List of Archived Posts

2012 Newsgroup Postings (03/01 - 03/23)

Pentagon to Withold Lockheed F-35 Payments Over Tracking
Inventor of e-mail honored by Smithsonian
NASA unplugs their last mainframe
Why Didn't the Internet Take Off In 1983?
Computer Programmers Only 5th Most Sleep Deprived Profession
PC industry is heading for more change
NASA unplugs their last mainframe
PCP - memory lane
Time to pull the PIN!
Memory versus processor speed
PC industry is heading for more change
PC industry is heading for more change
Gordon Gekko Says
PC industry is heading for more change
PC industry is heading for more change
Happy Webiversary!
IBM cuts more than 1,000 U.S. Workers
Inventor of e-mail honored by Smithsonian
Memory versus processor speed
Writing article on telework/telecommuting
Writing article on telework/telecommuting
Inventor of e-mail honored by Smithsonian
Hardware for linked lists
IBM cuts more than 1,000 U.S. Workers
Inventor of e-mail honored by Smithsonian
PC industry is heading for more change
Can SSL Certificate Checking System Be Saved?
Inventor of e-mail honored by Smithsonian
NASA unplugs their last mainframe
Inventor of e-mail honored by Smithsonian
Inventor of e-mail honored by Smithsonian
Can SSL Certificate Checking System Be Saved?
PC industry is heading for more change
TINC?
Gordon Gekko Says
Layer 8: NASA unplugs last mainframe
McCain calls for U.S.-led airstrikes in Syria
IBM cuts more than 1,000 U.S. Workers
Invention of Email
Fannie and Freddie must go - here's how
Strategy subsumes culture
Layer 8: NASA unplugs last mainframe
China's J-20 Stealth Fighter Is Already Doing A Whole Lot More Than Anyone Expected
Layer 8: NASA unplugs last mainframe
Faster, Better, Cheaper: Why Not Pick All Three?
Banks Repaid Fed Bailout With Other Fed Money: Government Report
Is Washington So Bad at Strategy?
You Don't Need a Cyber Attack to Take Down The North American Power Grid
IBM cuts more than 1,000 U.S. workers
Do you know where all your sensitive data is located?
Layer 8: NASA unplugs last mainframe
From Who originated the phrase "user-friendly"?
Goldman Exec Quits In A Scathing NYT Op-Ed About How The Firm Abuses Its Clients
"Scoring" The Romney Tax Plan: Trillions Of Dollars Of Deficits As Far As The Eye Can See
IBM cuts more than 1,000 U.S. Workers
Do you know where all your sensitive data is located?
Server time Protocol and CICS
Study Confirms The Government Produces The Buggiest Software
Where are all the old tech workers?
A computer metaphor for systems integration
Memory versus processor speed
Why Republicans Aren't Mentioning the Real Cause of Rising Prices at the Gas Pump
Gordon Gekko Says
Fans of Threat Modelling reach for their guns ... but can they afford the bullets?
Layer 8: NASA unplugs last mainframe
FAA 9020 - S/360-65 or S/360-67?
FAA 9020 - S/360-65 or S/360-67?
FAA 9020 - S/360-65 or S/360-67?
Memory versus processor speed
Memory versus processor speed
Mainframe System 370
Memory versus processor speed
megabytes per second
Execution Velocity
Execution Velocity
megabytes per second
megabytes per second
Pre-Friday fun: Halon dumps and POK Resets
megabytes per second
NASA unplugs their last mainframe

Pentagon to Withold Lockheed F-35 Payments Over Tracking

From: lynn@garlic.com (Lynn Wheeler)
Date: 1 Mar, 2012
Subject: Pentagon to Withold Lockheed F-35 Payments Over Tracking
Blog: Facebook
Pentagon to Withold Lockheed F-35 Payments Over Tracking
http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2012-02-28/pentagon-to-withhold-lockheed-f-35-payments.html

what if money was withheld from DOD until DOD could pass a GAO financial audit?

Sen. Grassley presses Panetta on 'egregious waste and misconduct' at DoD dug up in Inspector General reports.
http://bit.ly/xZsHKR

Budget Gap
http://battleland.blogs.time.com/2012/02/28/budget-gap/

One soldier, one year: $850,000 and rising
http://security.blogs.cnn.com/2012/02/28/one-soldier-one-year-850000-and-rising/

from above:
But one thing is clear, the cost is rising. Hale said the Department of Defense figure was until recently $600,000 a year. And Harrison said the Center for Strategic and Budgetary Assessments' estimate for 2012 is up to $1.4 million

... snip ...

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Inventor of e-mail honored by Smithsonian

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From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Inventor of e-mail honored by Smithsonian
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Thu, 01 Mar 2012 21:11:57 -0500
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#10 Inventor of e-mail honored by Smithsonian
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#12 Inventor of e-mail honored by Smithsonian

finally some mea culpa

Origins of e-mail: My mea culpa -- Patrick Pexton
http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/omblog/post/origins-of-e-mail-my-mea-culpa/2012/03/01/gIQAiOD5kR_blog.html

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

NASA unplugs their last mainframe

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From: lynn@garlic.com (Lynn Wheeler)
Date: 1 Mar, 2012
Subject: NASA unplugs their last mainframe
Blog: MainframeZone
re:
http://lnkd.in/Uz6-ck

I remember in the late 90s, some number of NASA (& other gov. labs) turning off mainframes when the last system support programmer retired ... and the labs. couldn't backfill the positions. Part of the issue, it was a time with extra huge strain on available dataprocessing resources between simultaneous legacy Y2K remediation ... and the internet bubble.

there was an ibm internal online conference discussion started in the early 80s about the looming y2k problem ... one of the people at NASA/houston posted the following contribution:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000.html#email841207

zEnterprise 196 can execute 50BIPs/second
http://www.foxnews.com/tech/2010/09/01/ibm-unveils-worlds-fastest-microprocessor/

Intel Core i7 at 177,730 MIPs/sec (nearly 178BIPS ... more than 3times 80processor 50BIP z196)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Instructions_per_second

some amount of cloud computing evolved from gov. labs. GRID computing .... in parallel with the large processor clusters at the internet service processors (that were evolving into the mega-datacenters)

this estimate is that there are 10,000 installed mainframes in the world
http://articles.economictimes.indiatimes.com/2010-08-10/news/27620495_1_mainframe-ibm-big-challenge

if you assume all of them have been upgraded to max'ed out 80processor, 50BIP z196 ... then the aggregate mainframe mips would be 500TIPS.

