List of Archived Posts

2017 Newsgroup Postings (02/24 - 03/26)

Locking our own orientation
FCC puts the brakes on ISP privacy rules it just passed in October
ISPF (was Fujitsu Mainframe Vs IBM mainframe)
The ICL 2900
How do BIG WEBSITES work?
NSA Deputy Director: Why I Spent the Last 40 Years In National Security
How do BIG WEBSITES work?
SC/MP (1977 microprocessor) architecture
MULTICS is ALIVE - booting MR12.6e 6180 emulation
SC/MP (1977 microprocessor) architecture
SC/MP (1977 microprocessor) architecture
"Big Four" accounting firms take a hit
Rolander, Tom oral history (DRI, CPM, etc)
Check out Massive Amazon cloud service outage disrupts sites
Check out Massive Amazon cloud service outage disrupts sites
China's claim it has 'quantum' radar may leave $17 billion F-35 naked
System z: I/O Interoperability Evolution - From Bus & Tag to FICON
Hearing aids
FCC halts data security rules
Check out Massive Amazon cloud service outage disrupts sites
The FCC Seems Unlikely to Stop Internet Providers from Selling Your Data
Congratulations IBM for 'inventing' out-of-office email. You win Stupid Patent of the Month
How do BIG WEBSITES work?
How do BIG WEBSITES work?
Trump to sign cyber security order
Hamilton and "Fake News"
Multitasking, together with OS operations
Pentagon Blocks Littoral Combat Ship Overrun From a GAO Report
The ICL 2900
Multitasking, together with OS operations
The ICL 2900
Too-Big-To-Fail Not Punished
Hamilton and "Fake News"
CBS News: WikiLeaks claims to release thousands of CIA documents of computer activity
CBS News: WikiLeaks claims to release thousands of CIA documents of computer activity
curious: why S/360 & decendants are "big endian"
Trump's S.E.C. Nominee Disclosure Offers Rare Glimpse of Clients and Conflicts
New phone scams
CBS News: WikiLeaks claims to release thousands of CIA documents of computer activity
The Blockchain Will Do to the Financial System What the Internet Did to Media
Stop Believing in the Many Myths of the Iraq Surge
Profitable Companies, No Taxes: Here's How They Did It
Profitable Companies, No Taxes: Here's How They Did It
Formed by Megafloods, This Place Fooled Scientists for Decades
The ICL 2900
The ICL 2900
New phone scams
WikiLeaks CIA Dump: Washington's Data Security Is a Mess
The ICL 2900
The ICL 2900
Mainframes after Future System
F-35 Replacement: F-45 Mustang II Fighter -- Simple & Lightweight
The ICL 2900
Multics Timeline
The ICL 2900
The ICL 2900
Wall Street Vs. Main Street
Trump to Seek Spinoff of U.S. Air-Traffic Control From FAA
The ICL 2900
The ICL 2900
[EXTERNAL] ComputerWorld Says: Cobol plays major role in U.S. government breaches
[EXTERNAL] ComputerWorld Says: Cobol plays major role in U.S. government breaches
Most people are secretly threatened by creativity
The ICL 2900
Most people are secretly threatened by creativity
Movie Computers
Mind of War
Cobol plays major role in U.S. government breaches
Movie Computers
ComputerWorld Says: Cobol plays major role in U.S. government breaches
ComputerWorld Says: Cobol plays major role in U.S. government breaches
ComputerWorld Says: Cobol plays major role in U.S. government breaches
Movie Computers
Movie Computers
Being Lazy Is the Key to Success, According to the Best-Selling Author of 'Moneyball'
ComputerWorld Says: Cobol plays major role in U.S. government breaches
Cobol plays major role in U.S. government breaches
Trump's crackdown focuses on people in the U.S. illegally - but not on the businesses that hire them
A 40-year 'conspiracy' at the VA; The Department of Veterans Affairs built perhaps the most important medical computer system in history
An OODA-loop is a far-from-equilibrium, non-linear system with feedback
Great mainframe history(?)
GREAT presentation on the history of the mainframe
Great mainframe history(?)
Great mainframe history(?)
Great mainframe history(?)
Great mainframe history(?)
GREAT presentation on the history of the mainframe
GREAT presentation on the history of the mainframe
GREAT presentation on the history of the mainframe
GREAT presentation on the history of the mainframe
Economist, Harry Dent Hints: Global Banks Facing a Serious Crisis in Months Ahead
Godwin's Law should force us to remember & fear our shared heritage with Nazi Germany
An OODA-loop is a far-from-equilibrium, non-linear system with feedback
An OODA-loop is a far-from-equilibrium, non-linear system with feedback
GREAT presentation on the history of the mainframe
GREAT presentation on the history of the mainframe
ComputerWorld Says: Cobol plays major role in U.S. government breaches

Locking our own orientation

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Locking our own orientation
Date: 24 Feb 2017
Blog: Slightly East of New
Locking our own orientation
https://slightlyeastofnew.com/2017/02/23/locking-our-own-orientation/

Boyd would advocate observing from all possible facets as countermeasure to orientation bias.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subboyd.html

I did cyber dynamic adaptive resource management as undergraduate in the 60s. Part of that was instrumenting/measuring every possible resource and a philosophy of "scheduling to the bottleneck". The state of the art at the time (and for decades afterwards) was decide ahead of time what the bottleneck resource was ... and at best, measuring the single resource and making decisions based on those (limited) measurements. Later I would make claims that the relative system throughput of certain computer resources had decline by order of magnitude over a little more than a decade. The real issue was certain computer resources had gotten 50 times faster in the period, while other resources only got three times faster (which radically shifted the scheduling to the bottleneck) .... while most others hardly even noticed it was happening.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#fairshare

I've frequently claimed because of my approach to cyber as undergraduate in the 60s ... I was extremely predisposed to feel strong affinity to Boyd when I met him in the 80s (and sponsored his briefings at IBM).

Boyd would draw a circle for the domain and viewing from every possible facet from outside the circle. There used to be talk about some oldtime executives regarding management by wandering about, they use to wander around the manufacturing floor 2nd shift talking to people as well as spend a lot of time talking to customers. This was before MBAs and management by myopic focus on numbers. There was a period where an accountant was running a manufacturing division (into the ground) and they brought back one of the old time executives who identified various manufacturing process problems by wandering around.

Early 80s, Boyd would include in briefings that former military officers were starting to contiminate US corporate culture with their rigid, top-down command and control. However, at the time time articles were starting to appear that MBAs were starting to destroy US corporations with their myopic focus on quarterly numbers.

Rhetoric on floor of congress, was that Sarbanes-Oxley would prevent future ENRONs and guarantee executives and auditors did jailtime. After SOX goes into effect there is large EU conference of CEOs and exchange presidents about SOX audits was leaking into Europe for companies that did business with Europe. I gave a talk on audits needing independent verification, I could still defeat SOX audit by making sure that all the computer generated reports were consistant. As an aside, SOX required SEC to do something. Possibly even GAO didn't believe SEC was doing anything and was doing GAO reports of public company fraudulent financial filings, even showing increase after SOX goes into effect (and nobody doing jailtime). There was joke at the time that SOX was primarily a full employment gift to the audit industry (after one going out of business in the wake of ENRON). Also the only possibly benefit of SOX was provision for whistleblowers ... TIPs turn up 13 times more fraud than audits.

http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#sarbanes-oxley and
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#enron
and
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#financial.reporting.fraud
and
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#whistleblower
regulatory capture
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#regulatory.capture

Incestuous Amplification somewhat overlaps issue of studying something from the inside or outside, but analogy can be inbreeding with recessive (bad) mutations ... need a larger gene pool. Issue is how large does the gene pool have to be w/o necessarily raising the internal/external issues ... where "ideas" (and lots of viewpoints from all possible facets) are used in place of "gene pool".

The other scenario is evolution specialized adapting to economic niche ... if "over" specialized, then can be disastrous when the environment changes (an analogy might be the military always fighting the last war).

This also gets into Kahneman "Thinking Fast and Slow" ... things that are done quickly with little or no reflection and contemplation verses activities require a lot more thought, some past posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011p.html#147 The Myth of Work-Life Balance
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012b.html#44 What's the most interesting thing you do in your non-work life?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012b.html#59 Original Thinking Is Hard, Where Good Ideas Come From
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#18 Memory versus processor speed
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012i.html#65 Thousands Of IBM Employees Got A Nasty Surprise Yesterday: Here's The Email They Saw
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012i.html#87 Naked emperors, holy cows and Libor
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012j.html#4 Interesting News Article
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012j.html#74 What voters are really choosing in November
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012m.html#64 Guest Post: Beakley on Boyd, Aerial Combat and the OODA-Loop
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013k.html#52 The agency problem and how to create a criminogenic environment
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013o.html#15 IBM Shrinks - Analysts Hate It
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014b.html#29 Royal Pardon for credit unions

other posts ref. kahneman
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012e.html#57 speculation
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012g.html#16 Psychology Of Fraud: Why Good People Do Bad Things
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012i.html#92 Naked emperors, holy cows and Libor
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014b.html#53 Royal Pardon For Turing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#24 Destruction of the Middle Class
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#26 Milton Friedman's Cherished Theory Is Laid to Rest
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#66 Deep learning algorithm does as well as dermatologists in identifying skin cancer
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#92 Trump's Rollback of the Neoliberal Market State
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#93 The Undoing Project: A Friendship That Changed Our Minds Kindle Edition
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#97 Trump to sign cyber security order
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#11 Trump to sign cyber security order
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#17 Trump to sign cyber security order
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#24 Disorder
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#26 Virtualization's Past Helps Explain Its Current Importance
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#43 when to get out???

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

FCC puts the brakes on ISP privacy rules it just passed in October

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: FCC puts the brakes on ISP privacy rules it just passed in October
Date: 24 Feb 2017
Blog: Facebook
FCC puts the brakes on ISP privacy rules it just passed in October
http://www.pcworld.com/article/3174191/internet/fcc-puts-the-brakes-on-isp-privacy-rules-it-just-passed-in-october.html

We were brought in to help wordsmith some Cal. state legislation. They did electronic signature act, data breach notification act and were working on "opt-in" personal information sharing act (required explicit approval to share your personal information) when an (federal pre-emption) "opt-out" sharing was added to GLBA (institutions could share your information unless it had record of you objecting). At 2004 annual national privacy conference in Wash. DC. that had panel with the FTC commissioners. Somebody in the audience asked them if they were going to do anything about GLBA "opt-out". He said that he worked for major call-center technology used by all the large financial institutions. He claimed that they didn't supply call-center "opt-out" operators with any mechanism for recording information (i.e. there were never be a record of people objecting to sharing personal information).

They had done detailed public privacy studies and #1 issue was fraudulent financial transactions ... mostly as a result of breaches ... there was little or nothing being done about breaches. The issue is normally institutions take security measures in self-protection, however in the case of breaches, the institutions weren't at risk, it was the public. It was hoped that publicity from the breach notification might motivate breach countermeasures.

electronic signature
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subpubkey.html#signature

data breach notification
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#data.breach.notification

past opt-in/opt-out posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006e.html#44 Does the Data Protection Act of 2005 Make Sense
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007f.html#72 Securing financial transactions a high priority for 2007
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007s.html#55 Translation of IBM Basic Assembler to C?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007t.html#6 Translation of IBM Basic Assembler to C?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008g.html#8 Hannaford case exposes holes in law, some say
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008m.html#66 With all the highly publicised data breeches and losses, are we all wasting our time?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008m.html#70 Why SSNs Are Not Appropriate for Authentication and when, where and why should you offer/use it?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008m.html#71 TJ Maxx - why are they still in business?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008m.html#73 Blinkylights
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009b.html#47 How to defeat new telemarketing tactic
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009b.html#60 OCR scans of old documents
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009l.html#5 Internal fraud isn't new, but it's news
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009p.html#17 U.K. lags in information security management practices
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010b.html#82 Oldest Instruction Set still in daily use?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010b.html#94 Oldest Instruction Set still in daily use?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010b.html#95 Oldest Instruction Set still in daily use?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010h.html#73 Our Pecora Moment
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010h.html#74 Idiotic programming style edicts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010h.html#75 Idiotic programming style edicts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010h.html#82 Costs Of Data Breaches Much Higher In U.S. Than In Other Countries, Study Says
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010i.html#62 blasts from the past -- old predictions come true
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010i.html#63 Wal-Mart to support smartcard payments
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010i.html#77 Favourite computer history books?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010i.html#83 The Evolution of the Extended Enterprise: Security Stategies for Forward Thinking Organizations
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010j.html#7 Seeking *Specific* Implementation of Star Trek Game
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010j.html#18 Personal use z/OS machines was Re: Multiprise 3k for personal Use?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010m.html#56 About that "Mighty Fortress"... What's it look like?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010n.html#52 Who are these people who think cybersecurity experts are crying wolf?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010o.html#53 The Credit Card Criminals Are Getting Crafty
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010o.html#76 e-commerce smackdown as PCI standards revised
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010p.html#17 What banking is. (Essential for predicting the end of finance as we know it.)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010p.html#23 They always think we don't understand
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010p.html#29 The Mobile Device Is Becoming Humankind's Primary Tool
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011b.html#45 Productivity And Bubbles
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011e.html#41 On Protectionism
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011f.html#55 Are Americans serious about dealing with money laundering and the drug cartels?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011h.html#9 Breaches and Consumer Backlash
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011h.html#55 CISO's Guide to Breach Notification
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011i.html#45 Happy 100th Birthday, IBM!
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011i.html#68 Why the US needs a data privacy law -- and why it might finally get one
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011j.html#2 House panel approves data breach notification bill
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011k.html#53 50th anniversary of BASIC, COBOL?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011m.html#71 Don't Dump the Volcker Rule Just Because It's Not Perfect
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011o.html#52 Civilization, doomed?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011p.html#28 The men who crashed the world
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011p.html#131 The Times E-Mails Millions by Mistake to Say Subscriptions Were Canceled
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#35 Israel vows to hit back after credit cards hacked
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012i.html#30 US Senate proposes national data breach notification act
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012i.html#35 US Senate proposes national data breach notification act
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012i.html#86 Should the IBM approach be given a chance to fix the health care system?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012j.html#47 Yahoo Password Breach: 7 Lessons Learned - Security - Attacks/breaches - Informationweek
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012j.html#56 Failing Gracefully
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013m.html#14 Gilmore response to NSA mathematician's "make rules for NSA" appeal
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013o.html#67 What Chase And Other Banks Won't Tell You About Selling Your Data
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013o.html#78 What Chase And Other Banks Won't Tell You About Selling Your Data
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014f.html#70 Obama Administration Launches Plan To Make An "Internet ID" A Reality
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014f.html#94 Privacy vs. freedom of the press--Google court ruling
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014g.html#15 Is it time for a revolution to replace TLS?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014g.html#19 350 DBAs stare blankly when reminded super-users can pinch data
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014g.html#21 Thomas Piketty Is Right About the Past and Wrong About the Future
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014g.html#76 Did these tech and telecom companies assess the risk and return with respect to Anti-Money Laundering challenges?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014m.html#171 European data law: UK.gov TRASHES 'unambiguous consent' plans
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015.html#17 Cromnibus cartoon
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015.html#54 How do we take political considerations into account in the OODA-Loop?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015.html#55 HealthCare.gov in Cahoots with Dozens of Tracking Websites
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015h.html#45 rationality
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015h.html#95 book "1984"--modern privacy
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016f.html#70 Security Design: Stop Trying to Fix the User
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016f.html#75 IBM Buying Promontory Clinches It: Regtech Is Real
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016f.html#76 GLBA & Glass-Steagall
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#94 Trump to sign cyber security order

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

ISPF (was Fujitsu Mainframe Vs IBM mainframe)

Refed: **, - **, - **
From: lynn@GARLIC.COM (Anne & Lynn Wheeler)
Subject: Re: ISPF (was Fujitsu Mainframe Vs IBM mainframe)
Newsgroups: bit.listserv.ibm-main
Date: 25 Feb 2017 09:43:58 -0800
Jesse1.Robinson@SCE.COM (Jesse 1 Robinson) writes:
ISPF was far more than a product rename, though IBM gets snaps for repurposing an acronym almost seamlessly. The major advance in ISPF was the modern day 'dialog' and all the rich support we associate with it. In the old SPF, it was unofficially possible for a clever person to tailor an existing function to perform some user purpose. We had some of those in my first shop in the late 70s. But the results were clumsy and primitive at best. ISPF opened up a whole new career path that encompassed application programmers on one side and sysprogs on the other. Everyone had fully documented access to a brand new arsenal of APARable programming tools. I read once that IBM was astonished at the huge and complex 'data bases' that customers created around ISPF tables. Far beyond the expectation of ISPF's creators.

Some IBM software organizations had trouble adapting to the 23Jun1969 unbundling announcement starting to charging for software (& other stuff). past posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#unbundle

Pricing would do three forecats (high, medium, low) ... where number customer forecasted times price would have to cover development and support.

JES2 NJI couldn't come up with forecast that met requirement. Company then adjusted that doing the financials for group would be satisfactory. They made a combined announcement of JES2 NJI and VM370 RSCS of $600/month that met the requirements (i.e. RSCS could have been announced at $30/month and met the requirement whereas there was no price for JES2 NJI that met the requirement).

Later they adjusted it so products just had to be in the same group/organization. They combined ISPF and VM370 performance products in the same product group. They cut the VM370 performance products to 2-3 people while the ISPF had *very* large group ... in effect, revenue from VM370 performance products underwriting ISPF.

past posts mentioning ISPF:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000d.html#17 Where's all the VMers?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001m.html#33 XEDIT on MVS
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002m.html#52 Microsoft's innovations [was:the rtf format]
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003k.html#0 VSPC
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003o.html#42 misc. dmksnt
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004c.html#26 Moribund TSO/E
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004g.html#43 Sequence Numbbers in Location 73-80
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005j.html#7 TSO replacement?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005j.html#8 TSO replacement?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005q.html#15 HASP/ASP JES/JES2/JES3
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005t.html#40 FULIST
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006k.html#50 TSO and more was: PDP-1
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006o.html#21 Source maintenance was Re: SEQUENCE NUMBERS
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006p.html#13 What part of z/OS is the OS?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006s.html#3 THE on USS?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007g.html#4 ISPF Limitations (was: Need for small machines ... )
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007g.html#5 Call for XEDIT freaks, submit ISPF requirements
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007g.html#14 ISPF not productive
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007g.html#50 IBM to the PCM market
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007h.html#8 whiny question: Why won't z/OS support the HMC 3270 emulator
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007o.html#69 ServerPac Installs and dataset allocations
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007t.html#40 Why isn't OMVS command integrated with ISPF?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008h.html#43 handling the SPAM on this group
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008m.html#62 CHROME and WEB apps on Mainframe?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009l.html#59 ISPF Counter
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009l.html#60 ISPF Counter
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009s.html#46 DEC-10 SOS Editor Intra-Line Editing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010g.html#6 Call for XEDIT freaks, submit ISPF requirements
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010g.html#7 Call for XEDIT freaks, submit ISPF requirements
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010g.html#50 Call for XEDIT freaks, submit ISPF requirements
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010g.html#51 Call for XEDIT freaks, submit ISPF requirements
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010k.html#54 Unix systems and Serialization mechanism
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010m.html#84 Set numbers off permanently
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010o.html#33 Why are TSO IDs limited to 7 characters
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010o.html#85 REXX "address" environments
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010p.html#30 Philosophy: curiousity question
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011.html#32 CMS Sort Descending?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011h.html#19 When is performance really an issue? Was: Running an ISPF applicction from one pds
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011h.html#20 When is performance really an issue? Was: Running an ISPF applicction from one pds
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011m.html#42 CMS load module format
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011o.html#21 The "IBM Displays" Memory Lane (Was: TSO SCREENSIZE)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011p.html#84 Is there an SPF setting to turn CAPS ON like keyboard key?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011p.html#106 SPF in 1978
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#53 Has anyone successfully migrated off mainframes?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012b.html#85 The PC industry is heading for collapse
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#19 Writing article on telework/telecommuting
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#20 Writing article on telework/telecommuting
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012e.html#63 Typeface (font) and city identity
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012f.html#53 Image if someone built a general-menu-system
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012k.html#33 Using NOTE and POINT simulation macros on CMS?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012n.html#64 Should you support or abandon the 3270 as a User Interface?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013e.html#84 What Makes an Architecture Bizarre?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013i.html#36 The Subroutine Call
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013k.html#27 Unbuffered glass TTYs?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014b.html#44 Resistance to Java
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014f.html#89 Real Programmers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014h.html#103 TSO Test does not support 65-bit debugging?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014i.html#5 "F[R]eebie" software
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014j.html#25 another question about TSO edit command
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014l.html#48 IBM 'major announcement' points to deal on chip manufacturing

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

The ICL 2900

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: The ICL 2900
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Sun, 26 Feb 2017 08:52:40 -0800
hancock4 writes:
from the National Observatory. I don't know if computers ever linked into that, or when the service was discontinued. But WU branch offices continued to show their synchronized clocks well into the 1960s.

science center had "chronolog" device (I don't remember where it got its source) ... attached to 360/67 multiplexor channel (x'0ff') that cp67 read time/date at startup ... defined as some sort of tape device. all the virtual machines had a virtual x'0ff' that they could read.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech

vmshare archives has discussion about NTP support for vm370
http://vm.marist.edu/~vmshare

trivia: person at delaware was earlier at Univ of Michigan and worked on MTS for 360/67, and worked on PDP8 as "data concentrator" as terminal controller ... which was latere replaced with pdp11 in the middle 70s.
https://www.eecis.udel.edu/~mills/gallery/gallery7.html
https://www.eecis.udel.edu/~mills/gallery/gallery8.html

later responsible for NTP protocol
5905 PS
Network Time Protocol Version 4: Protocol and Algorithms Specification, Burbank J., Kasch W., Martin J., Mills D., 2010/06/21 (110pp) (.txt=241096) (Updated by 7822) (Obsoletes 1305, 4330) (See Also 5906) (Refs 768, 791, 793, 1305, 1321, 1345, 4330) (Ref'ed By 5907, 5908, 5944, 5981, 6051, 6098, 6105, 6222, 6272, 6284, 6302, 6374, 6407, 6450, 6622, 6726, 6733, 6754, 6765, 6776, 6787, 6797, 6812, 6817, 6843, 6962, 6988, 7011, 7084, 7094, 7115, 7162, 7164, 7182, 7212, 7231, 7234, 7244, 7272, 7273, 7293, 7325, 7384, 7574, 7576, 7602, 7656, 7758, 7821, 7822, 7826, 7851, 8039)

1305 -
Network Time Protocol (v3), Mills D., 1992/04/09 (120pp) (.pdf=442493, .tar=2682880, .txt=307085) (Obsoleted by 5905) (Obsoletes 1119) (Refs 778, 781, 791, 792, 867, 868, 889, 891, 956, 957, 958, 1059, 1119) (Ref'ed By 1361, 1533, 1589, 1704, 1708, 1769, 1831, 1889, 2002, 2030, 2065, 2068, 2132, 2219, 2324, 2327, 2330, 2535, 2616, 2679, 2681, 2695, 2730, 2783, 2848, 2870, 2896, 2908, 2980, 3108, 3118, 3220, 3315, 3339, 3344, 3520, 3550, 3576, 3830, 3881, 3926, 3977, 4082, 4149, 4192, 4193, 4285, 4330, 4442, 4551, 4566, 4656, 4707, 4710, 4712, 4765, 4907, 5101, 5153, 5197, 5322, 5415, 5481, 5503, 5563, 5580, 5651, 5715, 5776, 5905, 5906) (NTPV3)

1119 -
Network Time Protocol version 2 specification and implementation, Mills D., 1989/09/01 (64pp) (.pdf=187940, .ps=518020, .txt=143) (Obsoleted by 1305) (Obsoletes 1059) (Ref'ed By 1165, 1190, 1305, 1700, 2375, 2822)

1059 -
Network Time Protocol version 1 specification and implementation, Mills D., 1988/07/01 (58pp) (.txt=137645) (Obsoleted by 1119) (Obsoletes 958) (Refs 768, 778, 781, 791, 792, 867, 868, 889, 891, 956, 958) (Ref'ed By 1305)

958 -
Network Time Protocol NTP, Mills D., 1985/09/01 (14pp) (.txt=30723) (Obsoleted by 1059) (See Also 956, 957) (Refs 768, 778, 781, 792, 867, 868, 889, 891) (Ref'ed By 1057, 1059, 1305, 2924)

957
Experiments in network clock synchronization, Mills D., 1985/09/01 (27pp) (.txt=68952) (See Also 956, 958) (Refs 778, 781, 792, 867, 868, 889, 891) (Ref'ed By 1305)

956
Algorithms for synchronizing network clocks, Mills D., 1985/09/01 (26pp) (.txt=67387) (See Also 957, 958) (Refs 778, 781, 792, 867, 868, 889, 891) (Ref'ed By 1059, 1305)

......

I've mentioned before about involved in something similar at univ starting with interdata/3 ... which was later upgraded to interdata/4 (for mainframe channel interface) and cluster of interdata/3s handling line/port scanner interfaces. past posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#360pcm

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

How do BIG WEBSITES work?

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: How do BIG WEBSITES work?
Newsgroups: comp.arch
Date: Sun, 26 Feb 2017 09:51:29 -0800
try optimistic
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Optimistic_concurrency_control

original relational/sql
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#systemr

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

NSA Deputy Director: Why I Spent the Last 40 Years In National Security

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: NSA Deputy Director: Why I Spent the Last 40 Years In National Security
Date: 26 Feb 2017
Blog: Facebook
NSA Deputy Director: Why I Spent the Last 40 Years In National Security
http://time.com/4680969/nsa-deputy-director-ledgett/

enormous outsourcing last decade, 70% of budget and over half the people
http://www.investingdaily.com/17693/spies-like-us
and rapidly spreading Success of Failure culture, multiple failures more profit
http://www.govexec.com/excellence/management-matters/2007/04/the-success-of-failure/24107/
whistleblower
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/government-elections-politics/united-states-of-secrets/the-frontline-interview-thomas-drake/

posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#success.of.failure
and
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#whistleblower

last decade, a lot of it is private-equity buying up beltway bandits (which couldn't lobby congress, but private-equity could lobby on their behalf), trivia CEO from the 90s, leaves to headup private-equity that buys beltway bandit that will employ Snowden.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#gerstner

we were tangentially involved, but didn't know it at the time, 2002 unclassified BAA that basically said they didn't have tools to do what was needed; just before it closes, we got a call asking if we would submit response ... we get a response in and have a few meetings demonstrating we could do what was needed ... and then absolutely nothing. Much later we conjecture that executives didn't believe anybody would respond and it would shut down the complaints (we wondered if person that called us lost their job).

past posts mentioning ic-arda/iarpa baa:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013o.html#57 Beyond Snowden: A New Year's Wish For A Better Debate
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013o.html#76 Should New Limits Be Put on N.S.A. Surveillance?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014.html#12 5 Unnerving Documents Showing Ties Between Greenwald, Omidyar & Booz Allen Hamilton
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015.html#54 How do we take political considerations into account in the OODA-Loop?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015.html#72 George W. Bush: Still the worst; A new study ranks Bush near the very bottom in history
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015f.html#20 Credit card fraud solution coming to America...finally
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015f.html#26 Gerstner after IBM becomes Carlyle chairman
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016b.html#62 The NSA's back door has given every US secret to our enemies
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016f.html#40 Misc. Success of Failure
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#64 Improving Congress's oversight of the intelligence community
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#35 Former CIA Analyst Sues Defense Department to Vindicate NSA Whistleblowers

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

How do BIG WEBSITES work?

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: How do BIG WEBSITES work?
Newsgroups: comp.arch
Date: Mon, 27 Feb 2017 11:38:09 -0800
bit-naughty writes:
I'm wondering what the economics of it all are - WHY buy x86_64 servers in quantity - why not just buy a mainframe or a supercomputer or something? Wouldn't that work out cheaper?

most supercomputers are clusters of commodity chips ... big overlap between the cloud megadatacenters and the big supercomputers. The supercomupter/GRID move to large numbers commodity chips started in first half 90s ... big cloud (WEB) megadatacenters using similar components goes on over the following decade.

e5-2600v1 blade rated at 400-530 BIPS processing (depending on chip & clock rate) ibm had base list price for e5-2600 blade (before selling off business) of $1800. big cloud megadatacenters claim they assemble their own blades for 1/3rd the cost of brand name blades, or little over $1/BIPS (possible motivation for IBM selling off its server business).

same era IBM mainframe Z196, max configured rated at 50BIPS and goes for $30M (or about $600000/BIPS). IBM's has been making something like 5times annual revenue off mainframe services and software than it makes off its mainframe hardware sale (possibly doubling or tripling cost per BIPS ... $1M-$2M/BIPS.

also Z196 published peak I/O benchmark at 2M IOPS using 104 FICONs (heavy weight protocol running over 104 fibre-channel). at the same time there was a (single) fibre-channel announced for e5-2600 blade claiming over million IOPS (two such fibre-channel outperforms 104 FICONs ... running over 104 fibre-channel). FICON posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#ficon

since Z196, there has been max. configured EC12 rated at 75BIPS and max. configured Z13 rated at 100BIPS ... but they haven't been any published peak I/O benchmarks since Z196 (max configured EC12 and z13 still around $30M, slowly increasing processing power).

Single "dense" blade rack may have more aggregate processing power than all mainframes in the world today. Cloud megadatacenters have hundreds of thousands of systems and millions of processors ... say 2500TIPS (2,500,000BIPS). Equivalent z13 mainframe hardware (@$300000/BIPS) would be something like $1T-$2T ... not counting software & services.

The other issue is that cost of commodity blade system costs have dropped so dramatically that power&cooling has increasingly become major cost. The enormous drop in system costs has also helped with on-demand computing, having large number of idle systems that can be available for "on-demand". The big cloud megadatacenters (increasingly major part of server chip market) has put heavy pressure on chip designers ... to have power/cooling use to drop to zero while idle ... but can up brought up instantaneously as required. Big cloud megadatacenters are increasingly using watts/BIPS as system cost criteria and have been piloting processing chips for use in battery power devices (doesn't have the peak processing power, but substantially better watts/BIPS).

Scientists have been able to use credit card with cloud megadatacenters, to spin-up on-demand supercomputers for a couple hrs ... that have ranked in the top fifty in the world (in processing power).

past posts mentioning e5-2600 blades
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#50 Layer 8: NASA unplugs last mainframe
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#64 Layer 8: NASA unplugs last mainframe
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012e.html#3 NASA unplugs their last mainframe
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012e.html#4 Memory versus processor speed
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012e.html#94 Can Mainframes Be Part Of Cloud Computing?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012e.html#99 Can Mainframes Be Part Of Cloud Computing?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012e.html#105 Burroughs B5000, B5500, B6500 videos
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012f.html#0 Burroughs B5000, B5500, B6500 videos
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012f.html#4 Can Mainframes Be Part Of Cloud Computing?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012f.html#7 Burroughs B5000, B5500, B6500 videos
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012g.html#36 Should IBM allow the use of Hercules as z system emulator?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012g.html#38 Should IBM allow the use of Hercules as z system emulator?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012h.html#4 Think You Know The Mainframe?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012h.html#20 Mainframes Warming Up to the Cloud
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012h.html#35 Monopoly/ Cartons of Punch Cards
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012h.html#52 How will mainframers retiring be different from Y2K?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012h.html#62 What are your experiences with Amdahl Computers and Plug-Compatibles?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012i.html#11 Can anybody give me a clear idea about Cloud Computing in MAINFRAME ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012i.html#16 Think You Know The Mainframe?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012i.html#84 Can anybody give me a clear idea about Cloud Computing in MAINFRAME ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012i.html#88 Can anybody give me a clear idea about Cloud Computing in MAINFRAME ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012j.html#1 Can anybody give me a clear idea about Cloud Computing in MAINFRAME ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012j.html#34 Can anybody give me a clear idea about Cloud Computing in MAINFRAME ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012j.html#46 Word Length
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012j.html#66 Monopoly/ Cartons of Punch Cards
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012j.html#95 printer history Languages influenced by PL/1
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012j.html#96 The older Hardware school
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012k.html#41 Cloud Computing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012l.html#20 X86 server
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012l.html#27 PDP-10 system calls, was 1132 printer history
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012l.html#28 X86 server
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012l.html#30 X86 server
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012l.html#34 X86 server
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012l.html#42 I.B.M. Mainframe Evolves to Serve the Digital World
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012l.html#51 Turn Off Another Light - Univ. of Tennessee
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012l.html#56 Blades versus z was Re: Turn Off Another Light - Univ. of Tennessee
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012l.html#81 Blades versus z was Re: Turn Off Another Light - Univ. of Tennessee
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012l.html#87 Blades versus z was Re: Turn Off Another Light - Univ. of Tennessee
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012l.html#88 Blades versus z was Re: Turn Off Another Light - Univ. of Tennessee
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012l.html#90 Blades versus z was Re: Turn Off Another Light - Univ. of Tennessee
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012l.html#100 Blades versus z was Re: Turn Off Another Light - Univ. of Tennessee
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012m.html#3 Blades versus z was Re: Turn Off Another Light - Univ. of Tennessee
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012m.html#4 Blades versus z was Re: Turn Off Another Light - Univ. of Tennessee
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012m.html#5 Blades versus z was Re: Turn Off Another Light - Univ. of Tennessee
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012m.html#13 Intel Confirms Decline of Server Giants HP, Dell, and IBM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012m.html#28 I.B.M. Mainframe Evolves to Serve the Digital World
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012m.html#31 Still think the mainframe is going away soon: Think again. IBM mainframe computer sales are 4% of IBM's revenue; with software, services, and storage it's 25%
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012m.html#43 Blades versus z was Re: Turn Off Another Light - Univ. of Tennessee
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012m.html#67 How do you feel about the fact that today India has more IBM employees than any of the other countries in the world including the USA.?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012n.html#9 How do you feel about the fact that today India has more IBM employees than any of the other countries in the world including the USA.?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012n.html#13 System/360--50 years--the future?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012n.html#14 System/360--50 years--the future?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012n.html#44 Under what circumstances would it be a mistake to migrate applications/workload off the mainframe?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012n.html#48 Under what circumstances would it be a mistake to migrate applications/workload off the mainframe?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012n.html#50 history of Programming language and CPU in relation to each
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012n.html#56 Under what circumstances would it be a mistake to migrate applications/workload off the mainframe?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012n.html#69 Under what circumstances would it be a mistake to migrate applications/workload off the mainframe?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012n.html#70 Under what circumstances would it be a mistake to migrate applications/workload off the mainframe?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012n.html#72 Mainframes are still the best platform for high volume transaction processing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012o.html#6 Mainframes are still the best platform for high volume transaction processing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012o.html#11 Mainframes are still the best platform for high volume transaction processing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012o.html#21 Assembler vs. COBOL--processing time, space needed
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012o.html#25 Blades versus z was Re: Turn Off Another Light - Univ. of Tennessee
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012o.html#38 Assembler vs. COBOL--processing time, space needed
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012o.html#40 PC/mainframe browser(s) was Re: 360/20, was 1132 printer history
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012o.html#46 Random thoughts: Low power, High performance
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012p.html#5 What is a Mainframe?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012p.html#12 HCF [was Re: AMC proposes 1980s computer TV series "Halt &Catch Fire"]
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012p.html#25 Search Google, 1960:s-style
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012p.html#26 Mainframes are still the best platform for high volume transaction processing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012p.html#58 What is holding back cloud adoption?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013.html#10 From build to buy: American Airlines changes modernization course midflight
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013.html#16 From build to buy: American Airlines changes modernization course midflight
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013.html#17 Still think the mainframe is going away soon: Think again. IBM mainframe computer sales are 4% of IBM's revenue; with software, services, and storage it's 25%
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013b.html#5 mainframe "selling" points
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013b.html#6 mainframe "selling" points
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013b.html#7 mainframe "selling" points
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013b.html#8 mainframe "selling" points
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013b.html#10 FW: mainframe "selling" points -- Start up Costs
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013b.html#15 A Private life?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013c.html#59 Why Intel can't retire X86
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013c.html#60 Why Intel can't retire X86
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013c.html#63 What Makes an Architecture Bizarre?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013c.html#68 relative mainframe speeds, was What Makes an Architecture Bizarre?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013c.html#84 What Makes an Architecture Bizarre?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013c.html#88 What Makes an Architecture Bizarre?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013d.html#5 What Makes an Architecture Bizarre?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013d.html#16 relative mainframe speeds, was What Makes an Architecture Bizarre?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013e.html#4 Oracle To IBM: Your 'Customers Are Being Wildly Overcharged'
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013f.html#35 Reports: IBM may sell x86 server business to Lenovo
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013f.html#37 Where Does the Cloud Cover the Mainframe?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013f.html#38 Reports: IBM may sell x86 server business to Lenovo
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013f.html#51 Reports: IBM may sell x86 server business to Lenovo
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013f.html#57 The cloud is killing traditional hardware and software
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013f.html#64 What Makes an Architecture Bizarre?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013f.html#70 How internet can evolve
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013f.html#72 The cloud is killing traditional hardware and software
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013f.html#73 The cloud is killing traditional hardware and software
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013f.html#74 The cloud is killing traditional hardware and software
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013g.html#2 A Complete History Of Mainframe Computing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013g.html#4 A Complete History Of Mainframe Computing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013g.html#5 SAS Deserting the MF?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013g.html#7 SAS Deserting the MF?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013g.html#14 Tech Time Warp of the Week: The 50-Pound Portable PC, 1977
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013g.html#23 Old data storage or data base
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013g.html#43 The cloud is killing traditional hardware and software
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013g.html#49 A Complete History Of Mainframe Computing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013g.html#50 The cloud is killing traditional hardware and software
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013g.html#93 The cloud is killing traditional hardware and software
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013h.html#3 The cloud is killing traditional hardware and software
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013h.html#5 The cloud is killing traditional hardware and software
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013h.html#6 The cloud is killing traditional hardware and software
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013h.html#40 The Mainframe is "Alive and Kicking"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013h.html#79 Why does IBM keep saying things like this:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013h.html#80 Minicomputer Pricing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013i.html#47 Making mainframe technology hip again
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013i.html#59 Making mainframe technology hip again
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013i.html#60 Making mainframe technology hip again
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013j.html#86 IBM unveils new "mainframe for the rest of us"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013k.html#53 spacewar
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013l.html#31 model numbers; was re: World's worst programming environment?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013l.html#50 Mainframe On Cloud
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013l.html#51 Mainframe On Cloud
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013l.html#53 Mainframe On Cloud
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013l.html#54 Mainframe On Cloud
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013l.html#70 50,000 x86 operating system on single mainframe
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013m.html#33 Why is the mainframe so expensive?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013m.html#35 Why is the mainframe so expensive?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013m.html#78 'Free Unix!': The world-changing proclamation made 30 years agotoday
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013m.html#94 SHARE Blog: News Flash: The Mainframe (Still) Isn't Dead
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013n.html#38 Making mainframe technology hip again
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013n.html#54 rebuild 1403 printer chain
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013n.html#61 Bet Cloud Computing to Win
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013o.html#69 "Death of the mainframe"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013o.html#71 "Death of the mainframe"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013o.html#73 "Death of the mainframe"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014.html#71 the suckage of MS-DOS, was Re: 'Free Unix!
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014.html#94 Santa has a Mainframe!
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014.html#97 Santa has a Mainframe!
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014b.html#18 Quixotically on-topic post, still on topic
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014c.html#22 US Federal Reserve pushes ahead with Faster Payments planning
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014c.html#96 11 Years to Catch Up with Seymour
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014d.html#71 Last Gasp For Hard Disk Drives
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014e.html#4 Can the mainframe remain relevant in the cloud and mobile era?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014e.html#7 Last Gasp for Hard Disk Drives
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014e.html#8 The IBM Strategy
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014e.html#12 The IBM Strategy
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014f.html#51 Beyond the EC12
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014f.html#65 non-IBM: SONY new tape storage - 185 Terabytes on a tape
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014f.html#67 Is end of mainframe near ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014f.html#78 Over in the Mainframe Experts Network LinkedIn group
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014f.html#86 Is end of mainframe near ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014f.html#92 Is end of mainframe near ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014g.html#2 Is end of mainframe near ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014g.html#4 Is end of mainframe near ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014g.html#12 Is end of mainframe near ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014g.html#14 Is end of mainframe near ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014h.html#2 Demonstrating Moore's law
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014h.html#57 [CM] Mainframe tech is here to stay: just add innovation
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014h.html#68 Over in the Mainframe Experts Network LinkedIn group
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014h.html#72 ancient terminals, was The Tragedy of Rapid Evolution?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014i.html#78 IBM Programmer Aptitude Test
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014i.html#97 The SDS 92, its place in history?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014i.html#99 The SDS 92, its place in history?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014j.html#0 The SDS 92, its place in history?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014j.html#16 The SDS 92, its place in history?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014k.html#5 Demonstrating Moore's law
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014k.html#17 1950: Northrop's Digital Differential Analyzer
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014k.html#74 Bell Picturephone--early business application experiments
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014l.html#24 Unisys CEO ousted, shares slip
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014l.html#56 This Chart From IBM Explains Why Cloud Computing Is Such A Game-Changer
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014l.html#90 What's the difference between doing performance in a mainframe environment versus doing in others
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014m.html#88 Death of spinning disk?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014m.html#125 How Much Bandwidth do we have?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014m.html#129 Is there an Inventory of the Installed Mainframe Systems Worldwide and or for Europe alone?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014m.html#144 LEO
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014m.html#145 IBM Continues To Crumble
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014m.html#155 IBM Continues To Crumble
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014m.html#164 Slushware
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014m.html#170 IBM Continues To Crumble
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015.html#35 [CM] IBM releases Z13 Mainframe - looks like Batman
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015.html#36 [CM] IBM releases Z13 Mainframe - looks like Batman
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015.html#39 [CM] IBM releases Z13 Mainframe - looks like Batman
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015.html#46 Why on Earth Is IBM Still Making Mainframes?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015.html#78 Is there an Inventory of the Inalled Mainframe Systems Worldwide
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015.html#82 Is there an Inventory of the Installed Mainframe Systems Worldwide
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015c.html#29 IBM Z13
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015c.html#30 IBM Z13
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015c.html#93 HONE Shutdown
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015d.html#39 Remember 3277?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015e.html#14 Clone Controllers and Channel Extenders
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015f.html#0 What are some of your thoughts on future of mainframe in terms of Big Data?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015f.html#5 Can you have a robust IT system that needs experts to run it?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015f.html#35 Moving to the Cloud
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015f.html#93 Miniskirts and mainframes
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015g.html#19 Linux Foundation Launches Open Mainframe Project
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015g.html#42 20 Things Incoming College Freshmen Will Never Understand
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015g.html#93 HP being sued, not by IBM.....yet!
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015g.html#96 TCP joke
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015h.html#2 More "ageing mainframe" (bad) press
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015h.html#108 25 Years: How the Web began
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015h.html#110 Is there a source for detailed, instruction-level performance info?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015h.html#114 Between CISC and RISC
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016.html#15 Dilbert ... oh, you must work for IBM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016.html#19 Fibre Chanel Vs FICON
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016b.html#23 IBM's 3033; "The Big One": IBM's 3033
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016b.html#27 Qbasic
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016b.html#74 Fibre Channel is still alive and kicking
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016b.html#103 You count as an old-timer if (was Re: Origin of the phrase "XYZZY")
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016b.html#104 You count as an old-timer if (was Re: Origin of the phrase "XYZZY")
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016c.html#24 CeBIT and mainframes
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016c.html#28 CeBIT and mainframes
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016c.html#60 Which Books Can You Recommend For Learning Computer Programming?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016c.html#61 Can commodity hardware actuallly emulate the power of a mainframe?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016d.html#24 What was a 3314?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016d.html#81 The mainframe is dead. Long live the mainframe!
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016e.html#42 How the internet was invented
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016f.html#25 Samsung's million-IOPS, 6.4TB, 64Gb/s SSD is ... well, quite something
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016g.html#28 Computer hard drives have shrunk like crazy over the last 60 years -- here's a look back
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016h.html#40 The F-22 Raptor Is the World's Best Fighter (And It Has a Secret Weapon That Is Out in the Open)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016h.html#53 Why Can't You Buy z Mainframe Services from Amazon Cloud Services?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016h.html#55 Why Can't You Buy z Mainframe Services from Amazon Cloud Services?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016h.html#95 Retrieving data from old hard drives?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016h.html#98 A Christmassy PL/I tale
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#19 follow up to dense code definition
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#73 The ICL 2900

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

SC/MP (1977 microprocessor) architecture

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: SC/MP (1977 microprocessor) architecture
Newsgroups: comp.arch
Date: Mon, 27 Feb 2017 16:16:39 -0800
Walter Banks <walter@bytecraft.com> writes:
The IBM 5100 was released 1975? could interpret a 360 instruction set and cost ~$8500 failed and that pretty much stopped that approach.

