" of a household, including wages, interest, dividends, Social Security, Workers Comp, child support, and the like, but excluding capital gains. The mediocre news is that median household income has finally inched above where it had been 18 years ago, in 1999
... snip ...

ineqaulity posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#inequality

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

The rich want to use money to solve problems, except the problems that made them rich

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: The rich want to use money to solve problems, except the problems that made them rich
Blog: Facebook
Date: 13 Sep 2018
The rich want to use money to solve problems, except the problems that made them rich
https://www.fastcompany.com/90232368/the-rich-want-to-use-money-to-solve-problems-except-the-problems-that-made-them-rich

I ran into that working on financial standards ... there were a number of places where significant profit was being made off inefficient areas in the infrastructure .... there was enormous pushback when there was standard that would eliminate such inefficiencies

ineqaulity posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#inequality

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

IBM today

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: IBM today
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Thu, 13 Sep 2018 10:34:22 -0700
James Jaworski <lilzebra68@gmail.com> writes:
Yeah, I know what you mean.

I miss the "old" IBM company. The "old" IBM was focused more on hardware & software, while IBM current focuses on software, blockchain (related to bitcoin).

To me, IBM peaked in the 1970s through the late 1980s. After the 80s left us, they changed into something different.

I like their new font "IBM Plex" that they created, so they don't have to pay $1 M annually for Helvetica, but aside from that... meh.

Will IBM even be around at the turn of the next century?


forced by legal action, IBM had the 23june1969 unbundling announcement, starting to charge (separately) for software, SE services, maint, etc ... although they managed to make the case the operating system softwre should still be "free" (bundled).

unbundling posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#unbundling

about the same time, Amdahl was doing ACS/360 ... but was canceled when executives decided that ACS/360 would advance state of the art too fast and IBM could loose control of the market ... note at end, references some number of ACS/360 features showing up more than 20yrs later in ES/9000.
https://people.cs.clemson.edu/~mark/acs_end.html

early 70s, IBM had "Future System" ... completely different from 370 and was going to completely replace it. This includes an account that the major motivation for FS was tight integration of components as countermeasures to clone controllers.
https://www.ecole.org/en/session/49-the-rise-and-fall-of-ibm
IBM tried to react by launching a major project called the 'Future System' (FS) in the early 1970's. The idea was to get so far ahead that the competition would never be able to keep up, and to have such a high level of integration that it would be impossible for competitors to follow a compatible niche strategy. However, the project failed because the objectives were too ambitious for the available technology. Many of the ideas that were developed were nevertheless adapted for later generations. Once IBM had acknowledged this failure, it launched its 'box strategy', which called for competitiveness with all the different types of compatible sub-systems. But this proved to be difficult because of IBM's cost structure and its R&D spending, and the strategy only resulted in a partial narrowing of the price gap between IBM and its rivals.
... snip ...

and from Ferguson & Morris, "Computer Wars: The Post-IBM World", Time Books, 1993 .... reference to the "Future System" project, since would completely replace 370, 370 efforts were being shutdown, the lack of 370 products during the period is credited with giving clone processor makers market foothold:
... and perhaps most damaging, the old culture under Watson Snr and Jr of free and vigorous debate was replaced with sycophancy and make no waves under Opel and Akers. It's claimed that thereafter, IBM lived in the shadow of defeat
...
But because of the heavy investment of face by the top management, F/S took years to kill, although its wrong headedness was obvious from the very outset. "For the first time, during F/S, outspoken criticism became politically dangerous," recalls a former top executive.
... snip ...

Some observations that the extremely convoluted SNA and interface between PU4/PU5 (37x5 & VTAM) was continuing tight integration of controllers ... for its dumb (later emulated) terminal paradigm.

future system posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#futuresys

trivia: late 70s & early 80s, I was blamed for online computer conferencing (precursor to modern social media) on the internal network (larger than arpanet/internet from just about the beginning to sometime mid-80s. Folklore is that when corporate executive committee was told about online computer conferencing (and internal network), 5of6 wanted to fire me. There were lots of long online discussions on the subjects during this period, from IBMJARGON:

Tandem Memos - n. Something constructive but hard to control; a fresh of breath air (sic). That's another Tandem Memos. A phrase to worry middle management. It refers to the computer-based conference (widely distributed in 1981) in which many technical personnel expressed dissatisfaction with the tools available to them at that time, and also constructively criticized the way products were are developed. The memos are required reading for anyone with a serious interest in quality products. If you have not seen the memos, try reading the November 1981 Datamation summary.
... snip ...

online computer conferencing posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#cmc
internal network posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#internalnet

Late 80s, senior disk engineer got talk scheduled at annual, world-wide internal communication group conference supposedly on 3174 performance, but opened the talk with the statement that the head of the communication group was going to be responsible for the demise of the disk division. The issue was that the communication group had stranglehold on datacenters with corporate strategic ownership of everything that crossed datacenter walls and were fiercely fighting off distributed computing and client/server, trying to preserve their dumb terminal paradigm and install base. The disk division was seeing data fleeing datacenters to more distributed computing friendly platforms with fall in disk sales. The disk division had come up with a number of solution to address the opportunity, but they were constantly being vetoed by the communication group. The mainframe datacenter stranglehold wasn't just affecting disk sales and a few years later the company goes into the red.

terminal (emulation) paradigm
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#terminal

note, AMEX was in competition with KKR for <b>private equity</b> LBO takeover of RJR and KKR wins. KKR runs into trouble with RJR and hires away the AMEX president to help turn it around.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barbarians_at_the_Gate:_The_Fall_of_RJR_Nabisco
then IBM has run into trouble and was being reorged into the 13 "baby blues" in preparation for breaking up the company. "How IBM Was Left Behind" (gone behind paywall, but mostly leaves free at wayback machine)
http://web.archive.org/web/20101120231857/http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,977353,00.html
The board than hires away the former AMEX president, who reverses the breakup and uses some of the same techniques used at RJR
http://www.ibmemployee.com/RetirementHeist.shtml
He later leaves to head up another major private equity comapny
http://www.motherjones.com/politics/2007/10/barbarians-capitol-private-equity-public-enemy/
Lou Gerstner, former ceo of ibm, now heads the Carlyle Group, a Washington-based global <b>private equity</b> firm whose 2006 revenues of $87 billion were just a few billion below ibm's. Carlyle has boasted George H.W. Bush, George W. Bush, and former Secretary of State James Baker III on its employee roster.
... snip ...

Gerstner posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#gerstner

This century, Stockman in "The Great Deformation: The Corruption of Capitalism in America", IBM just one of many examples (financial engineering for compensation rather than running the company) ... pg464/loc9995-10000:
IBM was not the born-again growth machine trumpeted by the mob of Wall Street momo traders. It was actually a stock buyback contraption on steroids. During the five years ending in fiscal 2011, the company spent a staggering $67 billion repurchasing its own shares, a figure that was equal to 100 percent of its net income.
pg465/10014-17:
Total shareholder distributions, including dividends, amounted to $82 billion, or 122 percent, of net income over this five-year period. Likewise, during the last five years IBM spent less on capital investment than its depreciation and amortization charges, and also shrank its constant dollar spending for research and development by nearly 2 percent annually.
... snip ...

stock buyback posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#stock.buyback

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virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970






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