This is an article that Amazon cloud carved out an on-demand supercomputer of 240TIPS ... which would rank as 42nd largest supercomputer in the world.
http://news.cnet.com/8301-13846_3-57349321-62/amazon-takes-supercomputing-to-the-cloud

and half of aggregate total installed mainframe processing power ... assuming every installed mainframe was maximum configured 80 processor, 50BIP z196

total aside ... the news has the reason for the Microsoft "cloud" being down on the 29th ... was because of some software that couldn't handle leap-year. Note in the above referenced NASA/Houston story ... there is something similar from the early age of mainframe

some recent posts in other mainframe threads estimating that some number of the mega-datacenters, individually contain more aggregate processing power than all currently installed mainframes in the world
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#11 Who originated the phrase "user-friendly"?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#20 21st Century Migrates Mainframe with Clerity
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#23 21st Century Migrates Mainframe with Clerity
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#24 21st Century Migrates Mainframe with Clerity
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#56 IBM researchers make 12-atom magnetic memory bit
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#59 IBM's z196 Article at RWT
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#78 Has anyone successfully migrated off mainframes?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#80 Article on IBM's z196 Mainframe Architecture
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#82 Has anyone successfully migrated off mainframes?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#90 Has anyone successfully migrated off mainframes?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#91 Has anyone successfully migrated off mainframes?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012b.html#6 Cloud apps placed well in the economic cycle
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012b.html#28 New IBM mainframe instructions
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012b.html#30 New IBM mainframe instructions
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012b.html#41 Are rotating register files still a bad idea?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012b.html#57 Has anyone successfully migrated off mainframes?

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Why Didn't the Internet Take Off In 1983?

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From: lynn@garlic.com (Lynn Wheeler)
Date: 2 Mar, 2012
Subject: Why Didn't the Internet Take Off In 1983?
Blog: Google+
re:
https://plus.google.com/u/0/102794881687002297268/posts/eXgJAaZxQe3

Why Didn't the Internet Take Off In 1983?
http://tech.slashdot.org/story/12/03/02/0059249/why-didnt-the-internet-take-off-in-1983

The internal network passed 1,000 nodes in 1983 ... something like 4times that of the internet ... but the internet was catching up rapidly ... passing the internal network late 85 or early 86. at the same time there was the univ. bitnet (earn in europe) using similar technology to that used in the internal network

1000 nodes, 1983:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/vnet1000.jpg

1000 vnet nodes

bitnet:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BITNET

old email from person setting up EARN (bitnet in europe):
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001h.html#email840320

NSFNET backbone was the operational basis for the modern internet, old email related to run-up to NSFNET backbone
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/lhwemail.html#nsfnet

virtual machine was some of the original cloud ... a number of operations started offering online cp67 internally in the 60s and was also the basis of commercial online service bureau operations ... most moving to vm370. one on the west coast was TYMSHARE
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tymshare
which also had TYMNET for its own POPs
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tymnet

in aug1976, TYMSHARE started offering its vm370/cms online computer conferencing (free) to (ibm user group) SHARE as vmshare ... archived here:
http://vm.marist.edu/~vmshare

I got blamed for online computer conferencing on the internal network in the late 70s & early 80s. I would also make various other things available internally. One of the issues with making copy of vmshare available internally was arguing with the lawyers about employees being contaminated with exposure to external information ... some old vmshare related email
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/lhwemail.html#vmshare

as in other references ... I've had home online access since mar1970 starting with 2741 and audio coupler.

One of the issues with internet passing internal network (late '85 or early '86) is that the corporation restricted PCs & workstations connectivity to terminal emulation .... where they were starting to appear as peer-network nodes on the internet.

arpanet had specially constructed IMPs under central maintenance and administrative control. At the big switch-over to internetworking protocol on 1Jan1983, there were possibly 100 IMP network nodes and 250 connected hosts. The 1Jan1983 switchover to internetworking protocol provided for gateway to interconnect different infrastructures ... removing major growth inhibitor. The internal network that had been larger than arpanet/internet from just about the beginning basically had a form of gateway layer in every node ... providing for a lot more local independence and autonomy
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#internalnet

IBM's first email gateway between the internal network ... some past posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#internalnet
and arpanet/internet ... some past posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#internet
was:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/internet.htm#email821022

the internal network was still not SNA ... which was becoming more&more an embarrassment to the communication group. Eventually there was concerted internal political effort (including some amount of mis-information) ... discussed in some detail in this recent post (along with several other issues):
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#41

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Computer Programmers Only 5th Most Sleep Deprived Profession

From: lynn@garlic.com (Lynn Wheeler)
Date: 2 Mar, 2012
Subject: Computer Programmers Only 5th Most Sleep Deprived Profession
Blog: Google+
re:
https://plus.google.com/u/0/102794881687002297268/posts/ffidSp694rn

Computer Programmers Only 5th Most Sleep Deprived Profession
http://slashdot.org/submission/1965395/computer-programmers-only-5th-most-sleep-deprived-profession

In school they would let me have the datacenter all to myself on the weekend ... from 8am Sat until 8am Monday ... 48hrs w/o sleep made it little hard going to monday classes

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

PC industry is heading for more change

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From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: PC industry is heading for more change
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Fri, 02 Mar 2012 11:10:43 -0500
Morten Reistad <first@last.name> writes:
They didn't triage the S&L either. They "doaged" it a bit, but ultimately it was soft loans for fat cats.

old long-winded post from last century mentioning S&L crisis
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aepay3.htm#riskm

it mentions that Citi had been the largest player in the mortgage market during the period, then realized that their ARM mortgage portfolio could take down the institution, sold off the portfolio, got out of the business and required a (private) bailout to stay in business.

later leading up to middle of the last decade, somebody mentioned that some of the same investment bankers that had been into the S&L crisis were also behind much of the internet bubble IPO bubble (i.e. formula invest in company, take it to IPO and get out, preferrably companies then fails, leaving the landscape open for the next round of IPOs) ... and were getting into mortgage back securities.

note that a lot of the investment banking motivation was individual rewards skimming off on the transactions ... leaving the risk consequences to their institutions (economy and/or country).