There were several tries at this, IM6100 for PDP8 ISA for example all failed to do the obvious, take advantage of an established body of software.

For a while I had a PDP-11 and a handful of apple]['s and some early PC all running UCSD pascal. That actually was a reasonable development approach.


IBM 5100
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM_5100

all low-end and mid-range 360s & 370s emulated the 360 instruction set with various native CISC processor ... vertical microcode ... avg about ten native instruction for every 360 instruction. I got roped into doing a project to move the most highest used 6kbytes of 370 kernel code into native microcode for 138 & 148 (followon to 135 & 145) with about 10:1 speedup. Old post with results of kernel pathlength studied ordered by use ... 6kbyte cutoff was 79.55% kernel processing time (reduced to 8% native)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/94.html#21

some of the people at Palo Alto Science Center responsible for 5100 helped with the 138/148 microcode effort

High end 360s & 370s were horizontal microcode machines.

801/risc from mid-70s ... circa 1980 there was effort to switch the large number of different internal CISC processors to 801/risc, controllers, low&mid-range 370s (aka 4361 & 4381 followon to 4331&4341), followon to s/38, etc (a single family of 801/risc rather than never ending number of one-off CISC processors). For various reasons, the efforts failed, and saw some number of engineers leaving for risc efforts at other vendors.

801/risc ROMP chip was suppose to be used for the followon the Displaywriter ... when that was canceled they decided to use it for the unix workstation market. They got the company that had done the AT&T unix port to IBM/PC for PC/IX, to do one for ROMP ... resulting in PC/RT and AIX. Later the academic unit did a port of USB BSD to ROMP for "AOS". posts mentioning 801/risc, ROMP, RIOS, Fort Knox, etc
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#801

They then did 68k-based 370 which had a card/cable for PC/XT as XT/370, Oct1983 (ran about 100kips)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PC-based_IBM-compatible_mainframes#Personal_Computer_XT.2F370
and then made available as PC/AT as AT/370.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PC-based_IBM-compatible_mainframes#Personal_Computer_AT.2F370

some of the pc/370 issues were 1) bloated mainframe software that page thrashed in the original 384kbyte storage (I was blamed for delaying release when I showed how bad page thrashing was in 384kbyte) ... so they upgraded to 512kbytes before release (reducing some of the page thrashing) 2) mainframe intensive page thrashing I/O and file system i/o that were being simulated on 100ms access XT disk.

Then a group in POK did A74 ... old email with A74 details (about 350kips processor, 3.5 times pc/370)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000e.html#email880622
old post with part of the (infoworld) 7nov1988 article
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002d.html#4

I was asked to do part of both the pc/370 and the A74 software, old post with A74 kernel software updates I redid for A74
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015d.html#35

big advantage of A74 (compared to PC/370) was 16mbyte real memory (instead of 512kbytes) and much faster PC disk.

then S/390 processor card
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PC-based_IBM-compatible_mainframes#S.2F390_Processor_Card

there was then vendor software developed that ran on intel and sparc architectures that had lot of simularities to the microcode implementing low&mid-range 360s & 370s:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PC-based_IBM-compatible_mainframes#z.2FArchitecture_and_today
Hercules
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hercules_(emulator)

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

MULTICS is ALIVE - booting MR12.6e 6180 emulation

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: MULTICS is ALIVE - booting MR12.6e 6180 emulation
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Mon, 27 Feb 2017 16:30:13 -0800
MULTICS is ALIVE - booting MR12.6e 6180 emulation
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jni7wk7bjxA

from seattle living computer musueum, recently posted on facebook:
Charles Anthony modified the DPS-8/m emulator code to support the 6180. The panel was put on eBay several years ago and I purchased it. My understanding is that it came from the University of Oakland. I believe all panels of that system were saved and nothing else. The interface between the emulator, which is running under Linux on Intel i7, is serial to a BASYS3 Xilinx that in turn drives two logic boards attached to the panel's wiring harness. All lamps and switches are available to emulator and that includes the scrolls as well. Just about all displays can be achieved at this time (though maybe more later?). The emulator is booted via switches on the front panel set to 024000717200 followed by the initialize button.

The system boots up to idle in just under 2 minutes, which, from what I understand, is blazingly fast. We are reorganizing our 2nd floor exhibit and hope to develop this into an interesting display with an interactive terminal, as well as remote access, at some point in the next few months.We are also *very interested* in hosting Multicians to celebrate Multics sometime this year.

... snip ...

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

SC/MP (1977 microprocessor) architecture

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: SC/MP (1977 microprocessor) architecture
Newsgroups: comp.arch
Date: Mon, 27 Feb 2017 16:34:17 -0800
Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com> writes:
some of the people at Palo Alto Science Center responsible for 5100 helped with the 138/148 microcode effort

re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#7 SC/MP (1977 microprocessor) architecture

Palo Alto Science Center people were also responsible for the 370/145 APL microcode assist .... with the "assist", some amount of APL ran as fast on 145 as it did on 370/168 (also about ten times speeed up).

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

SC/MP (1977 microprocessor) architecture

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: SC/MP (1977 microprocessor) architecture
Newsgroups: comp.arch
Date: Tue, 28 Feb 2017 09:24:32 -0800
spacewar writes:
In the heydey of PMOS, I don't think even a very small implementation of a System/360 processor would have fit on a single chip, but it could have been done with a small number of chips. While ROM and RAM are by nature quite regular and thus can be implemented quite densely, I don't think there were many PMOS chips with more than about 8000 non-memory transistors. Even in NMOS it would have been fairly hard to do as a single chip much earlier than 1980.

I've heard it claimed that Signetics designed a System/360 compatible microprocessor, though not in PMOS, but management was too afraid of IBM to bring it to market.


re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#7 SC/MP (1977 microprocessor) architecture
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#9 SC/MP (1977 microprocessor) architecture

I help write the white paper that blocked using 801/risc (Iliad chip) for 4361 & 4381 ... part was cisc chips had advanced to point where much of 370 could be directly implemented (as opposed to traditional emulation in microcode).
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#801

Boeblingen (IBM) in the mid-80s did 3chip set ("roman") that did 370 at 168-3 performance. Some non-IBM in Germany came into possession of copy of detailed description ... somebody from Amdahl had learned of it ... took possession of the document and immediately sent it to me (since it was illegal for them to have it).

SLAC&CERN did bitslice 370 subset ... problem state sufficient to run fortran programs ... coupled to sensors all along line for intial data reduction; first "168E" (i.e. 168 performance) and later "3081E" (3081 performance).

trivia: during 70s & 80s some amount of ibm mainframe technical people (ibm, amdahl, signetics, tymshare, other customers, etc) use to have monthly technical meetings at SLAC. later it was taken over to have IBM marketing presentations (no longer held at SLAC).

I mentioned that when Iliad 801/risc strategy imploded ... some 801/risc engineers left to go work on risc at other vendors. IBM may have sued AMD for hiring one of the engineers for work on 29K.

Signetics had sister company 2pi ... which did small ibm compatible mainframe ... original sold as NCSS 3200. NCSS was spun-off of cambridge scientific center offering online (virtual machine based) CP67/CMS commercial services ... 1978 NCSS 3200 reference here
https://www.amazon.com/National-Computer-System-Overwork-Print/dp/B007RC11RU

tymshare (with their virtual machine based online commercial service) got into some competition with NCSS (using vm370/cms, followon to cp67/cms), including 4th generation programming language
http://archive.computerhistory.org/resources/text/Oral_History/Clemens_Jack/Cohen_Gerald/Cohen_Gerald_1.oral_history.1986.102658228.pdf

past posts mentioning signetics &/or 2pi
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009p.html#4 Status of Arpanet/Internet in 1976?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009p.html#9 Status of Arpanet/Internet in 1976?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010j.html#76 What is the protocal for GMT offset in SMTP (e-mail) header
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011b.html#52 A brief history of CMS/XA, part 1
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011g.html#25 Mainframe technology in 2011 and beyond; who is going to run these Mainframes?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011p.html#56 Are prefix opcodes better than variable length?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012e.html#46 A bit of IBM System 360 nostalgia
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012l.html#72 zEC12, and previous generations, "why?" type question - GPU computing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013l.html#62 model numbers; was re: World's worst programming environment?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015.html#74 Ancient computers in use today

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

"Big Four" accounting firms take a hit

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: "Big Four" accounting firms take a hit
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Tue, 28 Feb 2017 10:03:50 -0800
hancock4 writes:
Back in college our professors urged us to seek employment in one of the "Big Eight" accounting firms. Those firms were seen as gods, the elite.

Mergers reduced it to the Big Four. (They were huge before, no need to merge). Arthur Andersen imploded with Enron. Now Price Waterhouse Coopers screwed up the Oscars. Admittedly, a relatively minor error in the grand scheme of things, but still...


Rhetoric in congress was that Sarbanes-Oxley would prevent future ENRONs and guarantee that executives and auditors did jailtime (however, it required SEC to do something). Joke was that it really was full employment gift to audit industry (audit industry pored enormous funds into congress for the gift). The other comment at the time, was that possibly the only effective part of SOX was part supporting whistleblowers.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#sarbanes-oxley
and
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#enron
and
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#whistleblowers

Possibly because even GAO didn't believe SEC was doing anything, it started do reports of public company fraudulent filings, even showing increases after SOX goes into effect (and nobody doing jailtime).
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#financial.reporting.fraud

In the congressional Madoff hearings, they had testimony from the person that had tried unsuccessfully for a decade to get SEC to do something about Madoff. He was asked if new regulations were needed, he replied while new regulations might be needed, much more important was transparency and visibility (possibly because SEC didn't appear to be doing anything about regulations). He also mentioned that whistleblowers/tips turn up 13 times more fraud than audits .... and SEC didn't have a "tip" hotline, but had 1-800 number for companies to complain about audits.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#madoff
regulatory capture
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#regulatory.capture

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Rolander, Tom oral history (DRI, CPM, etc)

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Rolander, Tom oral history (DRI, CPM, etc)
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Tue, 28 Feb 2017 10:12:21 -0800
recently from facebook:

Rolander, Tom oral history
http://www.computerhistory.org/collections/catalog/102717254
Thomas A. Rolander is an entrepreneur, engineer, and pioneering developer of operating systems and software applications for personal computers. While working at Digital Research Inc. (DRI) with Gary Kildall, the "father" of CP/M, in 1979 he created the multitasking multiuser operating system MP/M for microcomputers that laid the groundwork for later Digital Research operating system families such as Concurrent CP/M, Concurrent DOS and Multiuser DOS. He received a Diamond Award for Entrepreneurial Excellence from the University of Washington (UW) in 2013.
... snip ...

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Check out Massive Amazon cloud service outage disrupts sites

From: lynn@GARLIC.COM (Anne & Lynn Wheeler)
Subject: Re: Check out Massive Amazon cloud service outage disrupts sites
Newsgroups: bit.listserv.ibm-main
Date: 1 Mar 2017 09:53:31 -0800
Jesse1.Robinson@SCE.COM (Jesse 1 Robinson) writes:
Our data center folks insist on dual power feeds for everything, sometimes infuriatingly so. To test power redundancy, they occasionally drop one power feed or the other--with ample heads up--and check that all devices are functioning. Other than call-home events, we have not had any surprises so far.

when we were doing IBM's ha/cmp product ... some past posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#hacmp

we went around to various customers talking about failure modes. One customer in Manhatten had carefully chosen a building that that telco feeds from four different substations on four sides of the bldg, power from different substations on opposite sides of the bldg, and water from different water mains on opposite sides of the bldg. The datacenter was shutdown when transformer in the basement exploded and the bldg had to be evacuate because of contamination. There were a number of other customers with similar stories.

It was while out talking to customers that I coined disaster survivability (to differentiate from disaster recovery) and geographic survivabilty. some past posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#availability

I was then asked to write a section for the corporate continuous availability strategy document. The section got pulled when both Rochester (as/400) and POK (es/9000) complained that they weren't able to meet the requirements.

trivia: mainframe DB2 group were also complaining if I was allowed to proceed with (commercial) HA/CMP cluster scaleup, it would be at least 5yrs ahead of them. old post about Jan1992 meeting in Ellison's conference room
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/95.html#13

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Check out Massive Amazon cloud service outage disrupts sites

From: lynn@GARLIC.COM (Anne & Lynn Wheeler)
Subject: Re: Check out Massive Amazon cloud service outage disrupts sites
Newsgroups: bit.listserv.ibm-main
Date: 1 Mar 2017 17:28:42 -0800
charlesm@MCN.ORG (Charles Mills) writes:
It is hard to prepare for unknown unknowns. It is legendary that people have had recovery failures because the fallover switch (channel, power, network, whatever) failed.

re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#13 Check out Massive Amazon cloud service outage disrupts sites

unks unks are frequently not having done detailed end-to-end evaluations of all possible scenarios.

we started out claiming no-single-point-of-failure ... but it required doing end-to-end walk through looking for all sort of critical components (I was also asked to review IBM RAID designs and sometimes would uncover single-point-of-failure in the least anticipated places). This included replicated fallover switches and process over precedence of failover (as part of handling some race conditions).

Also needed a inverse "RESERVE" ... there is a failure case where a processor gets suspended just before a write operation, which then kicks-off recovery processes. The processor that is assumed to have failed has to be "fenced off" from proceeding with a write operation when it wakes up (aka RESERVE allows only one processor to write and prevents all other, inverse "RESERVE" blocks one or more identified processors from writing; there also has to be tie-breaker process for race conditions).

"real" no-signel-point-of-failures contributed to having to specify geographically separated operation.

we also started defining what was needed to handle multiple points of failure ... and looking at 5-nines availability configurations.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#available

As undergraduate at the univ ... I was first hired as fulltime person to be responsible for IBM production mainframe systems. Then before graduation, I was hired fulltime by Boeing to help with creation of Boeing Computer Serivces (consolidate all dataprocessing in an independent business unit to better monetize the investment, including offering services to non-Boeing entities). I thot Renton datacenter was possibly largest in the world with something like $300M (late 60s dollars) in ibm mainframes (360/65s were arriving faster than they could be installed). 747#3 was flying skies of seattle getting FAA flt. certification. There was also decision to replicate Renton up at the new 747 plant in Everett ... there was disaster scenario where Mt. Rainier heats up and the resulting mudslide takes out the Renton datacenter).

I finally join IBM (science center) after graduation ... some past posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech

One of the things that was exposed in the 70s with respect to IBM dasd ... was IBM mainframe channel/dasd had (for some time, up through 80s) a undetectable power interruption failure mode in the middle of write operation ... control/dasd had sufficient power to complete write correctly, but there wasn't sufficient power to transfer data from processor memory ... so the record write was completed with all zeros with valid error correcting codes. In CMS case, MFD is somewhat equivalent of OS VTOC, change was made to have pairs of alternating MFD records, with sequence appended. A power-interrupted MFD write would zero all or part of appended sequence ... so it wouldn't appear most current during recovery (and the other MFD would be used). Towards the mid-80s there was controller work to try and handle the case (for operating systems that didn't know how). Later hardware solution was that all the data had to be available for the write to start.

later they let me play disk engineer in bldgs 14&15 ... some past posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#disk

they had bunch of mainframes for dasd engineering testing that were scheduled stand-alone 7x24 around the clock. They had once tried to do testing under MVS ... but in that environment, MVS had 15min MTBF, requiring manual re-ipl. I offerred to redo input/output supervisor that was bullet proof and never fail ... greatly improving productivity, allowing anytime, on-demand concurrent testing. When I wrote up the wrote in an internal report, I may have made a mistake mentioning the MVS 15min MTBF ... because I was later told that the MVS RAS group did their best to have me separated from the company.

A couple years later ... field engineering had 3880 controller error regression test with 57 "injected" errors (that they considered typical and likely to occur). MVS was failing in all 57 cases (requiring manual re-ipl) ... and in 2/3rds of the cases, no indiciation of what was responsible for the failure ... previously posted old email
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007.html#email801015

trivia: I had worked with Jim Gray at IBM SJR ... before he left for Tandem. At Tandem he does a detailed analysis of failure modes, finding that hardware was in the process of becoming significantly more reliable ... and failures were starting to shift to human error, software bugs, and environmental (power, acts of nature, etc) ... copy of summary from that study
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/grayft84.pdf

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

China's claim it has 'quantum' radar may leave $17 billion F-35 naked

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: China's claim it has 'quantum' radar may leave $17 billion F-35 naked
Date: 01 Mar 2017
Blog: Facebook
China's claim it has 'quantum' radar may leave $17 billion F-35 naked
http://www.news.com.au/technology/innovation/inventions/chinas-claim-it-has-quantum-radar-may-leave-17-billion-f35-naked/news-story/207ac01ff3107d21a9f36e54b6f0fbab

F22 has two engines

F35 has only one engine (although for F35 did split price separately for airframe and engine).
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lockheed_Martin_F-35_Lightning_II

F35 was designed as cost reduced bomb truck assuming F22 was flying cover to handle threats. F35 primarily focused on stealth from the front downward angle (i.e. enemy ground radar that was bomb target).

Comparison analysis of F35 with other planes
http://www.ausairpower.net/jsf.html
has analysis of F35 radar signature at different radar frequencies involving different angles and portions of the frame (lots to say about how cost reduced and compromised stealth compared to original design)
http://www.ausairpower.net/APA-2009-01.html

NSA Details Chinese Cyber Theft of F-35, Military Secrets
http://freebeacon.com/national-security/nsa-details-chinese-cyber-theft-of-f-35-military-secrets/

Advisories have danced through our military networks for years, acquiring all sorts of top-secret military information. There has been joke that F-35 is such a bad design, it was purposefully done to get advisories to waste huge amount of development on efforts that would fail (otherwise US wouldn't have allowed all the secrets to be so trivially acquired).

other old trivia: The base-year PAUC for the F-35 is $108.2 million; the then-year PAUC is $133.0 million.
http://nation.time.com/2013/06/04/alphabet-soup-paucs-apucs-urfs-cost-variances-and-other-pricing-dodges/
Except for one small thing: those sums do not include the engine. The Pentagon, in an unusual move, broke the program into two pieces - airframe and engine - beginning in 2011. If you want a fighter with an engine, add $21.8 million for the base-year PAUC and $26.2 million for the then-year PAUC. That makes the actual Program Acquisition Unit Cost for each F-35 (with an engine) $130.0 million in obsolete 2012 dollars or $159.2 million in actual appropriations, past, present and future.

.. snip ...

past posts mentioning cyberdumb:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015f.html#21 Credit card fraud solution coming to America...finally
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016b.html#4 Cyberdumb
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016b.html#8 Cyberdumb
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016b.html#19 Does Cybercrime Really Cost $1 Trillion?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016b.html#20 DEC and The Americans
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016b.html#91 Computers anyone?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016b.html#95 Computers anyone?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016e.html#104 E.R. Burroughs
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016f.html#104 How to Win the Cyberwar Against Russia
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016h.html#0 Snowden
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016h.html#28 China's spies gain valuable US defense technology: report
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016h.html#40 The F-22 Raptor Is the World's Best Fighter (And It Has a Secret Weapon That Is Out in the Open)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016h.html#67 "I used a real computer at home...and so will you" (Popular Science May 1967)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016h.html#76 The F-35 Stealth Fighter Is Politically Unstoppable----Even Under President Trump
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#62 Big Shrink to "Hire" 25,000 in the US, as Layoffs Pile Up

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

System z: I/O Interoperability Evolution - From Bus & Tag to FICON

Refed: **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: System z: I/O Interoperability Evolution - From Bus & Tag to FICON
Date: 02 Mar 2017
Blog: Facebook
System z: I/O Interoperability Evolution - From Bus & Tag to FICON
http://value-4it.com/wp/?p=343

Fibre Channel is still alive and kicking
http://www.networkworld.com/article/3039364/lan-wan/fibre-channel-is-still-alive-and-kicking.html

1980 STL (now SVL) was bursting at the seems and were moving 300 people from the IMS database group to offsite bldg with remote access back to STL datacenter. They had tried "remote" 3270 and found human factors totally unacceptable to what they were use to. I then get con'ed into doing channel-extender support so that they could place local channel-attached 3270 controllers at the offsite bldg. The vendor then tries to get IBM to release my support to market, however there was group in POK (playing with some serial stuff) that got it vetoed (because they were afraid that it would make it more difficult to get their stuff released).
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#channel.extender

In 1988, I'm asked to help LLNL standardize some serial stuff they are working with ... which quickly becomes fibre-channel standard ... including some stuff I had done in 1980 that significantly compensates for the enormous channel protocol chatter overhead/latency (can sustain nearly 1gbit/sec in each direction). Then a decade after the POK group gets my stuff vetoed, they finally get their stuff released in 1990 as ESCON, when it is already obsolete.

Then have to deal with some POK engineers getting involved with fibre-channel defining a heavy-weight protocol that drastically reduces the "native" I/O throughput ... which is eventually released as FICON. The most recent published mainframe "peak I/O" benchmark is z196 getting 2M IOPS using 104 FICON (running over 104 fibre-channel). About the same time as the z196 benchmark, there was a (single) fibre-channel announced for E5-2600 blade claiming over million IOPS (two such fibre-channels have higher throughput than 104 FICON running over 104 fibre-channels). There has been zHPF/TCW announced for FICON that is a little like the support I had done in 1980 (nearly 40yrs ago), but it claims only 30% improvement over standard FICON (maybe only needing 70 fibre-channel to get 2M IOPS).
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#ficon

trivia: originally, STL/SVL was going to be called Coyote Lab (after IBM convention of naming after nearest Post Office). Before the new lab opens, the San Francisco professional working ladies Coyote group have demonstrations on the steps of Congress. IBM quickly changes the name of the new lab (STL for nearest cross-street).

misc. past posts mentioning Coyote Lab
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000b.html#56 South San Jose (was Tysons Corner, Virginia)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001g.html#34 Did AT&T offer Unix to Digital Equipment in the 70s?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002n.html#66 Mainframe Spreadsheets - 1980's History
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002o.html#11 Home mainframes
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004e.html#12 Pre-relational, post-relational, 1968 CODASYL "Survey of Data Base Systems"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004m.html#6 a history question
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005m.html#21 Old Computers and Moisture don't mix - fairly OT
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006r.html#21 50th Anniversary of invention of disk drives
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007g.html#62 The Perfect Computer - 36 bits?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009q.html#45 The 50th Anniversary of the Legendary IBM 1401
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011d.html#54 Maybe off topic
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011j.html#9 program coding pads
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#84 Where are all the old tech workers?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013g.html#27 Old data storage or data base
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013k.html#18 copyright protection/Doug Englebart

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Hearing aids

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Hearing aids
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Thu, 02 Mar 2017 10:54:20 -0800
Unprecedented study of hearing aid outcomes in older adults released today; Research published in American Journal of Audiology has implications for millions of adults with hearing loss
https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2017-03/asa-uso022817.php

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

FCC halts data security rules

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: FCC halts data security rules
Date: 02 Mar 2017
Blog: Facebook
FCC halts data security rules; The rules require providers to take 'reasonable' measures to secure consumer data
http://www.computerworld.com/article/3175103/internet/fcc-halts-data-security-rules.html

We were brought in to help wordsmith some Cal. state legislation. They did electronic signature act, data breach notification act and were working on "opt-in" personal information sharing act (required explicit approval to share your personal information) when an (federal pre-emption) "opt-out" sharing was added to GLBA (institutions could share your information unless it had record of you objecting).

They had done detailed public privacy studies and #1 issue was fraudulent financial transactions ... mostly as a result of breaches ... there was little or nothing being done about breaches. The issue is normally institutions take security measures in self-protection, however in the case of breaches, the institutions weren't at risk, it was the public. It was hoped that publicity from the breach notification might motivate breach countermeasures.

At 2004 annual national privacy conference in Wash. DC. that had panel with the FTC commissioners. Somebody in the audience asked them if they were going to do anything about GLBA "opt-out". He said that he worked for major call-center technology used by all the large financial institutions. He claimed that they didn't supply call-center "opt-out" operators with any mechanism for recording information (i.e. there were never be a record of people objecting to sharing personal information).

posts mentioning electronic signature legislation
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subpubkey.html#signature
posts mentioning data breach
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#data.breach.notification

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Check out Massive Amazon cloud service outage disrupts sites

From: lynn@GARLIC.COM (Anne & Lynn Wheeler)
Subject: Re: Check out Massive Amazon cloud service outage disrupts sites
Newsgroups: bit.listserv.ibm-main
Date: 2 Mar 2017 12:09:50 -0800
lynn@GARLIC.COM (Anne & Lynn Wheeler) writes:
trivia: I had worked with Jim Gray at IBM SJR ... before he left for Tandem. At Tandem he does a detailed analysis of failure modes, finding that hardware was in the process of becoming significantly more reliable ... and failures were starting to shift to human error, software bugs, and environmental (power, acts of nature, etc) ... copy of summary from that study
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/grayft84.pdf


re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#13 Check out Massive Amazon cloud service outage disrupts sites
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#14 Check out Massive Amazon cloud service outage disrupts sites

Amazon knocked AWS sites offline because of typo
http://www.zdnet.com/article/amazon-knocked-aws-sites-offline-because-of-typo/
"Unfortunately, one of the inputs to the command was entered incorrectly and a larger set of servers was removed than intended."
...

my wife was in gburg JES group when she was con'ed into going to POK to be in charge of loosely-coupled architecture. While there she did peer-coupled shared data architecture which saw little uptake (except for IMS hot-standby) until SYSPLEX and Parallel SYSPLEX. She didn't remain long, in part because of little uptake and in part because of constant battles with the communication group trying to force her into using SNA/VTAM for loosely-coupled operation.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#shareddata

long after we had left IBM, we use to periodically drop in on the guy responsible for running one of the largest financial transaction networks. He attributed their 100% availability over extended period of time to

• geographically separated, triple-replicated IMS hot-standby • automated operator

... aka human error.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#available

old reference to having done work on operator automation in the early 70s ... originally for running automated unattended benchmarking ... that included automated system reboot with possibly reconfiguration &/or different kernel, between each benchmark.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/94.html#2

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

The FCC Seems Unlikely to Stop Internet Providers from Selling Your Data

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: The FCC Seems Unlikely to Stop Internet Providers from Selling Your Data
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Thu, 02 Mar 2017 12:53:09 -0800
The FCC Seems Unlikely to Stop Internet Providers from Selling Your Data
https://www.wired.com/2017/03/fcc-graciously-sets-internet-providers-free-sell-data/

We were brought in to help wordsmith some Cal. state legislation. They did electronic signature act, data breach notification act and were working on "opt-in" personal information sharing act (required explicit approval to share your personal information) when an (federal pre-emption) "opt-out" sharing was added to GLBA (institutions could share your information unless it had record of you objecting).

At 2004 annual national privacy conference in Wash. DC. that had panel with the FTC commissioners. Somebody in the audience asked them if they were going to do anything about GLBA "opt-out". He said that he worked for major call-center technology used by all the large financial institutions. He claimed that they didn't supply call-center "opt-out" operators with any mechanism for recording information (i.e. there would never be a record of people objecting to sharing personal information).

They had also done detailed public privacy studies and #1 issue was fraudulent financial transactions ... mostly as a result of breaches ... there was little or nothing being done about breaches. The issue is normally institutions take security measures in self-protection, however in the case of breaches, the institutions weren't at risk, it was the public. It was hoped that publicity from the breach notification might motivate breach countermeasures.

FCC halts data security rules; The rules require providers to take 'reasonable' measures to secure consumer data
http://www.computerworld.com/article/3175103/internet/fcc-halts-data-security-rules.html

posts mentioning electronic signature legislation
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subpubkey.html#signature
posts mentioning data breach notification
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#data.breach.notification

posts mentioning GLBA "opt-out" provision
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006e.html#44 Does the Data Protection Act of 2005 Make Sense
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008m.html#71 TJ Maxx - why are they still in business?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009b.html#47 How to defeat new telemarketing tactic
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009p.html#17 U.K. lags in information security management practices
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010b.html#82 Oldest Instruction Set still in daily use?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010h.html#73 Our Pecora Moment
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010h.html#74 Idiotic programming style edicts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010h.html#75 Idiotic programming style edicts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010h.html#82 Costs Of Data Breaches Much Higher In U.S. Than In Other Countries, Study Says
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010j.html#7 Seeking *Specific* Implementation of Star Trek Game
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010n.html#52 Who are these people who think cybersecurity experts are crying wolf?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010o.html#76 e-commerce smackdown as PCI standards revised
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011e.html#41 On Protectionism
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011f.html#55 Are Americans serious about dealing with money laundering and the drug cartels?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011i.html#45 Happy 100th Birthday, IBM!
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011i.html#68 Why the US needs a data privacy law -- and why it might finally get one
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011k.html#53 50th anniversary of BASIC, COBOL?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#35 Israel vows to hit back after credit cards hacked
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012i.html#86 Should the IBM approach be given a chance to fix the health care system?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013m.html#14 Gilmore response to NSA mathematician's "make rules for NSA" appeal
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014g.html#15 Is it time for a revolution to replace TLS?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014g.html#21 Thomas Piketty Is Right About the Past and Wrong About the Future
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014m.html#171 European data law: UK.gov TRASHES 'unambiguous consent' plans
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015.html#17 Cromnibus cartoon
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015.html#54 How do we take political considerations into account in the OODA-Loop?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015.html#55 HealthCare.gov in Cahoots with Dozens of Tracking Websites
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015h.html#95 book "1984"--modern privacy
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016f.html#76 GLBA & Glass-Steagall
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#94 Trump to sign cyber security order

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Congratulations IBM for 'inventing' out-of-office email. You win Stupid Patent of the Month

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Congratulations IBM for 'inventing' out-of-office email. You win Stupid Patent of the Month
Date: 03 Mar 2017
Blog: Facebook
Congratulations IBM for 'inventing' out-of-office email. You win Stupid Patent of the Month
https://www.theregister.co.uk/2017/03/01/ibm_out_of_office_email/

Electronic Mail and Text Messaging in CTSS, 1965 - 1973
http://multicians.org/thvv/anhc-34-1-anec.html

some of the CTSS people went to the 5th flr for Multics, others went to the ibm science center on the 4th flr and did virtual machines, the internal network, invented GML 1969 (decade later morphs into ISO standard SGML, and after another decade morphs into HTML), lots of online applications and performance work.

More History (doesn't mention CP67 and ARPANET out at Lincoln Labs)
http://multicians.org/thvv/mail-history.html

trivia: I was blamed for online computer conferencing on the internal network (larger than arpanet/internet from just about the beginning until sometime mid-80s) in the late 70s and early 80s. Folklore is that when the corporate executive committee were told about online computer conferencing (and the internal network), 5of6 wanted to fire me. Lots of task forces were kicked-off in the wake ... one taskforce brought in Hiltz&Turoff for extended discussion/analysis (authors "Network Nation").

science center posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech
internal network posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#internalnet
online computer conferencing posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#cmc

patent trivia: Sometime after we left IBM, we worked for a few weeks on patent portfolio with a boutique patent firm ... on secure payment transactions and had 50 draft patents and the patent firm estimated it would be well over 100 before we were done. An executive looked at cost of US & international filings (besides awards) and then directed that all claims be repackaged as 9 patents (for which we each got $6k/patent). Later the patent office came back and said it was tired of these humongous patents where the filing fee didn't even cover the cost of reading all the claims ... and directed that the claims be repackaged in a minimum of 30 separate patents (of course we didn't get any additional awards when they were repackaged).

AADS patent portfolio
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/x959.html#aads

There was almost a glitch, I had given a presentation on secure (internet) payment transactions to ISI & RFC/Internet staff a couple months earlier ... but turns out that it met the requirement of not being a "public/open" meeting (Postel sponsored the talk, he also used to let me help him do STD1).

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

How do BIG WEBSITES work?

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: How do BIG WEBSITES work?
Newsgroups: comp.arch
Date: Fri, 03 Mar 2017 16:39:18 -0800
antispam writes:
I wonder if there is any economic need for such low latency of transactions? Working in say 10s cykle exchange could publish result at time t, accept orders up to t + 5, then work out new results but publish them only at t + 10. All orders placed from t to t+5 should have equal rights. That way clients should should have the same information and almost the same time for decision. Even 1s delay should not give any party significant disadvantage (OK, would be equvalent to having 20% slower decision making computer).

lots of HFT is obfuscation for other kinds activity ... even predating HFT ... but making it harder to detect; front-running, disappearing transactions, etc

https://www.questia.com/newspaper/1P2-36291080/2-stockbrokers-sound-alarm-about-dangers-of-high-frequency
They have proposed solutions that might seem simple to the uninitiated but look radical to H.F.T. insiders. For instance, the two want to require H.F.T. firms to honor the prices they offer for a stock for at least 50 milliseconds -- less than a wink of an eye, but eons in high-frequency time.

On May 6, 2010, shortly before 3 p.m., the stock market plummeted. In just 15 minutes, the Dow tumbled 600 points -- bringing its loss for the day to nearly 1,000. Then, just as fast, and just as inexplicably, it sprang back nearly 600 points, like a bungee jumper. ... snip ...

they make offer to sell (or buy) for some price ... and then it disappears, aka make an offer, immediately withdraw it ... and see how many accepts that they get ... to gage current interest. (before HFT, large number of fabricated transactions could be accepted before they were withdrawn ... then it would be claimed that the offer was mistake and have to be backed out, some estimates accounted for 1/3rd of all activity, but would be significantly higher now)

this is old article (before HFT really takes affect) ... that illegal activity was wide-spread ... but didn't have to worry about SEC
http://nypost.com/2007/03/20/cramer-reveals-a-bit-too-much/

The Rigged Market: A Review of Flash Boys
http://harvardpolitics.com/books-arts/rigged-market-review-flash-boys/
As an example, let's assume the California Public Employees' Retirement System (CALPERS), a large pension fund, is interested in buying 100,000 shares of General Electric at $25.00 a share. The fund then instructs its broker to make the purchase. The broker plugs the trade into the computer, and a matching algorithm is used to purchase these shares at the cheapest price it can find on the market. Once 15,000 shares are purchased on the NYSE, the HFT firms identify the large trade that has hit the first exchange and rush ahead to the other exchanges to purchase shares and drive the price up before selling the shares a fraction of a second later.
... snip ...

past HFT posts:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#21 Study links ultrafast trading with risk of crash
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013.html#2 Search Google, 1960:s-style
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013b.html#29 Destructive Destruction? An Ecological Study of High Frequency Trading
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013d.html#41 Computer Simulations Reveal Benefits of Random Investment Strategies Over Traditional Ones
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013d.html#54 What Makes an Architecture Bizarre?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013d.html#75 What Makes an Architecture Bizarre?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013f.html#67 The End Of 'Orderly And Fair Markets'
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013h.html#58 Traders Said to Rig Currency Rates to Profit Off Clients
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013h.html#59 OT: "Highway Patrol" back on TV
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013j.html#89 FBI Finds Holes in System Protecting Economic Data
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013k.html#10 What Makes Infrastructure investment not bizarre
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013k.html#12 What Makes Infrastructure investment not bizarre
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013k.html#50 IBM Furloughs U.S. Hardware Employees to Reduce Costs
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013l.html#16 What Makes a Tax System Bizarre?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013m.html#53 Retirement Savings
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013m.html#93 High Frequency Terrorism
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013n.html#1 IBM board OK repurchase of another $15B of stock
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013n.html#15 Boyd Blasphemy: Justifying the F-35
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013n.html#40 The Wall Street Code: HFT Whisteblower Haim Bodek on Algorithmic Trading
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013n.html#76 A Little More on the Computer
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013o.html#40 ELP weighs in on the software issue:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014.html#54 Pensions, was Re: Royal Pardon For Turing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014.html#82 Royal Pardon For Turing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014.html#89 Royal Pardon For Turing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014b.html#28 Royal Pardon for credit unions
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014b.html#29 Royal Pardon for credit unions
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014b.html#43 Royal Pardon for credit unions
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014b.html#56 Royal Pardon for credit unions
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014b.html#65 Royal Pardon For Turing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014d.html#7 N.Y. Barclays Libor Traders Said to Face U.K. Charges
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014d.html#93 New York seeks curbs on high-frequency trading
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014e.html#18 FBI Investigates High-Speed Trading
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014e.html#60 FBI Investigates High-Speed Trading
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014e.html#72 Three Expensive Milliseconds
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014f.html#3 Three Expensive Milliseconds
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014f.html#20 HFT, computer trading
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014f.html#25 Before the Internet: The golden age of online services
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014f.html#41 System Response
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014f.html#70 Obama Administration Launches Plan To Make An "Internet ID" A Reality
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014g.html#1 HFT is harmful, say US market participants
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014g.html#54 Has the last fighter pilot been born?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014g.html#64 HFT is harmful, say US market participants
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014g.html#107 The SEC's Mary Jo White Punts on High Frequency Trading and Abandons Securities Act of 1934
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014g.html#109 SEC Caught Dark Pool and High Speed Traders Doing Bad Stuff
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014h.html#64 Dark Pool Greed Drove Barclays to Lie to Clients, N.Y. Says
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014j.html#106 only sometimes From looms to computers to looms
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014m.html#132 LEO
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015.html#58 IBM Data Processing Center and Pi
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015b.html#26 What were the complaints of binary code programmers that not accept Assembly?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015b.html#36 IBM CEO Rometty gets bonus despite company's woes
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015c.html#17 Robots have been running the US stock market, and the government is finally taking control
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015d.html#28 Bernie Sanders Proposes A Bill To Break Up The 'Too Big To Exist' Banks
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015d.html#78 Greedy Banks Nailed With $5 BILLION+ Fine For Fraud And Corruption
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015e.html#47 Do we REALLY NEED all this regulatory oversight?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015f.html#53 1973--TI 8 digit electric calculator--$99.95
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015g.html#46 seveneves
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015g.html#47 seveneves
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015g.html#48 seveneves
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015g.html#53 seveneves
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015g.html#66 Michael Hudson's New Book: Wall Street Parasites Have Devoured Their Hosts -- Your Retirement Plan and the U.S. Economy
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015h.html#23 It A "Liquidity Mirage": New York Fed Finally Grasps How Broken The Market Is Due To HFTs
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016.html#75 American Gripen: The Solution To The F-35 Nightmare
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016b.html#68 Eric Hunsader Explains To CNBC That "Markets Are Always Rigged"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016c.html#11 Qbasic
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016d.html#95 Is it a lost cause?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016f.html#40 Misc. Success of Failure
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016f.html#65 old Western Union Telegraph Company advertising
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016g.html#18 Bundesbank Confirms HFTs Reduce Liquidity, Contribute To Flash Crashes, Withdraw At Times Of "Market Stress"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016h.html#10 Nasdaq asks SEC for speed bump to protect retail traders
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#43 when to get out???

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

How do BIG WEBSITES work?

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: How do BIG WEBSITES work?
Newsgroups: comp.arch
Date: Sat, 04 Mar 2017 12:04:07 -0800
Morten Reistad <first@last.name.invalid> writes:
And this is why there are such stringent demands on trading systems. If one exchange lags even 3 milliseconds then this can be done; even if it is "crossing the rates" and thus illegal, it is extremely hard to prove.

re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#22 How do BIG WEBSITES work?

JPMorgan's Trading Desk Lost Money On Just Two Days In The Past 4 Years
http://www.zerohedge.com/news/2017-03-01/jpmorgans-trading-desk-lost-money-just-two-days-past-4-years
Three years ago there was outrage among traders when HFT marketmaker Virtu reported that it had managed to log just one day of trading losses in over 4 years of trading. Many speculated that this was proof that HFTs had managed to effectively rig the market in a way that prevents any trading losses. It now appears that Virtu is not the only one with a near-perfect trading record.
... snip ...

One sci-fiction scenario is that they might have time-machine that allows them to see the future, or at least able to act on the future ahead of others

related articles

Virtu Celebrates Another Year Without a Single Day of Losses
https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2015-02-20/high-frequency-trader-virtu-extends-nearly-unblemished-streak
Everyone's Talking About The High-Frequency Trading Firm That Just Had 1 Day Of Trading Losses In 1,238 Days
http://www.businessinsider.com/virtu-hft-only-one-losing-day-2014-3
The Holy Grail Of Trading Has Been Found: HFT Firm Reveals 1 Losing Trading Day In 1238 Days Of Trading
http://www.zerohedge.com/news/2014-03-10/holy-grail-trading-has-been-found-hft-firm-reveals-1-losing-trading-day-1238-days-tr
Head Trader Of World's 4th Largest Hedge Fund Caught In HFT Frontrunning Scandal
http://www.zerohedge.com/news/2015-07-31/head-trader-worlds-4th-largest-hedge-fund-caught-hft-frontrunning-scandal

Front-running Scalping Strategies and Market Manipulation. Why Does High-Frequency Trading Need Stricter Regulation?
https://financialreview.poole.ncsu.edu/article/front-running-scalping-strategies-and-market-manipulation-why-does-high-frequency-trading-need-stricter-regulation/
Regulators continue to debate whether high-frequency trading (HFT) is beneficial to market quality. Using Strongly Typed Genetic Programming (STGP) trading algorithm, we develop several artificial stock markets populated with HFT scalpers and strategic informed traders. We simulate real-life trading in the millisecond timeframe by applying STGP to real-time and historical data from Apple, Exxon Mobil, and Google. We observe that HFT scalpers front-run the order flow, resulting in damage to market quality and long-term investors. To mitigate these negative implications, we propose batch auctions every 30 milliseconds of trading.
... snip ...

another variation on large number offers that are canceled

Congratulations To Prominent Anti-HFT Crusader Eric Hunsader For Winning $750,000 Whistleblower Award
http://www.zerohedge.com/news/2016-03-01/congratulations-prominent-anti-hft-critic-eric-hunsader-winning-750000-whisteblower-
How HFT Quote Stuffing Caused The Market Crash Of May 6, And Threatens To Destroy The Entire Market At Any Moment
http://www.zerohedge.com/article/how-hft-quote-stuffing-caused-market-crash-may-6-and-threatens-destroy-entire-market-any-mom
If you could generate a large number of quotes that your competitors have to process, but you can ignore since you generated them, you gain valuable processing time. This is an extremely disturbing development, because as more HFT systems start doing this, it is only a matter of time before quote-stuffing shuts down the entire market from congestion.
... snip ...

Presenting The Quote Stuffing Trading Strategy Of The NY Fed's Favorite Hedge Fund: Citadel
http://www.zerohedge.com/news/2014-08-15/presenting-quote-stuffing-trading-strategy-ny-feds-favorite-hedge-fund-citadel
The data shows the Citadel Quote Stuffing algo placing and canceling orders at a steady rate of about 17 messages per millisecond, or half that number if we are counting orders: so 8 to 9 orders per millisecond (1 message to add the order, and 1 message to cancel it). Only one order was active in Nasdaq's order book at any given time - it would place an order, then cancel it, before placing a new one and repeating the process.
... snip ...

trivia: rhetoric in congress was that Sarbanes-Oxley would prevent future ENRONs and guarantee executives and auditors did jail time, however it required that SEC do something. Possibly because even GAO didn't believe SEC was doing anything, it was doing reports of public company fraudulent financial filings, even showing increase in fraudulent financial filings after SOX goes into effect. Joke was that SOX was actually full-employment gift to the audit industry (after the damage they suffered in the wake of ENRON) and that possibly the only productive part of SOX was provisions for tips/whistleblowers.

In the Madoff congressional hearings they had testimony from the person that had tried unsuccessfully for a decade to get SEC to do something about Madoff (SEC's hands were forced when Madoff turned himself in). Congress asked the person if new regulations were needed. He replied that while new regulations might be needed, much more important was transparency and visibility (possibly because SEC wasn't enforcing the existing regulations). He also pointed out that whistleblowers turn up 13 times more fraud than audits (and that SEC didn't have whistleblower hotline, but had hotline for corporations to complain about audits).

posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#sarbanes-oxley
and
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#enron
and
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#whistleblowers
and
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#madoff
regulatory capture
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#regulatory.capture

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Trump to sign cyber security order

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Trump to sign cyber security order
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Sat, 04 Mar 2017 17:50:24 -0800
Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com> writes:
The runoff from huge increase in agriculture use of chemicals have killed Chesapeake bay and other places. Ten years ago, feds appropriated a billion dollars to pay for fixing the runoff problem for Chesapeake bay ... for some reason the billion dollars disappeared w/o anything being done. Recently a couple more billion was appropriated to pay agriculture to fix the runoff problem ... making no reference that they had previously already been paid to do it and just pocketed the money.

re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#22 Trump to sign cyber security order
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#25 Trump to sign cyber security order
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#33 Trump to sign cyber security order
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#38 Trump to sign cyber security order
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#39 Trump to sign cyber security order
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#41 Trump to sign cyber security order
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#42 Trump to sign cyber security order

original big funding is actually more than ten years ago now (I remember reading articles middle of last decade). More recent articles refer to huge chicken & hog factory runoffs into the Chesapeake ... however

Trump would cut Chesapeake Bay cleanup from $73M a year to $5M
http://www.dailypress.com/news/science/dp-nws-bay-budget-slashed-20170302-story.html

doesn't appear to have anything to do with the first billion apparently disappearing with nothing to show for it.

other trivia: a couple posts about invited to meeting at national archives the week it opened its new bldg in college park
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010o.html#66 They always think we don't understand
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016.html#24 1976 vs. 2016?

where they complained about "directed appropriation" ... redirected NA budget (for preserving records) to building a huge marble ediface as a gift/reward for maryland construction companies.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Archives_and_Records_Administration#National_Archives_at_College_Park

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Hamilton and "Fake News"

Refed: **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Hamilton and "Fake News"
Date: 03 Mar 2017
Blog: Facebook
In both Jefferson and Burr biographies it appears that Hamilton was master of "fake news". It is somewhat portrayed that Hamilton believed himself to be an honorable man, but also that in political and other conflicts, he believed that the ends justified the means. "The Life of Aaron Burr" pg263/loc5119-24:
Yet even this defensive pose is a cover story. It was Hamilton who had instigated gossip. It was Hamilton who had invented the decadent Burr. It was Hamilton who had attacked him first (as did his self-protective father-in-law, Philip Schuyler). Hamilton was not, as he pretended, a solitary voice within a large chorus of those denouncing Burr. The truth is that Hamilton began attacking Burr's private character in 1792; and in 1800, he accused Burr of every crime he could bring to mind. Hamilton's charges, all along the way, were outrageous, hypocritical, even hysterical, and not, as he rationalized at the end, occasional political criticisms enunciated with the utmost "sincerity."
... snip ...

recent posts mentioning Jefferson, Hamilton, &/or Burr
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015.html#25 Gutting Dodd-Frank
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015.html#29 the previous century, was channel islands, definitely not the location of LEO
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015b.html#62 Future of support for telephone rotary dial ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015g.html#83 Term "Open Systems" (as Sometimes Currently Used) is Dead -- Who's with Me?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015h.html#45 rationality
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016c.html#37 Qbasic
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016f.html#0 IBM is Absolutely Down For The Count
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016h.html#54 CFTC Reproposes Position Limits Rule
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016h.html#83 "I used a real computer at home...and so will you" (Popular Science May 1967)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#4 Separation church and state
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#12 Separation church and state
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#32 Star Trek (was Re: TV show Mannix observations)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#55 Comanche Empire

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Multitasking, together with OS operations

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Multitasking, together with OS operations
Newsgroups: comp.arch
Date: Tue, 07 Mar 2017 09:51:08 -0800
Stephen Fuld <SFuld@alumni.cmu.edu.invalid> writes:
While the other responses you got are correct to the question you asked, I don't think you asked the question you wanted to ask.

The issue of file systems has essentially nothing to do with device queuing, which is what you have been talking about. You can have device queuing any time more than one requester at a time for a single device. This has nothing at all to do with the difference between hard disks and USB sticks.

If you are asking something related to having less queuing if you have the workload spread over multiple devices, then that is typically true. But the multiple devices could be multiple hard disks. And what file system is used by whatever physical storage device you are talking about, to a first approximation, is irrelevant.


system services (device support, memory management, start/stop, etc) ... including filesystems ... were to eliminate each application have to write their own (roll-your-own) from scratch (my first student programming job was design&write my own monitor, device support, error recovery, interrupt handling, scheduling, task management, memory management, etc).

later as computers got more powerful, multitasking was to improve throughput and resource use. efficiency of system services then also contributed to throughput.

in the 70s, I started pontificating that relative disk system throughput was declining and by the early 80s, relative disk system throughput had declined by an order of magnitude over a period of a little over ten years. The disk division executives took exception and assigned the divsion performance group to refute the claims ... they came back a few weeks later and basically said that I had understated the problem (i.e. processor throughput had increased by factor of 50, while disk throughput only increased by 3-4 times) The analysis was then turned into customer marketing about how to configure disks to help system throughput.

there is old tale about the the decision to mvoe all IBM mainframes to virtual memory system. The dominate mainframe system, OS/360 MVT could typically only configure for four tasks on typical 1mbyte 370/165 ... real memory reserved for each task had to be four times larger than actually used because system services memory management was so bad. They determined that moving OS/360 MVT to a virtual memory base ... they could run four times as many concurrent tasks with little or no paging (because they could use virtual memory mapping to compensate for the poor storage management services).

trivia: when mainframe, virtual machine, virtual memory CP67 system was first installed installed at the univ in Jan1968, it did purely FIFO, single request I/O ordering. I rewrote the support to do ordered seek queueing and careful rotational ordering. The fixed-head per track 2301 "drum" would do about 80 requiests/sec. "Batching" & rotational ordering I would achieve nearly the theoritical media maxium of 270 requests/sec. I also rewrote critical paths to significantly cut number of instructions, completely different page replacement, and did dynamic adaptive resource management scheduling (most of which the vendor released to customers while I was still undergraduate at univ).

dynamic adaptive resource management posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#fairshare
page replacement algo posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#wsclock
science center posts ... responsible for virtual machines, cp40, cp67, internal network, GML, performance tools, etc
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech

more trivia: one of the guys I knew working on ATM (cash machine) transaction system ... under certain kinds of load would delay request processing by a few milliseconds ... that even though there wasn't any other queued i/os at the moment, waiting a few milliseoncs, requests might arrive, which could be ordered (as opposed to disk arm already moving to essentially random location).

I currently pontificate that memory access latency, when measure in number of processor cycles ... is compareable to 60s disk access latency when measured in number of 60s processor cycles (i.e. memory is the new disk) ... it is one of the justification for hyperthreading and out-of-order execution (helping mask memory latency and improve throughput).

Other trivia: in early 70s, I got sucked into helping the 370/195 hypertheacing project (which was never announced or shipped). The issue was that 195 suppored out-of-order execution, but didn't do branch prediction ... so conditional branches drained the pipeline ... and most codes ran half 195 processor throughput. Running two threads (each at half 195 throughput) would have reasonable expectation of keeping 195 busy. It had come from the earlier ACS/360 "red/blue" bit ... mentioned in the discussion of the end of ACS (towards the bottom "Sidebar: Multithreading"
https://people.cs.clemson.edu/~mark/acs_end.html

Around 1980, we started getting "1655" ... which were pure electronic memory "disk" ... which could be run either native mode ... or "2305" fixed-head per track disk emulation mode. The standard "2305" support did rotational ordering batch service (but no requirement for seek ordering ... since there was head/track). So there was little difference between the 2305-emulation rotational ordering batch ... and pure batch fifo ordering.

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Pentagon Blocks Littoral Combat Ship Overrun From a GAO Report

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Pentagon Blocks Littoral Combat Ship Overrun From a GAO Report
Date: 07 Mar 2017
Blog: Facebook
Pentagon Blocks Littoral Combat Ship Overrun From a GAO Report
https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2017-03-06/pentagon-blocks-littoral-combat-ship-overrun-from-a-gao-report

Boyd told story that when SECDEF couldn't get Spinney (&/or Boyd) put in Leavenworth (for the rest of their life) for (gone behind paywall, but mostly lives free at wayback machine)
http://web.archive.org/web/20070320170523/http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,953733,00.html

the SECDEF supposedly created new classification "NO-SPIN" (unclassified but not to be released).

Boyd related posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subboyd.html

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

The ICL 2900

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: The ICL 2900
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Tue, 07 Mar 2017 11:04:20 -0800
Alan Bowler <atbowler@thinkage.ca> writes:
On 2017-01-24 9:43 AM, jmfbahciv wrote: >IBM sales people could be arrogant because they didn't believe they had >:any competition.

Then again so could DEC. In '72, the Math Faculty at Waterloo was looking for a timesharing system to replace the APL service on a 360/40 that was getting too old (and expensive), and to move good deal of work from the IBM big systems at the main computing centre. From the beginning, most of the faculty favoured a PDP-10. The DEC sales team was so confident that they revised their bid price UP, and lost to Honeywell (who dropped their price).


during early 70s "Future System" (completely different from 370 and was to completely replace 370), internal politics was killing off 370 efforts. The lack of 370 products during the period is credited for clone processor gaining market foothold. some FS ref
http://www.jfsowa.com/computer/memo125.htm
some FS posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#futuresys

it is also claimed that w/o newer, competitive products, IBM sales&marketing was just left with FUD (fear, uncertainty, doubt) marketing ... and they had to really "hone" their FUD skills.

other "hone" trivia: 23jun1969 announce, IBM starts charging for (application) software (did manage to make the case that kernel software was still free), SE serivces, maintenance, etc. One of the issues was that SE training including an apprentice type program as part of large SE group onsite at customer. With unbundling, they couldn't figure out how to not-charge for "apprentice" SEs. The solution was to provide online virtual machine services at the branch for SEs to practice their operating system skills ... i.e. HONE, hands-on network environment ... basically a number of cp67 datacenters around the country providing online access to branch offices. some posts:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#hone

Science center ... some posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech

had also ported apl\360 to cp67/cms for apl\cms ... and HONE started also offering apl\cms-based sales&marketing support applications. Eventually the sales&marketing applications came to dominate all HONE use ... and the SE operating system experience dwindled away.

triva: one of my hobbies was providing&supporting enhanced operating systems for internal datacenters ... and HONE was longtime customers.

past posts mentioning FUD marketing:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009d.html#77 Who first mentioned Credit Crunch?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011e.html#71 Fraudulent certificates issued for major websites
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012i.html#16 Think You Know The Mainframe?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013h.html#40 The Mainframe is "Alive and Kicking"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013h.html#72 Minicomputer Pricing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013i.html#4 IBM commitment to academia
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013j.html#23 The cloud is killing traditional hardware and software
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013m.html#98 Oracle Sent Out A Press Release Dissing IBM's Software Business
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013m.html#99 SHARE Blog: News Flash: The Mainframe (Still) Isn't Dead
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013n.html#1 IBM board OK repurchase of another $15B of stock
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014f.html#73 Is end of mainframe near ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014f.html#95 Is end of mainframe near ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014i.html#63 Cloud Wars: Now Even the CIA Slams IBM's Technology
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014m.html#170 IBM Continues To Crumble
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016c.html#61 Can commodity hardware actuallly emulate the power of a mainframe?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016g.html#53 IBM Sales & Marketing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016g.html#68 "I used a real computer at home...and so will you" (Popular Science May 1967)

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Multitasking, together with OS operations

Refed: **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Multitasking, together with OS operations
Newsgroups: comp.arch
Date: Tue, 07 Mar 2017 11:38:07 -0800
mac <acolvin@efunct.com> writes:
In the old days,when a system might have a lotof disks, we'd cut out the center tracks and glue them from a string of disks into a new logical disk with half the average seek distance.

Nowadays the relation between seek distance and latency isn't as straightforward. It isn't even monotonic [needs citation].


re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#26 Multitasking, together with OS operations

3350 was 317.5MB/arm
https://www-03.ibm.com/ibm/history/exhibits/storage/storage_3350.html

newer 3380 had 630MB/arm
https://www-03.ibm.com/ibm/history/exhibits/storage/storage_3380.html

double capaicty, but avg. access only went from 25mills to 16mills.

If installation replaced 100 3350s with 50 3380s (based on capacity), avg. system throughput would declined. Arguments with datacenter managers that it was false economy fell on deaf ears. Some of us technical people came up with a new model faster, reduced capacity 3380 that was priced more/unit ... that would appeal to datacenter managers (paying more for higher performance). It was actually a microcode load in the controller that reduced the number of accessable tracks (something a datacenter manager could do on their own).

For 3350->3380 migration we had done monitor of 3350 activity and first used the information to spread highest used data across available 3380s *AND* to not allocate 3380 to more than 80% ... to result in approx. same throughput as 3350 configuration.

As undergraduate at the univ, I got hired fulltime to be responsible for production systems. One of the things they say was moving from 709 IBSYS tape-to-tape to 360/65 2314 disks was student jobs went from less than second to around a minute elapsed time. Adding "HASP" to OS/360 cut elapsed time to around 30 seconds. I did custom system build that carefully placed highest used files & program members at the front of the disk and got student job times down to 12seconds. At the time, the highest used system directory data was fixed place at the front of the disk. It wasn't until MVT release 15/16 that they offered option of specify the location of the system directory ... allowing it to be placed at the middle of the disk, and high used data arrayed from the middle out in both directions. It wasn't the WATFOR monitor for OS/360 ... that supporting running multiple student jobs per program invokation (program&step processing in OS/360 was disk intensive operation) that student job processing elapsed time dropped below that of 709.

In the late 70s at San Jose Research we came up with super efficient mechanism for monitoring live disk use. This help with use for work on doing dynamic reconfiguration for optimizing disk throughput. However, one of the things it uncovered was that there was lots of data ... collections of files ... that were used together on a periodic basis ... high burst/spike use on daily, weekly, monthly intervals. This required different placement strategies than the ones used for continuous, high-use (radiating from central location).

past posts getting to play disk engineer in bldg 14&15
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#disk

past posts mentioning efficient monitor/collection activity
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006y.html#35 The Future of CPUs: What's After Multi-Core?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007.html#3 The Future of CPUs: What's After Multi-Core?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010i.html#18 How to analyze a volume's access by dataset
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011.html#70 Speed of Old Hard Disks
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011.html#71 Speed of Old Hard Disks
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#47 nested LRU schemes
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013d.html#11 relative mainframe speeds, was What Makes an Architecture Bizarre?

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

The ICL 2900

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: The ICL 2900
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Tue, 07 Mar 2017 15:28:36 -0800
Alan Bowler <atbowler@thinkage.ca> writes:
Honeywell GCOS had SMP support (up to 4 processors) in the early 70's, and by 73 has cluster support (Max 4 systems, each with 4 CPU's). It may have had cluster support before then, but I'm only familiar with the file system from 73 on. File system changes a few years ago took away cluster support in favour of more CPUs and processes on the same system.

re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#58 The ICL 2900

360/67 original design supported 4-way SMP in the 60s
http://bitsavers.trailing-edge.com/pdf/ibm/360/funcChar/A27-2719-0_360-67_funcChar.pdf
http://bitsavers.trailing-edge.com/pdf/ibm/360/funcChar/GA27-2719-2_360-67_funcChar.pdf

however, I think that all shipped to customers were only 2-way except for one 3-way that was shipped for the USAF MOL project ... with enhancements that configuration could be changed under software control. Standard SMP had configuration box and all the switches could be "sensed" from the control registers (the 3-way shipped for MOL, the configuration could be changed by changing values in the control registers).

As I've mentioned before, when charlie was at the science center
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech

working on multiprocessor fine-grain locking for CP67, he invented compare and swap instruction. The initial effort to get it included in 370 architecture was rebuffed because the POK favorite son operating system people said that test and set instruction (multiprocessor locking from 360) was sufficient for multiprocessor support. They are talking about 360/65MP MVT that had single kernel spin-lock ... so hardware features had little effect.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM_System/360_Model_65

360/67 shared memory and every processor could address all channels. 360/65 was only 2-way and only shared memory. Dedicated channels for each processor had to be configured with "multi-tail" control unit so both processors could do i/o to the same controller/device.

370 architecture owners then said to get compare&swap included in 370 architecture, uses other than kernel locking were needed. Thus was born the uses for multithreaded (like large DBMS) were invented .... examples still appear in IBM mainframe principles of operation. past posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#smp

In 2nd half of 70s some of us were working on 16-way 370 ... initially everybody thot it was great ... and we even co-oped some of the 3033 processor engineers ... it was lot more interesting that remapping 168-3 logic to 20% faster chips. Then somebody told the head of POK that it might be decades before the POK favorite son operating system people had effective 16-way support. 3033smp 2-way 1978
https://www-03.ibm.com/ibm/history/exhibits/3033/3033_CH01.html
1982 3081 2-way
1983 3084 4-way
1985 3090 6-way
1990 es9000 6-way
2000 z900 16-way
2003 z990 32-way
2006 z9 54-way
2008 z10 64-way
2010 z196 80-way
2012 ec12 101-way
2015 z13 140-way


Head of POK then invited some of us to never visit POK again ... and told the 3033 processor engineers to stop being distracted (with more insteresting projects). It then is almost 25yrs before 16-way ships (2000).

one of the things done to MVS for the support of 3084 ... was reorganization of storage management for cache line alignment and multiples of cache line size .... there started to be a lot of cache trashing (in 2-way there was cache invalidation signals from one other processor, in 4-way, would have cache invalidation signals from three other processors). turns out there was huge number of kernel storage working areas that would be process specific ... but shared cache line with working storage for process running on another processor. The claim was the kernel storage management cache-line restructure for 3084 got something between five and ten percent total throughput improvement.

footnote: z196 claims 50BIP (625MIPS/processor) also says over half the per processor speedup compared to z10 is introduction of out-of-order and branch prediction features (that have been in other platforms for decades); ec12 claims 75MIPS (743MIPS/processor); and z13 only claims 30% faster than EC12 (with 40% more processors, implying 100MIPS, 714MIPS/processor).

when my wife must have been in kindergarten, she was in the gburg JES group and was con'ed into going to POK to be in charge of loosely-coupled (mainframe for cluster) architecture. While there she did peer-coupled architecture
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#shareddata

but didn't remain long because of little uptake (except for IMS hotstandby) until SYSPPLEX and Parallel SYSPLEX (long after she is gone), and she was in constant battles with the communication group trying to force her into using SNA/VTAM for loosely-coupled operation.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM_Parallel_Sysplex

Note starting with 3090, company started "hardware" subset version of virtual machines ... PR/SM & LPAR ... basically partitioning real machine into multiple (potentially loosely-coupled) subset machines. That is the way nearly all mainframes run today .... even with multiple real machines in loose-coupled (parallle sysplex) configuration, each of the real machines may be further subdividate into multiple "logical machines" (or LPARS, logical partitions).
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Logical_partition

last project we did at IBM was HA/CMP product
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#hacmp

and was working on cluster scaleup for technical/scientific (with national labs), filesystes, commercial (RDBMS with open RDBMS vendors), etc. .... old post references meeting in Ellison's conference room Jan1992 on RDBMS cluster scaleup
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/95.html#13

I've mentioned doing global lock manager supporting VAX/Cluster semantics to make porting easier for RDBMS vendors that had both VAX/Cluster and Unix in their same RDBMS source base (got input from RDBMS vendors about how VAX/Cluster could have done it better)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#58 The ICL 2900

past posts mentioning GLM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005r.html#23 OS's with loadable filesystem support?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005u.html#38 Mainframe Applications and Records Keeping?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009b.html#43 "Larrabee" GPU design question
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013.html#52 New HD
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013.html#77 OT: but hopefully interesting - Million core supercomputer
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013g.html#22 What Makes code storage management so cool?

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Too-Big-To-Fail Not Punished

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Too-Big-To-Fail Not Punished
Date: 07 Mar 2017
Blog: Facebook
1999, I was asked to try and help prevent the coming economic mess; some investment bankers had walked away clean from the S&L crisis, were then in doing Internet IPO mills (invest a few million, hype for couple yrs, IPO for couple billion, company fails leaving field clear for next round of IPOs), and were predicted next to get into securitized mortgages. A decade later, Jan2009 I was asked to HTML'ize the Pecora Hearings (congressional hearings into '29crash, resulted in criminal convictions and Glass-Steagall) with lots of internal links and URLs between what happened this time and what happened then (comment that new congress might have appetite to do something). I work on it for awhile and then get a call saying that it won't be needed after all (references to enormous mountains of wallstreet money totally burying capital hill).
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#Pecora&/orGlass-Steagall

really long-winded old post from 1999 conference that compaq/tandem sponsored for me (at tandem, before HP bought compaq) on infosec. post was by one of the other attendees touches on the S&L crisis, adjustable rate mortgages, risk management, and some other issues
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aepay3.htm#riskm

note that it mentions that at the time of the S&L crisis, Citi would have been taken down by its adjustable rate mortgage portfolio, sold it off, got out of the business and needed a privatet bailout to stay in business. End of 2008, the four largest TBTF were carrying $5.2T in offbook toxic securitized (adjustable rate) mortgages ... and Citi was carrying the most of the four (institutional knowledge about problems appeared to have evaporated between 1990 and the start of the new century).
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#s&l.crisis
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#too-big-to-fail
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#toxic.cdo

supposedly TARP was originally appropriated to buy the offbook toxic assets but that may have been pure facade ... with only $700B appropriated and just the four largest TBTF carrying $5.2T, it wouldn't dent the problem.

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Hamilton and "Fake News"

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Hamilton and "Fake News"
Date: 07 Mar 2017
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#25 Hamilton and "Fake News"

Information Warfare isn't Russian - It's American as Apple Pie
http://thestrategybridge.org/the-bridge/2017/3/8/information-warfare-isnt-russian-its-american-as-apple-pie
For instance, the hack of the US Office of Personnel Management between 2014 and 2015 compromised the sensitive personal information of 18 million previous and current federal employees and members of the US military.
... snip ...

... note OPM was outsourced to one of the private-equity owned subsidiaries
https://firstlook.org/theintercept/2015/06/24/opm-contractor-veritas/
https://fcw.com/articles/2015/06/24/house-oversight-opm.aspx

there was huge uptic in outsourcing last decade, especially to private-equity owned subsidiaries (70% of intelligence budget and over half the people, including Snowden's employer)
http://www.investingdaily.com/17693/spies-like-us

as well as the rapidly spreading Success of Failure culture:
http://www.govexec.com/excellence/management-matters/2007/04/the-success-of-failure/24107/

success of failure posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#success.of.failure
private equity posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#private.equity

... and more Information Warfare isn't Russian:
The campaign's death-stroke was dealt when the letters between Mary Reynolds and Hamilton were published in a proto-muckraker pamphlet. The pamphlet also promoted the false accusation that Hamilton was involved in a corrupt speculation scheme. This placed Hamilton in a situation where that if he refuted both accusations, the affair could be easily proven true thus insinuating that the corruption accusation was also true. Therefore, to preserve his reputation against the corruption accusation, Hamilton was forced to make an embarrassing apology to the public for his adultery, thereby extinguishing any of his future opportunities to hold public office.
... snip ...

the Burr biography has payments from Hamilton to Mr Reynolds that were possibly used in some corrupt speculation. Hamilton explains that they were blackmail payments to keep Reynolds quiet about the affair with his wife.

The Hamilton Hustle
https://thebaffler.com/salvos/hamilton-hustle-stoller
We should be grateful for Hamilton's failures. Had he succeeded, we would probably be living in a military dictatorship.

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

CBS News: WikiLeaks claims to release thousands of CIA documents of computer activity

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: CBS News: WikiLeaks claims to release thousands of CIA documents of computer activity
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Wed, 08 Mar 2017 18:19:06 -0800
at recent talk on sr-71, flew at 75k-80k ft at mach 3.2 (outside ground-to-air missile range) ... one of the comments about sr-71 being retired ... however that for desert storm, Schwarzkoph had request for sr-71 photo recon (even there was enormous amount of sat. and other photo recon).

desert storm lasted 42 days ... but only the last 100hrs were land war; US had quickly achieved air superiority and GAO Desert Storm Air Power study that US were destroying tanks, vehicles, installations effectively at will ... and Iraqi tank crews were walking away from their tanks because their tanks were such easily being targeted and destroyed.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gulf_War

Later there were accounts of fierce tank battles where coalition forces received no damage ... but they don't mention if the Iraqi tanks had anybody home. Their are several accounts that Schwarzkopf had originally planned frontal tank battles until last tank standing.

Boyd is credited with the "left hook" desert storm battle plan ... which required a force to get behind the Republican Guard cutting them off from retreating. The left hook didn't arrive in time and Republican Guard managed to escape. I've pontificated that while Abrahms M1 specs indicated that they could have easily accomplished the mission, possibly Boyd didn't realized how tightly tethered to supply/maintenance (aka for short distances they have speed but they needed frequent refueling and maintenance).

I use to sponsors Boyd's briefings at IBM ... past posts and URLs
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subboyd.html

Note that US had supported Iraq in the Iran/Iraq war (Bush1 was vp and former CIA director)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iran%E2%80%93Iraq_War
including WMDs
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_support_for_Iraq_during_the_Iran%E2%80%93Iraq_war

Sat. photo recon analyst (no SR-71) had notified the white house (Bush1) that Iraq was marshaling forces for invasion of Kuwait. White House said that Saddam had told them he would do no such thing and proceeded to discredit the analyst. Then the analyst notified the white house that Saddam was marshaling forces for invasion of Saudia Arabia, now the white house has to choose between Saddam and Saudia Arabia.
http://www.amazon.com/Long-Strange-Journey-Intelligence-ebook/dp/B004NNV5H2/

last decade, cousin of (Bush2) White House chief of staff Card ... was dealing with the Iraqis at the UN and was given evidence that WMDs had been decommissioned and provided info to Card, Powell and others. She wrote a book about then getting locked up in Texas military hospital when she tried to take it public ... book published 2010.
http://www.amazon.com/EXTREME-PREJUDICE-Terrifying-Story-Patriot-ebook/dp/B004HYHBK2/

it turns out that the decommissioned WMDs tracing back to the US were found shortly after the invasion ... but the information wasn't declassified until 2014 (four yrs after Card's cousin book was published)
http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2014/10/14/world/middleeast/us-casualties-of-iraq-chemical-weapons.html

WMD posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#wmds

this references that military-industrial complex wanted the Iraq2 war so badly that corporate reps were telling former soviet block countries that if they voted for the invasion in the UN, they would get NATO membership and (directed appropriation) USAID (that could only be used for purchase of US arms)
http://www.amazon.com/Prophets-War-Lockheed-Military-Industrial-ebook/dp/B0047T86BA

now there is apaprently nearly perfect status ... "perpetual war", from one of Boyd "acolytes"
http://chuckspinney.blogspot.com/p/domestic-roots-of-perpetual-war.html
like an old "Star Trek" episode
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perpetual_war

military-industrial complex posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#military.industrial.complex
perpetual war posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#perpetual.war

Churchill wrote series of (supposedly) history books ... that got Nobel prize for literature (fiction?, not for history). In one he describes how Great Britain got into the mess in the middle east (needing supply of oil). started with planning to move from 13.5in to 15in guns; loc2012-14:
From the beginning there appeared a ship carrying ten 15-inch guns, and therefore at least 600 feet long with room inside her for engines which would drive her 21 knots and capacity to carry armour which on the armoured belt, the turrets and the conning tower would reach the thickness unprecedented in the British Service of 13 inches.

loc2087-89:
To build any large additional number of oil-burning ships meant basing our naval supremacy upon oil. But oil was not found in appreciable quantities in our islands. If we required it, we must carry it by sea in peace or war from distant countries.

loc2151-56:
This led to enormous expense and to tremendous opposition on the Naval Estimates. Yet it was absolutely impossible to turn back. We could only fight our way forward, and finally we found our way to the Anglo-Persian Oil agreement and contract, which for an initial investment of two millions of public money (subsequently increased to five millions) has not only secured to the Navy a very substantial proportion of its oil supply, but has led to the acquisition by the Government of a controlling share in oil properties and interests which are at present valued at scores of millions sterling, and also to very considerable economies, which are still continuing, in the purchase price of Admiralty oil.
... snip ...

Then in the 50s, an Iran popular elected government wanted to examine the terms of the British oil contract. Kermit Roosevelt
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kermit_Roosevelt,_Jr.
helps with coup that installs the Shah
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1953_Iranian_coup_d%27%C3%A9tat
... and Schwarzkoph (senior) training of the secret police to help keep Shah in power
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SAVAK

misc. posts mentioning transition to 15-inch guns
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016d.html#78 The World Crisis, Vol. 1
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016d.html#102 "Computer & Automation" later issues--anti-establishment thrust
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016f.html#21 US and UK have staged coups before
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016f.html#23 Frieden calculator
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016f.html#102 Chain of Title: How Three Ordinary Americans Uncovered Wall Street's Great Foreclosure Fraud
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016h.html#39 "I used a real computer at home...and so will you" (Popular Science May 1967)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#72 A Coal Fire May Have Helped Sink the 'Titanic'

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

CBS News: WikiLeaks claims to release thousands of CIA documents of computer activity

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: CBS News: WikiLeaks claims to release thousands of CIA documents of computer activity
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Thu, 09 Mar 2017 11:41:57 -0800
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#33 CBS News: WikiLeaks claims to release thousands of CIA documents of computer activity

entites have been dancing through gov. secure networks for years, including retrieving detailed classified specifications on major weapon systems.

Report: China gained U.S. weapons secrets using cyberespionage
http://www.cnn.com/2013/05/28/world/asia/china-cyberespionage/
Confidential report lists U.S. weapons system designs compromised by Chinese cyberspies
https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/national-security/confidential-report-lists-us-weapons-system-designs-compromised-by-chinese-cyberspies/2013/05/27/a42c3e1c-c2dd-11e2-8c3b-0b5e9247e8ca_story.html
Also on the list is the most expensive weapons system ever built -- the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter, which is on track to cost about $1.4 trillion. The 2007 hack of that project was reported previously.
... snip ...

REPORT: Chinese Hackers Stole Plans For Dozens Of Critical US Weapons Systems
http://www.businessinsider.com/china-hacked-us-military-weapons-systems-2013-5
A list of the U.S. weapons designs and technologies compromised by hackers
https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/national-security/a-list-of-the-us-weapons-designs-and-technologies-compromised-by-hackers/2013/05/27/a95b2b12-c483-11e2-9fe2-6ee52d0eb7c1_story.html

From a press standpoint ... all these major compromises reportedly have come from Asia ... but for some reason, major news is constantly pointing fingers in other directions. There also seems to be misdirection with all the uproar about compromises of consumer goods ... when there is all this stuff about serious weapons systems.

Weapon systems will remain vulnerable to hackers for "decades," Air Forces Cyber Commander says
https://www.fedscoop.com/weapon-systems-will-remain-vulnerable-to-hackers-for-decades-air-forces-cyber-commander-says/
China's State-Sponsored Cyber Attacks Must Stop
https://www.theglobalist.com/china-united-states-cyber-crime-politics/
Chinese hacked U.S. military contractors: Senate panel
http://www.reuters.com/article/us-usa-military-cyberspying-idUSKBN0HC1TA20140918
Why China hacks the world
http://www.csmonitor.com/World/Asia-Pacific/2016/0131/Why-China-hacks-the-world

of course part of this is enormous outsourcing (frequently to "for profit" private-equity subsidiaries, that are under intense pressure to cut corners and provide revenue to their owners) that occured last decade

AMEX had been in competition with KKR for private-equity LBO of RJR, KKR wins, but runs into some problems and hires away the president of AMEX to help
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barbarians_at_the_Gate:_The_Fall_of_RJR_Nabisco
IBM has gone into the red and is being reorganized into the 13 baby blues for breaking up the company. The board then brings in the former AMEX president to revese the breakup and resurrect the company, using some of the same techniques at RJR
http://www.ibmemployee.com/RetirementHeist.shtml

then the former AMEX president leaves IBM to head up major private-equity company that buys the beltway bandit that will employ Snowden. in intelligence, 70% of the budget and over half the people
http://www.investingdaily.com/17693/spies-like-us
and the rapidly spreading success of failure culture (aka more money from series of failures)
http://www.govexec.com/excellence/management-matters/2007/04/the-success-of-failure/24107/

... OPM had also outsourced to one of the private-equity owned subsidiaries
https://firstlook.org/theintercept/2015/06/24/opm-contractor-veritas/
https://fcw.com/articles/2015/06/24/house-oversight-opm.aspx

a lot of this seems similar to the motivation of the cal. data breach notification legislation ... the institutions with the major breaches were doing little or nothing about it, because the breaches didn't (directly) put the institution at risk ... it was the their customers or the public put at risk (aka normally institutions/individuals take security measures in self-protection)

military-industrial complex posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#military.industrial.complex
success of failure posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#success.of.failure
private equity posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#private.equity
data breach notification
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#data.breach.notification

at one end of the spectrum are claims that enabling the enemy, helps support the military-industrial complex strategy of "perpetual war"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#perpetual.war

some past posts about being cyberdumb
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015f.html#21 Credit card fraud solution coming to America...finally
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016b.html#4 Cyberdumb
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016b.html#8 Cyberdumb
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016b.html#19 Does Cybercrime Really Cost $1 Trillion?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016b.html#20 DEC and The Americans
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016b.html#91 Computers anyone?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016b.html#95 Computers anyone?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016e.html#104 E.R. Burroughs
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016f.html#104 How to Win the Cyberwar Against Russia
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016h.html#0 Snowden
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016h.html#28 China's spies gain valuable US defense technology: report
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016h.html#40 The F-22 Raptor Is the World's Best Fighter (And It Has a Secret Weapon That Is Out in the Open)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016h.html#67 "I used a real computer at home...and so will you" (Popular Science May 1967)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016h.html#76 The F-35 Stealth Fighter Is Politically Unstoppable----Even Under President Trump
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#62 Big Shrink to "Hire" 25,000 in the US, as Layoffs Pile Up
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#15 China's claim it has 'quantum' radar may leave $17 billion F-35 naked

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

curious: why S/360 & decendants are "big endian"

From: lynn@GARLIC.COM (Anne & Lynn Wheeler)
Subject: Re: curious: why S/360 & decendants are "big endian".
Newsgroups: bit.listserv.ibm-main
Date: 9 Mar 2017 16:25:41 -0800
john.archie.mckown@GMAIL.COM (John McKown) writes:
​Same in other books I've seen. Why? Probably because we write from top to bottom. We write the lowest first, at the top, and the highest last, at the bottom. And then we confuse everybody by calling them "ascending" memory addresses while writing them in a descending pattern. English is a _stupid_ language.

in the 70s as fullscreen 3270s editors were starting to appear, there was big editor culture wars over up & down.

prior to that, line-editing was from perspective of the user ... "up" moving towards the "top" (beginning) of the file and "down" was moving towards the "bottom" (end) of the file.