In the citi case, it would appear that all the institutional knowledge about dangers of ARM portfolio disappears by the time of the recent real-estate bubble ... of the four large too-big-to-fail holding $5.2T in triple-A rated toxic CDOs at the 2008 ... Citi was holding more than the other three.
Bank's Hidden Junk Menaces $1 Trillion Purge
http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=newsarchive&sid=akv_p6LBNIdw&refer=home

of course the triple-A rated toxic CDOs were being held "off-book" ... on the investment banking side ... courtesy of GLBA, repeal of Glass-Steagall and the safety&soundness of regulated depository institutions being able to have unregulated, risk investment banking arms. Citi had recently been taken over and the new CEO was instrumental in GLBA repeal of Glass-Steagall:
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/wallstreet/weill/

way down time's list of those responsible
http://content.time.com/time/specials/packages/article/0,28804,1877351_1877350_1877329,00.html

note that the "behind the scenes" investment bankers hardly show up.

#3 on times list of those responsible
http://content.time.com/time/specials/packages/article/0,28804,1877351_1877350_1877331,00.html

but in congress, #2 on times list of those responsible:
http://content.time.com/time/specials/packages/article/0,28804,1877351_1877350_1877330,00.html

somewhat family affair:

Gramm and the 'Enron Loophole'
http://www.nytimes.com/2008/11/17/business/17grammside.html
from above:
Enron was a major contributor to Mr. Gramm's political campaigns, and Mr. Gramm's wife, Wendy, served on the Enron board, which she joined after stepping down as chairwoman of the Commodity Futures Trading Commission.

... snip ...

and an older article: Phil Gramm's Enron Favor
http://www.villagevoice.com/2002-01-15/news/phil-gramm-s-enron-favor/

from above:
A few days after she got the ball rolling on the exemption, Wendy Gramm resigned from the commission. Enron soon appointed her to its board of directors, where she served on the audit committee, which oversees the inner financial workings of the corporation. For this, the company paid her between $915,000 and $1.85 million in stocks and dividends, as much as $50,000 in annual salary, and $176,000 in attendance fees,

... snip ...

and more #3 responsible, Greenspan Slept as Off-Books Debt Escaped Scrutiny
http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601109&refer=home&sid=aYJZOB_gZi0I

from above:
That same year Greenspan, Treasury Secretary Robert Rubin and SEC Chairman Arthur Levitt opposed an attempt by Brooksley Born, head of the Commodity Futures Trading Commission, to study regulating over-the-counter derivatives. In 2000, Congress passed a law keeping them unregulated.

... snip ...

Brooksley was fairly quickly replaced by Wendy Gramm as head of Commodity Futures Trading Commission, before Wendy then resigned to join Enron's board.

and #4 responsible, head of SEC:
http://www.time.com/time/specials/packages/article/0,28804,1877351_1877350_1877323,00.html

Congress passed Sarbanes-Oxley in the wake of Enron/Worldcom, in theory to prevent such activity in the future. However, it required some enforcement by SEC. Possibly because GAO didn't think that SEC was doing anything they started doing reports of fraudulent public company financial filings ... show uptic even after Sarbanes-Oxley.
http://www.gao.gov/special.pubs/gao-06-1079sp//

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

NASA unplugs their last mainframe

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From: lynn@garlic.com (Lynn Wheeler)
Date: 2 Mar, 2012
Subject: NASA unplugs their last mainframe
Blog: MainframeZone
re:
http://lnkd.in/Uz6-ck
and
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#2 NASA unplugs their last mainframe

A leading edge of both the exploding distributed computing tsunami as well as cluster computing were the 43xx machines.

The followon to the 370/168 was 3033 ... which was effectively the 168 design remapped to faster chips ... 370/168 was approx. 3mips processor and the 3033 was approx. 50% faster at 4.5mips (compared to I7 at 177,730mips). A cluster of 4341s was more aggregate processing power than 3033, cost less than 3033, and had smaller environmental footprint. Some of the internal politics with 4341 threat to 3033 was at one point the high-end division managed to have allocation of critical 4341 manufacturing component cut in half.

The small 43xx environmental footprint also resulted in the emerging wave of distributed computing ... with large corporations ordering hundreds of 43xx machines at a time and putting them out into departmental areas. Internally it contributed to scarcity of conference rooms as they were being converted to 43xx.

old email mentioning 43xx machines
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/lhwemail.html#43xx

43xx machines also contributed to big increase in size of internal network ... recent google+ post
https://plus.google.com/u/0/102794881687002297268/posts/eXgJAaZxQe3
also archived here:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#3 Why Didn't the Internet Take Off In 1983?

Past posts mentioning doing the corporate HA/CMP product
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#hacmp

I had coined the terms "disaster survivable" and "geographic survivable" out doing HA/CMP marketing and at one point was asked to do contribution to the corporate continuous availability strategy document. However, both Rochester and POK complained that (at the time) they couldn't meet the objectives and had the part pulled. misc. past posts mentioning continuous availability
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#available

This is reference to Jan92 meeting in Ellison conference room discussing cluster scaleup
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/95.html#13

the mainframe DB2 group complained that if I was allowed to continue, it would be at least five years ahead of them.

other old email discussing cluster scaleup
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/lhwemail.html#medusa

the last email in above:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006x.html#email920129

was possibly only hrs before the effort was transferred and we were told we couldn't work on anything with more than four processors. A couple weeks later it was announced as supercomputer for numerical intensive market only ... press item
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001n.html#6000clusters1 17Feb1992
and scientific and technical only
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001n.html#6000clusters2 11May1992

Now long ago and far away, my wife had been con'ed into going to POK to be responsible for loosely-coupled architecture ... where she created peer-coupled shared data architecture ... some past posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#shareddata

however, between ongoing skirmishes with communication group about being forced to use SNA for loosely-coupled operation and low uptake (except for IMS hot-standby ... really didn't start seeing for mainframe until sysplex), she didn't stay long.

In more recent years, in discussions with the guy that runs FEDWIRE ... he would comment that major contribution to FEDWIRE's 100% availability was IMS hot-standby (triple replicated at geographic distances):
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM_Information_Management_System

the 43xx sold into the same mid-range market as vax ... 43xx sold about same numbers as vax in the single or small orders. big difference for 43xx was the large corporate orders for hundreds at a time. SHARE had report that vm370/4341 somewhat suffered compared to vax/cms ... with vm370/4341 requiring more support effort & skills than vax/vms (note mvs wasn't even a consideration since its support effort & skills was enormously larger)

In the mid-70s, I got called into customer trying to run vm370 on 256kbyte 370/125 (skyscrapper in manhatten) ... which wasn't announced on/or supported. It could run a generated system ... but performance was slow. CP67 would run much better on 256kbyte 360/67 ... but in the morph to vm370 and somewhat adding features adhoc ... the vm370 fixed storage requirements were becoming bloated. I did rework of various pieces of vm370 bloatware getting fixed storage requirements back closer to cp67.