The side that had enhanced previous line editors to support 3270 fullscreen and preserved the up/down orientation (meaning).

A couple of "new" 3270 fullscreen editors, done from scratch, insisted on "up" was from the orientation of the program (not the user), the program would move the file up ... towards the bottom of the file or move the file "down" ... towards the top of the file (difference was` whether up/down was from the human perspective or the program/software perspective).

past posts mentioning fullscreen edit
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002j.html#4 HONE, ****, misc
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002n.html#66 Mainframe Spreadsheets - 1980's History
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003b.html#45 hyperblock drift, was filesystem structure (long warning)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004o.html#36 Integer types for 128-bit addressing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005u.html#58 Command reference for VM/370 CMS Editor
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006n.html#56 AT&T Labs vs. Google Labs - R&D History
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006u.html#28 Assembler question
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007.html#23 How to write a full-screen Rexx debugger?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007.html#24 How to write a full-screen Rexx debugger?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007i.html#82 Interrupts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007n.html#32 What I miss in my OS
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007t.html#42 What do YOU call the # sign?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008h.html#43 handling the SPAM on this group
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008j.html#32 CLIs and GUIs
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009s.html#46 DEC-10 SOS Editor Intra-Line Editing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010g.html#13 An Interview with Watts Humphrey, Part 6: The IBM 360
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010g.html#57 An Interview with Watts Humphrey, Part 6: The IBM 360
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010o.html#85 REXX "address" environments
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011g.html#45 My first mainframe experience
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011j.html#4 Announcement of the disk drive (1956)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011m.html#41 CMS load module format
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#53 Has anyone successfully migrated off mainframes?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012e.html#102 Typeface (font) and city identity
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013k.html#24 spacewar

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Trump's S.E.C. Nominee Disclosure Offers Rare Glimpse of Clients and Conflicts

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Trump's S.E.C. Nominee Disclosure Offers Rare Glimpse of Clients and Conflicts
Date: 09 Mar 2017
Blog: Facebook
Trump's S.E.C. Nominee Disclosure Offers Rare Glimpse of Clients and Conflicts
https://www.nytimes.com/2017/03/08/business/dealbook/sec-nominee-jay-clayton-client-list-conflicts-interest.html

There is a difference between the revolving door insider that still has much of his career in front of him and dependent on the industry and an insider that has all the money he wants and has no further vested interest in protecting the industry. Also check on the history of the law firm, recent appointees as well back through supporting Hitler & Nazis in the 20s&30s and further back to the Panama Canal deal.

more revolving door:

The SEC's Revolving Door
http://www.pogo.org/our-work/reports/sec-revolving-door.html
http://www.pogo.org/our-work/reports/2013/dangerous-liaisons/overview.html
POGO found that, from 2001 through 2010, more than 400 SEC alumni filed almost 2,000 disclosure forms saying they planned to represent an employer or client before the agency. Those disclosures are just the tip of the iceberg, because former SEC employees are required to file them only during the first two years after they leave the agency.
... snip ...

Trump's SEC Pick Brings Conflicts of Interest
https://bol.bna.com/trumps-sec-pick-brings-conflicts-of-interest/

posts mentioninv revolving door:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010b.html#84 Happy DEC-10 Day
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010h.html#15 The Revolving Door and S.E.C. Enforcement
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010h.html#16 The Revolving Door and S.E.C. Enforcement
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011b.html#79 NASA proves once again that, for it, the impossible is not even difficult
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011j.html#40 Advice from Richard P. Feynman
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011j.html#41 Advice from Richard P. Feynman
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011k.html#15 Is the SEC Covering Up Wall Street Crimes?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011k.html#20 Study shows powerful corporations really do control the world's finances
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011k.html#49 50th anniversary of BASIC, COBOL?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011k.html#54 50th anniversary of BASIC, COBOL?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011k.html#66 50th anniversary of BASIC, COBOL?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011k.html#89 The Grand Message in the Conceptual Spiral
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012g.html#15 Stars for hire
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013b.html#35 Adair Turner: A New Debt-Free Money Advocate
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013e.html#19 What Makes an Architecture Bizarre?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013e.html#42 More Whistleblower Leaks on Foreclosure Settlement Show Both Suppression of Evidence and Gross Incompetence
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013g.html#86 How Wall Street Defanged Dodd-Frank
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013k.html#28 Flag bloat
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013k.html#31 China mulls probe into IBM, Oracle, EMC after NSA hack claims - report
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013l.html#17 What Makes a Tax System Bizarre?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014c.html#34 Royal Pardon For Turing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014d.html#47 Stolen F-35 Secrets Now Showing Up in China's Stealth Fighter
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014g.html#19 350 DBAs stare blankly when reminded super-users can pinch data
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014l.html#61 How Comp-Sci went from passing fad to must have major
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015.html#6 NYT on Sony hacking
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015.html#83 Winslow Wheeler's War
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015b.html#58 Neocons Guided Petraeus on Afghan War
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015c.html#6 SEC's Andrew Bowden Regulatory Capture Scandal Hits the Major Leagues with Los Angeles Times Column
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015c.html#16 Retirement Heist
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015d.html#28 Bernie Sanders Proposes A Bill To Break Up The 'Too Big To Exist' Banks
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015d.html#79 Greedy Banks Nailed With $5 BILLION+ Fine For Fraud And Corruption
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015e.html#23 1973--TI 8 digit electric calculator--$99.95
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015e.html#38 The real story of how the Internet became so vulnerable
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015e.html#78 Fed agency blames giant hack on 'neglected' security system
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015f.html#13 1973--TI 8 digit electric calculator--$99.95
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015f.html#29 Eric Holder Returns as Hero to Law Firm That Lobbies for Big Banks
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015f.html#36 Eric Holder, Wall Street Double Agent, Comes in From the Cold
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015f.html#64 1973--TI 8 digit electric calculator--$99.95
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015g.html#28 Miniskirts and mainframes
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015g.html#100 Setting the writers right
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015h.html#123 IBM retirement fund
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016d.html#19 Banking; The Book That Will Save Banking From Itself
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#5 Trump to sign cyber security order
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#54 Mary Jo White Seriously Misled The US Senate To Become SEC Chair

posts mentioning law firm:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014c.html#11 UK government plans switch from Microsoft Office to open source
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014c.html#36 Royal Pardon For Turing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015.html#28 channel islands, definitely not the location of LEO
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015.html#62 IBM Data Processing Center and Pi
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015b.html#13 Keydriven bit permutations
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015b.html#69 past of nukes, was Future of support for telephone rotary dial ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015b.html#86 past of nukes, was Future of support for telephone rotary dial ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015d.html#13 Fully Restored WWII Fighter Plane Up for Auction
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015f.html#29 Eric Holder Returns as Hero to Law Firm That Lobbies for Big Banks
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015f.html#36 Eric Holder, Wall Street Double Agent, Comes in From the Cold
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015g.html#7 1973--TI 8 digit electric calculator--$99.95
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015h.html#0 How Corporate America Invented Christian America; Inside one reverend's big business-backed 1940s crusade to make the country conservative again
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015h.html#26 Putin's Great Crime: He Defends His Allies and Attacks His Enemies
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015h.html#28 rationality
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015h.html#119 For those who like to regress to their youth? :-)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016b.html#39 Failure as a Way of Life; The logic of lost wars and military-industrial boondoggles
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016b.html#49 Corporate malfeasance
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016c.html#64 Isolationism and War Profiteering
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016c.html#75 Qbasic
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016c.html#78 Qbasic
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016c.html#79 Qbasic
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016d.html#11 Study: Cost of U.S. Regulations Larger Than Germany's Economy
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016d.html#49 Fateful Choices
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016d.html#88 "Computer & Automation" later issues--anti-establishment thrust
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016f.html#27 British socialism / anti-trust
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016f.html#56 "One Nation Under God: How Corporate America Invented Christian America"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016f.html#94 The Brothers: John Foster Dulles, Allen Dulles, and Their Secret World War
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016g.html#9 Wall Street Preparing Dodd-Frank Rule Workaround
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016h.html#2 Smedley Butler
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#63 One Nation Under God: How Corporate America Invented Christian America
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#54 Mary Jo White Seriously Misled The US Senate To Become SEC Chair

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

New phone scams

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: New phone scams
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Thu, 09 Mar 2017 18:16:17 -0800
"J. Clarke" <j.clarke.873638@gmail.com> writes:
Particular numbers seem to be on particular lists. I regularly get calls on my work phone from some outfit trying to sell extended warranties on cars. Nobody else in the area gets them, just me.

i've mentioned before I saw big uptick in political calls after registering with FCC "DO NOT CALL" list ... apparently congress had established the "DO NOT CALL" list for list of numbers to call.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007f.html#8 Securing financial transactions a high priority for 2007
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008m.html#79 Blinkylights
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013d.html#70 What Makes an Architecture Bizarre?

it also appears the large call centers get the list to program their computers for numbers not to call ... but then take the list offshore and (also) use it as list of numbers to call. Sometimes the caller-id looks like valid number but totally bogus, other times it looks like totally random number.

calls seem to be somewhat random sources ... although the highest count is "payday loans" (I've pontificated before on lots of payday operations have been funded by TBTF as means of skirting predatory loan regulations). some posts mentioning "payday loans"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008i.html#98 dollar coins
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014b.html#19 Royal Pardon For Turing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014i.html#37 Sale receipt--obligatory?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015h.html#53 rationality
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016c.html#58 Qbasic
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#8 "Too big to fail" was Malicious Cyber Activity

TBTF posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#too-big-to-fail

congress considered most corrupt institution on earth:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010f.html#40 F.B.I. Faces New Setback in Computer Overhaul
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010j.html#88 taking down the machine - z9 series
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010k.html#36 taking down the machine - z9 series
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010k.html#58 History--automated payroll processing by other than a computer?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010l.html#69 Who is Really to Blame for the Financial Crisis?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010p.html#14 Rare Apple I computer sells for $216,000 in London
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010p.html#16 Rare Apple I computer sells for $216,000 in London
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010p.html#53 TCM's Moguls documentary series
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011.html#55 America's Defense Meltdown
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011i.html#20 Happy 100th Birthday, IBM!
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011j.html#18 Congressional Bickering
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011k.html#18 What Uncle Warren doesn't mention
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011l.html#68 computer bootlaces
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011m.html#20 Million Corporation march on Washington
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011n.html#80 A Close Look at the Perry Tax Plan
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011o.html#4 The men who crashed the world
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011p.html#137 The High Cost of Failing Artificial Hips
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#5 We are on the brink of a historic decision [referring to defence cuts]
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012b.html#0 Happy Challenger Day
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012e.html#58 Word Length
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012f.html#17 Let the IRS Do Your Taxes, Really
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012f.html#61 Zakaria: by itself, Buffett rule is good
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012g.html#47 How Selecting Voters Randomly Can Lead to Better Elections
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012h.html#14 Monopoly/ Cartons of Punch Cards
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012h.html#27 Monopoly/ Cartons of Punch Cards
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012h.html#33 Monopoly/ Cartons of Punch Cards
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012i.html#86 Should the IBM approach be given a chance to fix the health care system?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012m.html#32 General Mills computer
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012m.html#35 General Mills computer
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012m.html#36 General Mills computer
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012m.html#38 General Mills computer
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012p.html#35 Search Google, 1960:s-style
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013e.html#70 What Makes an Architecture Bizarre?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013e.html#87 What Makes an Architecture Bizarre?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013f.html#69 The cloud is killing traditional hardware and software
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013g.html#80 'Big four' accountants 'use knowledge of Treasury to help rich avoid tax'
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013g.html#81 Ireland feels the heat from Apple tax row
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013h.html#55 OT: "Highway Patrol" back on TV
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013i.html#79 What Makes an Architecture Bizarre?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013i.html#94 What Makes an Architecture Bizarre?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013j.html#78 What Makes an Architecture Bizarre?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013k.html#32 What Makes a Tax System Bizarre?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014c.html#50 Broadband pricing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014j.html#81 No Internet. No Microsoft Windows. No iPods. This Is What Tech Was Like In 1984
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014m.html#1 weird apple trivia
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015e.html#48 These are the companies abandoning the U.S. to dodge taxes
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015e.html#80 1973--TI 8 digit electric calculator--$99.95
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015e.html#96 1973--TI 8 digit electric calculator--$99.95
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015f.html#10 1973--TI 8 digit electric calculator--$99.95
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015f.html#13 1973--TI 8 digit electric calculator--$99.95
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015h.html#48 Protecting Social Security from the Thieves in the Night
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016.html#22 I Feel Old
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016.html#24 1976 vs. 2016?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016.html#32 I Feel Old
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016c.html#41 Qbasic
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016d.html#7 Study: Cost of U.S. Regulations Larger Than Germany's Economy
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016f.html#55 Congress, most corrupt institution on earth
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016f.html#76 GLBA & Glass-Steagall
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016h.html#103 Minimum Wage
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#97 Trump to sign cyber security order
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#41 Trump to sign cyber security order
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#77 Corporate Tax Rate

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

CBS News: WikiLeaks claims to release thousands of CIA documents of computer activity

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: CBS News: WikiLeaks claims to release thousands of CIA documents of computer activity
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Fri, 10 Mar 2017 07:59:08 -0800
"J. Clarke" <j.clarke.873638@gmail.com> writes:
The amount that he wants to take out of their budget, curiously, is almost exactly the amount that they want for drug enforcement.

re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#33 CBS News: WikiLeaks claims to release thousands of CIA documents of computer activity
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#34 CBS News: WikiLeaks claims to release thousands of CIA documents of computer activity

I remember when DHS first absorbed secret service ... there was complaints that DHS had redirected something like 30% of secret service budget to help pay for DHS hdqtrs overhead ... and that diverting that much money would seriously affect secret service capability (people, operations, moral, etc). There were number of reports that DHS had created enormous, expensive bureaucratic overhead.

misc. past posts mentioning secret service
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001c.html#54 PKI and Non-repudiation practicalities
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006p.html#9 New airline security measures in Europe
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006v.html#33 New attacks on the financial PIN processing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006w.html#0 Patent buster for a method that increases password security
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009p.html#11 Secret Service plans IT reboot
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009p.html#12 Secret Service plans IT reboot
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009p.html#13 Secret Service plans IT reboot
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009p.html#18 Secret Service plans IT reboot
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010e.html#37 More calumny: "Secret Service Uses 1980s Mainframe"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010e.html#59 More calumny: "Secret Service Uses 1980s Mainframe"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010e.html#63 More calumny: "Secret Service Uses 1980s Mainframe"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010f.html#1 More calumny: "Secret Service Uses 1980s Mainframe"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010f.html#59 More calumny: "Secret Service Uses 1980s Mainframe"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010p.html#0 CARD AUTHENTICATION TECHNOLOGY - Embedded keypad on Card - Is this the future
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010p.html#2 Fun with ATM Skimmers, Part III
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011i.html#0 Cyberwar vs. Cyber-Espionage vs. Cybercrime
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013d.html#74 What Makes an Architecture Bizarre?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014b.html#69 Why is the US a decade behind Europe on 'chip and pin' cards?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014f.html#17 Online Debit, Credit Fraud Will Soon Get Much Worse
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014k.html#51 LA Times commentary: roll out "smart" credit cards to deter fraud

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

The Blockchain Will Do to the Financial System What the Internet Did to Media

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: The Blockchain Will Do to the Financial System What the Internet Did to Media
Date: 10 Mar 2017
Blog: Facebook
The Blockchain Will Do to the Financial System What the Internet Did to Media
https://hbr.org/2017/03/the-blockchain-will-do-to-banks-and-law-firms-what-the-internet-did-to-media

Financial industry has been fighting disruptive changes for a long time. Rhetoric on the floor of congress for GLBA (now better known for repeal of Glass-Steagall, enabling too big to fail) was that if you already had banking charter, you got to keep it, but if you didn't already have banking charter, you couldn't get on (help block competition with new, more efficient technology).

Note that TARP was originally appropriated to buy too big to fail offbook toxic assets. However, with just $700B appropriated, it would hardly dent the problem, just the four largest TBTF had $5.2T offbook toxic assets the end of 2008. TARP was then used for other purposes (which may have been what was planned all along) and Federal Reserve was left to bailout the TBTF, buying trillions of offbook toxic assets at 98cents on the dollar and providing tens of trillions in ZIRP funds. As it turns out some of Federal Reserve's TBTF friends didn't have banking charters (which was required to partake of the largess), Federal Reserve then hands them banking charters, theoretically in violation of GLBA.

Too Big To Fail posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#too-big-to-fail
Glass-Steagall posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#Pecora&/orGlass-Steagall

Folklore is that wallstreet had contributed $250M to congress, about evenly divided between the two parties ... so congress "owed" them GLBA.

Jan2009, I was asked to HTML'ize the Pecora Hearings (30s congressional hearings into '29 crash, resulted in criminal convictions and Glass-Steagall) with lots of internal links and URLs between what happened this time and what happened then (comments that the new congress might have an appetite to do something). I work on it for awhile and then get a call that it won't be needed after all (references to enormous mountains of wallstreet cash totally burying capital hill).

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Stop Believing in the Many Myths of the Iraq Surge

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Stop Believing in the Many Myths of the Iraq Surge
Date: 10 Mar 2017
Blog: Facebook
Stop Believing in the Many Myths of the Iraq Surge
https://warisboring.com/stop-believing-in-the-many-myths-of-the-iraq-surge-6d865a53dc9b

Baqubah 2007-2008 worse than Fallujah 2004-2005 ... but because administration said things were better, didn't get much coverage.
https://www.amazon.com/Battle-Baqubah-Killing-Our-Way-ebook/dp/B007VBBS9I/

A lot of the surge was the airlift of billions in pallets of shrink wrapped $100 bills for tribute/bribes (somewhere between $16B and $60B, there was lot of skimming by other factions along the way), things were going to revert as soon as the tribute/bribes stopped (seems almost out of Roman Empire). says here $40B, but others have claimed $60B
http://www.cnbc.com/id/45031100

CIA director refuses to approve "Team B" (including Wolfowitz, later claimed to be primary architect of Iraq policy in the new century) analysis
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Team_B

white house chief of staff Rumsfeld then replaces CIA director with somebody that will agree (Bush1), Rumsfeld then becomes SECDEF and his assistant Cheney becomes white house chief of staff. Later Bush1 is VP and he and Rumsfeld are helping support Iraq (including WMDs, notice picture of Rumsfeld with Saddam):
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_support_for_Iraq_during_the_Iran%E2%80%93Iraq_war

sat. photo recon analyst notifies white house (bush1 now president & Cheney SECDEF) that Saddam is marshaling forces to invade Kuwait. White House says that Saddam has told them that he would do no such thing (and proceeds to discredit the analyst). Then the analyst notifies the white house that Saddam is marshaling forces to invade Saudi Arabia, now the white house has to choose between Saddam and Saudis.
http://www.amazon.com/Long-Strange-Journey-Intelligence-ebook/dp/B004NNV5H2/

start of century, white house chief of staff Card's cousin is dealing with Iraq in the UN and given proof that the WMDs have been decommissioned, which is supplied to Card, Powell and others. The cousin is then locked up in military hospital. Finally gets out and publishes book in 2010, including decommissioned WMDs.
http://www.amazon.com/EXTREME-PREJUDICE-Terrifying-Story-Patriot-ebook/dp/B004HYHBK2/

White house initially justifies Iraq invasion based on claimed support for Al-Queda and that it would only cost $50B (there was going to be that much in shrink wrapped $100s). later they switch the justification to WMDs. The decommissioned WMDs tracing back to the US were found early in the invasion, but the information was classified until the fall of 2014 (4yrs after Card's cousin book was published).
http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2014/10/14/world/middleeast/us-casualties-of-iraq-chemical-weapons.html

Current estimate for the two wars is expected to exceed $5T (with long term veterans care and benefits, aka a factor of 100 times greater)

team b posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#team.b
WMDs
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#wmds
military-industrial complex posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#military.industrial.complex
perpetual war posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#perpetual.war

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Profitable Companies, No Taxes: Here's How They Did It

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Profitable Companies, No Taxes: Here's How They Did It
Date: 10 Mar 2017
Blog: Facebook
Profitable Companies, No Taxes: Here's How They Did It
https://www.nytimes.com/2017/03/09/business/economy/corporate-tax-report.html

2002, Congress lets fiscal responsibility act lapse (spending can't exceed tax revenue, on its way to eliminating all federal debt). 2010 CBO report, 2003-2009 taxes were reduced by $6T and spending increased by $6T for $12T gap compared to fiscal responsible budget. A big part of the spending increase was for the two wars (first time taxes were cut to not pay for two wars). Analysis of the DOD spending increase ... included an extra $1+T that they can't find what it was used for (seemed to have gone in one end of the pentagon and just disappears). Since then, taxes weren't restored and only modest spending cuts, so federal debt continues to increase ... and interest on the debt is pushing half trillion. If they raise taxes by a trillion to cover interest and pay down the debt (@$20T), it will take around 30yrs to partially correct the damage letting the fiscal responsibility act lapse.

Besides all the *legal* tax evasion created last decade, in 2009 the IRS reported that it was going after $400B taxes owed on illegal tax evasion by 52,000 wealthy Amereicans. Spring of 2011, the new congress announces it was eliminating the IRS budget for recovering those taxes. Since then there has been periodic news about billion or two fines on TBTF that facilitated the illegal tax evasion ... but nothing on recovering the $400B.

fiscal responsibility act
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#fiscal.responsibility.act
tax evasion
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#tax.evasion
too big to fail
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#too-big-to-fail
regulatory capture
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#regulatory.capture

recent related "flat tax" discussion
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#41 Trump to sign cyber security order

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Profitable Companies, No Taxes: Here's How They Did It

Refed: **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Profitable Companies, No Taxes: Here's How They Did It
Date: 11 Mar 2017
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#41 Profitable Companies, No Taxes: Here's How They Did It

cross-over from recent military group on Iraq surge

A lot of the surge was the airlift of billions in pallets of shrink wrapped $100 bills for tribute/bribes (somewhere between $16B and $60B, there was lot of skimming by other factions along the way), things were going to revert as soon as the tribute/bribes stopped (seems almost out of Roman Empire). says here $40B, but others have claimed $60B
http://www.cnbc.com/id/45031100

CIA director refuses to approve "Team B" (including Wolfowitz, later claimed to be primary architect of Iraq policy in the new century) analysis
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Team_B

white house chief of staff Rumsfeld then replaces CIA director with somebody that will agree (Bush1), Rumsfeld then becomes SECDEF and his assistant Cheney becomes white house chief of staff. Later Bush1 is VP and he and Rumsfeld are helping support Iraq (including WMDs, notice picture of Rumsfeld with Saddam):
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_support_for_Iraq_during_the_Iran%E2%80%93Iraq_war

sat. photo recon analyst notifies white house (bush1 now president & Cheney SECDEF) that Saddam is marshaling forces to invade Kuwait. White House says that Saddam has told them that he would do no such thing (and proceeds to discredit the analyst). Then the analyst notifies the white house that Saddam is marshaling forces to invade Saudi Arabia, now the white house has to choose between Saddam and Saudis.
http://www.amazon.com/Long-Strange-Journey-Intelligence-ebook/dp/B004NNV5H2/

start of century, white house chief of staff Card's cousin is dealing with Iraq in the UN and given proof that the WMDs have been decommissioned, which is supplied to Card, Powell and others. The cousin is then locked up in military hospital. Finally gets out and publishes book in 2010, including decommissioned WMDs.
http://www.amazon.com/EXTREME-PREJUDICE-Terrifying-Story-Patriot-ebook/dp/B004HYHBK2/

White house initially justifies Iraq invasion based on claimed support for Al-Queda and that it would only cost $50B (there was going to be that much in shrink wrapped $100s). later they switch the justification to WMDs. The decommissioned WMDs tracing back to the US were found early in the invasion, but the information was classified until the fall of 2014 (4yrs after Card's cousin book was published).
http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2014/10/14/world/middleeast/us-casualties-of-iraq-chemical-weapons.html

Current estimate for the two wars is expected to exceed $5T (with long term veterans care and benefits, aka a factor of 100 times greater)

Military-industrial complex wanted the Iraq invasion so badly that corporate reps were telling former soviet block countries that if they voted for the invasion in the UN, they would get NATO membership and (directed appropriation) USAID (that could only be spent on modern US arms). From law of unintended consequences ... in the invasion, they were told to bypass ammo dumps looking for WMDs. When they got around to going back, a million metric tons had evaporated. Later started seeing large artillery shell IEDs ... even taking out Abrams
http://www.amazon.com/Prophets-War-Lockheed-Military-Industrial-ebook/dp/B0047T86BA

Part of the analysis was that Iraq had learned from "Desert Storm" to minimize targets for US air power. GAO Desert Storm Air Effectiveness study included Iraqis walking away from their tanks because they were sitting ducks for US air strikes. Desert Storm was 42 days, only last 100hrs was land war. Tremendous tank battles with coalition forces taking no damage, don't mention whether the Iraqis tanks had anybody home.

Bagubah 2007-2008 was worse than Fallujah 2004-2005, but because administration said it was better, it didn't get coverage

"Battle for Bagubah" has Abrams so vulnerable, that they took to running the route before taking Abrams out
https://www.amazon.com/Battle-Baqubah-Killing-Our-Way-ebook/dp/B007VBBS9I/

loc5243-54:
I saw other Bradleys and M1 Abrams main battle tanks, the pride of the 1st Cavalry Division -- vehicles that, if back at Fort Hood, would be parked meticulously on line, tarps tied tight, gun barrels lined up, track line spotless, not so much as a drop of oil on the white cement. What I saw that day was row after row of mangled tan steel as if in a junkyard that belonged to Satan himself.
... snip ...

team b posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#team.b
WMDs
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#wmds
military-industrial complex posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#military.industrial.complex
perpetual war posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#perpetual.war

and some on the economic mess:

VP and former CIA director claims no knowledge of
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iran%E2%80%93Contra_affair
because he was fulltime administration point person deregulating financial industry ... creating S&L crisis
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Savings_and_loan_crisis
along with other members of his family
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Savings_and_loan_crisis#Silverado_Savings_and_Loan
and another
http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9D0CE0D81E3BF937A25753C1A966958260

another family member then presides over the economic mess 70 times larger than the S&L crisis. S&L crisis had 1000 criminal convictions with jailtime, proportionally the economic mess should have 70,000.

http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#s&l.crisis
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#too-big-to-fail
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#toxic.cdo

letting fiscal responsibility act lapse 2002 seems to be confluence of (at least) 1) federal reserve and wall street wanted huge federal debt, 2) wall street and large corporations wanting huge tax cuts (and willing to pay huge bucks to congress for the cuts) and 3) military-industrial complex wanted huge increase in spending

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Formed by Megafloods, This Place Fooled Scientists for Decades

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Formed by Megafloods, This Place Fooled Scientists for Decades
Date: 11 Mar 2017
Blog: Facebook
Formed by Megafloods, This Place Fooled Scientists for Decades
http://news.nationalgeographic.com/2017/03/channeled-scablands/

Long-time computer co-worker (we were both at the IBM Science Center at MIT for most of the 70s and both transferred to IBM San Jose Research in the late 70s). He came up with theory about "tektites" found around a lot of southern US, were result of very large meteor that hit in Gulf of Mexico. He fought a long hard battle to get paper published in geology science journal (we use to go tektite hunting with him along Texas backroads).

There is a "bullying" book and apple app about him
http://downloads.zdnet.com/product/31709-75651341/
Loads of pre-Internet emails, anecdotes and other computer science archival material, 12 video interviews with Edson Hendricks and 3 audio interviews of author/composer Leanne Jones, exploration of the "genius" and "inventive" mind, predicting the future, first email virus, advice to programmers, the origin of tektites, and so much more.Ideal for all ages, especially clever children 6+ and anyone with an interest in Internet history and inventing. How was the Internet really invented?
... snip ...

also
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edson_Hendricks

It's Cool To Be Clever, The story of Edson C. Hendricks
https://www.amazon.com/Its-Cool-Be-Clever-Hendricks/dp/1897435630/

IT'S COOL TO BE CLEVER tells the true story of an inquisitive boy in the 1950s who doesn't fit in at school. Edson Hendricks is bullied because he is so smart (people accuse him of getting answers from his father who is the principal) and has red hair. He finds comfort in an imaginary world where he has machine parts, and no internal organs or emotions.

Years later, Edson's strange capacity to think like a machine helps him create a new way for computers to communicate. His "connectionless" network design paves the way for today's Internet.
... snip ...

trivia: I had project I called "high speed data transport" and we were working with director of NSF and were suppose to get $20M to interconnect the NSF supercomputer centers. Then congress cuts the budget, some other things happened and eventually NSF releases an RFP. As the regional networks connect into the centers, it grows into the NSFNET "backbone" (precursor to the modern internet) ... some old related email
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/lhwemail.html#nsfnet
and
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/lhwemail.html#hsdt

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

The ICL 2900

Refed: **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: The ICL 2900
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Sat, 11 Mar 2017 15:44:52 -0800
Jon Elson <elson@pico-systems.com> writes:
The problem with the 360/65 and /67 multiprocessor system was that the memory didn't have enough bandwidth, so adding a CPU did not give you a 2X boost. Somewhere between 1.5 - 1.75. I can only imagine it had to get worse as you added more that a 2nd processor.

re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#3 The ICL 2900
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#30 The ICL 2900

360/67 muiltiprocessor partially mitigated it ... allowing channel i/o and processors to have independent paths to memory.

360/67 (single processor), 360/65, and 360/65MP, processors, i/o, etc all shared common path to all memory.

you can see some of that in the 360/67 functional specifications giving instructions timings ... every instruction on multiprocessor memory access having slightly higher memory access.

a 360/67 "half-duplex" (multiprocessor memory, channel i/o etc ... but only one processor) would have slightly slower raw MIP rate compared to a straight simplex 360/67 (or 360/65) .... but under heavy i/o load could have higher effective throughput .... because both I/O and processor have paths to each memory storage units.

the actual timing gets more complex as distance from specific processor to specific storage unit also contributes to latency

much longer discussion pg28, in two-processor system, each storage unit can have four independent paths (one for each processor and one for each processor's i/o controller)
http://bitsavers.trailing-edge.com/pdf/ibm/360/funcChar/A27-2719-0_360-67_funcChar.pdf

there is little bit longer discussion, pg29-pg39 in
http://bitsavers.trailing-edge.com/pdf/ibm/360/funcChar/GA27-2719-2_360-67_funcChar.pdf

if all concurrent instruction & I/O was to the address range in single storage unit .... then thruput would be limited by access to that single unit .... however could have concurrent access to four different storage units (multiprocessor configuration could have up to eight 2365-12 storage units for 2mbytes total) and effective concurrent memory transfer rate of up to nearly four times that of "simplex" 360/67 (or 360/65s).

some past posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#smp

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

The ICL 2900

Refed: **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: The ICL 2900
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Sun, 12 Mar 2017 11:37:29 -0700
Jon Elson <elson@pico-systems.com> writes:
The problem with the 360/65 and /67 multiprocessor system was that the memory didn't have enough bandwidth, so adding a CPU did not give you a 2X boost. Somewhere between 1.5 - 1.75. I can only imagine it had to get worse as you added more that a 2nd processor.

re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#3 The ICL 2900
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#30 The ICL 2900
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#44 The ICL 2900

at univ. with 360/67 (single processor) with 768kbytes (three 2365-2 memory banks ... only one memory interface shared with processor & i/o) ... I played with (virtual machine) cp67 and the IBM SE played with tss/360. We created a synthetic benchmark that simulated fortran program edit, compile and executed. I ran it with cp67 and 35 simulated users had been interactive response and higher throughput than tss/360 had with 4 simulated users. Note this was before I did significant peformance enhancements to cp67, greatly cut kernel pathlengths, implemented ordered seek and rotational position for I/O (rather than pure FIFO) and redid page replacement algorithms and scheduling algorithms.

old posts about SHARE presentation on some of the (later) pathlength changes I made to CP67 at the univ.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/94.html#18 CP/67 & OS MFT14
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/97.html#22 Pre S/360 IBM Operating Systems?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/97.html#28 IA64 Self Virtualizable?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/98.html#21 Reviving the OS/360 thread (Questions about OS/360)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#93 MVS vs HASP vs JES (was 2821)

Later tss/360 would claim that it was the only operating system that would get 3.8 times more throughput on 2-processor than on single processor. With little obfuscation and misdirection could almost imply it was because 2-processor had effectively four times memory bandwith than "simplex" (i.e. each memory bank had four separate paths, one for each processor and one for each set of channel controllers). However, it really was that tss/360 was so huge and bloated ... that on single processor (with only 1mbyte memory), TSS/360 was still heavily page thrashing. Going to 2processor also went to 2mbyte real memory ... which reduced the page thrashing and tss/360 got higher effective throughput (than single processor), but still neither processor ran at 100% cpu utilization.

Part of the reason that cp67 ran with such more actual throughput than tss/360 ... is that it regularly ran at 100% cpu utilization ... even with all my enhancements ... significantly reducing kernel cpu pathlength and utilization .... helped by improving I/O efficiency and paging and scheduling algorithms. This is also why a "half-duplex" 360/67 could outperform a simplex ... since it could get nearly twice the memory throughput (with each memory bank having independent path for processor and I/O) and was running at 100% processor busy.

Other trivia, 360/67 multiprocessor had all channels addressable by all processors (in addition to all memory addressable). 360/65MP had all memory addressable by both processors (but didn't have independent memory bus for each processor and set of channels to each memory bank). However, it only simulated multiprocessor i/o. Each 360/65MP processor still had dedicated I/O channels ... and to simulate multiprocessor i/o configuration it required multi-channel controllers ... which could have two channel connections ... each connected to dedicated channel for each processor.

some recent related posts in thread over in comp.arch
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#26 Multitasking, together with OS operations
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#29 Multitasking, together with OS operations

other trivia: move to 370 ... multiprocessor was the 360/65MP subset (not the 360/67 flavor) ... but the machines had caches. Standard 370 multiprocessor slowed down processor cycles by 10% ... to provide extra cycles for caches to help handle cross-cashe invalidation signals ... so basic 370 multiprocessor started out 1.8 times that of single processor.

I've mentioned before that the initial morph of cp67 into vm370, they simplified and dropped a bunch of cp67 (including bunch of the stuff that I had done as undergraduate and included in cp67 ... and multiprocessor support). some old email about migrating my stuff to VM370
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006v.html#email731212
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006w.html#email750102
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006w.html#email750430

posts about scheduling work
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#fairshare
posts about paging algorithms
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#clock

I then got sucked into do multiprocessor support. I mentioned before that one of my hobbies was distributed&supporting enhanced operating systems for internal datacenters and one of my long time customers was (online, world-wide online sales&marketing support) HONE ... some past posts http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#hone

In the mid-70s all the US HONE datacenters were consolidated in Palo Alto and they developed large disk farm with single-system cluster support ... each disk bank having eight channel connections to eight different systems ... front end that load-balanching logon across the systems (possibly largest single system cluster support in the world) ... and all processors running saturated. They wanted to add 2nd processor to each system ... to (theoritically) double processor capacity. I did multiprocessor support with some cache affinity features and i/o interrupt batching .... that improved cache hit rates ... so even tho each processor was only running at .9 a single processor ... the improved cache hit rate more than offset the machine cycle slowdown ... so each processor in two processor system was getting higher MIP rate (than single processor version, because of the higher cache hit rate). all sorts of SMP processor posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#smp

trivia: one facebook first moved into silicon valley (before buying the old SUN campus) ... it was into new bldg built next door to the old HONE datacenter.

more trivia: while I could show 2-processor 370 getting better than twice single processor ... at the time, MVS documentation claimed 1.3-1.5 throughput of single processor. MVS was still pretty much the OS/360 360/65MP single global kernel spin-lock and huge amount of constant SIGP overhead ... one processor constantly signalling the other processor.

Later in the 3081, they changed VM/SP multiprocessor to add a huge number of SIGPs (constant one processor signalling the other processor for some trivial, unimportant reason drastically driving up multiprocessor overhead, interrupts killing cache hit rate, etc). Customers moving from the previous release to the new (sigp intensive) release saw at least 10% throughput decline.

They had attempted to obfuscate the SIGP change degradation with some optimization of how 3270 terminal I/O was done. However, there were some customers that were all ascii glass-teletype ... including a very large 3-letter gov. agency (SHARE installation code "CAD") ... where the release transition was especially noticable. old email
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001f.html#email830420
in this post
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001f.html#57 any 70's era supercomputers that ran as slow as today's supercomputers?

some old posts mentiong SHARE installation code "CAD"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012j.html#20 Operating System, what is it?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013h.html#31 I/O Optimization
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013h.html#51 Search for first Web page takes detour into US
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013i.html#10 EBCDIC and the P-Bit
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013l.html#19 A Brief History of Cloud Computing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013m.html#69 PDCA vs. OODA
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014d.html#58 The CIA's new "family jewels": Going back to Church?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014e.html#36 Semi-OT: Government snooping was Re: Is there any MF shop using AWS service?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014j.html#78 Firefox 32 supports Public Key Pinning
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015c.html#39 Virtual Memory Management
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015e.html#5 Remember 3277?

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

New phone scams

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: New phone scams
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Sun, 12 Mar 2017 12:14:05 -0700
"J. Clarke" <j.clarke.873638@gmail.com> writes:
So suppose it turns out that the fatality rate for self driving cars is 1/10 that for human driven cars? Would you really want to reward this reduction in deaths by filing multiple criminal charges against the people who brought it about. That's just brilliant. What purpose do you believe that this will serve?

recent news that two people from deaf school file suit against berkeley under the disabilities act that berkeley had put up 20,000 free course videos online ... but that they accessable to deaf and blind people. berkeley pulled the 20,000 videos.

Berkeley Will Delete Online Content
https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2017/03/06/u-california-berkeley-delete-publicly-available-educational-content
The Justice Department, following an investigation, in August determined that the university was violating the Americans With Disabilities Act of 1990. The department reached that conclusion after receiving complaints from two employees of Gallaudet University, saying Berkeley's free online educational content was inaccessible to blind and deaf people because of a lack of captions, screen reader compatibility and other issues.
....
"In many cases the requirements proposed by the department would require the university to implement extremely expensive measures to continue to make these resources available to the public for free," Koshland wrote in a Sept. 20 statement. "We believe that in a time of substantial budget deficits and shrinking state financial support, our first obligation is to use our limited resources to support our enrolled students. Therefore, we must strongly consider the unenviable option of whether to remove content from public access."
... snip ...

Berkeley
http://news.berkeley.edu/2017/03/01/course-capture/

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

WikiLeaks CIA Dump: Washington's Data Security Is a Mess

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: WikiLeaks CIA Dump: Washington's Data Security Is a Mess
Date: 12 Mar 2017
Blog: Facebook
WikiLeaks CIA Dump: Washington's Data Security Is a Mess
http://fortune.com/2017/03/10/wikileaks-cia-data-security-leaks-spying-hacking/

some amount of wikileaks and russians is obfuscation and misdirection away from fundamental systemic problems ("cyberdumb") involving private-equity for-profit companies and asia. foes have been dancing through gov. secure networks for years, including retrieving detailed classified specifications on major weapon systems.

Report: China gained U.S. weapons secrets using cyberespionage
http://www.cnn.com/2013/05/28/world/asia/china-cyberespionage/
Confidential report lists U.S. weapons system designs compromised by Chinese cyberspies
https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/national-security/confidential-report-lists-us-weapons-system-designs-compromised-by-chinese-cyberspies/2013/05/27/a42c3e1c-c2dd-11e2-8c3b-0b5e9247e8ca_story.html
Also on the list is the most expensive weapons system ever built -- the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter, which is on track to cost about $1.4 trillion. The 2007 hack of that project was reported previously.
... snip ...

REPORT: Chinese Hackers Stole Plans For Dozens Of Critical US Weapons Systems
http://www.businessinsider.com/china-hacked-us-military-weapons-systems-2013-5
A list of the U.S. weapons designs and technologies compromised by hackers
https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/national-security/a-list-of-the-us-weapons-designs-and-technologies-compromised-by-hackers/2013/05/27/a95b2b12-c483-11e2-9fe2-6ee52d0eb7c1_story.html

From a press standpoint ... all these major compromises reportedly have come from Asia ... but for some reason, major news is constantly pointing fingers in other directions. There also seems to be misdirection with all the uproar about compromises of consumer electronics ... when there is all this stuff about serious weapons systems.

other part of the problem is the enormous outsourcing to for-profit companies last decade, frequently subsidiaries of private-equity companies (under intense pressure to cut corners and generate profit for their owners), including the beltway bandit that will employ Snowden ... 70% of the budget and over half the people
http://www.investingdaily.com/17693/spies-like-us
and the rapidly spreading Success of Failure culture ... multiple failures generate more profit than success
http://www.govexec.com/excellence/management-matters/2007/04/the-success-of-failure/24107/
frequent failures also enables perpetual war
http://chuckspinney.blogspot.com/p/domestic-roots-of-perpetual-war.html

We were tangentially involved in success of failure ... but didn't know it at the time. 2002, IC-ARDA (since renamed IARPA) releases an unclassified BAA that basically said that none of the tools they had did the job. Just before it closes, we get a call asking us to respond. We get a response in before it closes and have several meetings demonstrating that can do what is needed ... and then nothing. When success of failure starts to break, we conjecture that they allowed the BAA to be released, assuming nobody would respond and shutdown the complaints (also wonder what happened to the person that called asking for us to respond).

OPM was also private-equity subsidiary
https://firstlook.org/theintercept/2015/06/24/opm-contractor-veritas/
https://fcw.com/articles/2015/06/24/house-oversight-opm.aspx

recent shared memory from 7Mar2015:

conference late 90s (almost 20yrs ago) there were references to CIA pivoting to cyber, however some people expressed great deal of skepticism because there weren't the skills or orientation. there were comments about lots of federal agencies claiming move to cyber as excuse for new funding. all that was apparently side-tracked when the funding buzzword became terrorism

CIA to make sweeping structural changes with focus on cyber operations
https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2015/mar/06/cia-sweeping-structure-changes-cyber-operations

success of failure posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#success.of.failure
"private equity" posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#private.equity
military-industrial complex posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#military.industrial.complex
perpetual war posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#perpetual.war

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

The ICL 2900

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: The ICL 2900
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Mon, 13 Mar 2017 10:08:42 -0700
jmfbahciv <See.above@aol.com> writes:
Which don't seem to run in a true SMP manner but that's just the feeling I get when using a multi-core system.

re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#59 The ICL 2900
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#61 The ICL 2900
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#74 The ICL 2900
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#75 The ICL 2900
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#30 The ICL 2900
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#44 The ICL 2900
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#45 The ICL 2900

as previously mentioned OS/360/65MP had global kernel spin-lock ... so only processor executed in the kernel at a time (simplified all the changes serialization changes to the kernel but seriously limited amount of parallelization). That accounted for the push back from the POK favorite son operating system (OS/360 MVT) push back on needed compare&swap for SMP (test&set was more than sufficient) ... and carried forward into 370 SMP MVS ... that throughput could be 1.2 to 1.5 times simplex (i.e. 370 hardware clock slowed down 10% for listening for cross-cache invalidation, hardware only 1.8 times, large amount of softwarre SIGP signaling interrupts overhead, and very poor parallelization, lack of fine-grain locking).
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#smp

One of the things limiting further scaleup on cache machines was all the cache consistency protocol chatter ... two-processors mean signaling from one other processor, four processors mean signaling from three other processors, N-way means signaling from N-1 processors. SEQUENT had done a lot of cache protocol optimization for its 32-way SMP DYNIX.

I got pulled into some of the SLAC meetings for SCI .. which used serial fiber for memory bus and cache protocol ... and directory based cache consistency protocol. And then had quite a few dealings with SEQUENT ... when they were working on their 256-way SCI exemplar. One of the things that they claimed was they had done nearly only the work on (windows) NT for fine-grain locking to get NT scaleup to 8-way (that they offerred as alternative to DYNIX on their SMP systems) ... this is server-based operations that already have highly parallelized applications (like DBMS, aka m'soft had bought their sql-server from SYBASE). upthread post mentioning SCI
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#73 The ICL 2900

Decade ago there is the story about head of microsoft complaining to Intel SVP that they have to stop all this multi-core stuff and return to increasingly faster single processor systems ... because application parallel programming was "too hard" (desktop, client, etc). past quote from Intel SVP Gelsinger about multi-core converstation with head of Microsoft saying parallel program was "too hard"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007i.html#78 John W. Backus, 82, Fortran developer, dies
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008f.html#42 Panic in Multicore Land
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012e.html#15 Why do people say "the soda loop is often depicted as a simple loop"?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012j.html#44 Monopoly/ Cartons of Punch Cards
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013.html#48 New HD
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014d.html#85 Parallel programming may not be so daunting
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014m.html#118 By the time we get to 'O' in OODA

in recent upthread post ... i had mentioned doing vm370 2-way SMP for HONE with some cache affinity ... getting better than 2-times (because of improved cache hit rate)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#45 The ICL 2900

there is recent thread over in comp.arch about doing various cache affinity strategies getting significant throughput improvements.

related to modern strategies is periodic comment that current memory latencies (cache miss) .... when measured in count of processor cycles ... is comparable to 60s disk latency, when measured in count of 60s processor cycles. Some current processor throughput face similar issues that 60s systems faced when waiting for disk i/o ... recent references:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#13 follow up to dense code definition
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#29 Virtualization's Past Helps Explain Its Current Importance

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

The ICL 2900

Refed: **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: The ICL 2900
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Tue, 14 Mar 2017 09:32:38 -0700
scott@slp53.sl.home (Scott Lurndal) writes:
"They've" been thinking outside the box for decades. Starting with Sequent and SGI's NUMA systems.

as well as data general and convex ... all implemented with SCI ... recent refs:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#73 The ICL 2900
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#48 The ICL 2900

wiki
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scalable_Coherent_Interface

memory bus was 64-port .... sequent and data general did 4 processor board with shared cache and 64 boards (for 256 processors total) interfaced to SCI.

futurebus contributes to SCI for I/O
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Futurebus
Futurebus effort did act as a catalyst for simpler serial technologies. A group then organized to create a system aimed directly at this need, which eventually led to Scalable Coherent Interface (SCI). Meanwhile, another member decided to simple re-create the entire concept on a much simpler basis, which resulted in QuickRing. Due to the simplicity of these standards, both standards were completed before Futurebus+. Futurebus+ was ahead of its time in the 1980s. VME and other parallel bus standards are still trying to adapt concepts that are implemented in the Futurebus, specially in high performance applications.
... snip ...

contributing to Next Generation I/O and eventually Inifiniband
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/InfiniBand

In the late 80s, I got dragged into LANL standardization for (parallel) HIPPI, LLNL standardization for (serial) FCS, and SLAC standardization for SCI ... as well as working on cluster scaleup for our HA/CMP product (both technical/scientific with national labs and commercial with RDBMS vendors).

old reference to Jan1992 meeting in Ellison's conference room on commercial cluster scaleup
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/95.html#13

we had also been working with (IBM) Hursley 80mbit serial copper I/O and wanted it to evolved in fractional speed interoperability with FCS (but it evolves into incompatible SSA instead) ... recent reference:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#73 The ICL 2900
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#75 The ICL 2900

within weeks of the Ellison meeting, the cluster scaleup is transferred to Kingston, announced as IBM supercomputer for technical/scientific *ONLY* and we are told we can't work on anything with more than four processors. some old email
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/lhwemail.html#medusa

press from 17Feb1992, *scientific and technical* only
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001n.html#6000clusters1
and 11May1992 "IBM" *caught by surprise* by national lab interest in cluster supercomputers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001n.html#6000clusters2

ha/cmp posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#hacmp

I've mentioned before getting con'ed into do 4341 (RAIN) benchmarks for LLNL that was interested in getting 70 4341s for computer farm ... sort of leading edge of the cluster supercomputer tsunami
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006y.html#email790220
other old 4341 email
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/lhwemail.html#4341

background leading up to the transfer ... was there was operation in Kingston lab that had responsibility for supercomputer ... they were working on design ... but they were also providing financing to Chen supercomputing. End of Oct1991, the senior corporate VP supporting the Kinston supercomputer operation retires. There is then audits and reviews of all the projects supported by the retired VP. After that they start scouring the corporation for technology that could be used for supercomputer.

In any case, we leave IBM later in 1992. Later in the 90s, Steve Chen is CTO at Sequent and we are brought in as consultants (all before IBM buys and shutdowns Sequent). misc. past posts mentioning Steve Chen
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001n.html#70 CM-5 Thinking Machines, Supercomputers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004b.html#19 Worst case scenario?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006v.html#12 Steve Chen Making China's Supercomputer Grid
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006y.html#38 Wanted: info on old Unisys boxen
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009.html#5 Is SUN going to become x86'ed ??
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009e.html#7 IBM in Talks to Buy Sun
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009s.html#5 While watching Biography about Bill Gates on CNBC last Night
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009s.html#42 Larrabee delayed: anyone know what's happening?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009s.html#59 Problem with XP scheduler?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010b.html#71 Happy DEC-10 Day
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010e.html#68 Entry point for a Mainframe?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010e.html#70 Entry point for a Mainframe?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010f.html#47 Nonlinear systems and nonlocal supercomputing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010f.html#48 Nonlinear systems and nonlocal supercomputing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010i.html#61 IBM to announce new MF's this year
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011c.html#24 If IBM Hadn't Bet the Company
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011d.html#7 IBM Watson's Ancestors: A Look at Supercomputers of the Past
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011o.html#79 Why are organizations sticking with mainframes?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012p.html#13 AMC proposes 1980s computer TV series Halt & Catch Fire
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013c.html#65 What Makes an Architecture Bizarre?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013f.html#73 The cloud is killing traditional hardware and software
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013h.html#6 The cloud is killing traditional hardware and software
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014.html#71 the suckage of MS-DOS, was Re: 'Free Unix!
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015g.html#74 100 boxes of computer books on the wall
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015h.html#10 the legacy of Seymour Cray

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Mainframes after Future System

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Mainframes after Future System
Date: 14 Mar 2017
Blog: Facebook
3033 and 3081 were Q&D projects kicked off at the same time at the death of Future Systems ... to get something quickly back into 370 product pipeline (lack of products during the FS period is credited with giving clone makers market foothold). 3033 was 168-3 logic mapped to 20% faster chips. 3081 was some warmed over FS technology that involved an enormous number of circuits (significantly worse performance than competition). Some long-winded analysis from the period
http://www.jfsowa.com/computer/memo125.htm
past FS posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#futuresys

We had a 16-way 370 multprocessor project and con'ed the 3033 processor engineers into working on it in their spare time ... a lot more interesting than the 3033. Everbody thought it was really great, until somebody got around to telling the head of POK that it could be decades before the POK favorite son operating system had effective 16-way support. Then the head of POK invites some of us to never visit POK again (and directs the 3033 processor engineers to stop being distracted). Mainframe 16-way finally ships in 2000 (nearly 25yrs later). past SMP posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#smp

there was 3092 service processor for the 3090 ... actually a pair of 4361s running customized version of vm370/cms release 6, with all service screens done in cms IOS3270. Part of the issue that when the 3081 service processor had all software done barebones from scratch, which was major software development effort. The original justification for service processor was that FE had a scoping incremental bootstrapped diagnostic. Use scope to diagnose failure and identify unit(s) to be replaced. With the change to TCM (all electronics inside thermal unit). Service processor could be scoped and diagnosed ... and then service processor had huge number of probes into the TCMs (to diagnose TCM failures).

For 303x channel director they used 158 engine with integrated channel microcode and w/o the 370 microcode. A 3031 was 158 engine with 370 microcode (and w/o integrated channel microcode) and a 2nd 158 engine with integrated channel microcde (and w/o 370 microcode). A 3031 was slightly faster than 158-3 since it had separate engines to run the processor and channel microcode. A 3032 was 168-3 with new covers and configured to work with 303x channel director (as external channels). A 3033 was 168-3 logic remapped to 20% faster chips and 303x channel director for external channels.

Endicott came out with 4341 which was faster than 3031, was much less expensive had much smaller footprint and environmentals. A cluster of 4341s was faster than 3033, much less expensive and much smaller footprint and environmentals. At one point POK was so threatened by 4341, it convinced corporate to cut allocation of critical 4341 manufacturing component in half.

Large corporations started ordering hundreds of 4341s at a time for placing out in departmental areas .... sort of the leading edge of the distributed computing tsunami (including IBM, departmental conference rooms were becoming scarce commodity because they were being converted to 4341 rooms).

I also got con'ed into doing 4341 benchmarks for LLNL that was looking at getting 70 for compute farm (leading edge of the cluster supercomputer tsunami).

old 4341 email
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/lhwemail.html#4341

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

F-35 Replacement: F-45 Mustang II Fighter -- Simple & Lightweight

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: F-35 Replacement: F-45 Mustang II Fighter -- Simple & Lightweight
Date: 14 Mar 2017
Blog: Facebook
It's Time to Turn the Page on the F-35: Here's How
http://www.nationalreview.com/article/444387/f-35-replacement-upgrades-new-designs-replace-joint-strike-fighter
The failed F-35 fighter-jet program can't be fixed -- it's time to turn the page.
http://www.nationalreview.com/article/443612/f-35-donald-trump-should-cancel-failed-f-35-fighter-jet-program
F-35 Replacement: F-45 Mustang II Fighter -- Simple & Lightweight
http://www.nationalreview.com/article/445708/f-35-replacement-f-45-mustang-ii-fighter-simple-lightweight

major part of F16 was relaxed stability ... requiring fly-by-wire to provide control & maneuverability
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Relaxed_stability

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fly-by-wire Analog computers also allowed some customization of flight control characteristics, including relaxed stability. This was exploited by the early versions of F-16, giving it impressive maneuverability.
https://www.nae.edu/Publications/Bridge/CentennialofAviation/TechnologyandtheF-16FightingFalconJetFighter.aspx

in the 80s, Boyd would talk about need for something less costly than F-16, much simpler, easier to maintain, lower skill level to maintain, larger number of flying hours per maintenance hours, lower cost per flying hour, etc ... along the lines what was claimed for F20/Tigershark ... more planes per dollar and more flying hours pere dollar ... possibly tens times the planes in the air. For the F20/Tigershark they realized that USAF would never buy, so they had to target for export market. They then found that the F16 forces had lobbied congress that for every F20/Tigershark candidate country, they would be offerred directed appropriation USAID (that could be only spent on buying F16). They candidate country then said that they could choose between getting F16s for free or using their own money for F20s (even though that F20s would be much better for their purpose). There was some claims from the period that the "free" F16s was justified on making F16s cost less for USAF ... but they may have met that it was more money for military-industrial complex.
http://www.defensemedianetwork.com/stories/what-might-have-been-f-20-tigershark/

posts mentioning John Boyd
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subboyd.html

One of the issues contributing to canceling F22 was enormous maintenance hours and expense

This is F-22: Can't Fly Won't Die
http://nypost.com/2009/07/17/cant-fly-wont-die/
Pilots call high-maintenance aircraft "hangar queens." Well, the F-22's a hangar empress. After three expensive decades in development, the plane meets fewer than one-third of its specified requirements.

Anyway, an enemy wouldn't have to down a single F-22 to defeat it. Just strike the hi-tech maintenance sites, and it's game over. (In WWII, we didn't shoot down every Japanese Zero; we just sank their carriers.) The F-22 isn't going to operate off a dirt strip with a repair tent.

But this is all about lobbying, not about lobbing bombs. Cynically, Lockheed Martin distributed the F-22 workload to nearly every state, employing under-qualified sub-contractors to create local financial stakes in the program. Great politics -- but the result has been a quality collapse.

... snip ...

There were jokes at the time that F-22 couldn't be taken out in weather (because the stealth coating was very vulnerable especially to moisture). There are claims that since then, less moisture vulnerable coating has been developed, used for the F-35 and supposedly retrofitted to F-22 (however, there are concerns that new coating has lower structural integrity and subject to loss/wear at higher top-speed of F-22).

This is more recent item talking makes reference to F-22 stealth maintenance bays are working over time
http://www.tyndall.af.mil/News/Features/Display/tabid/6651/Article/669883/lo-how-the-f-22-gets-its-stealth.aspx

Haven't seen much about whether F-35 coating is doing better or worse than F-22

F-22 was 1.7M lines of code, 2yrs ago F-35 estimate was that it was going to be (at least?) 25M lines-of-code. 2011 USNI conference, it was pointed out that drones were undergoing a dozen new generations per year ... while F-22 & F-35 were multiple decades per generation. 2011 USNI conference, it was pointed out that drones were undergoing a dozen new generations per year ... while F-22 & F-35 were multiple decades per generation. Large number of inexpensive as bomb & missile platform quickly approaching unmanned

There is also big overlap in the capability & speed of signal processing for real-time multi-band radar detection and targeting of stealth ... and the capability & speed of signal processing for autonomous vehicle operation.f inexpensive as bomb & missile platform quickly approaching unmanned

There is also big overlap in the capability & speed of signal processing for real-time multi-band radar detection and targeting of stealth ... and the capability & speed of signal processing for autonomous vehicle operation.

Spring 2015, DOD put latest digital chips on export control. Various estimates include that processing by latest generation chips could reduce the number of transmit/receiver pairs in the F22 & F35 AESA radar by nearly a factor of 100 times w/o loss of capability. At fall supercomputer conference, China demonstrated that they were producing their own chips (in addition to radar & autonomous operation, the chips are also heavily used in supercomputers; china has two largest supercomputers in the world which have more processing power than the next eight combined).

recent posts mention F35
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#51 The Not-So-Secret Way to Kill an F-22 or F-35 Stealth Fighter
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#15 China's claim it has 'quantum' radar may leave $17 billion F-35 naked
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#34 CBS News: WikiLeaks claims to release thousands of CIA documents of computer activity
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#47 WikiLeaks CIA Dump: Washington's Data Security Is a Mess

older posts mention AESA radar
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015f.html#58 No, the F-35 Can't Fight at Long Range, Either
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016.html#75 American Gripen: The Solution To The F-35 Nightmare
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016b.html#20 DEC and The Americans
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016b.html#89 Computers anyone?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016e.html#22 Iran Can Now Detect U.S. Stealth Jets at Long Range
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016h.html#40 The F-22 Raptor Is the World's Best Fighter (And It Has a Secret Weapon That Is Out in the Open)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016h.html#77 Test Pilot Admits the F-35 Can't Dogfight

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

The ICL 2900

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: The ICL 2900
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Wed, 15 Mar 2017 08:46:59 -0700
Morten Reistad <first@last.name.invalid> writes:
We did run a quite big (for the time) SGI R10K server for news, 14 processors at the most (in 1996). We had THAT much access and batching. We ranked among the top 50 among news servers worldwide then.

re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#73 The ICL 2900
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#48 The ICL 2900
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#49 The ICL 2900

triva: when we were doing ha/cmp ... the executive we first report to, then transfers over to head up somerset (AIM, apple, ibm, motorola; power/pc). we leave in 92 after cluster scaleup is transferred to kingston and announced as IBM supercomputer. He is hired away from somerset/aim by SGI to be president of MIPs doing the MIPS R10K (i.e. SGI had bought MIPS). We would drop in periodically and shoot the breeze ... in fact he lets me have his executive Indy to take home.

some past posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#hacmp
AIM
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/AIM_alliance
MIPS R10K
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/R10000

we had been brought in as consultants by small client/server startup that wanted to do payment transactions on their server. Two of the people that were in the Jan1992 Ellison meeting ... mentioned here
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/95.html#13

have left oracle and are responsible for the "commerce server" at the startup. The startup had also invented this technology they called "SSL" they wanted to use. The result is now frequently called "electronic commerce".

As public load downloading clients & server software on their web servers was increasing ... they kept adding servers (and directed customer to manually spread download use across the increasing number of servers) ... but CPU use couldn't keep up with the increase in download use. Turns out their client/server protocol had used TCP for this very short HTTP & HTTPS operations. TCP had never been implemented for such behavior ... part of it was reliable session close with FINWAIT list to catch dangling packets. FINWAIT operation had basically been designed assuming there would never be more than a few sessions in close ... so would do linear search of the list to see if incoming packets were part of session in the process of closing. As nominal webserver use started to climb, webserver processor quickly shot to 100%, nearly all of it done searching FINWAIT list. There was period in the mid-90s where webservers hit brick wall.

It turns out that Sequent had previously encountered this problem with customers that were running large commercial operations with 20,000 TELNET (TCP) sessions. While the TELNET sessions were much longer ... with 20,000 ... there was still relative high frequency of sessions being (created &) shutdown ... and Sequent had already addressed efficient FINWAIT list operation. The load problem at the small client/server operation was "solved" when they installed a Sequent for handling their webserver load.

After another six months, other vendors started shipping updates that addressed the FINWAIT problem.

past posts mentioning FINWAIT
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#1 Early tcp development?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#164 Uptime (was Re: Q: S/390 on PowerPC?)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002.html#3 The demise of compaq
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002.html#14 index searching
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004m.html#46 Shipwrecks
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005g.html#42 TCP channel half closed
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006f.html#33 X.509 and ssh
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006k.html#2 Hey! Keep Your Hands Out Of My Abstraction Layer!
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006m.html#37 Curiosity
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006p.html#11 What part of z/OS is the OS?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007j.html#38 Problem with TCP connection close
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008m.html#28 Yet another squirrel question - Results (very very long post)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008p.html#36 Making tea
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009e.html#7 IBM in Talks to Buy Sun
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009i.html#76 Tiny-traffic DoS attack spotlights Apache flaw
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009n.html#44 Follow up
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010b.html#62 Happy DEC-10 Day
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010m.html#51 Has there been a change in US banking regulations recently?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010p.html#9 The IETF is probably the single element in the global equation of technology competition than has resulted in the INTERNET
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011g.html#11 Is the magic and romance killed by Windows (and Linux)?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011n.html#6 Founders of SSL Call Game Over?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#20 Writing article on telework/telecommuting
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012e.html#89 False Start's sad demise: Google abandons noble attempt to make SSL less painful
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012i.html#15 Can anybody give me a clear idea about Cloud Computing in MAINFRAME ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013h.html#8 The cloud is killing traditional hardware and software
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013i.html#46 OT: "Highway Patrol" back on TV
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013i.html#48 Google takes on Internet Standards with TCP Proposals, SPDY standardization
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014e.html#7 Last Gasp for Hard Disk Drives
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014g.html#13 Is it time for a revolution to replace TLS?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014h.html#26 There Is Still Hope
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014j.html#76 No Internet. No Microsoft Windows. No iPods. This Is What Tech Was Like In 1984
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015d.html#2 Knowledge Center Outage May 3rd
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015d.html#50 Western Union envisioned internet functionality
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015e.html#25 The real story of how the Internet became so vulnerable
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015f.html#71 1973--TI 8 digit electric calculator--$99.95
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015g.html#96 TCP joke
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015h.html#113 Is there a source for detailed, instruction-level performance info?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016e.html#43 How the internet was invented
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016e.html#127 Early Networking

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Multics Timeline

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Multics Timeline
Date: 15 Mar 2017
Blog: Facebook
Multics Timeline
http://multicians.org/site-timeline.html

some of the CTSS people went to the 5th floor to do MULTICS and others went to the IBM science center on the 4th floor and did virtual machines, online computing, internal network, computer performance, etc. As might be expected there was a little competition between the 4th & 5th flrs.

One of my hobbies was developing & supporting enhanced operating systems for internal datacenters. It wasn't fair to compare the total number of VM customers to MULTICS or even the number of VM internal datacenters to MULTICS .... however I could compare the number of my "CSC/VM" internal datacenters ... which was slightly more than the total number of all MULTICS installations (over its lifetime).

Old 1979 email about some people from USAF data services coming out for visit to talk about getting 20 (vm370) 4341s.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001m.html#email790404

the visit was delayed until the following fall, by which time the order had grown to 210 (vm370) 4341s. Trivia: USAF data services had been longtime MULTICS customer

followon email about finally a colonel, couple majors and some others from Air Force Data Services coming by (names redacted to protect the innocent)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009k.html#email791211

Multics Air Force Data Services
http://multicians.org/site-afdsc.html

past science center posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech

old email moving from CP67 to VM370 (for CSC/VM) at science center
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006v.html#email731212
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006w.html#email750102
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006w.html#email750430

lots of past posts mentioning CSC/VM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003d.html#8 IBM says AMD dead in 5yrs ... -- Microsoft Monopoly vs. IBM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006.html#25 DCSS as SWAP disk for z/Linux
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006.html#38 Is VIO mandatory?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006w.html#7 Why these original FORTRAN quirks?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006w.html#8 Why these original FORTRAN quirks?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006w.html#42 vmshare
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007b.html#51 Special characters in passwords was Re: RACF - Password rules
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007u.html#6 Open z/Architecture or Not
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008.html#29 Need Help filtering out sporge in comp.arch
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008.html#30 hacked TOPS-10 monitors
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008.html#41 IT managers stymied by limits of x86 virtualization
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008g.html#63 Machine-Level Assembly Language
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008i.html#14 DASD or TAPE attached via TCP/IP
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008l.html#72 Error handling for system calls
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008l.html#82 Yet another squirrel question - Results (very very long post)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008l.html#85 old 370 info
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008m.html#1 Yet another squirrel question - Results (very very long post)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008m.html#2 Yet another squirrel question - Results (very very long post)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008n.html#22 VMware Chief Says the OS Is History
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008s.html#48 New machine code
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008s.html#54 Computer History Museum
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009i.html#35 SEs & History Lessons
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009i.html#36 SEs & History Lessons
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009j.html#67 DCSS
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009j.html#68 DCSS addenda
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009j.html#77 More named/shared systems
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009p.html#33 Survey Revives Depate Over Mainframe's Future
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009r.html#69 360 programs on a z/10
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010d.html#70 LPARs: More or Less?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010d.html#79 LPARs: More or Less?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010e.html#1 LPARs: More or Less?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010e.html#2 LPARs: More or Less?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010e.html#17 Senior Java Developer vs. MVS Systems Programmer (warning: Conley rant)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010e.html#25 HONE Compute Intensive
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010f.html#24 Would you fight?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010g.html#72 Interesting presentation
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010h.html#0 What is the protocal for GMT offset in SMTP (e-mail) header time-stamp?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010i.html#13 IBM 5100 First Portable Computer commercial 1977
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010j.html#20 Personal use z/OS machines was Re: Multiprise 3k for personal Use?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010j.html#22 Personal use z/OS machines was Re: Multiprise 3k for personal Use?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010j.html#51 Information on obscure text editors wanted
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010j.html#54 Article says mainframe most cost-efficient platform
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010k.html#30 Idiotic programming style edicts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010k.html#33 Was VM ever used as an exokernel?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010l.html#11 Titles for the Class of 1978
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010l.html#15 Age
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010l.html#20 Old EMAIL Index
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010l.html#21 Titles for the Class of 1978
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010m.html#15 History of Hard-coded Offsets
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010m.html#28 CSC History
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010n.html#10 Mainframe Slang terms
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010n.html#42 Really dumb IPL question
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010n.html#62 When will MVS be able to use cheap dasd
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010o.html#48 origin of 'fields'?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010o.html#63 They always think we don't understand
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010q.html#41 Old EMAIL Index
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011.html#28 Personal histories and IBM computing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011e.html#1 Multiple Virtual Memory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011e.html#79 I'd forgotten what a 2305 looked like
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011e.html#84 New job for mainframes: Cloud platform
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011f.html#6 New job for mainframes: Cloud platform
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011g.html#7 Is the magic and romance killed by Windows (and Linux)?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011g.html#8 Is the magic and romance killed by Windows (and Linux)?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011g.html#29 Congratulations, where was my invite?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011g.html#49 My first mainframe experience
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011h.html#70 IBM Mainframe (1980's) on You tube
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011j.html#10 program coding pads
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011j.html#66 Wondering if I am really eligible for this group
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011m.html#41 CMS load module format
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011m.html#59 From The Annals of Release No Software Before Its Time
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011p.html#82 Migration off mainframe
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011p.html#112 SPF in 1978
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#14 HONE
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012b.html#4 CSC History
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#24 Inventor of e-mail honored by Smithsonian
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#38 Invention of Email
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012e.html#38 A bit of IBM System 360 nostalgia
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012f.html#18 Word Length
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012f.html#50 SIE - CompArch
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012f.html#59 Hard Disk Drive Construction
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012j.html#17 Operating System, what is it?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012j.html#30 Can anybody give me a clear idea about Cloud Computing in MAINFRAME ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012k.html#17 a clock in it, was Re: Interesting News Article
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012k.html#50 1132 printer history
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012k.html#62 Any cool anecdotes IBM 40yrs of VM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012k.html#72 Any cool anecdotes IBM 40yrs of VM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012k.html#84 Did Bill Gates Steal the Heart of DOS?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013b.html#37 AT&T Holmdel Computer Center films, 1973 Unix
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013c.html#31 REFRPROT History Question
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013c.html#71 What Makes an Architecture Bizarre?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013d.html#14 What Makes an Architecture Bizarre?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013e.html#88 Sequence Numbrs (was 32760?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013f.html#58 The cloud is killing traditional hardware and software
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013f.html#78 The cloud is killing traditional hardware and software
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013g.html#75 What Makes code storage management so cool?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013h.html#3 The cloud is killing traditional hardware and software
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013h.html#85 Before the PC: IBM invents virtualisation
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013i.html#11 EBCDIC and the P-Bit
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013i.html#27 RBS Mainframe Meltdown: A year on, the fallout is still coming
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013i.html#29 By Any Other Name
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013j.html#38 1969 networked word processor "Astrotype"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013m.html#38 Quote on Slashdot.org
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013o.html#45 the nonsuckage of source, was MS-DOS, was Re: 'Free Unix!
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014.html#1 Application development paradigms [was: RE: Learning Rexx]
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014.html#2 Application development paradigms [was: RE: Learning Rexx]
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014.html#5 Application development paradigms [was: RE: Learning Rexx]
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014.html#19 the suckage of MS-DOS, was Re: 'Free Unix!
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014.html#33 Warnings for the U.S. military about innovation and the information age: The Pentagon looks like a minicomputer firm
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014d.html#22 [OT ] Mainframe memories
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014d.html#57 Difference between MVS and z / OS systems
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014d.html#59 Difference between MVS and z / OS systems
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014e.html#16 23Jun1969 Unbundling Announcement
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014e.html#22 23Jun1969 Unbundling Announcement
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014f.html#89 Real Programmers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014g.html#74 Fifty Years of nitpicking definitions, was BASIC,theProgrammingLanguageT
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014g.html#85 Costs of core
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014g.html#91 Fifty Years of nitpicking definitions, was BASIC,theProgrammingLanguageT
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015c.html#27 30 yr old email
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015c.html#71 A New Performance Model
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015c.html#94 VM370 Logo Screen
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015d.html#2 Knowledge Center Outage May 3rd
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015d.html#3 30 yr old email
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015g.html#0 Miniskirts and mainframes
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015g.html#54 Mainframes open to internet attacks?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015h.html#106 DOS descendant still lives was Re: slight reprieve on the z
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016c.html#10 You count as an old-timer if (was Re: Origin of the phrase "XYZZY")
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016g.html#68 "I used a real computer at home...and so will you" (Popular Science May 1967)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016h.html#52 Resurrected! Paul Allen's tech team brings 50-year -old supercomputer back from the dead
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#20 {wtf} Tymshare SuperBasic Source Code
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#28 {wtf} Tymshare SuperBasic Source Code
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#59 The ICL 2900
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#27 Virtualization's Past Helps Explain Its Current Importance

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

The ICL 2900

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: The ICL 2900
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Wed, 15 Mar 2017 18:02:11 -0700
scott@slp53.sl.home (Scott Lurndal) writes:
Sequent was first, IIRC.

re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#73 The ICL 2900
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#48 The ICL 2900
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#49 The ICL 2900
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#52 The ICL 2900

Sequent implements "snoopy" cache for Balance
http://www.icsa.inf.ed.ac.uk/cgi-bin/hase/coherence-m.pl?wtu-model-t.html,wtu-model-f.html,menu1.html
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sequent_Computer_Systems#Balance

Then did Symmetry ... started with i386, which was what was installed at Mosaic/Netscape (trivia: when NCSA complained about using "Mosaic", what company donated "Netscape") that addressed FINWAIT problem
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sequent_Computer_Systems#Symmetry
In 1994 Sequent introduced the Symmetry 5000 series models SE20, SE60 and SE90, which used 66 MHz Pentium CPUs in systems from 2 to 30 processors. The next year they expanded that with the SE30/70/100 lineup using 100 MHz Pentiums, and then in 1996 with the SE40/80/120 with 166 MHz Pentiums. A variant of the Symmetry 5000, the WinServer 5000 series, ran Windows NT instead of DYNIX/ptx.[10]
.... snip ...

Sequent claimed that they did the work on NT, restructuring kernel for SMP scaleup (for servers). However, upthread, I reference that still doesn't get consumer/desktop application threading for increasingly multi-core processors
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#48 The ICL 2900

Then for Exemplar, Sequent used SCI (but data general, sgi, convex, and others, did also)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sequent_Computer_Systems#NUMA

SCI
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scalable_Coherent_Interconnect
NUMA
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Non-uniform_memory_access

I've mentioned before 370 2-way SMP slowed down base processor cycle to allow cross-cache invalidation signals ... that was just the start, any processing of actual invalidation overhead would be in addition to the base processor cycle slowdown. That is with just one other processor sending invalidation ... going to 4-way SMP then would mean three other processors broadcasting cross-cache invalidation signals. past SMP posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#smp

I've periodically claimed that John Coche 801/risc
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM_801
and
http://www-03.ibm.com/ibm/history/ibm100/us/en/icons/risc/

was done to be the opposite of the enormously complex (failed) Future System effort
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#futuresys

but another part of 801/risc was no cache consistency ... not even between the i-cache and d-cache (in the same processor), ... along with store-into cache ... loader needed special instruction to invalidate address range in the i-cache and force corresponding changes in the d-cache to memory (i.e. loader may have altered loaded program instruction sequence as part of load, which would be in the d-cache, which would have to be force to memory and any stale information in the i-cache removed ... so latest copy could be loaded to i-cache) ... aka not fall into the strong memory consistency overhead of 370 SMP.

part of somerset (AIM, referenced upthread) for power/pc was to support cache consistency protocol ... i somewhat characterize it as adding motorola 88k cache consistency to 801/risc.

past posts mention 801/risc, romp, rios, fort knox, pc/rt, power, somerset, AIM, power/pc
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#801

IBM purchase of sequent
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sequent_Computer_Systems#IBM_purchase_and_disappearance
An alternative view of IBM's actions, born out of the belief[13] that corporations maintain consistent strategies over the short and medium term despite executive changes, is that IBM acquired Sequent not to nurture it but simply to keep it out of Sun's clutches. Through its acquisition of what became the Enterprise 10000 server line from Cray, Sun had done so much financial damage to IBM's server market share, that IBM was very reluctant to see this disaster repeated.[citation needed] Even if it generated zero revenue for IBM, the net present value of Sequent from IBM's viewpoint was higher inside IBM than inside Sun.[13]
... snip ...

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

The ICL 2900

Refed: **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: The ICL 2900
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Thu, 16 Mar 2017 10:03:29 -0700
jmfbahciv <See.above@aol.com> writes:
IBM seems to have never gotten rid of their determination to not cooperate with other manufacturers hardware. JMF's first DEC project was to get DEC computers and IBM computers to communicate. IBM believe that homogeneous manufactured hardware was the only possibility; it took DEC hard/software engineers to break that self-imposed rule. This was in 1970, 1971. DEC was willing to talk to any hardware, including others'. 1.5 decades later it became Digital and just as snooty as IBM. I blame this on all those mid-level managers who got hired from IBM.

The claim is that the major motivation for Future System project in the early 70s was clone controllers ... making such a tight integration between processor systems and I/O controllers that it would significantly raise the bar for clone controllers (however the lack of 370 products during the Future System period is credited with giving clone processors a market foothold)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#futuresys

As an undergraduate I was involved in project to create clone controller first using interdata/3 ... then evolved into interdata/4 (for the channel interface) and cluster of interdata/3s handling ports/lines. Interdata markets this, and later marketed under the P/E logo after Perkin/Elmer acquires Interdata. Four of is get written up as responsible (for some part of) clone controller market.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#360pcm

There have been some claims that the tight integration between SNA/VTAM (mainframe) and SNA/NCP (37x5 controller ) are the closest survivor of Future System objectives.

I've mentioned periodically that in the late 80s, a senior disk enginner gets a talk scheduled at the annual world-wide, internal communication group conference, supposedly on 3174 performance, but opened the talk that the communication group was going to be responsible for the demise of the disk division. The issue was that the communication group had strategic corporate responsibility for everything that crossed the datacenter walls and was fiercely fighting off distributed computing and client/server, trying to protect its dumb (emulated) terminal paradigm and install base. The disk division was seeing data fleeing the datacenters to more distributed computing friendly platforms with drop in disk sales. The disk division had come up with number of solutions to reverse the problems, but they were constantly being vetoed by the communication group
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#terminal

In the early 80s, I had a project I called high-speed data transport (HSDT) and was working with the director of NSF on interconnecting the NSF supercomputer centers. We were suppose to get $20M, but then congress cuts the budget, some other things happen, and then NSF releases an RFP. Internal politics prevent us from bidding. The director of NSF tries to help by writting the company a letter (with support from other agencies), but that just makes the internal politics worse (as does references to what we already have running is at least 5yrs ahead of all RFP responses). As regional networks connect into the centers, it grows into the NSFNET backbone (presursor to modern internet). some old email
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/lhwemail.html#nsfnet
and past posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#nsfnet

The communication group was even spreading a lot of misinformation internally, claiming that SNA/VTAM could be used for the NSF RFP ... somebody collects lot of that misinformation email and forwards it to us ... heavily snipped and redacted to protect the guilty.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006w.html#email870109

other communication group misinformation related to pressuring the conversion of the internal network to SNA/VTAM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006x.html#email870302
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011.html#email870306

past internal network (the internal network was larger than arpanet/internet from just about the beginning until sometime mid-80s)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#internalnet

the internal network technology had also been used for the corporate sponsored university network (also for a time larger than arpanet/internet):
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#bitnet

In the early 70s, my wife was co-author for AWP39, peer-to-peer networking architecture ... in the same time that SNA was being formulated. She was then in the gburg JES group when she was con'ed into going to POK to be responsible for loosely-coupled architecture (mainframe for cluster) where she did peer-coupled shared data architecture
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#shareddata

She didn't remain long, in part because of little uptake (except for IMS hot-standby) until SYSPLEX and Parallel SYSPLEX and in part because of contant battles with the communication group trying to force her into using SNA/VTAM for loosely-coupled operation. Nearly a decade later she was co-author for a response to gov. request for highly secure campus distributed computing operation where she introduces the concept of 3-layer/middle network. We are then out doing customer executive presentations on 3-layer network (including ethernet adapters) and taking lots of arrows in the back from the communication group (and the SAA and token ring people). past posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#3tier

part of that 3-tier customer executive presentation
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002q.html#40 ibm time machine in new york times?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013m.html#7 Voyager 1 just left the solar system using less computing powerthan your iP

One of the jokes was SNA was not a "System", not a "Network", and not an "Architecture". Other IBM groups claim that they tried to build products that would interoperate with communication group SNA/VTAM and find that even "internal only" documents were insufficient, they basically had to reverse engineer the actual interface and lots of trial&error.

recent posts in this thread
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#58 The ICL 2900
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#59 The ICL 2900
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#61 The ICL 2900
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#74 The ICL 2900
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#75 The ICL 2900
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#69 The ICL 2900
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#73 The ICL 2900
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#30 The ICL 2900
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#44 The ICL 2900
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#45 The ICL 2900
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#48 The ICL 2900
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#54 The ICL 2900

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Wall Street Vs. Main Street

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Wall Street Vs. Main Street
Date: 16 Mar 2017
Blog: Facebook
Wall Street Vs. Main Street - Settling The Debate Over The Real Reason For QE
http://www.zerohedge.com/news/2017-03-15/wall-street-vs-main-street-settling-debate-over-real-reason-qe

Federal Reserve fought long hard legal battle to prevent public discloser of what it was doing. When it lost, the Chairman held a press confeence and said that he thought that the too big to fail would use the tens of trillions in ZIRP funds to help mainstreet, but when they didn't, he had no way to force them (however that didn't stop the ZIRP funds). Supposedly the Chairman was selected in part because he was a student of the '29crash and the depression when the Federal Reserve had tried something similar with the same results.