Also shot a microcode bug in 370/125 being able to do native build of vm370. Turns out vm370 initial build process used MVCL with length of 16mbytes to clear storage and determine real machine size at the same time. all 360/370 instructions would first check start and ending storage location before executing instructions. 370 introduced change for "long" instructions which were to execute incrementally a byte at a time. Unfortunately 125 microcode bug would do the precheck and fail the instruction (and vm370 build processes effectively believe it was running on zero storage machine and abort).

Trivia from my undergraduate days. The univ. library had gotten ONR grant to do online library catalog ... some of the money was used to get a 2321 datacell. The project was also selected to be betatest for original CICS product ... and I got tasked to do the CICS support & debug. CICS had originally been developed at customer account and one of the early "bugs" in CICS showed with library using different BDAM options than what the original customer had been using. some CICS/BDAM posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#cics

slightly related Google+ posting regarding slashdot item
https://plus.google.com/u/0/102794881687002297268/posts/ffidSp694rn
also archived here
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#4

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

PCP - memory lane

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From: lynn@GARLIC.COM (Anne & Lynn Wheeler)
Subject: Re: PCP - memory lane
Newsgroups: bit.listserv.ibm-main
Date: 2 Mar 2012 12:53:01 -0800
chrismason@BELGACOM.NET (Chris Mason) writes:
Back in 1967/8, a colourful customer on the patch to which I belonged was running PCP on a 64K machine and it may have been a 360/40. Our ace young salesman had been responsible for this! IIRC this was considered the opposite of the leading edge but it seemed to work for a while!

While we did have a customer - a university - genuinely at the leading edge with a 360/67, I worked at the crowded lower end among the 360/30s running DOS/360. My first responsibility was assisting a customer with the "free" time converting from a 1400 system to a 360/30 with DOS/360.


the univ. had 709 running tape-to-tape ibsys with 1401 front-end for unit-record (reader->tape, tape->printer/punch, tapes manually transferred between 1401 drive and 709 driver). student jobs ran in under second elapsed time.

univ. was sold a 360/67 for tss/360 to replace 709/1401 combo. As part of the transition, the 1401 was replaced with 64kbyte 360/30 ... which could run 1401 emulation and the front-end unit record 1401 MPIO application.

I got a student job re-implementing MPIO on 360/30 (possibly as part of univ. preparation moving to 360) and got to design my own monitor, my own device drivers, interrupt handlers, scheduling, storage handling, etc. I eventually had a 2000 card (box of cards) assemble program ... with assembly option to either run stand-alone or under OS/360 PCP with five DCBs. The stand-alone version took approx. 30mins elapsed time to assemble (early os/360 PCP) while the OS/360 version took approx. an hour to assemble (each DCB macro assembly processing taking over five minutes elapsed time).

I would get the datacenter all to myself on the weekend from 8am sat until 8am monday ... 48hrs w/o sleep made it little hard going to monday classes.

The 709&360/30 was eventually replaced with 360/67 and since tss/360 wasn't yet ready, it ran as 360/65 with os/360 ... initially the "same" student fortran jobs taking over a minute elapsed time. This was cut approx. in half with move to HASP and MFT. I was given responsibilty for the operating system ... and starting with OS/360 release 11 doing highly customized STAGE2 sysgens under the production operating system. I would carefully rework output of STAGE1 sysgen ... so it could run in the production operating system ... and that the allocation and move/copy steps carefully organized to optimize disk arm seek operation (location of datasets on disk as well as location of members within PDS). This gave me approx. three times additional speedup in 3step fortgclg for student jobs ... but still 13secs elapsed time (mostly job scheduler overhead)

This is old post with some results that I presented at fall68 SHARE meeting in Atlantic City (univ. had also gotten copy of cp67 in Jan68 and let me play with it on the weekends, I rewrote large pieces cp67 during the spring and summer ... which is also included as part of the presentation)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/94.html#18

later univ. got waterloo's watfor (for student jobs), big speedup was eliminating job scheduler overhead for tray of batched student jobs ... the job scheduler overhead to start single-step watfor was still longer than the time it took watfor to process a whole tray of student jobs (typically around 2500 cards, 50-100 student jobs) ... but finally the 360/67 throughput was more than the 709.

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Time to pull the PIN!

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From: lynn@garlic.com (Lynn Wheeler)
Date: 2 Mar, 2012
Subject: Time to pull the PIN!
Blog: Financial Crime Risk, Fraud and Security
Time to pull the PIN!
http://www.finextra.com/community/fullblog.aspx?blogID=6299

Static data and skimming/evesdropping/harvesting as long been known to be problem.

One of the assumptions stronger secruity with multi-factor authentication ... is that the different factors have independent compromises/failure-modes. PINs represented a countermeasure to lost/stolen magstripe cards (although one study found 1/3rd of magstripe cards had the PIN written on them).
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subintegrity.html#3factor

In the case of skimming exploits (possibly from at least late 80s) ... all forms of static data, magstripe & (shared-secret) PIN ... could be skimmed at the same time ... invalidating the assumption about different factors having independent compromise/failure-modes (note there is operation difference between share-secret PIN and a PIN that is never shared)

We had been called in to consult with small client/server startup that wanted to do payment transactions on their server, they had also invented "SSL" they wanted to use; the result is now frequently called "electronic commerce". Somewhat as a result, in the mid-90s we were invited to participate in the X9A10 financial standard working group which had been given the requirement to preserve the integrity of the financial infrastructure for *ALL* retail payments. As part of the effort, we looked at detailed, end-to-end threats and vulnerabilities of different payment mechanisms to come up with the X9.59 payment standard. reference
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/x959.html#x959

Part of the X9.59 was eliminating static data and also slightly tweaking the payment paradigm eliminating the threat from traditional evesdropping/skimming/harvesting data breaches (it didn't eliminate the activity ... just made the information useless to the crooks in performing fraudulent financial transactions).