Congress had appropriated TARP $700B supposedly to bailout TBTF by buying their off-book toxic assets. However, just the four largest TBTF were holding $5.2T off-book the end of 2008 ... and TARP would hardly dent the problem. TARP was then used for other purposes and the Federal Reserve bought trillions in off-book assets at 98cents on the dollar and was providing tens of trillions in ZIRP. Claims are the TBTF have been using ZIRP funds to buy treasuries (helping prop up the enormous federal debt) and clearing something like $300B/year on the spread.

2002, Congress lets the fiscal responsibility act lapse (spending can't exceed tax revenue, on its way to eliminating all federal debt). 2010, CBO report that 2003-2009, taxes were reduced by $6T and spending increased by $6T for $12T gap compared to fiscal responsibility budget (first time congress cuts taxes to not pay for two wars). Since then taxes not restored and only modest cuts in spending so debt continues to increase. Supposedly confluence of interest, 1) federal reserve and wallstreet wanting huge federal debt, 2) wallstreet and special interests wanting huge tax cuts, and 3) miltiary-industrial complex wanting huge spending increase (and "perpetual war").

Claim that financial services industry tripled in size (as percent of GDP) during the economic mess and Federal Reserve is helping it maintain that position. NY state comptroller released report that during the economic mess, wallstreet bonuses exploded by over 400%.

Oct2008 congressional hearings into the pivotal role that the rating agencies played in the economic mess, found that they were selling triple-A ratings on securitized mortgages when they knew they weren't worth triple-A. That largely accounts for over $27T being done 2001-2008 selling into the "bond" market, including to large funds restricted to only dealing in "safe" investments (like large institutional pension funds, resulting in significant loss for those funds).

The triple-A ratings eliminated any reason for loan orginators to care about borrowers' qualifications or loan quality ... since they could immediately sell off every loan they made. Then indusry found that they could design securitized mortgages to fail, pay for triple-A rating, sell to their customers, and take out CDS gambling bets that they would fail (creating enormous demand for dodgy mortgages). The largest holder of the CDS gambling bets was AIG and was negotiating to pay off at 50cents on the dollar when the SECTREAS steps in and forces them to sign a document that they can't sue those making the bets and to take TARP funds to pay off at face value. The largest recipient of TARP funds is AIG and the largest recipient of face value payoffs is the firm formally headed by SECTREAS.

trivia: around 2005, the US Comptroller General started including in speeches that nobody in congress was capable of middle school arithmetic for how badly they were savaging the budget.

TBTF
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#too-big-to-fail
toxic assets
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#toxic.cdo
Pecora hearings (congressional hearings into '29 crash
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#Pecora&/orGlass-Steagall
ZIRP
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#zirp
fiscal responsibility act
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#fiscal.responsibility.act
regulatory capture
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#regulatory.capture

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Trump to Seek Spinoff of U.S. Air-Traffic Control From FAA

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Trump to Seek Spinoff of U.S. Air-Traffic Control From FAA
Date: 16 Mar 2017
Blog: Facebook
Trump to Seek Spinoff of U.S. Air-Traffic Control From FAA
https://www.bloomberg.com/politics/articles/2017-03-16/trump-to-propose-spinning-off-u-s-air-traffic-control-from-faa

Part of the justification is supposedly pumping more money into ATC modernization, however there has been 30yrs of failed ATC modernization programs ... great revenue flow for the for-profit companies ... but not just FAA ... but nearly every gov. computer-related modernization ... aka the spreading Success of Failure culture

http://www.govexec.com/excellence/management-matters/2007/04/the-success-of-failure/24107/

success of failure posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#success.of.failure

past posts mentioning ATC
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001h.html#15 IBM 9020 FAA/ATC Systems from 1960's
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001h.html#17 IBM 9020 FAA/ATC Systems from 1960's
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001h.html#71 IBM 9020 FAA/ATC Systems from 1960's
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001i.html#2 Most complex instructions (was Re: IBM 9020 FAA/ATC Systems from 1960's)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001i.html#3 Most complex instructions (was Re: IBM 9020 FAA/ATC Systems from 1960's)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001i.html#14 IBM 9020 FAA/ATC Systems from 1960's
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001i.html#15 IBM 9020 FAA/ATC Systems from 1960's
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001n.html#50 The demise of compaq
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002b.html#6 Microcode?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002f.html#29 Computers in Science Fiction
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002f.html#30 Computers in Science Fiction
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002g.html#16 Why are Mainframe Computers really still in use at all?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002j.html#25 MVS on Power (was Re: McKinley Cometh...)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002q.html#24 Vector display systems
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003m.html#4 IBM Manuals from the 1940's and 1950's
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003m.html#36 S/360 undocumented instructions?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004.html#7 Dyadic
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004e.html#5 A POX on you, Dennis Ritchie!!!
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004e.html#44 Infiniband - practicalities for small clusters
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004l.html#42 Acient FAA computers???
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005c.html#17 [Lit.] Buffer overruns
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005e.html#57 System/360; Hardwired vs. Microcoded
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005n.html#44 What was new&important in computer architecture 10 years ago ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005o.html#24 is a computer like an airport?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005s.html#21 MVCIN instruction
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006o.html#8 Pa Tpk spends $30 million for "Duet" system; but benefits are unknown
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006o.html#9 Pa Tpk spends $30 million for "Duet" system; but benefits are unknown
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007d.html#52 CMS (PC Operating Systems)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007e.html#52 US Air computers delay psgrs
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007i.html#14 when was MMU virtualization first considered practical?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007o.html#18 Flying Was: Fission products
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007o.html#23 Outsourcing loosing steam?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007o.html#43 Flying Was: Fission products
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008h.html#6 The Return of Ada
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008h.html#61 Up, Up, ... and Gone?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008m.html#41 IBM--disposition of clock business
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008m.html#45 IBM--disposition of clock business
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009.html#28 the Z/10 and timers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009c.html#17 Bletchley Park fires up Big Green-Eyed Monster
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009c.html#25 Crypto Craft Knowledge
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009f.html#18 System/360 Announcement (7Apr64)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009k.html#55 Hercules; more information requested
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009q.html#29 Check out Computer glitch to cause flight delays across U.S. - MarketWatch
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009q.html#31 Check out Computer glitch to cause flight delays across U.S. - MarketWatch
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009q.html#47 Is C close to the machine?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010d.html#60 LPARs: More or Less?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010l.html#2 TSS (Transaction Security System)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011.html#44 CKD DASD
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011.html#73 Speed of Old Hard Disks - adcons
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011b.html#57 If IBM Hadn't Bet the Company
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011f.html#56 Drum Memory with small Core Memory?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011h.html#69 IBM Mainframe (1980's) on You tube
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012i.html#42 Simulated PDP-11 Blinkenlight front panel for SimH
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012j.html#21 A bit of IBM System 360 nostalgia
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013l.html#18 A Brief History of Cloud Computing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013m.html#42 US Naval History Conference
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013n.html#76 A Little More on the Computer
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014g.html#99 IBM architecture, was Fifty Years of nitpicking definitions, was BASIC,theProgrammingLanguageT
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014h.html#108 PDP-11 architecture, was There Is Still Hope
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014j.html#33 Univac 90 series info posted on bitsavers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015h.html#18 the legacy of Seymour Cray
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016d.html#34 The Network Nation, Revised Edition
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016d.html#50 PL/I advertising

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

The ICL 2900

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: The ICL 2900
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Fri, 17 Mar 2017 10:57:55 -0700
jmfbahciv <See.above@aol.com> writes:
Did [who was it?] Gershner(sp?) manage to stop that kind of insanity?

re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#55 The ICL 2900
demise of disk division
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#terminal

President of AMEX is in competition to be next CEO and wins. The looser leaves taking their protegee and goes to Baltimore and take over what is called a loan sharking business. They make some number of other acquisitions eventually acquiring CITI in violation in Glass-Steagall. Greenspan gives them an exemption while they lobby congress for Glass-Steagall repeal, including enlisting the SECTREAS (and former head of Goldman-Sachs), who resigns and joins CITI as soon as the repeal is added to GLBA (enabling too big to fail). The protegee then leaves CITI and becomes CEO of CHASE.

pecora hearings &/or glass-steagall posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#Pecora&/orGlass-Steagall
too big to fail posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#too-big-to-fail

AMEX is in competition with KKR for private-equity take-over of RJR. KKR wins, but runs into some trouble with RJR and hires away president of AMEX to help turn it around.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barbarians_at_the_Gate:_The_Fall_of_RJR_Nabisco

A few years after the talk by senior disk engineer (that the communication group will be responsible for the demise of the disk division; the communication group strangle hold on datacenters with corporate strategic ownership of everything that crosses datacenter walls), IBM has gone in the red and was being reorganized into the 13 "baby blues" in preparation to breaking up the company. The board then hires away the former president of AMEX to reverse the breakup and resurrect the comapny ... using some of the same techniques used at RJR.
http://www.ibmemployee.com/RetirementHeist.shtml

The former AMEX president then leaves IBM and becomes the head of another large private-equity company ... one of the take-overs is the beltway bandit that will employ Snowden. Private-equity take-over of beltway bandits contributed to the enormous increase in outsourcing last decade ... and companies in the private-equity mills are under intense pressure to cut corners to provide profit to their owners. Intelligence has 70% of the budget and over half the people outsourced ... past article on Snowden's employer and its private-equity owner
http://www.investingdaily.com/17693/spies-like-us

it also contributes to the rapidly spreading Success of Failure culture
http://www.govexec.com/excellence/management-matters/2007/04/the-success-of-failure/24107/

past posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#gerstner
and
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#private.equity
and
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#success.of.failure

There was IBM employee legal action for what was being done to their retirement ... including changing pension obligation being listed as asset rather than liability (corporate asset is up for grabs if the company ever declared bankruptcy) ... change boosts the value/stock, boosting price/share, increasing executive bonuses.

There are also claims that the "stock buyback" culture was introduced then and has since dominated a lot of IBM financials since; Stockman "The Corruption of Capitalism in America", pg464/loc9995-10000:
IBM was not the born-again growth machine trumpeted by the mob of Wall Street momo traders. It was actually a stock buyback contraption on steroids. During the five years ending in fiscal 2011, the company spent a staggering $67 billion repurchasing its own shares, a figure that was equal to 100 percent of its net income.

pg465/10014-17:
Total shareholder distributions, including dividends, amounted to $82 billion, or 122 percent, of net income over this five-year period. Likewise, during the last five years IBM spent less on capital investment than its depreciation and amortization charges, and also shrank its constant dollar spending for research and development by nearly 2 percent annually.
... snip ...

posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#stock.buyback

Lots of properties were also being sold off to raise cash. I've mentioned before in the 80s, Nestle sold its new, almost finished corporate hdqtrs bldg to IBM for ten cents on the dollar. After new CEO comes in, the bldg is (re)sold to Mastercard for its new hdqtrs bldg. Shortly after Mastercard moves in, we are at a executive direction meeting with them ... and Mastercard says that they paid more to have all the internal door handles changed than they paid IBM for the bldg.

About the time IBM first goes into the red, AMEX spins off a lot of its (mostly IBM mainframe) dataprocessing and outsourcing as FDC in the largest IPO up until that time. Around 2000 they are doing outsourced processing for a little over half the US credit card and debit card processing ... as well as having introduced the original magstripe merchant & gift card stored-value products. I've mentioned before that about that time they have something over 40 of max configured IBM mainframes (@$30M, constantly being updated on 18month cycle) configured for doing overnight batch settlement and I look at improving the performance of the 450+k lines-of-code cobol application doing settlement. 15yrs after FDC is spun off in the largest IPO (up until that time), KKR (referenced in the RJR private-equity take-over) does private-equity take-over of FDC in the largest reverse-IPO up until that time.

past posts mentioning doing performance improvement on 450+K LOC cobol application
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006s.html#24 Curiosity: CPU % for COBOL program
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006u.html#50 Where can you get a Minor in Mainframe?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007l.html#20 John W. Backus, 82, Fortran developer, dies
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007u.html#21 Distributed Computing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008c.html#24 Job ad for z/OS systems programmer trainee
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008d.html#73 Price of CPU seconds
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008l.html#81 Intel: an expensive many-core future is ahead of us
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009d.html#5 Why do IBMers think disks are 'Direct Access'?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009d.html#14 Legacy clearing threat to OTC derivatives warns State Street
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009e.html#76 Architectural Diversity
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009f.html#55 Cobol hits 50 and keeps counting
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009g.html#20 IBM forecasts 'new world order' for financial services
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011c.html#35 If IBM Hadn't Bet the Company
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011f.html#32 At least two decades back, some gurus predicted that mainframes would disappear
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012i.html#25 Can anybody give me a clear idea about Cloud Computing in MAINFRAME ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012n.html#18 System/360--50 years--the future?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012n.html#24 System/360--50 years--the future?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012n.html#56 Under what circumstances
would it be a mistake to migrate applications/workload off the mainframe?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013b.html#45 Article for the boss: COBOL will outlive us all
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014b.html#83 CPU time
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014f.html#69 Is end of mainframe near ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014f.html#78 Over in the Mainframe Experts Network LinkedIn group
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015c.html#65 A New Performance Model ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015h.html#112 Is there a source for detailed, instruction-level performance info?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#15 Trump to sign cyber security order

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

The ICL 2900

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: The ICL 2900
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Fri, 17 Mar 2017 12:22:33 -0700
Alfred Falk <falk@arc.ab.ca> writes:
DEC built a link between a PDP-9 and a 360/65 (initially) a 360/50)with a 1000' cable between in 1967-8. The nuclear physics experiment this was developed for never quite worked out. The PDP-9 was to collect data from instrumentation on a cyclotron and the 360 was to process it in real time, returning reduced data for display by the 9. By the time the bugs (software and hardware) were worked out they decided they didn't really need the real- time link. For a few years it was used a kind of RJE by people working on the 9, but not much else. IBM was never co-ooperative.

re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#55 The ICL 2900

I mentioned at university using Interdata (first interdata/3, then upgraded to interdata/4 with cluster of interdata/3s) doing clone controller for 360/67 ... that Interdata (and later Perkin/Elmer) selling to lots of customers. Later I ran into former PE salesman said he sold lots of the boxes to government, especially NASA (including some real-time stuff)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#360pcm

upthread
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#3 The ICL 2900

is reference to Univ. of Michigan doing something similar using PDP-8 to their 360/67 (later "upgraded" tp pdp11)
https://www.eecis.udel.edu/~mills/gallery/gallery7.html
https://www.eecis.udel.edu/~mills/gallery/gallery8.html

part of isn't wasn't building something to published interface, but building board that interface to the internal channel interface and some other conventions.

one of the "bugs" was 360/67 had high speed timer that had to update storage location 80 with "tic" over 13+microseconds. (simplex) 360/67 (and all 360/65) had single memory interface bus .... turns out that if the timer tics again before previous memory tic update has been done ... machine "red lights" (hardware failure) and stops. Turns out that channels have to periodic give up the memory bus in order for location 80 timer update to be done ... which in turns requires handshake with controllers to signal channel to give up memory bus.

another "bug" was initial tests had terminal data from interdata appearing in memory all garbage. Had overlooked that the official ibm terminal controller (that the interdata was emulating) had line/port scanners put incoming leading bits in lower order byte position (the process was reversed for outgoing bits) ... as a result "official" terminal bits appeared in memory bit-reversed in bytes. As a result the terminal translate tables (to/from ebcdic) had to account for the bit-reversed bytes.

as I previously mentioned a major motivation for future system effort was to make extremely complex & integrated interface between processr, channel and controllers as countermeasure to clone controllers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#futuresys

the folklore then is that the extremely complex interface between SNA/VTAM (mainframe) and 37x5/NCP (controller) is one of the few things with really complex integration, that survived FS failure

in the early/mid 80s, I sucked into an effort to turn out a clone 37x5 implementation done by one of the baby bells on (IBM) Series/1 as "TYPE-1" IBM product. It actually did emulation of both SNA/VTAM and 37x5/NCP initiating sessions with mainframe SNA/VTAM as "cross-domain" ... i.e. the actual resource was "owned" by some other SNA/VTAM. Having "ownership" of the resource out in the Series/1 contributed to being able to do a lot of things not possible with real SNA/VTAM.

The communication group was well known for lots of corporate dirty tricks ... and so we did a lot of stuff to insolate the effort from anything the communication group was able to do. I then gave presentation at Oct1986 SNA review board meeting in Raleigh on the effort. What the communication group (to torpedo the project) can only be described as truth is greater than fiction. Old post with part of the Oct1986 presentation:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#67 System/1 ?

part of presntation given by one of the baby bell people at COMMON (s/1) user group meeting
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#70 Series/1 as NCP (was: Re: System/1 ?)

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

[EXTERNAL] ComputerWorld Says: Cobol plays major role in U.S. government breaches

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: lynn@GARLIC.COM (Anne & Lynn Wheeler)
Subject: Re: [EXTERNAL] ComputerWorld Says: Cobol plays major role in U.S. government breaches
Newsgroups: bit.listserv.ibm-main
Date: 17 Mar 2017 16:06:40 -0700
john.archie.mckown@GMAIL.COM (John McKown) writes:
​Yeah. The hardware designers should have made an "eXecute" bit to go along with the other "metadata" bits (such as key and change) so that a attempting to branch to a frame which is not marked "eXecute" would cause​ an exception. But even that doesn't help since you could still "wild branch" into a code sequence. Maybe we should just all go to the IBMi series. Lots of really advanced ideas in that box.

the capability hardware bit was dropped in the migration from s/38 to AS/400.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM_System/38
and
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM_System/38#Distinctions
System/38 was one of the few commercial[citation needed] computers with capability-based addressing. (The earlier Plessey 250 was one of the few other computers with capability architecture ever sold commercially). Capability-based addressing was removed in the follow-on AS/400 and iSeries models.[1]
... snip ...

Much of S/38 is touted as having been simplified version of the failed Future System effort ... some past posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#futuresys

and Future System had picked up a lot of the ideas from things like Multics (read, write, and execute permsissions referenced in section 1.1 Segment Addressing)
http://multicians.org/exec-env.html

Some of the CTSS people had gone to the 5th flr to do Multics, others had gone to the IBM science center on the 4th flr and did virtual machines, online applications, internal network, and a bunch of other stuff.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech

Note that in the 70s, one of the virtual machine based online commercial service bureaus had done a capabiity-based 370 operating system called gnosis. When M/D bought the company, gnosis was spun off as independent business (i was brought in to evaluate gnosis as part of the spin off). Since then some number of subsequent capability based operating systems have been done for other platforms based on gnosis design and principles.

KeyKOS - A Secure, High-Performance Environment for S/370
http://cap-lore.com/CapTheory/upenn/Key370/Key370.html
http://www.cap-lore.com/CapTheory/KK/
some discussion of Keykos (secure) use of mapping hardware
http://www.cap-lore.com/CapTheory/PrivMap.html

part of Gnosis/KeyKOS was raising the application abstraction ... they demoed a set of redone ACP/TPF applications that ran faster on KeyKOS than on TPF (on the same hardware, in addition to providing much higher integrity level).
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subintegrity.html#assurance

we were brought in to help wordsmith some cal. state legislation. One of the things they were doing was data breach notification law. Little or nothing was being done about the breaches and it was hoped that the publicity from the notifications would prompt action. An issue was that institutions normally take security measures in self-protection, the problem in most of the breaches was that the institutions weren't are risk it was the public. trivia: since the cal. state legislation, several other states have passed similar bills and there have been a dozen or so federal (state pre-emption) bills introduced (none passed), about evenly divided to similar to cal. original legislation and those that would effective eliminate requirement for notification (even tho still called data breach notification legislation).
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#data.breach

In the 90s, the major internet exploits were from buffer length & stack related issues in C-language based implementations (extra long input, in same cases containing instructions that overlayed other things). As an aside, the original mainframe implementation was in vs/pascal which had none of the vulnerabilities epidemic in C-language based implementations.

In any case around turn of the century, some of the machines introduced a no-execute bit (inverse of execute bit) ... aka data-only areas from which instructions were *NEVER* fetched ... NX bit
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NX_bit
in i86 ... first added by AMD for its i86 64-bit machines
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NX_bit#x86

other trivia: future system (& s/38) also did one-level store like (ibm's) tss/360 and multics. The simplified s/38 implementation did scatter allocation across all available disk drives ... as a result an integral single filesystem backup had to be done (involving all disks being idle) ... and any single disk failure ... would require complete filesystem restore. For most small s/38 configurations with only a couple disk drives it wasn't much of problem, but failed to scaleup to mainframe configurations with potentially hundreds of disk drives.

I had done a page-mapped filesystem for cp67/cms ... later moved to vm370/cms ... and would pontificate that I avoided all the TSS/360 performance pitfalls (getting 3 times or better throughput than standard cms filesystem). With the failure of Future System, it seemed to contribute to a very jaundiced opinion of page-mapped filesystems inside most of (mainframe) IBM.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#mmap

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

[EXTERNAL] ComputerWorld Says: Cobol plays major role in U.S. government breaches

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: lynn@GARLIC.COM (Anne & Lynn Wheeler)
Subject: Re: [EXTERNAL] ComputerWorld Says: Cobol plays major role in U.S. government breaches
Newsgroups: bit.listserv.ibm-main
Date: 17 Mar 2017 17:56:28 -0700
imugzach@GMAIL.COM (IronSphere by SecuriTeam Software) writes:
no the problem described, but from my experience, program developed to 3270 user interface, are face lifted using brokers, bridges and other middle wares. The three tier design ,where some of the field verification was done by MFS and maps and not handled any more, and the validation was planned for printable characters only. so, for example, a DOS attack against your transaction server (or access to data using SQL injection) can be easily conducted.

re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#60 [EXTERNAL] ComputerWorld Says: Cobol plays major role in U.S. government breaches

we were doing cluster scaleup for our IBM HA/CMP product
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#hacmp
and some old email
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/lhwemail.html#medusa

for both technical/scientific (with national labs) and commercial (with RDBMS vendors) ... old post about Jan92 meeting in Ellison's conferrence room
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/95.html#13

within a few weeks of the Ellison meeting, the cluster scaleup is transferred, announced as IBM supercomputer (for technical and scientific only), and we are told we can't work on anything with more than four processors. Shortly later we leave IBM.

Two of the people named in the Ellison meeting later leave Oracle and are at a small client/server responsible for something called "commerce server". We are brought in as consultants because they want to do payments on their server, the small client/server startup had also invented this technology called "SSL" they want to use, its now frequently called "electronic commerce".

Most of my work is on the webserver to payment networks gateway over which I have absolute authority (including having to deal with possibility of DOS attacks) ... but can only make recommendations on the client/server side ... some of which are almost immediately violated ... accounting for some number of exploits that continue to this day.

One of the things we started to notice was that RDBMS-based webservers had significantly higher exploits than flat-file based webservers ... which was the result of various factors. In part RDBMS implementations were a lot more complicated and failures/exploits tend to be proportional to complexity. Common simple scenario; servers are taken off the network and security measures disabled as part of doing regular maintenance. RDBMS maintenance tended to be more time-consuming and much more frequently overran the maintenance window .... and then in the rush to get the server back up ... reenabling the security measures was frequently overlooked (even when installation had security regression tests that were required before reconnecting to the internet, they would be skipped in the rush to get back online).

other triva: large percentage of breaches tend to be transaction information from previous financial transactions in a form of replay attack for fraudulent financial transactions. the data breach notification people had done detailed public surveys and this was the #1 issue. This financial transaction information is used in dozens of business transactions at millions of locations around the world. I've periodically commented that even if the planet was buried in miles of encryption hiding this information, it would still couldn't prevent leakage.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#data.breach

I got con'ed into participating in the financial industry standard x9a10 which had been given the requirement to preserve the integrity of the financial industry for all retail payments. We did detailed end-to-end threat and vulernability studies. What we eventually came up was a standard that slightly tweaked the current transactions so that crooks couldn't use information from previous transactions for (replay attack) fraudulent financial transactions. It did nothing to prevent breaches, but it eliminated the ability of crooks to use the information for fraudulent financial transactions ... and therefor the motivation for many of breaches (significantly reduced the attack surface). Unfortunately, it was an enormously disruptive change to electronic payment stakeholders.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subpubkey.html#x959

even more trivia: major use of SSL in the world today is hiding financial transaction information while it flows over the internet, the x9a10 work eliminated the need to hide that information (while providing end-to-end integrity ... both in flight as well as at rest).

note that the head of IBM end of last century, leaves and becomes head of private-equity company that will acquire beltway bandit that will employ Snowden. There is huge uptic in outsourcing to for-profit companies last decade, many under intensive pressure to cut corners to provide profit for their private-equity owners. Example was those doing outsourced security clearances found to be filling out paperwork but not bothering to do background checks ... 70% of the intelligence budget and over half the people
http://www.investingdaily.com/17693/spies-like-us

another example is OPM
https://firstlook.org/theintercept/2015/06/24/opm-contractor-veritas/
https://fcw.com/articles/2015/06/24/house-oversight-opm.aspx

also nothing to do with cobol (or financial) ... attackers danced through top-security networks through much of last decade, acquiring detailed specifications of major weapon systems (pointing finger at cobol could just be obfuscation and misdirection).

Report: China gained U.S. weapons secrets using cyberespionage
http://www.cnn.com/2013/05/28/world/asia/china-cyberespionage/
Confidential report lists U.S. weapons system designs compromised by Chinese cyberspies
https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/national-security/confidential-report-lists-us-weapons-system-designs-compromised-by-chinese-cyberspies/2013/05/27/a42c3e1c-c2dd-11e2-8c3b-0b5e9247e8ca_story.html
Also on the list is the most expensive weapons system ever built -- the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter, which is on track to cost about $1.4 trillion. The 2007 hack of that project was reported previously.
... snip ...

REPORT: Chinese Hackers Stole Plans For Dozens Of Critical US Weapons Systems
http://www.businessinsider.com/china-hacked-us-military-weapons-systems-2013-5

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Most people are secretly threatened by creativity

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Most people are secretly threatened by creativity
Date: 17 Mar 2017
Blog: Facebook
Most people are secretly threatened by creativity
https://qz.com/929328/most-people-are-secretly-threatened-by-creativity

Teachers Don't Like Creative Students
http://marginalrevolution.com/marginalrevolution/2011/12/teachers-dont-like-creative-students.html

... and former co-worker at science center ...

Cool to be Clever: Edson Hendricks
http://downloads.zdnet.com/product/31709-75651341/
Loads of pre-Internet emails, anecdotes and other computer science archival material, 12 video interviews with Edson Hendricks and 3 audio interviews of author/composer Leanne Jones, exploration of the "genius" and "inventive" mind, predicting the future, first email virus, advice to programmers, the origin of tektites, and so much more. Ideal for all ages, especially clever children 6+ and anyone with an interest in Internet history and inventing. How was the Internet really invented?
... snip ...

It's Cool To Be Clever, The story of Edson C. Hendricks
https://www.amazon.com/Its-Cool-Be-Clever-Hendricks/dp/1897435630/
IT'S COOL TO BE CLEVER tells the true story of an inquisitive boy in the 1950s who doesn't fit in at school. Edson Hendricks is bullied because he is so smart (people accuse him of getting answers from his father who is the principal) and has red hair. He finds comfort in an imaginary world where he has machine parts, and no internal organs or emotions.

Years later, Edson's strange capacity to think like a machine helps him create a new way for computers to communicate. His "connectionless" network design paves the way for today's Internet.

... snip ...

posts mentioning science center
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech
posts mentining internal network
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#internalnet

past posts mentioning "It's Cool To Be Clever":
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011m.html#10 Selectric Typewriter--50th Anniversary
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011m.html#12 Selectric Typewriter--50th Anniversary
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011m.html#15 Any candidates for best acronyms?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011m.html#16 Two new (internal network related) wiki entries
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011m.html#17 What is IBM culture?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011m.html#29 It's Cool To Be Clever
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011m.html#35 How old is the oldest email in your current email inbox?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011n.html#2 Soups
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011n.html#16 ARPANET's coming out party: when the Internet first took center stage
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011n.html#33 Last Word on Dennis Ritchie
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012e.html#65 Teachers Don't Like Creative Students
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012h.html#73 Interesting News Article
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015f.html#66 1973--TI 8 digit electric calculator--$99.95
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015g.html#80 Term "Open Systems" (as Sometimes Currently Used) is Dead -- Who's with Me?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015g.html#99 PROFS & GML
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015h.html#66 IMPI (System/38 / AS/400 historical)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015h.html#73 Miniskirts and mainframes
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015h.html#96 Systems thinking--still in short supply
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015h.html#103 Median Age of US Managers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015h.html#108 25 Years: How the Web began
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016.html#101 Internal Network, NSFNET, Internet
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016d.html#8 What Does School Really Teach Children
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016e.html#53 E.R. Burroughs
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016g.html#17 Why Large Companies Can't Innovate
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#43 Formed by Megafloods, This Place Fooled Scientists for Decades

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

The ICL 2900

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: The ICL 2900
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Sat, 18 Mar 2017 10:57:07 -0700
jmfbahciv <See.above@aol.com> writes:
So the answer might be yes via a side effect of reorganization and lack of higher management having the habit of biasing business decisions towards the comm group.

re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#58 The ICL 2900

or just random change. there were claims when he first came that he was going to sweep out all the previous top executives ... but it turned out most of them were kept on.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#gerstner

mid-80s, top executives were predicting IBM world-wide business would double (mostly based on mainframe) and there was massive internal building program to double mainframe related manufacturing ... there were also a lot of new "fast-track" MBAs rotating around middle positions ... apparently also in preparation of doubling the business ... this was in spite of that business was already starting to head in the other direction ... assisted by the communication group stangle hold on datacenters.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#terminal

former AMEX president and new CEO was long time wallstreet ... which was still heavily dependent on ibm mainframes, including AMEX spinoff FDC (despite the general downturn in mainframe business and migration to "killer micros"). breaking the company into the 13 "baby blues" would have severely impacted that critical dependency. There was lots of selling off stuff, restructuring employee pensions & other benefits, and trying to get into new/different revenue streams.

recent mainframe revenue numbers has been hardware is 4% (or less) of revenue ... but total mainframe business unit is 25% of revenue and 40% of profit ... aka milking software cash cow ... in large part from high value (financial) customers that have critical dependency.

I've posted before about financial/wallstreet late 90s had effort to get off major remaining mainframe useage ... overnight batch settlement; justification including increasing business environment (more work) as well as globalization (more work and shrinking overnight window). The spent billions of dollars on straight through processing (transaction completed instead of queuing for batch overnight completion). They were doing ROI parallelized using standard killer micro parallelization library ... and ignored input that the parallelization library had something like 100 times the overhead of mainframe cobol batch. Major deployments then went down in flames when the throughput was significantly worse than antificapted (totally overwhelmed the increase in resources with large numbers of killer micros) ... and then the industry had major retrenching from moving off mainframe.

Last decade I was involved in taking new parallelization approach to financial industry groups ... which initial was viewed positively. It used process that took high-level business rules and decomposed into fine-grain SQL operations. It then relied on enormous RDBMS industry investment in high throughput cluster operation. Then everything hit a brick wall ... and were finally told there were still a large number of executives that bore the scars of the failed late 90 efforts ... and it would take a new generation before it was attempted again.

Old post about Annals of release no software before its time:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009p.html#43 From The Annals of Release No Software Before Its Time
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009p.html#46 From The Annals of Release No Software Before Its Time
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011m.html#46 From The Annals of Release No Software Before Its Time
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011m.html#47 From The Annals of Release No Software Before Its Time
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011m.html#59 From The Annals of Release No Software Before Its Time

i.e. IBM RDBMS power cluster troughput scaleup in 2009 ... two decades after we were working on RDBMS cluster throughput scaleup.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/95.html#13
posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#hacmp
old email
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/lhwemail.html#medusa

recent post on doing DLM supporting VAX/Cluster semantics to ease port to HA/CMP ... but eliminating some VAX/cluster operational and throughput issues
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#82 The ICL 2900
and upthread reference to "straight-through" processing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#82 The ICL 2900

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Most people are secretly threatened by creativity

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Most people are secretly threatened by creativity
Date: 18 Mar 2017
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#62 Most people are secretly threatened by creativity

We've had a number of consulting gigs where they would say they wanted something fixed .... and then when we come up with solution ... they didn't want it. Frequently problems are result of vested interests protecting status quo. I took to commenting that they should be careful for what they asked for. Typically they mean they want something improved as long as it doesn't impact status quo

... in part, disruptive change (upsetting status quo)

I've read the Boyd biographies in paper ... but have become addicted to Kindle ... especially highlighting/quoting ... so have gone back to reread. disclaimer: I used to sponsor Boyd's briefings at IBM.

The Mind of War: John Boyd and American Security, loc271-75:
To his detractors, he was loud, brash, a foe of new technologies, and an irreconcilable pain in the ass. Boyd was known as someone who regularly bucked the system. Many knew of him by reputation, but few really knew him. To some, he was not much different from many good pilots, just a hard-driving type who usually went too far to get his way. To many, his greatest skill and damning sin was in pushing his ideas and end-running the system. He disregarded the chain of command with impunity and cared little about the rank of those he crossed or those who agreed with him. The hierarchy that counted was the one based on sound ideas.

loc351-56:
There are two career paths in front of you, and you have to choose which path you will follow. One path leads to promotions, titles, and positions of distinction. To achieve success down that path, you have to conduct yourself a certain way. You must go along with the system and show that you are a better team player than your competitors. The other path leads to doing things that are truly significant for the Air Force, but the rewards will quite often be a kick in the stomach because you may have to cross swords with the party line on occasion. You can't go down both paths, you have to choose. So, do you want to be a man of distinction or do you want to do things that really influence the shape of the Air Force? To be or to do, that is the question.

loc451-54:
What I call Boyd's Way, his thought and vision, is a sort of Western Zen, oxymoron though that is. It is a state of mind, a learning of the oneness of things, an appreciation for fundamental insights known in Eastern philosophy and religion as simply the Way. For Boyd, the Way is not an end but a process, not a state of mind but a journey. It is kaleidoscopic in its effect, with new patterns emerging from the same colored stones of insight and reflection mirrored in constantly changing patterns.
... snip ...

Neuroscience Learns What Buddhism Has Known For Ages: There is No Constant Self
http://thepowerofideas.ideapod.com/neuroscience-learns-buddhism-known-ages-no-constant-self-3/

Boyd posts & web references
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subboyd.html

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Movie Computers

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Movie Computers
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Sat, 18 Mar 2017 19:43:05 -0700
Joe Pfeiffer <pfeiffer@cs.nmsu.edu> writes:
I used both 026 and 029 keypunches as an undergrad, and I don't remember either of them as doing EBCDIC (nor ASCII for that matter) -- they had a character representation all their own.

high resolution scan of "green card" (pdf download)
http://weblog.ceicher.com/2006/12/ibm-system360-green-card.html

it has decimal/hex code table with the 360 instruction mnemonic, graphic & control symbol (ebcdic, & bcdic if different), 7-track bcd code, punch card code, and 360 8bit code. 026 would have bcd symbol, 029 with have ebcdic symbol (but for most part the same).

026/029 would have character on keyboard keys ... when typed it would punch the coresponding holes in the column and print the character at the top of card. card punch "multi-punch" allows punch all 256 possible punch combinations.

The IBM 029 Key Punch
http://www.columbia.edu/cu/computinghistory/029.html
This is the first version of IBM's EBCDIC (Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code) character set. Although the repertoire of the 029 card punch is only 64 characters (sufficient to program in Fotran, PL/I, and Cobol), EBCDIC is an 8-bit set with a capacity of 256 characters. As terminals replaced card punches for data entry, lowercase latters, control characters, and other characters were added in the remaining space.
... snip ...

029 card punch manual
http://bitsavers.informatik.uni-stuttgart.de/pdf/ibm/punchedCard/Keypunch/029/S225-3358-4_29_FETOM_Mar70.pdf

The IBM 026 Key Punch
http://www.columbia.edu/cu/computinghistory/026.html
Note that the punched-card code is duodecimal (base 12), and is therefore different from the computer's internal code, which was usually decimal or binary. The character set -- i.e. the repertoire of characters, regardless of how they are coded -- in this case is Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code, or BCDIC, a 48-character code. BCDIC and its card code descend directly from the original design of Herman Hollerith.

.. snip ...

longer discussion of 026/029 punch card & bcd & ebcdic
http://homepage.divms.uiowa.edu/~jones/cards/codes.html

a long discussion also here
http://www.quadibloc.com/comp/cardint.htm

trivia: ebcdic punch combinations use 2**8 subset of the 2**12 possible values (12 row) in each column. it was possible to read card as "column binary" (rather than bcdic/ebcdic) ... where 12 columns are used to represented two 2**6 values (all possible punch hole combinations).

past posts mentioning punch 12-2-9 as hex/decimal "02"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/93.html#17 unit record & other controllers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/95.html#4 1401 overlap instructions
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001.html#8 finding object decks with multiple entry points
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001.html#14 IBM Model Numbers (was: First video terminal?)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001.html#60 Text (was: Review of Steve McConnell's AFTER THE GOLD RUSH)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001m.html#45 Commenting style (was: Call for folklore)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002h.html#1 DISK PL/I Program
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004h.html#17 Google loves "e"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004p.html#24 Systems software versus applications software definitions
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005c.html#54 12-2-9 REP & 47F0
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005t.html#47 What is written on the keys of an ICL Hand Card Punch?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006c.html#17 IBM 610 workstation computer
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006g.html#43 Binder REP Cards (Was: What's the linkage editor really wants?)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006g.html#58 REP cards
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006l.html#64 Large Computer Rescue
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006n.html#11 Not Your Dad's Mainframe: Little Iron
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006t.html#30 Why these original FORTRAN quirks?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007q.html#69 IBM System/3 & 3277-1
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007q.html#70 IBM System/3 & 3277-1
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008.html#32 1975 movie "Three Days of the Condor" tech stuff
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008b.html#46 Usefulness of bidirectional read/write?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008h.html#83 Java; a POX
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008k.html#42 IBM 029 keypunch -- 0-8-2 overpunch -- what hex code results?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008k.html#43 IBM 029 keypunch -- 0-8-2 overpunch -- what hex code results?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008k.html#56 IBM 029 keypunch -- 0-8-2 overpunch -- what hex code results?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008k.html#57 IBM 029 keypunch -- 0-8-2 overpunch -- what hex code results?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009h.html#56 Punched Card Combinations
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010h.html#38 IBM 029 service manual
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010h.html#39 IBM 029 service manual
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011m.html#34 CMS load module format
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014m.html#156 Is true that a real programmer would not stoop to wasting machine capacity to do the assembly?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#73 Paper Tape

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Mind of War

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Mind of War
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Sun, 19 Mar 2017 12:18:00 -0700
One of my favorite people, I use to sponsor his briefings at IBM:

The Mind of War: John Boyd and American Security, log1322-25:
Then Boyd began talking about curves and data on aircraft performance and such. Christie had access to an IBM 7094 computer, a large one at the time. He and Boyd began to write the necessary computer programs, debug them, and start to work on the data they collected. They became very close and formed an almost symbiotic relationship. Boyd learned a lot about mathematics, computers, and programming from Christie.

log157-59:
So too did one of the nation's premier aircraft designers, whose work on something called energy maneuverability theory changed the way aircraft were designed and tested. He was largely responsible for the development of the U.S. Air Force's premier fighters, the F-15 Eagle and the F-16 Fighting Falcon.

loc318-21:
Convincing others of the merits of what became the F-16 was an epic five-year struggle inside the Pentagon. The Air Force senior leadership did not want the F-16 and worked hard to kill it. Ultimately, a bunch of upstarts centered in the Tactical Air shop took on the system and won. Perhaps most remarkable was the creation of a fighter that cost less than its predecessor, a record likely to stand in perpetuity.
... snip ...

Boyd would tell this story about F15 forces (even after he significantly improved the design) trying to have him thrown in Leavenworth for the rest of his life because he was working on F16; the scenario was he was using millions of dollars in gov. computer designing the F16, which wasn't an approved project, effectively making the computer use, theft of millions of dollars in gov. property (the computer time).

He crossed swords with SECDEF over the electronic survellience of trail (coming out of North Vietnam), wouldn't work ... possibly as punishment he was put in charge of spook base (Boyd would say that it had the largest air conditioned bldg in that part of the world). Another of Boyd's biographies mentions spook base was a $2.5B (in 60s dollars) windfall for IBM. spook base reference gone 404, but lives on at wayback machine
http://web.archive.org/web/20030212092342/http://home.att.net/~c.jeppeson/igloo_white.html

posts & web URLs referencing Boyd
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subboyd.html

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Cobol plays major role in U.S. government breaches

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Cobol plays major role in U.S. government breaches
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Sun, 19 Mar 2017 12:31:59 -0700
long winded thread
https://groups.google.com/forum/#!topic/bit.listserv.ibm-main/c8GmWBcxF4E
over in ibm mainframe mailing list
https://groups.google.com/forum/#!forum/bit.listserv.ibm-main

about this computerworld article

Cobol plays major role in U.S. government breaches
http://www.computerworld.com/article/3181809/government-it/cobol-plays-major-role-in-us-government-breaches.html

my archived posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#60 [EXTERNAL] ComputerWorld Says: Cobol plays major role in U.S. government breaches
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#61 [EXTERNAL] ComputerWorld Says: Cobol plays major role in U.S. government breaches

possibly reference computerworld article is misdirection and obfuscation ... including reference to OPM hack ... however there is a lot of private equity acquiring beltway bandits and helping account for enormous increasing in gov. outsourcing to for-profit companies ... they can be under intensive pressure from their private-equity owners to cut corners, increasing funds for for their owners ... contributing to the rapidly spreading success of failure culture:
http://www.govexec.com/excellence/management-matters/2007/04/the-success-of-failure/24107/

in intelligence, 70% of budget and over half the people (the 90s CEO of IBM leaves and becomes head of large private-equity company that acquires the beltway bandit that will employe Snowden)
http://www.investingdaily.com/17693/spies-like-us

Some on OPM contractor and its private-equity owner
https://firstlook.org/theintercept/2015/06/24/opm-contractor-veritas/
https://fcw.com/articles/2015/06/24/house-oversight-opm.aspx

companies involved in private-equity mill account for over half of corporate defaults
http://www.nytimes.com/2009/10/05/business/economy/05simmons.html?_r=0

private equity posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#private.equity
gerstner posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#gerstner
success of failure posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#success.of.failure
data breach notification
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#data.breach.notification

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Movie Computers

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Movie Computers
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Mon, 20 Mar 2017 09:48:05 -0700
Charlie Gibbs <cgibbs@kltpzyxm.invalid> writes:
Although it had no corresponding glyph, 0-2-8 was read in as hex E0. I used it as a control character identifying command cards.

reading ebcdic was 2**8 punch code combination, 0-255. standard assembler and compiler output was "txt" decks that had 12-2-9 (hex/decimal "02" in column 1) ... i.e. reading standard ebcdic, controller translated punch codes to/from corresponding defined ebcdic. old posts describing "txt" deck format ... which includes standard full 0-255 hex codes.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001.html#8 finding object decks with multiple entry points
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001.html#14 IBM Model Numbers (was: First video terminal?)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001.html#60 Text (was: Review of Steve McConnell's AFTER THE GOLD RUSH)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001m.html#45 Commenting style (was: Call for folklore)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002o.html#26 Relocation, was Re: Early computer games
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005f.html#16 Where should the type information be: in tags and descriptors
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006g.html#58 REP cards
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007q.html#69 IBM System/3 & 3277-1
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007q.html#70 IBM System/3 & 3277-1

read/punch cards as "column binary" was more like terminal controller were all possible 2*12 punch holes were treated as two six bit values ... and "raw" bits moved to/from computer memory (w/o any translation).

I've posted before about doing clone terminal controller and one of first bugs ...
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#59 The ICL 2900

was leading bit was put in high-order bit in byte ... and then transferred each byte to computer memory. standard ibm (selectric typewriter based) terminals ... the code on the line was tilt-rotate code ... movement of the selectric golfball print mechanism ... which then had to be translated to/from ebcdic (different golfballs could have different character positions ... so needed different translate tables for tilt/rotate to/from ebcdic). Our bug was that ibm terminal controller line/port scanner convention was leading bit on line went into low-order bit position in byte (bit reversed bytes). This carried over to ascii terminals that had "ascii" on the line ... when processed by line/port scanner reversed the order of ascii bits in the byte. The ascii to/from ebcdic translate tables then weren't straight ascii to/from ebcdic ... but bit-reversed ascii.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#360pcm

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

ComputerWorld Says: Cobol plays major role in U.S. government breaches

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: lynn@GARLIC.COM (Anne & Lynn Wheeler)
Subject: Re: ComputerWorld Says: Cobol plays major role in U.S. government breaches
Newsgroups: bit.listserv.ibm-main
Date: 20 Mar 2017 10:45:21 -0700
arnoldt@US.IBM.COM (Todd Arnold) writes:
Gee, I've been developing crypto technology for 30+ years that runs in those environments - so it's certainly news to me that it can't be done :-)

re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#60 [EXTERNAL] ComputerWorld Says: Cobol plays major role in U.S. government breaches
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#61 [EXTERNAL] ComputerWorld Says: Cobol plays major role in U.S. government breaches

I had project HSDT that started out dealing with T1.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#hsdt

The internal network was larger than arpanet/internet from just about the beginning until sometime mid-80s. A major difference between the internal network and arpanet/internet (besides being larger network) was corporate required all links to be encrypted.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#internalnet

One of my problems was that my slowest speed line was 1.5mbites/sec second, or around 300kbytes/sec full-duplex. Turns out that software DES on 3081 ran at 150kbytes/sec per processor. Needed 100% of both 3081 processors dedicated for any software DES encryption. some old crypto email
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/lhwemail.html#crypto

so external boxes were required for doing any reasonable amount of encryption. However I hated what I had to pay for T1 link encryptors ... and it was almost impossible to find faster link encryption boxes. As a result, I got involved in doing a box that would support at least 3mbyte/sec and cost less than $100 to build. I got slammed by the corporate crypto products group that it significantly weakened the strength of DES standard. It took me three months to figure out how to explain to them what was going on (significantly stronger than DES standard rather than signnificantly weaker). It was a hollow victory ... I was then told that there was only one organization in the world that could use such crypto, I could make as many boxes as I wanted but I had to send all boxes to an address in Maryland. It was when I realized that there are three kinds of crypto in the world, 1) the kind they don't care about, 2) the kind you can't do, 3) the kind you can only do for them.

My other conflict with the communication group ... HSDT was having some equipment built on the other side of the pacific. The friday before a trip to the other side of the pacific ... the communication group distributes an announcement for new online discussion group on high speed with the following definition:
low-speed: <9.6kbits
medium-speed: 19.2kbits
high-speed: 56kbits
very high-speed: 1.5mbits


on Monday morning, in a conference room on the other side of the pacific was the following definitions
low-speed: <20mbits
medium-speed: 100mbits
high-speed: 200-300mbits
very high-speed: >600mbits


of course, part of the problem was the fastest that the communicaton group controller boxes supported was 56kbits. They had even done a study for the corporate executive committee claiming that customers wouldn't want T1 before the 90s. They had studied customers running "fat pipes" (two or more parallel 56kbit links operating as single logical link) where they found no customers with more than five 56kbit links. What they didn't know (or failed to present) was that typical tariff for six 56kbit links was the same as single T1 link (1.5mbit) ... so customers got real T1 and operated them with non-IBM controller.

Upthread I referenced getting roped into doing standard for financial transactions .... transaction information has been involved in the majority of the breaches ... from data breach notification work, past posts
http://www.garilc.com/~lynn/submisc.html#data.breach.notification

We identified that the information could be reused for fraudulent financial transactions ... so previous transaction information had to be kept confidential and never divulged. However previous transaction information was also required in dozens in business processes at millions of locations around the world. This sets up diametrically opposing requirements ... never divulged and always available ... resulting in the comments that even if the planet was buried under miles of information hiding encryption wouldn't stop information leakage. The standard we came up with eliminated such replay attacks, eliminating crooks motivation for breaches and therefor no need to encrypt/hide the information (the problem was while it was minor tweak to the protocol, it resulted in major hit to vested interests trying to preserve some status quo).

I've also pushed the security proportional to risk meme (for the financial transaction breach theme). The value of the transaction information to the merchant is profit from the transaction can be a couple dollars (and a few cents to the transaction processor). The value of the information to the crooks is the account balance or credit limit. As a results, the crooks can afford to spend 100 times more on attacking than merchants can afford spending on defending. recent posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#security.proportional.to.risk
past posts before 2014
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc2.html#security.proportional.to.risk

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

ComputerWorld Says: Cobol plays major role in U.S. government breaches

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **
From: lynn@GARLIC.COM (Anne & Lynn Wheeler)
Subject: Re: ComputerWorld Says: Cobol plays major role in U.S. government breaches
Newsgroups: bit.listserv.ibm-main
Date: 20 Mar 2017 11:08:15 -0700
martin_packer@UK.IBM.COM (Martin Packer) writes:
Not to disagree with anything anyone has said, I think one thing might work against us:

I don't know when restrictions on encryption were lifted but when I first was involved with encryption in the late 1980's it was pretty restrictive who could have it.

So the point is - because of the restricted availability - it's possible the injection of encryption into sites and applications might be less than desirable.

But I hope the world has changed enough for most sites to have caught up with the need to implement it.


re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#60 [EXTERNAL] ComputerWorld Says: Cobol plays major role in U.S. government breaches
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#61 [EXTERNAL] ComputerWorld Says: Cobol plays major role in U.S. government breaches
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#69 ComputerWorld Says: Cobol plays major role in U.S. government breaches

financial has had special dispensation for some (stronger) crypto ... and there was regular gov. representation at financial standards meetings.

in the 90s, as gov. was loosing control of encryption ... for a time there was a gov. push for (allowing crypto but) official escrow of all (encyrption) keys ... I was rep to the key escrow meetings. I did make the case of differentiation between keys used for authentication and keys used for encruyption ... and that it is basic security violation for any but the individual have possession of their authentication keys. the gov. whined that people could cheat and use their authentication keys for encryption .... but that was about the last key escrow meeting.

trivia: in the big 1jan1983 change over of arpanet to internetworking protocol ... there was approx. 100 IMP network nodes and 255 connected hosts ... at the time when the internal network was rapidly approaching 1000 nodes. This is old post with list of corporate locations that added one or more network nodes during 1983:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006k.html#8 Arpa address

there was especially difficult problems when links (between corporate nodes) cross national boundaries (and all internal links required encryption). ... past internal network posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#internalnet

past posts mentioning "key escrow"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aadsm16.htm#11 Difference between TCPA-Hardware and a smart card (was: example: secure computing kernel needed)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aadsm18.htm#12 dual-use digital signature vulnerability
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aadsm23.htm#6 PGP "master keys"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aadsm9.htm#pkcs12 A PKI Question: PKCS11-> PKCS12
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002d.html#39 PKI Implementation
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003j.html#53 public key confusion
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004i.html#12 New Method for Authenticated Public Key Exchange without Digital Certificates
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006d.html#39 transputers again was Re: The demise of Commodore
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006d.html#40 transputers again was Re: The demise of Commodore
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007c.html#1 Decoding the encryption puzzle
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007t.html#48 Data Center Theft
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008i.html#62 Ransomware
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009l.html#14 August 7, 1944: today is the 65th Anniversary of the Birth of the Computer
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010m.html#56 About that "Mighty Fortress"... What's it look like?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011n.html#85 Key Escrow from a Safe Distance: Looking back at the Clipper Chip
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#65 Reject gmail
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013g.html#40 The Vindication of Barb
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013j.html#90 copyright protection/Doug Englebart
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013m.html#10 "NSA foils much internet encryption"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014l.html#32 Surveillance Reform Theater
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015c.html#25 FBI wants 'legislative fix' on device encryption
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015f.html#39 GM to offer teen driver tracking to parents
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016h.html#0 Snowden

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

ComputerWorld Says: Cobol plays major role in U.S. government breaches

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: lynn@GARLIC.COM (Anne & Lynn Wheeler)
Subject: Re: ComputerWorld Says: Cobol plays major role in U.S. government breaches
Newsgroups: bit.listserv.ibm-main
Date: 20 Mar 2017 11:50:03 -0700
john@CROSSNO.US (John Crossno) writes:
It had everything to do with "legacy" network security, not following best security practices, etc. Where the research talks about investments in modernization, they imply that the problem is "archaic" 30-year old COBOL systems, when that really isn't supported by the research at all (contradictions?). They really mean that when the distributed network security is modernized with security best practices, advanced intrusion and malware detection, use of MFA/PIV/etc, there's a reduction in the number of incidents.

re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#60 [EXTERNAL] ComputerWorld Says: Cobol plays major role in U.S. government breaches
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#61 [EXTERNAL] ComputerWorld Says: Cobol plays major role in U.S. government breaches
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#69 ComputerWorld Says: Cobol plays major role in U.S. government breaches
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#70 ComputerWorld Says: Cobol plays major role in U.S. government breaches

the enormous outsourcing to "for-profit" operations (especially owned by private-equity company) that occured last decade ... and the rapidly spreading success of failure culture ... especially failures of dataprocessing projects, a series of failures is more profit than immediate success
http://www.govexec.com/excellence/management-matters/2007/04/the-success-of-failure/24107/
including example of outsourcing security clearances to private-equity owned beltway bandits that were filling out the paperwork, but not bothering to do background checks
http://www.investingdaily.com/17693/spies-like-us
His security clearance was handled by yet another private firm, one now being probed on suspicion of insufficient diligence in such investigations.
... snip ...

there was subsequent news that possibly all clearances performed these firms would have to be redone by in-house gov. agencies.

note, not just new dataprocessing (including networks), but article also mentions failed legacy dataprocessing modernization efforts.

past posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#success.of.failure
private equity posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#private.equity

we had consulted (essentially for free) on the backend dataprocessing for the year 2000 census (when the effort was audited, I was asked to standup in front of the room and answer all the questions). In the early part of the century, we tried to do something similar for the VA hospital dataprocessing and met with the head staffer on the hill for the VA. They had just come off failed billion dollar dataprocessing modernization effort and was gearing up for a couple billion dollar followon. Turns out what we wanted to do was one of the biggest threats to beltway bandits ... impacting their bottom line.

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Movie Computers

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Movie Computers
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Mon, 20 Mar 2017 12:34:53 -0700
Jon Elson <jmelson@wustl.edu> writes:
I'm pretty sure the 360's 2821 control had a mode to do that, also. I'm sure I'd seen binary object decks with holes in all 12 rows.

re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#65 Movie Computers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#68 Movie Computers

2821 control unit
http://bitsavers.trailing-edge.com/pdf/ibm/28xx/2821/GA24-3312-9_2821_Unit_Description_Oct82.pdf

column binary, I mentioned upthread, pg. 28 "Data Mode 2 - Column Binary Feature" :
With this feature, the reader can read directly 2 X 80 characters of six bits each into main storage by transmitting 160 bytes (eight-bit bytes, each consist- ing of six bits read directly from the card, plus two high-order zeros). Any punch combination can thus be read into main storage. With this mode, the punch can punch directly 2 X 80 characters of six bits each into a card; again the two high -order bits of the internal eight-bit code are set to zero. Thus, any combination of punches can be punched.
... snip ...

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Movie Computers

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Movie Computers
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Mon, 20 Mar 2017 16:12:36 -0700
scott@slp53.sl.home (Scott Lurndal) writes:
That seems pretty useless. How do you encode two EBCIDC F0 bytes?

re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#65 Movie Computers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#68 Movie Computers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#72 Movie Computers

I think you find "column binary" was compatibility with pre-360 and machines that had 6bit bytes (or 36bit words).

I periodically mentioned that I redid 1401 MPIO (handled unit-record front end for 709 that ran tape-to-tape ... and then tapes moved between 709&1401 to do reader->tape and tape->printer/punch.

cards were BCD format (character) or "binary", two six-bit bytes/column most common, the "binary" was the executable output from compilers.

the difference between pre-360 binary executable ... which had difference between BCD (character) mode and "column binary" executable .... and 360 (compiler/assembler) executable ... and each column treated as 2**8 EBCDIC/hexadecimal .... aka didn't have different read operations for character and executable ... character translating from 2**8 possible punch combinations to 8bit bytes.

a couple recent posts mentioning MPIO
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#46 Hidden Figures and the IBM 7090 computer
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#80 Languages

in some past afc discussions involving MPIO ... somebody mentions reading all cards as "column binary" and then (if needed) performing the punch hole combination translation in the computer (rather than having it done in the controller).

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Being Lazy Is the Key to Success, According to the Best-Selling Author of 'Moneyball'

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Being Lazy Is the Key to Success, According to the Best-Selling Author of 'Moneyball'
Date: 20 Mar 2017
Blog: Facebook
Being Lazy Is the Key to Success, According to the Best-Selling Author of 'Moneyball'
http://www.inc.com/minda-zetlin/why-being-lazy-makes-you-successful-according-to-the-bestselling-author-of-money.html

In the 70s&80s there was joke in silicon valley that there was really only 200 ... it seemed like more because they moved around and did so much. At conferences people could bring unannounced products for competitors to play with ... and everybody played by the understood rules. Then in the 90s, money people had moved in and the whole culture changed

Many of those 200, knew they were the best in the world at what they did and had little motivation in preserving the status quo. There was a big overlap between that culture and Boyd's To Be or To Do (I sponsored Boyd's briefings in silicon valley in the 80s).

"The Mind of War", loc351-56:
There are two career paths in front of you, and you have to choose which path you will follow. One path leads to promotions, titles, and positions of distinction. To achieve success down that path, you have to conduct yourself a certain way. You must go along with the system and show that you are a better team player than your competitors. The other path leads to doing things that are truly significant for the Air Force, but the rewards will quite often be a kick in the stomach because you may have to cross swords with the party line on occasion. You can't go down both paths, you have to choose. So, do you want to be a man of distinction or do you want to do things that really influence the shape of the Air Force? To be or to do, that is the question.

loc1770-73:
Some of the ideas that improved the F-15 were a result of Boyd's analysis, but others got credit for them. Several observers of the process reiterate that Boyd's competitive personality, dogged fixation, and pugnacious style became his own worst enemy. So some of Boyd's ideas were carried forward successfully by others. He didn't mind, and neither did they. The final product was better for the effort, and that is what counted in the long run.
... snip ...

It wasn't unusual to find some pulling 48hr shifts because they were lost in what was being done. Our conferences still require rooms that are opened around the clock (24hrs/day).

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

ComputerWorld Says: Cobol plays major role in U.S. government breaches

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **
From: lynn@GARLIC.COM (Anne & Lynn Wheeler)
Subject: Re: ComputerWorld Says: Cobol plays major role in U.S. government breaches
Newsgroups: bit.listserv.ibm-main
Date: 20 Mar 2017 17:04:32 -0700
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#60 [EXTERNAL] ComputerWorld Says: Cobol plays major role in U.S. government breaches
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#61 [EXTERNAL] ComputerWorld Says: Cobol plays major role in U.S. government breaches
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#69 ComputerWorld Says: Cobol plays major role in U.S. government breaches
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#70 ComputerWorld Says: Cobol plays major role in U.S. government breaches
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#71 ComputerWorld Says: Cobol plays major role in U.S. government breaches

more on the enormous outsourcing that occurred last decade

Why does WikiLeaks keep publishing U.S. state secrets? Private contractors. By outsourcing key intelligence work, the government has made classified material more vulnerable.
https://www.washingtonpost.com/posteverything/wp/2017/03/16/the-reason-wikileaks-receives-so-many-u-s-state-secrets-private-contractors/
The crux of the problem may be privatized intelligence itself. That's the view of veteran intelligence reporter Edward Epstein in his contentious but informative new book, "How America Lost Its Secrets."
... snip ...

the above article glosses over security clearances had also been outsourced and was found to not be done to required standards.

Former CEO of IBM last century ... leaves to become head of one of the large private-equity companies that acquires the beltway bandit that will employ Snowden. One of the issues is that government contractors (and beltway bandits) can't use money from gov. contracts to lobby congress (recent convictions for some contractors involved in Hanford cleanup) ... however private-equity companies can lobby on behalf of their owned companies (70% of budget and over half of the people).
http://www.investingdaily.com/17693/spies-like-us
and futher contributes to the rapidly spreading success of failure culture
http://www.govexec.com/excellence/management-matters/2007/04/the-success-of-failure/24107/

past posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#private.equity
and
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#success.of.failure
and
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#gerstner

so major part of the enormous outsourcing that went on last decade ... is the enormous lobbying of congress. A counter folklore justification was that cyber & dataprocessing competitive salaries had increased to point that it would place thousands more people at grade requiring congressional approval. It would be easier to approve large number of contract appropriations (which would also result in large amounts spent on congressional lobbying) rather than figuring out how to deal with the congressional approval needed for all those gov employees (that would have consumed all congressional hours).

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Cobol plays major role in U.S. government breaches

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Cobol plays major role in U.S. government breaches
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Mon, 20 Mar 2017 18:09:37 -0700
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#60 [EXTERNAL] ComputerWorld Says: Cobol plays major role in U.S. government breaches
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#61 [EXTERNAL] ComputerWorld Says: Cobol plays major role in U.S. government breaches
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#67 Cobol plays major role in U.S. government breaches
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#69 ComputerWorld Says: Cobol plays major role in U.S. government breaches
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#70 ComputerWorld Says: Cobol plays major role in U.S. government breaches
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#71 ComputerWorld Says: Cobol plays major role in U.S. government breaches
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#75 ComputerWorld Says: Cobol plays major role in U.S. government breaches

latest in the theme

Why does WikiLeaks keep publishing U.S. state secrets? Private contractors. By outsourcing key intelligence work, the government has made classified material more vulnerable.
https://www.washingtonpost.com/posteverything/wp/2017/03/16/the-reason-wikileaks-receives-so-many-u-s-state-secrets-private-contractors/

The crux of the problem may be privatized intelligence itself. That's the view of veteran intelligence reporter Edward Epstein in his contentious but informative new book, "How America Lost Its Secrets."

... snip ...

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Trump's crackdown focuses on people in the U.S. illegally - but not on the businesses that hire them

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Trump's crackdown focuses on people in the U.S. illegally - but not on the businesses that hire them
Date: 20 Mar 2017
Blog: Facebook
Trump's crackdown focuses on people in the U.S. illegally - but not on the businesses that hire them
http://www.latimes.com/nation/la-na-immigration-employers-20170320-story.html

this talks about chamber of commerce lobbying congress heavily after the turn of the century on behalf of businesses employing illegal workers:
https://www.amazon.com/Influence-Machine-Commerce-Corporate-American-ebook/dp/B00NDTUDHA/

Early 90s, AMEX spins off a lot of its (large part mainframe) dataprocessing as FDC in the largest IPO up until that time. Mid-90s, FDC and First Financial were in competition to acquire Western Union; FDC drops out because WU financials weren't very good. Later in the 90s, FDC & First Financial merge ... FDC has divest MoneyGram as part of the merger, WU financials are still poor. However after the turn of the century there was huge explosion in illegal workers sending paychecks home and by 2005, WU earnings was half of FDC bottom line. At that point, WU is spun off. Contributing factor may have been the President of Mexico inviting FDC executives to Mexico to be thrown in jail.

past "chamber of commerce" refs:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015f.html#90 1973--TI 8 digit electric calculator--$99.95
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015f.html#91 1973--TI 8 digit electric calculator--$99.95
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015g.html#38 1973--TI 8 digit electric calculator--$99.95
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016.html#44 Thanks Obama
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016b.html#102 Qbasic
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016c.html#18 Qbasic
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#63 One Nation Under God: How Corporate America Invented Christian America

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

A 40-year 'conspiracy' at the VA; The Department of Veterans Affairs built perhaps the most important medical computer system in history

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: A 40-year 'conspiracy' at the VA; The Department of Veterans Affairs built perhaps the most important medical computer system in history
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Tue, 21 Mar 2017 09:47:28 -0700
A 40-year 'conspiracy' at the VA; The Department of Veterans Affairs built perhaps the most important medical computer system in history. Now it's about to spend billions to throw it away.
http://www.politico.com/agenda/story/2017/03/vista-computer-history-va-conspiracy-000367
Its birth occurred in 1977, far back in the era of paper medical records, with a pair of computer nerds from the National Bureau of Standards. Ted O'Neill and Marty Johnson had helped standardize a computer language, originally developed at Massachusetts General Hospital, called MUMPS, and the two men were hired by the VA to see whether MUMPS could be the basis of a new computer system connecting the VA's hospitals. Computerizing the one-on-one art of medical care seemed like a sacrilege at the time, but the VA, struggling with casualties of the Vietnam War, was underfunded, disorganized and needed all the help it could get.
... snip ...

there have been a whole slew of failed billion dollar "modernization" efforts over the decades ... all part of success of failure culture permeating the federal government
http://www.govexec.com/excellence/management-matters/2007/04/the-success-of-failure/24107/

recent posts mentioning talking to lead VA staffer on the hill about the medical computer system:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016b.html#39 Failure as a Way of Life; The logic of lost wars and military-industrial boondoggles
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016b.html#107 Qbasic - lies about Medicare
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016f.html#12 Why a Single-Payer Health Care System is Inevitable
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016f.html#40 Misc. Success of Failure
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016f.html#76 GLBA & Glass-Steagall
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#71 ComputerWorld Says: Cobol plays major role in U.S. government breaches

Success of Failure posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#success.of.failure

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

An OODA-loop is a far-from-equilibrium, non-linear system with feedback

Refed: **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: An OODA-loop is a far-from-equilibrium, non-linear system with feedback
Date: 22 Mar 2017
Blog: Facebook
An OODA-loop is a far-from-equilibrium, non-linear system with feedback
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OODA_loop

Related to F16 .... Fly-By-Wire
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fly-by-wire
Analog computers also allowed some customization of flight control characteristics, including relaxed stability. This was exploited by the early versions of F-16, giving it impressive maneuverability.

Relaxed Stability
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Relaxed_stability
and Negative Stability
https://www.quora.com/What-is-negative-stability-in-F16-fighter
The static stability of a system is defined by the initial tendency to return to equilibrium conditions following some disturbance from equilibrium. If an object [aircraft] is disturbed from equilibrium and has the tendency to return to equilibrium, positive static stability exists.

"If the object [aircraft] has a tendency to continue in the direction of disturbance, negative static stability, or static instability exists." (Aerodynamics for Naval Aviators)

The initial tendency to continue in the displacement direction is evidence of static instability and the increasing amplitude is proof of dynamic instability.

... snip ...

Equilibrium is a state of a system which does not change.
https://www.ma.utexas.edu/users/davis/375/popecol/lec9/equilib.html

simple
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nonlinear_system
In physical sciences, a nonlinear system is a system in which the change of the output is not proportional to the change of the input.[1] Nonlinear problems are of interest to engineers, physicists[2] and mathematicians and many other scientists because most systems are inherently nonlinear in nature[citation needed]. Nonlinear systems may appear chaotic, unpredictable or counterintuitive, contrasting with the much simpler linear systems.

Do we think differently? Linear vs. Non-linear thinking
http://chuckslamp.com/index.php/2009/04/11/non-linearthinking/
Linear Thinking is defined as: a process of thought following known cycles or step-by-step progression where a response to a step must be elicited before another step is taken.
... snip ...

in briefings Boyd would emphasize that observations be made from every possible facet (as countermeasure to orientation bias ... but also construed for sequential linear bias) ... as well as all parts of OODA operated continuously (not stepwise sequential)

postings &/or web URLs
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subboyd.html

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Great mainframe history(?)

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Great mainframe history(?)
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Wed, 22 Mar 2017 21:24:04 -0700
mainframe history from couple years ago, recently posted to mainframe mailing list
http://www.cs.niu.edu/aboutus/Dan%20GreinerIBM.ppt

Between 360 and 370 there was ACS/360 ... that was killed w/o ever being announced (executives thought it might advance state-of-the-art too fast and company might loose control of the market)
https://people.cs.clemson.edu/~mark/acs_end.html

Old discussion about justification for all 370s moving to dynamic address translation (virtual memory). Problem was that MVT storage management was so bad, regions had to be four times larger than normally used (standard 370/165 1mbyte configurations only can practically run four regions). Moving to dynamic address, MVT could increase number regions by four times with little or no paging.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011d.html#73

During Future System program (which was going to completely different from 370 and going to replace 370) internal politics was killing off 370 efforts; the lack of 370 products during FS period is credited with giving clone processor makers a market foothold. With the death of FS, there was mad rush to get products back into the 370 pipeline. 3033 and 3081 were kicked off in parallel. some detailed references on FS, 3033, and 3081
http://www.jfsowa.com/computer/memo125.htm
some FS posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#futuresys

The head of POK also managed to convince corporate to kill off vm370 product, shutdown the vm370 development group and transfer all the people to POK (or otherwise they weren't going to be able to ship MVS/XA on time some 7-8yrs later). They weren't going to tell the vm370 until the very last minute to minimize the number of people that might escape. Somehow the information leaked early and number of the people managed to find other employment in the Boston area (joke that head of POK was one of the major contributors to the new DEC VAX/VMS project). Endicott did manage to save the vm370 product mission but had to reconstitute a development from scratch. During this period there was customer comments about VM370 code quality on VMSHARE
http://vm.marist.edu/~vmshare

There were some of the original VM370 that went to POK that did work on the tool virtual machine facility in support of MVS/XA development that was never intended to be made available to customers. Later when customers weren't migrating to MVS/XA as expected, there was decision to release the tool as the migration aid. As part of the tool, there was SIE (interpretive execution) microcode. SIE was never intended to be production performance, in part because there was insufficent room for the microcode, so it had to be swapped in and out. Old email discussion that for 3090 SIE was designed to be some real production operation (compared to 3081).
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006j.html#email810630
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003j.html#email831118

old email about Amdahl's hypervisor, I had done a lot of work on Endicott's ECPS microcode assist
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/94.html#21
and gave presentations on the implementation at monthly user group meetings. Amdahl would talk to me about their hypervisor implementation
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006p.html#email801121

a number of yrs later IBM responds to hypervisor with PR/SM for 3090; 3090 announce 12Feb1985
https://www-03.ibm.com/ibm/history/exhibits/mainframe/mainframe_PP3090.html

3090 service processor (3092) was originally to be a 4331 running customized version of vm370 release 6 with all service screens done in CMS IOS3270. The service processor was then enhanced to a pair of redundant 4361s ... which also explains the requirement for pair of 3370 FBA devices.

Other trivia, original sql/relational (System/R) was done in bldg28 on vm370 370/145. The official followon new corporate DBMS was EAGLE. While company was preoccupied with EAGLE, was able to do technology transfer to Endicott for release as SQL/DS. When EAGLE finally implodes, a request is made about how long it would take to port to MVS which is eventually announced as DB2 originally for decision support only. Lots of history at the System/R reunion site
http://www.mcjones.org/System_R/
initial release 1983
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM_DB2
old posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#systemr

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

GREAT presentation on the history of the mainframe

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: lynn@GARLIC.COM (Anne & Lynn Wheeler)
Subject: Re: GREAT presentation on the history of the mainframe
Newsgroups: bit.listserv.ibm-main
Date: 23 Mar 2017 08:56:35 -0700
also
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#80 Great mainframe history(?)

Between 360 and 370 there was ACS/360 ... that was killed w/o ever being announced (executives thought it might advance state-of-the-art too fast and company might loose control of the market). note discussion that some of the ACS/360 features show up more than 20yrs later with es/9000
https://people.cs.clemson.edu/~mark/acs_end.html

Old discussion about justification for all 370s moving to dynamic address translation. Problem was that MVT storage management was so bad, regions had to be four times larger than normally used (standard 370/165 1mbyte configurations only can practically run four regions). Moving to virtual memory, MVT could increase number regions by four times with little or no paging.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011d.html#73

During Future System program (which was going to be completely different from 370 and going to replace 370) internal politics was killing off 370 efforts; the lack of 370 products during FS period is credited with giving clone processor makers a market foothold. With the death of FS, there was mad rush to get products back into the 370 pipeline. 3033 and 3081 were kicked off in parallel. some detailed references on FS, 3033, and 3081
http://www.jfsowa.com/computer/memo125.htm
and
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#futuresys

303x external channels (channel director) was 158 engine with integrated channel microcode (and no 370 microcode). 3033 started out as 168-3 logic remapped to 20% faster chips. 3032 was 168-3 with new covers and using channel director. 3031 was 158 engine with just 370 microcode (and no integrated channel microcode) and 2nd 158 engine with integrated channel microcode (and no 370 microcode) ... a 3031MP was four 158 engines ... two dedicated for processors and two dedicated for channel directors.

The head of POK also managed to convince corporate to kill off vm370 product, shutdown the vm370 development group and transfer all the people to POK (or otherwise they weren't going to be able to ship MVS/XA on time some 7-8yrs later). They weren't going to tell the vm370 until the very last minute to minimize the number of people that might escape. Somehow the information leaked early and number of the people managed to find other employment in the Boston area (joke that head of POK was one of the major contributors to the new DEC VAX/VMS project). Endicott did manage to save the vm370 product mission but had to reconstitute a development from scratch. During this period there was customer comments about VM370 code quality on VMSHARE
http://vm.marist.edu/~vmshare

There were some of the original VM370 that went to POK that did work on the tool virtual machine facility in support of MVS/XA development that was never intended to be made available to customers. Later when customers weren't migrating to MVS/XA as planned, there was decision to release the tool as the migration aid. As part of the tool, there was SIE (interpretive execution) microcode. SIE was never intended to be production performance, in part because there was insufficent room for the microcode, so it had to be swapped in and out. Old email discussion that for 3090 SIE was designed to be some real production operation (compared to 3081).
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006j.html#email810630
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003j.html#email831118

old email about Amdahl's hypervisor, I had done a lot of work on Endicott's ECPS microcode assist and gave presentations on the implementation at monthly user group meetings.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/94.html#21
Amdahl would talk to me about their hypervisor implementation
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006p.html#email801121

a number of yrs later IBM responds to hypervisor with PR/SM for 3090; 3090 announce 12Feb1985
https://www-03.ibm.com/ibm/history/exhibits/mainframe/mainframe_PP3090.html

3090 service processor (3092) was originally to be a 4331 running customized version of vm370 release 6 with all service screens done in CMS IOS3270. The service processor was then enhanced to a pair of redundant 4361s ... which also explains the requirement for pair of 3370 FBA devices (even for MVS customers, which has never supported FBA devices). CKD devices are still being required, even tho no real CKD devices have been made for decades ... simulated on industry standard fixed-block.

Other trivia, original sql/relational (System/R) was done in bldg28 on vm370 370/145. The official followon new corporate DBMS was EAGLE. While company was preoccupied with EAGLE, was able to do technology transfer to Endicott for release as SQL/DS. When EAGLE finally implodes, a request is made about how long it would take to port to MVS which is eventually announced as DB2 ... originally for decision support only. Lots of history at the System/R reunion site
http://www.mcjones.org/System_R/
initial release 1983
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM_DB2
and
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#systemr

other trivia ... before ms/dos
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MS-DOS
there was seattle computer
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seattle_Computer_Products
before seattle computer there was cp/m,
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CP/M
before doing cp/m, kildall worked with cp/67 (precursor to vm370) at npg school
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Naval_Postgraduate_School

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Great mainframe history(?)

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Great mainframe history(?)
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Thu, 23 Mar 2017 14:40:31 -0700
Gareth's Downstairs Computer <headstone255.but.not.these.five.words@yahoo.com> writes:
And on that theme, whatever happened to thick and thin film circuitry?

Supersede by large scale integration and surface mount components, perhaps?


some recent (mainframe) posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#2 ISPF (was Fujitsu Mainframe Vs IBM mainframe)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#50 Mainframes after Future System
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#80 Great mainframe history(?)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#81 GREAT presentation on the history of the mainframe

early 80s had project called HSDT (high speed data transport)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#hsdt

part included working with director of NSF and was suppose to get $20M to interconnect the NSF supercomputer centers (then congress cuts the budget, some other things happen and eventually NSF releases RFP) ... some old email
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/lhwemail.html#nsfnet
and past posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#nsfnet

part of HSDT included having some equipment built on the other side of pacific ... business trips over there they liked to show off lots of their stuff. At the time they were designing surface mount chips with contacts on the bottom and consumer electronic assembly line looked almost like they were spraying black paint on boards ... in actuallity, it was densely packed (surface mount) chips.

at the time, there were a couple places in the US that produced what they claimed to be surface mount chips ... but were actually standard chips with the connections cut flush with the bottom of the chip.

other recent post about HSDT having some equipment built on the other side of the pacific:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#69 ComputerWorld Says: Cobol plays major role in U.S. government breaches

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Great mainframe history(?)

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Great mainframe history(?)
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Thu, 23 Mar 2017 15:02:41 -0700
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#80 Great mainframe history(?)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#81 GREAT presentation on the history of the mainframe
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#82 Great mainframe history(?)

I also claimed that $300 cdrom player had better technology than what I was getting from $10k-$20k (high-speed) computer modems.

HSDT posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#hsdt

past posts specifically mentioning $300 cdrom players
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001j.html#23 OT - Internet Explorer V6.0
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001n.html#77 a.f.c history checkup... (was What specifications will the standard year 2001 PC have?)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004o.html#43 360 longevity, was RISCs too close to hardware?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004o.html#44 360 longevity, was RISCs too close to hardware?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005n.html#27 Data communications over telegraph circuits
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006.html#45 IBM 610 workstation computer
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006q.html#62 Cray-1 Anniversary Event - September 21st
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007d.html#50 Is computer history taugh now?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007q.html#50 US or China?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009p.html#59 MasPar compiler and simulator
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009q.html#0 Anyone going to Supercomputers '09 in Portland?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010g.html#26 Tapes versus vinyl
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#35 Masters in strategy ... seeking advice
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013j.html#1 What Makes an Architecture Bizarre?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013n.html#33 SNA vs TCP/IP
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014j.html#68 No Internet. No Microsoft Windows. No iPods. This Is What Tech Was Like In 1984
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016g.html#41 President Obama announces semiconductor industry working group to review U.S. competitiveness

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Great mainframe history(?)

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Great mainframe history(?)
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Thu, 23 Mar 2017 21:49:26 -0700
Quadibloc <jsavard@ecn.ab.ca> writes:
Also, they'd have kept Gene Amdahl, something not inconsiderable.

But the main technological obstacle you cited was something they would have had to have overcome sooner or later, as IBM couldn't just sell computers based on 7400-equivalent logic while everyone else went to LSI.

Of course, wahen everyone else went to LSI, the issue of spares was addressed.


re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#80 Great mainframe history(?)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#81 GREAT presentation on the history of the mainframe
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#82 Great mainframe history(?)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#83 Great mainframe history(?)

they would have been doing 1/9th & 1/3rd which would have been a lot simpler and provided funding while they worked on full performance
https://people.cs.clemson.edu/~mark/acs_end.html
To achieve a profit for the ACS program, Amdahl asked IBM management to approve three ACS/360 models: the high-performance design, a 1/3 performance version, and a 1/9 performance version. He felt that these performance goals would be a good fit with the System 360 marketing plans. He remembers that IBM Corporate Marketing evaluated the targets and reported: "1) the supercomputer alone was a loss leader! 2) the supercomputer plus the 1/3 performance computer was break-even! And 3) the supercomputer plus both the 1/3 performance computer and the 1/9 performance computer was normal profit -- 30% pre-tax!" He remembers meeting with "the Divisional President and Vice President who worked on me for over an hour to get me to modify the multipliers of my 3 computers (which would increase their cost without increasing their market acceptance nearly as much)." Amdahl countered with a recommendation to shut down ACS. In May 1969, IBM management cancelled ACS.
... snip ...

other parts of ACS
https://people.cs.clemson.edu/~mark/acs.html
and legacy
https://people.cs.clemson.edu/~mark/acs_legacy.html

and John Cocke
https://people.cs.clemson.edu/~mark/acs_people.html
In his Turing Award paper in 1988, he said that ACS "was probably the most exciting project I have ever been involved in." During the project, "I learned the importance of not including hardware features that the compiler could not use and including hardware facilities to allow efficient compilation." This directly led to his work on the IBM 801 and the RISC instruction set design philosophy that impacted microprocessors in the 1980s.
... snip ...

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Great mainframe history(?)