Note that the preoccupation with multi-factor authentication as countermeasure to lost/stolen card ... shows up in (other) new solutions from decade ago, that were still quite vulnerable to any kind of skimming/harvesting/evesdropping ... where it is found to trivially counterfeit card from harvested information (reference to presentation on yes card at cartes 2002 ... gone 404 but lives on at wayback machine):
http://web.archive.org/web/20030417083810/http://www.smartcard.co.uk/resources/articles/cartes2002.html

when the details of yes card exploits were presented to the ATM Security task force in 2003 .... it prompted somebody in the audience to proclaim that they managed to spend billions of dollars to prove that chips are less secure than magstripes. past posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subintegrity.html#yescard

Another generation of static data evesdropping/skimming/harvesting is discussed here:

Mythbusters Banned From Discussing RFID By Visa And Mastercard
http://www.disinfo.com/2012/02/mythbusters-banned-from-discussing-rfid-by-visa-and-mastercard

previously mentioned in the past:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012b.html#55 Mythbusters Banned From Discussing RFID By Visa And Mastercard

There are actually two aspects ... one is the static data characteristics ... which is shared by (at least) both PINs and passwords ... but there is the other aspect that they are shared-secret authentication. The issue for shared-secret authentication ... is that it requires a unique value for every security domain (as countermeasure to cross-domain exploits)... which has led to the explosion in PINs and passwords. Further aggravating the situation for shared-secret authentication is frequent requirement that they be impossible to guess ... which then results in them being impossible to remember ... necessitating that they all be written down (creating its own vulnerability)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subintegrity.html#secrets

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Memory versus processor speed

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Memory versus processor speed
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Fri, 02 Mar 2012 18:26:16 -0500
John Levine <johnl@iecc.com> writes:
Other way around. The 360/65's main memory was core that cycled at about, if I remember correctly, 1 us. There was an optional large core storage that was 8 or 10 us, intended for bulk data, slower and larger than regular memory, faster and smaller than drum or disk.

re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#58 Memory versus processor speed
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#59 Memory versus processor speed
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#60 Memory versus processor speed

360/60 & 360/70 initially announced with 8byte storage operation with 1us core memory. Before ship, it was upgraded to 750ns and the models changed to 360/65 & 360/75

"LCS" was available from IBM, also from OEMs like Ampex.

IBM 2361 Large Capacity Storage
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM_2361_Large_Capacity_Storage

there was various strategies for use of LCS ... some used it as sort of virtual disk for data ... with it being "copied" to regular storage for use ... the other was as extension of regular storage (but ran much slower).

this also has referecne to LCS
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM_System/360

misc. past posts mentioning LCS:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001f.html#51 Logo (was Re: 5-player Spacewar?)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004.html#21 40th anniversary of IBM System/360 on 7 Apr 2004
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006r.html#36 REAL memory column in SDSF
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007g.html#67 Unusual Floating-Point Format Remembered?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008.html#49 IBM LCS
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008.html#51 IBM LCS
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008.html#58 IBM LCS
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010k.html#11 TSO region size

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

PC industry is heading for more change

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From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: PC industry is heading for more change
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Fri, 02 Mar 2012 18:52:05 -0500
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#5 PC industry is heading for more change

Foreclosure settlement a failure of law, a triumph for bank attorneys
http://www.washingtonpost.com/foreclosure-settlement-a-failure-of-law-a-triumph-for-bank-attorneys/2012/02/23/gIQAe7feaR_story.html

from above:
Before the settlement, we learned that nearly every aspect of the robosigned documents was false. None of the details were ever reviewed. The signatures attesting to the review of the documents were fabricated -- made by someone other than the person whose name was on the document. Neither person -- the supposed signatory to the document nor the hired forger -- ever validated the facts of each case. All of the safeguards put in place to make sure foreclosures were done correctly and legally were bypassed. Even the notary stamps were bogus -- they were not real, and not signed by a notary to validate that the signer and the signature matched.

... snip ...

Ask the mineshaft: what's gone wrong with America? The decay spreads faster than I imagined possible.
http://fabiusmaximus.wordpress.com/2012/03/02/36115/

from above:
The mortgage settlement by State attorneys general marks a new low for America. A massive criminal conspiracy -- the Mortgage Electronic Registration Systems (MERs, see Wikipedia), plus large-scale perjury ("robo-signing" foreclosure papers) and fraud before our courts. All settled with a slap on the wrist to the banks. It teaches large corporations thay they lie beyond the law, a large step beyond the traditional lax enforcement of laws against big businesses.

... snip ...

above also part of theme about lack of SEC enforcement, including GAO reports of fraudulent public financial filings
http://www.gao.gov/special.pubs/gao-06-1079sp//

The Foreclosure-to-Rental Boondoggle
http://www.counterpunch.org/2012/03/02/the-foreclosure-to-rental-boondoggle/

from above:
The reason that housing prices have dipped only 33.6 percent in the United States instead of 60 percent as they have in Ireland, is because the big banks have been keeping inventory off the market. If the millions of homes -- that are presently headed for foreclosure -- were suddenly dumped onto the market, prices would plunge and the biggest banks in the country would be declared insolvent

... snip ...

past posts:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#30 US real-estate has lost $7T in value
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#31 US real-estate has lost $7T in value
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#32 US real-estate has lost $7T in value
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#36 US real-estate has lost $7T in value
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#37 US real-estate has lost $7T in value
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#38 The Death of MERS
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#45 Fannie, Freddie Charge Taxpayers For Legal Bills
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#46 PC industry is heading for more change
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#48 PC industry is heading for more change
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#49 PC industry is heading for more change
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#55 PC industry is heading for more change
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#61 PC industry is heading for more change
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#62 Why Is Finance So Big?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#64 PC industry is heading for more change

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

PC industry is heading for more change

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From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: PC industry is heading for more change
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Fri, 02 Mar 2012 21:30:53 -0500
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#10 PC industry is heading for more change

Reckless: The Inside Story of How the Banks Beat Washington (Again)
http://www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2012/03/reckless-the-inside-story-of-how-the-banks-beat-washington-again/253883/

from above:
One year ago, the largest financial institutions on Wall Street were desperate to show off their strength by paying out, or raising, dividends for the first time since the Great Recession. After conducting a secretive test of the banks' health, the Federal Reserve granted most of their requests in March 2011 -- over loud objections from economic luminaries in Washington and across the country. Now, for the first time, we tell the story of why the Federal Reserve caved, and how Wall Street still owns the place.

... snip ...

and:

Fed Shrugged Off Warnings, Let Banks Pay Shareholders Billions
http://www.propublica.org/article/fed-shrugged-off-warning-let-banks-pay-shareholders-billions

Bank of America In Trouble?
http://www.rollingstone.com/politics/blogs/taibblog/bank-of-america-in-trouble-20120302

from above:
But what happens if Bank of America is still headed for bankruptcy? Helping the bank avoid a few lawsuits is one thing, and allowing it to move its dangerously toxic derivatives portfolio onto the federally-insured side of the company is another. But a full-blown crash of this firm would require a massive bailout.