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Great mainframe history(?)
Date: 24 Mar 2017
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#80 Great mainframe history(?)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#81 GREAT presentation on the history of the mainframe
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#82 Great mainframe history(?)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#83 Great mainframe history(?)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#84 Great mainframe history(?)

more likely SQL/DS (1981) ... which predated DB2 (1983)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM_SQL/DS

old email from Jim Gray, about showdown with "Father of QBE, Arch-enemy of System R"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002e.html#email803010

when Gray was leaving for Tandem, he palmed some number of things off on me, including working with early System/R customers and consulting with the IMS development group, old email.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007.html#email801016

SQL/DS (transfer of System/R to Endicott) was first IBM sql/relational product (while company was preoccupied with EAGLE). This is old post discussing Jan1992 meeting in Ellison's conference room. The Oracle senior VP would say when he was at STL, he was primary person responsible for transfer of SQL/DS from Endicott back to STL for (MVS) DB2 (after official next DBMS product, EAGLE implodes).
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/95.html#13

as an aside, predating both SQL & QBE were 4th generation languages, originally from Mathematica ... all done for (virtual machine) CP67 and/or VM370 commerical service bureaus ... past post discussing RAMIS, NOMAD, FOCUS
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015h.html#27
and
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ramis_software
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nomad_software
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FOCUS
http://www.fundinguniverse.com/company-histories/information-builders-inc-history/

Note that RS6000 group was forced to use PS2 microchannel cards and couldn't do their own; there was joke that the result would be that RS6000 wouldn't have better throughput than PS2. An example was for PC/RT, they did their own 4mbit T/R card (for 16bit PC/AT bus) that had higher per card throughput than the PS2 (32bit) microchannel 16mbit T/R card. A gimmick to get around these horrible problems with corporate hdqtrs was to come out with RS6000/730 which had a VMEbus rather than microchannel. The communication group had design point for 16mbit T/R card was 300 or more stations sharing the same LAN with very low per card throughput all doing dumb terminal emulation.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#801

more trivia: late 80s, senior disk engineer gets talk scheduled at world-wide annual internal communication group conference, supposedly on 3174 performance ... but opens the talk with statement that the communication group will be responsible for the demise of the disk divsion. The issue was that the communication group had corporate strategic ownership of everything that crosses the datacenter walls and was fiercely fighting off distributed computing and client/server (trying to preserve their dumb terminal paradigm and install base). The disk division was seeing data fleeing the data center to more distributed computing platforms with drop in disk sales. They had come up with several solutions that were constantly vetoed by the communication group. A few short years later, the company has gone into the red and was being reorganized into the 13 "baby blues" in preparation for breaking up the company.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#terminal

other trivia: one of the reason that we were working with non-IBM RDBMS vendors for RS6000 and our HA/CMP product was that DB2 was strictly mainframe. IBM Toronto had recently been commissioned to do new RDBMS in C-language for OS/2 ... that would be called "DB2" and could be ported to RS6000, but it would be very low performance and limited function for a very long time. The STL (mainframe) DB2 group was complaining that if I was allowed to go ahead, it would be at least 5yrs ahead of them (closer to 10-15yrs). Within a few weeks of the Jan1992 Ellison meeting, the HA/CMP cluster scaleup was transferred, announced as IBM supercomputer for "technical and scientific" only (no RDBMS commercial) and we were told we couldn't work on anything with more than four processors (shortly later we leave IBM).
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#hacmp

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

GREAT presentation on the history of the mainframe

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: lynn@GARLIC.COM (Anne & Lynn Wheeler)
Subject: Re: GREAT presentation on the history of the mainframe
Newsgroups: bit.listserv.ibm-main
Date: 24 Mar 2017 10:43:14 -0700
arnoldt@US.IBM.COM (Todd Arnold) writes:
360 processors with special microcode were used in a number of things. Early in my career, I worked on development of the IBM 3890 high-speed check sorter. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM_3890) The controller in that sorter was a 360 mod 25, with all the code written in native microcode - no 360 instruction set. It turned out to be very fast, and it was many years before IBM was able to find anything to replace that old mod 25 with its core memory.

re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#80 Great mainframe history(?)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#81 GREAT presentation on the history of the mainframe
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#82 Great mainframe history(?)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#83 Great mainframe history(?)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#84 Great mainframe history(?)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#85 Great mainframe history(?)

nearly all 360s & 370s had integrated channels (engine was shared between simulating 360/370 instructions and running channel microcode) ... it was only the high-end machines that had dedicated external channles 360/65 & above, 165/168, etc.

Boeblingen got their hands slapped by corporate for the 370/115 & 370/125. The 370/115 had nine-position memory bus for microprocessors ... all identical ... one microprocessor was programmed for simulating 370 instructions and one or several other microprocessors programmed with controller microcode (i.e. not only integrated channels, but also integrated controllers). The 370/125 was identical to the 370/115 except the microprocessor running the 370 instruction simulation microcode was 50% faster (than the other microprocessors).

Very few customer 115/125 configurations had more than 2-3 controller microprocessors, so they suck me into doing a 5-way SMP multiprocessor design for 370/125 (I also do a bunch of enhancements including queued IO/interrupt akin to what is later seen with 370/xa, I also drop microcode queued interface for multiprocessing dispatching). Endicott also sucks me into do a lot of work on the microcode enhancements for 138/148.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#bounce
and
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#smp

Endicott then complains tht the 5-way 370/125 SMP has better performance and better price/performance than 370/148 and I'm required in escalation meetings to argue both sides. Endicott wins ... and the 5-way SMP 370/125 is never announced.

In the late 70s, there was an effort to replace the myriad of different internal microprocessors with 801/risc (Iliad) ... to simplify the enormous development & programming environments for each unique microprocessor ... aka the 4361&4381 followon to 4331&4341, the S/38, nearly every controller. etc. The followon to the displaywriter was also going to be 801/risc romp. In any case, all of these efforts floundered for various reasons.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#801

The channel latency processing of the 370/158 intergrated channels was much slower than the high end external channels ... characteristic which is then carried over to the whole 303x family (3031, 3032, 3033). An example was that even the 4341 integrated channel with minor tweak was able to handle the 3880/3380 3mbyte/sec speed (and could be used in bldg14&15 for 3880/3380 testing).

trivia: 138/148 microcode enhancement. Typical 370 (vertical) microcode simulation ran avg. of ten native instructions for every 370 instruction. I was told that there was 6kbytes worth of available microcode space ... and the objective was identify the highest used 6kbytes of supervisor code for dropping into microcode for 10:1 speedup. old post that 6kbytes of kernel highest used pathlength accounted for 79.55% of kernel processing time (reduced to 8% when dropped into native microcode, 10:1 speedup)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/94.html#21

other trivia: low&mid-range was vertical microcode ... so those 360&370 machines were little like the Hercules simulation (and native MIP rate was ten times faster than 370 MIP rate).
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#mcode

The high-end machines were horizontal micrcode ... and rather than measured in avg native instructions to 360/370 instructions ... high-end machines were measured in avg. machine cycles per 360/370 instructions (in part because of high level of hardware integration and overlap). Part of the move from 370/165 to 370/168 was replacing the 2mic memory with 400ns memory (cache miss latency reduced). The other part was optimizing the horizontal microcode reducing the avg. machine cycles from 2.1 to 1.6. 3033 started out with moving 168 logic to 20% faster chips ... but they also further optimized horizontal microcode getting down close to avg of one machine cycle per 370 instruction.

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

GREAT presentation on the history of the mainframe

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: lynn@GARLIC.COM (Anne & Lynn Wheeler)
Subject: Re: GREAT presentation on the history of the mainframe
Newsgroups: bit.listserv.ibm-main
Date: 24 Mar 2017 13:18:54 -0700
lynn@GARLIC.COM (Anne & Lynn Wheeler) writes:
Endicott then complains tht the 5-way 370/125 SMP has better performance and better price/performance than 370/148 and I'm required in escalation meetings to argue both sides. Endicott wins ... and the 5-way SMP 370/125 is never announced.

re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#80 Great mainframe history(?)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#81 GREAT presentation on the history of the mainframe
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#82 Great mainframe history(?)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#83 Great mainframe history(?)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#84 Great mainframe history(?)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#85 Great mainframe history(?)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#86 GREAT presentation on the history of the mainframe

note later, 3033 was really threatened by 4341 ... clusters of 4341 had better performance, throughput, price/performance, lower floor footprint, lower environmentals and power/instruction than 3033. at one point head of POK was so threatened that he got allocation of critical 4341 manufacturing component cut in half.

some large customers were also ordering hundreds of 4300s at a time for placing out in departmental areas ... the leading edge of the coming distributed computing tsunami. Internally, IBM was putting so many distributed 4300s out in departmental conference rooms that conference rooms became a scarce commodity.

The big explosion in distributed 4300s also attracted the MVS group, they had the problem was that the only disks for non-datacenter were FBA and MVS never bothered with FBA support. Eventually they did come out with 3375, CKD simulated on FBA3370 ... however it didn't do much good, the distributed environment requirement was also for scores of 4300 systems per support person ... while MVS required scores of support people per system. some old 4300 email
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/lhwemail.html#4341

I also got sucked into doing early benchmarks (on engineering 4341) for LLNL that was looking at getting 70 for computer farm ... leading edge of the coming cluster supercomputers. single 4341 benchmarked faster than 370/158 and 3031 (in addition to clusters having better throughput and price/performance than 3033). past posts mentioning "RAIN" benchmark (objective was that it run approx. as fast as CDC6600)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000d.html#0 Is a VAX a mainframe?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001d.html#67 Pentium 4 Prefetch engine?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002b.html#0 Microcode?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002e.html#75 Computers in Science Fiction
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002i.html#7 CDC6600 - just how powerful a machine was it?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002i.html#12 CDC6600 - just how powerful a machine was it?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002i.html#19 CDC6600 - just how powerful a machine was it?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002i.html#22 CDC6600 - just how powerful a machine was it?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002k.html#4 misc. old benchmarks (4331 & 11/750)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003g.html#68 IBM zSeries in HPC
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005m.html#25 IBM's mini computers--lack thereof
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006x.html#31 The Future of CPUs: What's After Multi-Core?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006y.html#21 moving on
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007d.html#62 Cycles per ASM instruction
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009d.html#54 mainframe performance
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009l.html#67 ACP, One of the Oldest Open Source Apps
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009r.html#37 While watching Biography about Bill Gates on CNBC last Night
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011c.html#65 Comparing YOUR Computer with Supercomputers of the Past
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011d.html#40 IBM Watson's Ancestors: A Look at Supercomputers of the Past
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012n.html#45 Under what circumstances would it be a mistake to migrate applications/workload off the mainframe?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013.html#38 DEC/PDP minicomputers for business in 1968?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013c.html#53 What Makes an Architecture Bizarre?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014c.html#61 I Must Have Been Dreaming (36-bit word needed for ballistics?)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014j.html#37 History--computer performance comparison chart
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015h.html#71 Miniskirts and mainframes
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015h.html#106 DOS descendant still lives was Re: slight reprieve on the z
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016e.html#116 How the internet was invented
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016h.html#44 Resurrected! Paul Allen's tech team brings 50-year-old supercomputer back from the dead
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016h.html#49 Resurrected! Paul Allen's tech team brings 50-year -old supercomputer back from the dead
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016h.html#51 Resurrected! Paul Allen's tech team brings 50-year -old supercomputer back from the dead

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

GREAT presentation on the history of the mainframe

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: lynn@GARLIC.COM (Anne & Lynn Wheeler)
Subject: Re: GREAT presentation on the history of the mainframe
Newsgroups: bit.listserv.ibm-main
Date: 24 Mar 2017 13:37:56 -0700
R.Skorupka@BREMULTIBANK.COM.PL (R.S.) writes:
BTW: What about LPARs?

re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#80 Great mainframe history(?)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#81 GREAT presentation on the history of the mainframe
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#82 Great mainframe history(?)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#83 Great mainframe history(?)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#84 Great mainframe history(?)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#85 Great mainframe history(?)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#86 GREAT presentation on the history of the mainframe
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#87 GREAT presentation on the history of the mainframe

FE had failure diagnoses requirement for bootstrap scope'able process. 3081 were inside TCM and no longer scope'able. Process was then a scope'able service processor ... that could be diagnosed/repaired and then the service processor had large number of probes into TCMs and the service processor could be used to diagnose the TCMs. The 3081 service processor was UC microprocessor and everything had to be developed and implemented from scratch.

For the 3090, they originally planned on using a 4331 with a highly modified version of vm370/cms release 6 as the service process ... with all service screens done in CMS IOS3270. This was upgraded to a pair of redundant 4361s. The 3092 ("service processor", i.e. pair of 4361s) has requirement for two FBA3370s (even for MVS customers that never supported FBA). ... 3090 announced 12Feb1985 (including requirement for two FBA3370s for 3092 service processor)
https://www-03.ibm.com/ibm/history/exhibits/mainframe/mainframe_PP3090.html

I had done a lot of work on ECPS microcode assist and later would give talks on the implementation at monthly user group meetings ... and the Amdahl people would talk to me about their hypervisor implementation ... old email from 1980
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006p.html#email801121

mentioned in upthread discussion in this post archived here
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#81 GREAT presentation on the history of the mainframe

IBM eventually responds to Amdahl's hypervisor with PR/SM & LPAR on the 3090 (announced 12Feb1985)

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

GREAT presentation on the history of the mainframe

Refed: **, - **, - **
From: lynn@GARLIC.COM (Anne & Lynn Wheeler)
Subject: Re: GREAT presentation on the history of the mainframe
Newsgroups: bit.listserv.ibm-main
Date: 24 Mar 2017 13:56:26 -0700
lynn@GARLIC.COM (Anne & Lynn Wheeler) writes:
For the 3090, they originally planned on using a 4331 with a highly modified version of vm370/cms release 6 as the service process ... with all service screens done in CMS IOS3270. This was upgraded to a pair of redundant 4361s. The 3092 ("service processor", i.e. pair of 4361s) has requirement for two FBA3370s (even for MVS customers that never supported FBA). ... 3090 announced 12Feb1985 (including requirement for two FBA3370s for 3092 service processor)
https://www-03.ibm.com/ibm/history/exhibits/mainframe/mainframe_PP3090.html


re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#80 Great mainframe history(?)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#81 GREAT presentation on the history of the mainframe
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#82 Great mainframe history(?)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#83 Great mainframe history(?)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#84 Great mainframe history(?)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#85 Great mainframe history(?)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#86 GREAT presentation on the history of the mainframe
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#87 GREAT presentation on the history of the mainframe
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#88 GREAT presentation on the history of the mainframe

other 3092 lore. Early in the days of REX (before rename to REXX and release to customers), I wanted to demonstrate REX was not just another pretty scripting language so I chose as demonstration to rewrite IPCS (dump reader, huge amount of assembler code) in less than 3months elapsed time working less than half time would have ten times the function and run ten times faster (some tricky coding to make interpreted rex run ten times faster than assembler). I finished early, so developed a set of automated library routines that would examine for the most common types of failures.

I thot that it would then be released to customers as upgrade to existing IPCS, but for some reason that never happened .... even tho it came to be in use by nearly every internal datacenter and customer PSR. I eventually got permission to make presentations on DUMPRX and how it was implemented ... and within several months, similar implementations started appearing at customers.

Eventually the 3092 service process group contacted me about including it in 3092 release. Since their vm370/cms release 6 was heavily modified and out-of-date, they had to do almost all the service themselves and they relied heavily on DUMPRX. some old email from the 3092 group
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010e.html#email861031
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010e.html#email861223

past posts mentioning dumprx
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#dumprx

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Economist, Harry Dent Hints: Global Banks Facing a Serious Crisis in Months Ahead

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Economist, Harry Dent Hints: Global Banks Facing a Serious Crisis in Months Ahead
Date: 24 Mar 2017
Blog: Facebook
Economist, Harry Dent Hints: Global Banks Facing a Serious Crisis in Months Ahead
https://research.economyandmarkets.com/X195T334

2002, congress lets the fiscal responsibility act lapse (spending can't exceed tax revenue, on its way to eliminating all federal debt). 2010 CBO report 2003-2009, tax revenue dropped by $6T and spending increased by $6T for $12T gap compared to fiscal responsiblity budget. 2005, US Comptroller General started including in speeches that nobody in congress was capable of middle school arithmetic (for what they were doing to the budget). Since then taxes weren't restored and only modest spending cuts so debt has continued to increase.

fiscal responsibility act
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#fiscal.responsibility.act
US Comptroller General
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#comptroller.general
regulatory capture
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#regulatory.capture

Sort of confluence of 1) Federal Reserve and wallstreet wanted huge federal debt, 2) wallstreet and special interests wanted huge tax cut, 3) military-industrial complex wanted huge spending increase.

TARP was supposedly passed to bail-out TBTF by buying off-book toxic assets. However, only $700B was appropriated and YE2008, just the four largest TBTF were still carrying $5.2T off-book. TARP was then used for other stuff, and the Federal Reserve does the real "bail-out" by buying trillions in off-book assets at 98cents on the dollar (had gone for 22cents on the dollar) and providing tens of trillions in ZIRP funds. FEDs fought hard legal battle to prevent disclosing what they were doing. When they lost, the FED chairman had press conference and said that he thought the TBTF would use ZIRP to help mainstreet, but when they didn't, he couldn't force them (although that didn't stop ZIRP). Claim is TBTF have used ZIRP for treasuries, clearing avg. $300B/annum (but requires huge federal debt).

too big to fail
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#too-big-to-fail
toxic CDOs
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#toxic.cdo
FED Chairmans
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#bernanke

Churchill has account of starting the oil & middle east mess before WW1 (needing to switch from 13.5in to 15in guns which required switching from coal to oil). loc2012-14:
From the beginning there appeared a ship carrying ten 15-inch guns, and therefore at least 600 feet long with room inside her for engines which would drive her 21 knots and capacity to carry armour which on the armoured belt, the turrets and the conning tower would reach the thickness unprecedented in the British Service of 13 inches.

loc2087-89:
To build any large additional number of oil-burning ships meant basing our naval supremacy upon oil. But oil was not found in appreciable quantities in our islands. If we required it, we must carry it by sea in peace or war from distant countries.

loc2123-24:
An unbroken series of consequences conducted us to the Anglo-Persian Oil Convention.
... snip ...

In the early 50s, the elected government wants to revue the contract ... CIA
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kermit_Roosevelt,_Jr.
helps UK with coup
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1953_Iranian_coup_d%27%C3%A9tat
and Schwarzkoph (senior) training secret police to help keep Shah in power
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SAVAK

Another part of Bretton Woods is the primary US person, asst SECTREAS White ... was also working on behalf of Stalin. Stalin was dealing with nearly all of German military on one front and was afraid Japan would come in on his other front (already 2/3rds of Japan military was devoted to China). Stalin sent White a draft of demands for US to present to Japan, that Stalin felt would prompt Japan to attack US (which would preclude Japan attacking Soviets)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harry_Dexter_White#Venona_project
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hull_note#Interpretations
http://www.amazon.com/Battle-Bretton-Woods-Relations-University-ebook/dp/B00B5ZQ72Y/

Japan attacks US and also brings US into European war ... Soviets then only has to deal with 3/4ths of German military.

past posts mentioning British Navy transition to oil:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016d.html#78 The World Crisis, Vol. 1
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016d.html#102 "Computer & Automation" later issues--anti-establishment thrust
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016f.html#21 US and UK have staged coups before
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016f.html#23 Frieden calculator
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016f.html#102 Chain of Title: How Three Ordinary Americans Uncovered Wall Street's Great Foreclosure Fraud
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016h.html#39 "I used a real computer at home...and so will you" (Popular Science May 1967)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#72 A Coal Fire May Have Helped Sink the 'Titanic'
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#33 CBS News: WikiLeaks claims to release thousands of CIA documents of computer activity

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Godwin's Law should force us to remember & fear our shared heritage with Nazi Germany

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Godwin's Law should force us to remember & fear our shared heritage with Nazi Germany
Date: 25 Mar 2017
Blog: Facebook
Godwin's Law should force us to remember & fear our shared heritage with Nazi Germany
https://fabiusmaximus.com/2017/03/25/our-roots-in-nazi-germany/

John Foster Dulles played major role in rebuilding Germany's economy, industry and military during 20s&30s.
http://www.amazon.com/Brothers-Foster-Dulles-Allen-Secret-ebook/dp/B00BY5QX1K/

loc865-68:
In mid-1931 a consortium of American banks, eager to safeguard their investments in Germany, persuaded the German government to accept a loan of nearly $500 million to prevent default. Foster was their agent. His ties to the German government tightened after Hitler took power at the beginning of 1933 and appointed Foster's old friend Hjalmar Schacht as minister of economics.

loc905-7:
Foster was stunned by his brother's suggestion that Sullivan & Cromwell quit Germany. Many of his clients with interests there, including not just banks but corporations like Standard Oil and General Electric, wished Sullivan & Cromwell to remain active regardless of political conditions.

loc938-40:
At least one other senior partner at Sullivan & Cromwell, Eustace Seligman, was equally disturbed. In October 1939, six weeks after the Nazi invasion of Poland, he took the extraordinary step of sending Foster a formal memorandum disavowing what his old friend was saying about Nazism
... snip ...

June1940, Germany had a victory celebration at the NYC Waldorf-Astoria with major industrialists. Lots of them were there to hear how to do business with the Nazis
http://www.amazon.com/Man-Called-Intrepid-Incredible-Narrative-ebook/dp/B00V9QVE5O/

From the law of unintended consequences; 1943 US Strategic Bombing Program, they needed German industrial and military targets and coordinates, they got the information and detailed plans from wallstreet.

Later 5000 industrialists from across the US had conference (also) at NYC Waldorf-Astoria and in part because they had gotten such bad reputation for the depression and supporting Nazi Germany, they approved a major propaganda campaign to equate capitalism with Christianity
http://www.amazon.com/One-Nation-Under-God-Corporate-ebook/dp/B00PWX7R56/

Part of the propaganda campaign results in "In God We Trust" being added to money and "Under God" being added to the pledge.

past posts mentioning Dulles Brothers:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014c.html#11 UK government plans switch from Microsoft Office to open source
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014c.html#19 UK government plans switch from Microsoft Office to open source
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014c.html#35 Royal Pardon For Turing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014c.html#36 Royal Pardon For Turing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015.html#26 channel islands, definitely not the location of LEO
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015.html#62 IBM Data Processing Center and Pi
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015b.html#13 Keydriven bit permutations
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015b.html#52 IBM Data Processing Center and Pi
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015b.html#68 Why do we have wars?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015b.html#69 past of nukes, was Future of support for telephone rotary dial ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015b.html#71 Why do we have wars?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015b.html#78 past of nukes, was Future of support for telephone rotary dial ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015b.html#86 past of nukes, was Future of support for telephone rotary dial ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015c.html#35 past of nukes, was Future of support for telephone rotary dial ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015c.html#45 The Battle of Bretton Woods: John Maynard Keynes, Harry Dexter White, and the Making of a New World Order
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015c.html#51 past of nukes, was Future of support for telephone rotary dial ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015c.html#54 past of nukes, was Future of support for telephone rotary dial ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015c.html#70 God No, the U.S. Air Force Doesn't Need Another Curtis LeMay
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015d.html#13 Fully Restored WWII Fighter Plane Up for Auction
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015d.html#37 End of vacuum tubes in computers?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015d.html#53 Western Union envisioned internet functionality
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015f.html#29 Eric Holder Returns as Hero to Law Firm That Lobbies for Big Banks
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015f.html#36 Eric Holder, Wall Street Double Agent, Comes in From the Cold
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015f.html#77 1973--TI 8 digit electric calculator--$99.95
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015g.html#7 1973--TI 8 digit electric calculator--$99.95
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015g.html#10 1973--TI 8 digit electric calculator--$99.95
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015g.html#55 1973--TI 8 digit electric calculator--$99.95
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015h.html#0 How Corporate America Invented Christian America; Inside one reverend's big business-backed 1940s crusade to make the country conservative again
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015h.html#26 Putin's Great Crime: He Defends His Allies and Attacks His Enemies
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015h.html#28 rationality
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015h.html#119 For those who like to regress to their youth? :-)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016.html#31 I Feel Old
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016.html#38 Shout out to Grace Hopper (State of the Union)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016.html#86 Thanks Obama
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016b.html#39 Failure as a Way of Life; The logic of lost wars and military-industrial boondoggles
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016b.html#49 Corporate malfeasance
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016c.html#64 Isolationism and War Profiteering
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016c.html#75 Qbasic
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016c.html#77 Qbasic
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016c.html#78 Qbasic
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016c.html#79 Qbasic
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016c.html#80 Qbasic
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016c.html#91 Qbasic
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016d.html#11 Study: Cost of U.S. Regulations Larger Than Germany's Economy
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016d.html#49 Fateful Choices
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016d.html#88 "Computer & Automation" later issues--anti-establishment thrust
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016f.html#27 British socialism / anti-trust
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016f.html#56 "One Nation Under God: How Corporate America Invented Christian America"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016f.html#64 Strategic Bombing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016f.html#94 The Brothers: John Foster Dulles, Allen Dulles, and Their Secret World War
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016g.html#9 Wall Street Preparing Dodd-Frank Rule Workaround
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016g.html#63 America's Over-Hyped Strategic Bombing Experiment
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016h.html#2 Smedley Butler
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016h.html#32 "I used a real computer at home...and so will you" (Popular Science May 1967)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016h.html#80 "I used a real computer at home...and so will you" (Popular Science May 1967)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016h.html#83 "I used a real computer at home...and so will you" (Popular Science May 1967)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#63 One Nation Under God: How Corporate America Invented Christian America
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#54 Mary Jo White Seriously Misled The US Senate To Become SEC Chair
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#64 Jean Tirole's Proposal to Appoint Felons to Monitor CEOs
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#36 Trump's S.E.C. Nominee Disclosure Offers Rare Glimpse of Clients and Conflicts

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

An OODA-loop is a far-from-equilibrium, non-linear system with feedback

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: An OODA-loop is a far-from-equilibrium, non-linear system with feedback
Date: 25 Mar 2017
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#79 An OODA-loop is a far-from-equilibrium, non-linear system with feedback

over years I've periodically pontificated that part of the sequential step-by-step thinking reflect the tools used ... and I use parallel programming as counter examples ... latest flavor: Sequential Programming Considered Harmful?
http://spectrum.ieee.org/at-work/education/sequential-programming-considered-harmful

The Mind of War: John Boyd and American Security,
https://www.amazon.com/Mind-War-John-American-Security-ebook/dp/B006Q2GIDO/

log3314-16:
Maneuver war theory is a way of thinking about how to contend with an adversary. It is not a checklist approach, a Jominian science of war so much beloved by the American military. Rather it is Clausewitzian in approach, about war as art and, therefore, nonlinear
... snip ...

from a recent post in an IBM group: As undergraduate in the 60s, I rewrote a lot of IBM software that IBM picked up and distributed ... and the university hired me fulltime responsible for IBM production systems. After I graduate and join IBM ... one of my hobbies was producing and supporting production operating systems for internal datacenters ... a long time customer was the online, world-wide, internal sales & marketing HONE system. I was allowed to wander around a lot of IBM and customer locations; including the datacenter manager for one of IBM's largest financial customers on the east coast liked to have me come by.

science center posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech
HONE system posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#hone

At the time, Amdahl was selling his clone mainframes to technical & university customers, but hadn't broken into the true-blue commercial account. Then the local branch manager did something that horribly offended the large financial customer and the customer responded by ordering an Amdahl system (it would be a lonely red system in a vast sea of blue). I was asked to go onsite for 6months at the customer to obfuscate why the customer was ordering the Amdahl system. The customer wouldn't mind having me onsite everyday, but it wouldn't make any difference in the Amdahl order, so I refused. I was then told that the branch manager was good sailing buddy of IBM's CEO and if I didn't do this, it would destroy the branch manager's career and I could forget about ever having career or promotions in IBM. I then decided there was no longer any point in conforming to IBM's dress code.

Later I would sponsor Boyd's briefings at IBM, The Mind of War: John Boyd and American Security, loc351-56:
There are two career paths in front of you, and you have to choose which path you will follow. One path leads to promotions, titles, and positions of distinction. To achieve success down that path, you have to conduct yourself a certain way. You must go along with the system and show that you are a better team player than your competitors. The other path leads to doing things that are truly significant for the Air Force, but the rewards will quite often be a kick in the stomach because you may have to cross swords with the party line on occasion. You can't go down both paths, you have to choose. So, do you want to be a man of distinction or do you want to do things that really influence the shape of the Air Force? To be or to do, that is the question.
......

Computer industry originally was "open source" .... there was constant disruptive software as increasing number of "domain experts" started using computers, modifying, adapting, improving them in lots of different ways. I've frequently made the observation that much of the software still in use today originated in customer locations (rather than at vendors). In the late 60s, gov. litigation prompted IBM 23Jun1969 "unbundling" announcement, including starting to charge for software. Software increasingly became proprietary and no longer freely distributed source (obstructing rapid change and evolution) ... even started to change so software was no longer even "sold" but increasing is leased or rented ... where users have little or no rights over the software they use. There is still some ongoing battle between vendors with proprietary software trying to preserve their market position and status quo and those that are still behind disruptive change and rapid adaptation/evolution.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#unbundle

Boyd posts and web URL refs
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subboyd.html

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

An OODA-loop is a far-from-equilibrium, non-linear system with feedback

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: An OODA-loop is a far-from-equilibrium, non-linear system with feedback
Date: 25 Mar 2017
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#79 An OODA-loop is a far-from-equilibrium, non-linear system with feedback
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#92 An OODA-loop is a far-from-equilibrium, non-linear system with feedback

The Mind of War: John Boyd and American Security, loc4374-76:
Rank has its privileges, you know, even in retirement. Retired colonels generally don't count for a lot, and maverick thinking is not to be promoted. It is difficult for those in a military hierarchy to remember that rank x IQ is a constant.
... snip ...

Under Watsons tenure at IBM 1st half of last century were very vocal about needing & supporting "wild ducks"
"you can make wild ducks tame, but you can never make tame ducks wild again. One might also add that the duck who is tamed will never go anywhere any more. We are convinced that any business needs its wild ducks. And in IBM we try not to tame them."
... snip ...

after Watsons retired, it became harder

Boyd posts and web URL refs
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subboyd.html

past posts mention "wild ducks":
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007h.html#25 sizeof() was: The Perfect Computer - 36 bits?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008h.html#18 IT full of 'ducks'? Declare open season
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011h.html#30 IBM Centennial Film: Wild Ducks
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011h.html#33 Happy 100th Birthday, IBM!
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011i.html#79 Innovation and iconoclasm
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011m.html#1 What is IBM culture?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011m.html#45 What is IBM culture?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011n.html#93 John R. Opel, RIP
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011p.html#105 5 ways to keep your rockstar employees happy
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011p.html#121 The Myth of Work-Life Balance
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012b.html#59 Original Thinking Is Hard, Where Good Ideas Come From
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012f.html#3 Time to Think ... and to Listen
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012i.html#26 Top Ten Reasons Why Large Companies Fail To Keep Their Best Talent
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012k.html#19 SnOODAn: Boyd, Snowden, and Resilience
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012k.html#23 How to Stuff a Wild Duck
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012k.html#31 History--punched card transmission over telegraph lines
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012k.html#65 How do you feel about the fact that India has more employees than US?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013.html#12 How do we fight bureaucracy and bureaucrats in IBM?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013n.html#72 In Command, but Out Of Control
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013o.html#3 Inside the Box People don't actually like creativity
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013o.html#4 Inside the Box People don't actually like creativity
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013o.html#68 "Death of the mainframe"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014.html#52 IBM Wild Ducks
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014b.html#93 Maximizing shareholder value: The Goal that changed corporate America
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014b.html#97 Where does the term Wild Duck come from?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014b.html#98 How to groom a leader?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014b.html#105 Happy 50th Birthday to the IBM Cambridge Scientific Center
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014c.html#52 First 2014 Golden Goose Award to physicist Larry Smarr
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014c.html#53 Not Wild Ducks but Wild Geese - The history behind the story
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014c.html#54 IBM layoffs strike first in India; workers describe cuts as 'slaughter' and 'massive'
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014d.html#8 Microsoft culture must change, chairman says
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014d.html#91 IBM layoffs strike first in India; workers describe cuts as 'slaughter' and 'massive'
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014h.html#33 Can Ginni really lead the company to the next great product line?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014h.html#59 The Tragedy of Rapid Evolution?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014h.html#65 Are you tired of the negative comments about IBM in this community?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014h.html#68 Over in the Mainframe Experts Network LinkedIn group
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014h.html#79 EBFAS
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014h.html#80 The Tragedy of Rapid Evolution?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014i.html#7 You can make your workplace 'happy'
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014j.html#48 Is coding the new literacy?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014l.html#56 This Chart From IBM Explains Why Cloud Computing Is Such A Game-Changer
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015.html#80 Here's how a retired submarine captain would save IBM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015g.html#17 There's No Such Thing as Corporate DNA
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015g.html#60 [Poll] Computing favorities
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016e.html#14 Leaked IBM email says cutting 'redundant' jobs is a 'permanent and ongoing' part of its business model
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016e.html#96 IBM Wild Ducks
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#56 Wild Ducks

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

GREAT presentation on the history of the mainframe

From: lynn@GARLIC.COM (Anne & Lynn Wheeler)
Subject: Re: GREAT presentation on the history of the mainframe
Newsgroups: bit.listserv.ibm-main
Date: 25 Mar 2017 20:57:16 -0700
tony@HARMINC.NET (Tony Harminc) writes:
How were either of the 4331 or 4361 scope'able? Surely both were at about the same level of integration as the TCMs in the 30x0...

Or had the scope'able requirement quietly disappeared by that point in favour of redundancy, leaving the other advantages of the service processor?


re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#81 GREAT presentation on the history of the mainframe
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#88 GREAT presentation on the history of the mainframe
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#89 GREAT presentation on the history of the mainframe

3081&3090 had significant denser physical packaging contained within TCM modules (no contacts to scope) ... built probes into the TCM packaging and diagnositic using the probes from the service processor.
https://www-03.ibm.com/ibm/history/exhibits/vintage/vintage_4506VV2137.html

originally single 4331 and then upgraded to pair of redundant 4361s ... scopable ... less dense.

4300s and DEC VAX saw similar explosion in sales in the low & mid-range market for single or few unit orders ... old post with decade of VAX sales sliced&diced by year, model, US/non-US
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002f.html#0

Big differrence between 4300 & DEC VAX was large corporations ordering multiple hundred 4300s at a time for placing out in departmental areas ("leading edge of the distributed computing tsunami"). IBM (& DEC) was expecting continued explosion in low/mid range sales with 4300 followon; 4361 & 4381. However as can be seen in the VAX numbers, by mid-80s, the low/mid range market was starting to move to workstations and large PC servers.

Folklore is that 3092 went to pair of redundant 4361s ... because there were large number of unsold 4361s in warehouses.

other folklore about 3081 (density/weight). 3081 was originally designed to be multiprocessor only (two processors & channels in single "heavy" frame). Problem came up with ACP/TPS which had loosely-coupled support but no tightly-coupled multiprocessor support. The clone mainframe makers was still making single processor machines and there was concern that the whole ACP/TPS market moves to clone makers. The decision was made to come out with single processor 3083 for the ACP/TPS market (3081 with one processor removed). The easiest would have been to keep processor0 and remove processor1. The problem was that processor0 was at the top of the box and simple removal of processor1 (in the middle, channels at the bottom), could have made the box dangerously top-heavy.
https://www-03.ibm.com/ibm/history/exhibits/mainframe/mainframe_PP3081.html

this talks about 3033 and 3081 quickly kicked off (including 3081 had enormous excess number of circuits for the level of performance) after failure of FS project
http://www.jfsowa.com/computer/memo125.htm

past FS posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#futuresys

Note while the above IBM 3081 history page says:
Model D is capable of an instruction execution rate of up to 21 times that of a 3033UP running under MVS/SP with identical programs and similar configurations.
... snip ...

however there were quite a few benchmarks that had application running on single 3081D processor having lower throughput than on 3033 (single processor). IBM then comes out with 3081K with double the cache size of 3081D (somewhat similar to 168-3 having twice cache size of 168-1), assuming it would improve cache hit rate (and therefor throughput) for some number of applications.

past multiprocessor SMP posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#smp

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

GREAT presentation on the history of the mainframe

Refed: **, - **, - **
From: lynn@GARLIC.COM (Anne & Lynn Wheeler)
Subject: Re: GREAT presentation on the history of the mainframe
Newsgroups: bit.listserv.ibm-main
Date: 25 Mar 2017 21:21:28 -0700
tony@HARMINC.NET (Tony Harminc) writes:
Boeblingen got their hands slapped for anti-trust reasons for moving the controllers inside (shades of the 2319 disk), or because corporate inherently favoured Endicott over Boeblingen (and presumably POK over both)? Or something else?

re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#74 The ICL 2900
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#86 GREAT presentation on the history of the mainframe

memory bus with generalized 9-positions for microprocessors (& microprocessor all the same) was much more advanced design than other IBM systems were (suppose to be) doing.

which in part, made it straight-forward to do the 5-way SMP, past posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#bounce

note some of this would have been similar (but different) to effort later in the 70s to migrate the large number of different internal microprocessors to 801/risc (Illiad). past 801 posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#801

because of the difficulty having all the unique development and operations for each unique microprocessor.

I've previously told story after working on ECPS for endicott and 5-way SMP for Boeblingen, I got involved in doing 16-way SMP which lots of people thought was really great ... even getting 3033 processor engineers to work on it in their spare time (lot more interesting than remapping 168-3 logic to 20% faster chips) That is until somebody informed the head of POK that it could be decades before the POK favorite son operating system had (effective) 16-way support ... at which time some of us were invited to never visit POK again (and 3033 processor engineers to stop being distracted). IBM eventually ships 16-way system more than two decades later ... recent reference
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#30 The ICL 2900

past SMP posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#smp

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

ComputerWorld Says: Cobol plays major role in U.S. government breaches

Refed: **, - **, - **
From: lynn@GARLIC.COM (Anne & Lynn Wheeler)
Subject: Re: ComputerWorld Says: Cobol plays major role in U.S. government breaches
Newsgroups: bit.listserv.ibm-main
Date: 26 Mar 2017 16:13:51 -0700
idflist1@GMAIL.COM (scott Ford) writes:
Bravo Phil and Tim from IBM. In my experience with NYC Stock Exchange and too many Brokerage houses to count, all of these installations had very tight internal/ external security. Including multiple firewalls to enter the MF domains. Once in the MF domain, the security subsystem was tightly controlled.

as part of our IBM HA/CMP product
https://www.ibm.com/developerworks/aix/library/au-hacmpcheatsheet/

... we had meetings with SIAC at their offices in wtc
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Securities_Industry_Automation_Corporation
The Securities Industry Automation Corporation (SIAC) is a subsidiary of the NYSE Euronext. Its purpose is to provide technical services for the exchanges themselves, members and other financial institutions. In this role, SIAC provides the computers and other systems required to run the exchanges. It also owns communication lines and hardware to provide real-time quotes and transaction information to all market participants from the Consolidated Tape/Ticker System (CTS), Consolidated Quotation System (CQS), and Options Price Reporting Authority (OPRA).
... snip ...

this was before
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1993_World_Trade_Center_bombing

note HA/CMP effort included handling attacks, not just failure modes.

It was in this period that I also coined the term disaster servivability and geographic servivability. I was also asked to write section for the corporate stratetegic continuous availability document. However, the section got pulled because both the rochester people (as/400) and pok people (mainframe) said they couldn't meet the requirements. some past posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#available

posts in this thread:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#60 [EXTERNAL] ComputerWorld Says: Cobol plays major role in U.S. government breaches
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#61 [EXTERNAL] ComputerWorld Says: Cobol plays major role in U.S. government breaches
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#67 Cobol plays major role in U.S. government breaches
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#69 ComputerWorld Says: Cobol plays major role in U.S. government breaches
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#70 ComputerWorld Says: Cobol plays major role in U.S. government breaches
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#71 ComputerWorld Says: Cobol plays major role in U.S. government breaches
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#75 ComputerWorld Says: Cobol plays major role in U.S. government breaches
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#76 Cobol plays major role in U.S. government breaches

after leaving IBM, one of the first things was being brought in as consultants to small client/server startup that wanted to do payment trasnactions on their server, the startup at also invented this technology called "SSL" they wanted to use, it is now frequently called "electronic commerce". I had complete authority over the webserver to payment networks ... which included huge amount of firewalls and HA redundancy (including geographic survivability). However, I could only make recommendations on the client/server side ... some of which were almost immediately violated, that continue to account for some number of exploits.

later at financial industry infrastructure protection meetings, securities industry participation were some of the most difficult
https://fas.org/irp/offdocs/pdd/pdd-63.htm

securities industry was among the most insistent on the FS/ISAC not be government operation an subject to FOIA ... concern that public might become aware of some of the things that go on.
https://www.fsisac.com/

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970







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