... snip ...

above also references:

Bank of America, Fannie Mae Up Blame Game
http://www.thestreet.com/story/11438772/1/bank-of-america-fannie-mae-up-blame-game.html?cm_ven=GOOGLEN

and comments about Bank Of America announce terminating dealing with Fannie Mae was attempt to do it before Fannie Mae announced terminating dealing with Bank Of America.

also earlier
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012b.html#95 Bank of America Fined $1 Billion for Mortgage Fraud
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#4 Bank of America Fined $1 Billion for Mortgage Fraud

and having bought major player in mortgage origination and securitization responsible for bubble:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#23 21st Century Migrates Mainframe with Clerity
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#2 Occupy the SEC (Securities & Exchange Commission)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#5 Too big not to fail
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#6 The 15 Worst Data Security Breaches of the 21st Century
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#19 Occupy the SEC Pitches An Extreme Makeover of Wall Street

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Gordon Gekko Says

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From: lynn@garlic.com (Lynn Wheeler)
Date: 2 Mar, 2012
Subject: Gordon Gekko Says
Blog: Financial Crime Risk, Fraud and Security
Gordon Gekko Says
http://www.fraudconsulting.co.uk/2012/03/gordon-gekko-says/

#4 on times list of those responsible for financial mess ... head of SEC:
http://www.time.com/time/specials/packages/article/0,28804,1877351_1877350_1877323,00.html

references doing little or nothing. Also shows up in the congressional hearings into Madoff by the person that tried unsuccessfully for a decade to get SEC to do something about Madoff. With regard to SOX audits, he also mentioned that tips turn up 13 times more fraud than audits ... and SEC had a 1-800 line for companies to complain about audits ... but no tip line (at time of SOX, there was some speculation that whistle-blower section might be the only effective part).

Also GAO apparently thought SEC wasn't doing anything ... and started to do reports about fraudulent public company financial filings ... even showing uptic even after SOX
http://www.gao.gov/special.pubs/gao-06-1079sp//

Cramer comment about not having to worry about SEC:
http://nypost.com/2007/03/20/cramer-reveals-a-bit-too-much/

recent posts mentioning SEC
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#1 The war on terabytes
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#5 We are on the brink of a historic decision [referring to defence cuts]
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#18 SEC v. Citigroup, How to Avoid (Greater) Disaster
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#26 What's your favorite quote on "accountability"?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#70 Regulatory Agency logo
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#97 Is SSL Cert Holder ID Verification A Joke?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012b.html#19 "Buffett Tax" and truth in numbers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012b.html#44 What's the most interesting thing you do in your non-work life?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012b.html#53 Can America Lead the World's Fight Against Corruption?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012b.html#54 The New Age Bounty Hunger -- Showdown at the SEC Corral
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012b.html#62 An approach to Dump formatting of Control Blocks
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012b.html#87 The Benefit and The Burden
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#0 New theory of moral behavior may explain recent ethical lapses in banking industry
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#2 Occupy the SEC (Securities & Exchange Commission)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#4 Bank of America Fined $1 Billion for Mortgage Fraud
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#7 The Convergence of PKI
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#13 Study links ultrafast machine trading with risk of crash
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#19 Occupy the SEC Pitches An Extreme Makeover of Wall Street
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#25 Goldman Sachs P.R. Chief's Accidental Exit Interview
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#31 US real-estate has lost $7T in value
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#36 US real-estate has lost $7T in value
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#37 US real-estate has lost $7T in value
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#45 Fannie, Freddie Charge Taxpayers For Legal Bills
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#54 PC industry is heading for more change
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#5 PC industry is heading for more change
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#10 PC industry is heading for more change

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

PC industry is heading for more change

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From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: PC industry is heading for more change
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Sat, 03 Mar 2012 08:32:54 -0500
Peter Flass <Peter_Flass@Yahoo.com> writes:
If I'm thinking about the right bank, the Bank of America was founded by an Italian immigrant to help out fellow immigrants, largely poor hardworking people who were ignored by the "fat cat" banks of the time. I'm surprised the founder hasn't climbed out of his grave to strangle the life out of the crooks who are running the place now.

Bankruptcy would be the best option, except that our system would then sell it to some other huge bank so they could get even bigger. Break it up into geographic pieces and sell the pieces separately.


re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#11 PC industry is heading for more change

there was a "merger" of NationsBank (charlotte, nc) and BofA ... talking to various of the BofA people ... lots of them were let go, joke was that BofA no longer exists.

NationsBank
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NationsBank

from above:
In 1998, it acquired BankAmerica Corporation of San Francisco in what was the largest bank merger in American history at the time. NationsBank was the nominal survivor, and the merged bank was (and still is) headquartered in Charlotte. However, the enlarged bank took the Bank of America name, and operates under BankAmerica's charter.

... snip ...

#1 on times list responsible for the financial mess
http://content.time.com/time/specials/packages/article/0,28804,1877351_1877350_1877339,00.html
and
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Angelo_Mozilo#Friends_of_Angelo_.28FOA.29_VIP_program

and BofA inherits some of the problems when it acquires the company
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Countrywide_financial_political_loan_scandal

the above mentions there was some SEC action and a fine ... but as pointed out in numerous other recent articles about SEC, the fine is relatively trivial compared to the amounts involved ... and those fined have apparently started to view it just as part of the cost of doing business ... #4 on times list responsible for the financial mess
http://www.time.com/time/specials/packages/article/0,28804,1877351_1877350_1877323,00.html

for other drift, recent posts mentioning Dodd
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#30 Age of Greed: The Triumph of Finance and the Decline of America, 1970 to the Present
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#32 Wall Street Bonuses May Reach Lowest Level in 3 Years
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#72 Chris Dodd's SOPA crusading
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#79 Bain: A consulting firm too hot to handle? (Fortune, 1987)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#88 The PC industry is heading for collapse
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012b.html#16 Interview of Mr. John Reed regarding banking fixing the game
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012b.html#19 "Buffett Tax" and truth in numbers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012b.html#43 Where are all the old tech workers?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012b.html#54 The New Age Bounty Hunger -- Showdown at the SEC Corral
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012b.html#65 Why Wall Street Should Stop Whining
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#2 Occupy the SEC (Securities & Exchange Commission)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#5 Too big not to fail
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#19 Occupy the SEC Pitches An Extreme Makeover of Wall Street
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#32 US real-estate has lost $7T in value
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#54 PC industry is heading for more change
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#62 Why Is Finance So Big?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#63 The Economist's Take on Financial Innovation

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

PC industry is heading for more change

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From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: PC industry is heading for more change
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Sat, 03 Mar 2012 09:22:56 -0500
Peter Flass <Peter_Flass@Yahoo.com> writes:
There were two problems. The bank fraud was one, and the fact that no one had clear title to lots of property was the other. If they'd let the title problem drag on there would have been a massive housing problem that would have made the actual eventuality look like a trip to Disneyland. I think they were right to try to settle that fast, even if they "had to destroy the village in order to save it," and a lot of people got screwed over. I'm less happy that not enough bankers didn;t go to jail.

re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#5 PC industry is heading for more change
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#10 PC industry is heading for more change
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#11 PC industry is heading for more change
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#13 PC industry is heading for more change

One Out Of Every Ten Wall Street Employees Is A Psychopath, Say Researchers
http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/02/28/wall-street-psychopaths_n_1307168.html

other recent posts mentioning the issue:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#4 The Myth of Work-Life Balance
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#30 Age of Greed: The Triumph of Finance and the Decline of America, 1970 to the Present
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012b.html#16 Interview of Mr. John Reed regarding banking fixing the game
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012b.html#99 New theory of moral behavior may explain recent ethical lapses in banking industry
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#1 Spontaneous conduction: The music man with no written plan
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#12 Gordon Gekko Says

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Happy Webiversary!

Refed: **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Happy Webiversary!
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Sat, 03 Mar 2012 10:16:59 -0500
re:
https://plus.google.com/u/0/102794881687002297268/posts/Z76SXbLVpxs

Happy Webiversary! Twenty years ago, physicists, computer scientists, and a librarian at what is now SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory opened the first website in North America.
http://www.symmetrymagazine.org/cms/?pid=1000922

on slac vm370 system:
http://www.slac.stanford.edu/history/earlyweb/history.shtml

GML ... history
http://www.sgmlsource.com/history/roots.htm
was invented at the science center in 1969
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech
and
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#sgml
after a decade it morphs into ISO standard SGML, and after another decade SGML morphs into HTML at CERN
http://infomesh.net/html/history/early/

SLAC would host the monthly bayarea vm370 user group meetings.

a couple miles from SLAC, east on Page Mill, towards El Camino and then one block north was vm370-based HONE system that provided world-wide sales&marketing support for IBM (or east on Sand Hill, south on El Camino to California)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#hone

and a couple miles from both was TYMSHARE which had online commercial vm370 timesharing service. It had offered its vm370/cms based online computer conferencing (free) to SHARE starting in Aug1976 as vmshare ... archived here:
http://vm.marist.edu/~vmshare

other recent posts mentioning SLAC webserver
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#64 Has anyone successfully migrated off mainframes?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012b.html#46 What s going on in the redbooks site?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012b.html#72 Original Thinking Is Hard, Where Good Ideas Come From
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012b.html#83 The PC industry is heading for collapse
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012b.html#91 The PC industry is heading for collapse

and down valley from SLAC, relational dbms was invented at san jose research and the original relational/sql implementation was done on vm370 ... some past posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#systemr

and then over the hill on the coast:

before ms/dos there was seattle computer,
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MS-DOS
before seattle computer there was cp/m,
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seattle_Computer_Products
before cp/m there was cp67/cms
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CP/M

kildall worked on cp67/cms at npg (gone 404, but lives on at the wayback machine)
http://web.archive.org/web/20071011100440/http://www.khet.net/gmc/docs/museum/en_cpmName.html

npg
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Naval_Postgraduate_School

cp67/cms
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CP/CMS

VM TCP/IP stack was written in vs/pascal but had some performance issues getting about 44kbyte/sec using 3090 processor. I did the changes to support RFC1044 and in some performance tuning at Cray Research got 1mbyte/sec (channel media) thruput between 4341 and Cray using only modest amount of 4341 (possibly 500 times improvement in bytes moved per instruction executed). some past posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#1044

later vm tcp/ip was ported to MVS (and released as standard MVS product) by providing emulation for necessary VM functions in MVS environment.

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

IBM cuts more than 1,000 U.S. Workers

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From: lynn@garlic.com (Lynn Wheeler)
Date: 3 Mar, 2012
Subject: IBM cuts more than 1,000 U.S. Workers
Blog: Greater IBM
IBM cuts more than 1,000 U.S. Workers
http://www.infoworld.com/d/the-industry-standard/ibm-cuts-more-1000-us-workers-187522

a little "innovation" x-over from Boyd discussion:
http://lnkd.in/wkmFbf
... I had sponsored Boyd's briefing at IBM in the 80s. Most recent post in the discussion:

with respect to recent Bell Labs "True Innovation" article
http://www.nytimes.com/2012/02/26/opinion/sunday/innovation-and-the-bell-labs-miracle.html?_r=1

in another Blog:

Bell Labs & Innovation
http://rmf.vc/DLBellLabsPerspective

mentions "makes an important distinction between entrepreneurship and innovation"
http://blogs.hbr.org/cs/2012/02/entrepreneurship_still_lost_in.html

I'll see Bob on the 1st ... he is giving talk
http://www.eventbrite.com/event/2970182897

...

I've mentioned before that I was blamed for online computer conferencing on the internal network (folklore was that when the executive committee was told about online computer conferencing on the internal network, 5of6 wanted to fire me).

This is recent post about making VMSHARE (SHARE online discussion groups) available on the internal network ... and big argument with lawyers about whether exposing employees to external information would contaminate them:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#3

computer conferencing reference was late 70s and early 80s ... from ibm jargon (references name given to part of the activity):

Tandem Memos - n. Something constructive but hard to control; a fresh of breath air (sic). That's another Tandem Memos. A phrase to worry middle management. It refers to the computer-based conference (widely distributed in 1981) in which many technical personnel expressed dissatisfaction with the tools available to them at that time, and also constructively criticised the way products were are developed. The memos are required reading for anyone with a serious interest in quality products. If you have not seen the memos, try reading the November 1981 Datamation summary.

... snip ...

There are at least as many cases where innovation and new technology create a paradigm change threatening enormous/big money of entrenched vested interests.

Heading into the middle of the last decade ... somebody related that many of the investment bankers that were instrumental in causing the S&L crisis were then in the internet bubble IPOs ... having a formula process of investing, IPO ... and preferring that the companies then fail, leaving field open for the next round of IPOs .... and were then were in the process of moving into mortgage back securities.

Innovation takes hold much easier where there are no entrenched vested interests ... this happens in completely empty/new technology areas ... as well as developing countries where there aren't already established solutions.

For instance OSI has frequently been characterized as more oriented towards entrenched proprietary telecommunication offerings. Internet was viewed as commodity competition. In the late 80s and early 90s, vested interest were backing elimination of internet and the Federal gov. had even issued mandate that internet would be eliminated and everything transition to GOSIP (G-OSI-P).

The above reference meeting of the DC chapter of the internet society had three talks related to community networks ... which is somewhat in opposition to the large corporations that are trying to improve their monetizing the internet

there was article that a lot of US companies were taking gov. stimulus to create jobs ... but disguising the fact that the jobs were overseas (might show specific new jobs in the US but have net loss of jobs for the year ... one of the reasons many companies stopped publishing numbers).

There was also article that ratio of US executive compensation to US worker compensation had recently exploded to 400:1 after having been 20:1 for a long time and 10:1 in much of the rest of the world.

#4 in time's list of those responsible for the economic mess:
http://www.time.com/time/specials/packages/article/0,28804,1877351_1877350_1877323,00.html

for the last decade, SEC has a long litany of doing little or nothing (in cases where there might have been fines, it was mostly for show, being trivial percent of the amounts actually involved). In congressional hearings into Madoff, there was person that had tried unsuccessfully for a decade to get SEC to do something about Madoff. SEC also didn't catch Enron&Worldcom. In theory, as a result congress passed Sarbanes-Oxley ... but apparently because GAO didn't think that SEC was still doing anything ... they started doing reports of public company fraudulent financial filings ... showing uptic even after SOX:
http://www.gao.gov/special.pubs/gao-06-1079sp//

The explanation was that the fraudulent financial filings boosted executive compensation and even if the filings were later adjusted ... the compensation wasn't corrected (all under the facade of shareholder value).

And with regard to acts like Sarbanes-Oxley and more recent Dodd-Frank ... there are periodic articles referring to Congress as Kabuki Theater ... the legislation might sound good but the reality is frequently quite different.

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Inventor of e-mail honored by Smithsonian

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Inventor of e-mail honored by Smithsonian
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Sat, 03 Mar 2012 21:31:54 -0500
hancock4 writes:
I remember when CompuServe came out, it offered a feature that allowed the user to send Mailgrams via Western Union. Kind of a marriage between the old and new. I don't know if a classic telegram could be sent via CompuServe, however.

(Organizations that sent out a lot of Mailgrams could get an electronic terminal on their premises to do so; this was circa 1983).


re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#10 Inventor of e-mail honored by Smithsonian
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#12 Inventor of e-mail honored by Smithsonian
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#1 Inventor of e-mail honored by Smithsonian

compuserve wiki
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CompuServe

there was an internal corporate (paper) "telegram" called ITIPS and in the 70s started working on bi-directional with the internal email system

Date: 01/05/79 15:11:58
From: wheeler
To: xxxx

CCDN 2; ZZZZZ has a virtual machine hooked up to an CCDN - ITIPS cable simulating a remote printer. Virtual machine will receive incoming ITIPS and spool the contents in a file to the appropriate person (must have names/userid correspondence table and some facility for handling names without userids)


... snip ... top of post, old email index

"CCDN" was an internal corporate terminal network ... separate from internal computer network.

Then in addition to receive incoming ITIPS as email ... added feature to be able to originate email to ITIPS gateway that is then deliever as ITIPS (although might be email, ITIPS lingered on at locations where either the originator and/or sender had ITIPS access but not email access).

Date: 04/03/79 08:58:13
From: wheeler
To: yyyy

IPSASM is the main module of the IPS package (encryption). VMSG now has mods. to support various security/encrypting options by calling IPSASM. A CRDR will be coming out shortly which will read encrypted files. Also VMSG has new option to support sending ITIPS


... snip ... top of post, old email index

VMSG was email client developed in the 70s ... PROFS picked up source for a very early VMSG version for its email function. When author of VMSG offerred them a much more enhanced version, they attempted to get the VMSG author fired (group having clamed they had done everything). It all quieted down when VMSG author pointed out that every PROFS email in the world carried his initials in a non-displayed field.

old email mentioning vmsg
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/lhwemail.html#vmsg
and old email mentioning internal network
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/lhwemail.html#vnet

Later there were other gateways to the "CCDN" terminal network ... the VMSG author also did a small terminal simulator with terminal scripting language (PARASITE & STORY) which could automate terminal interactions on remote systems, including systems through the "CCDN" network. Old post with details of parasite/story
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011k.html#35
and another story automated login to corporate software bug fix system (RETAIN) and automated retrieve software failure/bug information (and then log off)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001k.html#36

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Memory versus processor speed

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Memory versus processor speed
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Sun, 04 Mar 2012 10:21:33 -0500
"Joe Morris" <j.c.morris@verizon.net> writes:
...and many shops (mine included) either rewrote parts of IPLTXT (the bootstrap loader for OS/360) to split the nucleus into fast and slow memory, putting the less-used parts in slow memory to free up the hideously expensive "fast" (by that day's standards) memory. That mod turned out to be relatively trivial but AFAIK IBM never picked it up, even (or especially) in LSCS.

I was brought into Boeing in 1969 to set up online cp67 timesharing service ... sort of as part of forming core of Boeing Computer Services ... which was destined to pick up most of the dataprocessing services in the corporation (i was one of the first dozen or so BCS employees ... although the boeing website claims that officially BCS wasn't formed until the following year).

Not LCS ... but re-orged cp67 memory resident fixed kernel into fast & slow ... but the "slow" part was made "pageable"

CP67 had about 80kbyte fixed kernel (plus dataareas required for each virtual machine). I did a "split" of the CP67 into fixed and "pageable" ... aka portions of kernel features that could be paged out when not be used ... and modification of the internal kernel call mechanism that would handle all the page fetch operations.

All internal kernel call&return were via supervisor calls. I ordered the kernel with "below the line" and "above the line" routines ... and a psuedo pageable for the original kernel image. In the call routine ... any address for "above the line" was assumed to be pageable and it would run through translate mechanism, fixed the page in storage and increment the "lock count" ... entering the routine in non-translate mode with the real paged-in address. The return ... if the address was above the line, it would decrement the corresponding "lock count" ... when it went to zero, the page was available for page-out.

The standard cp67 kernel build process started out real card deck (output of all the assemblies of individual modules) fronted by a slightly modified version of BPS loader. The deck would be "IPL'ed", the BPS loader loader would do all its gorp and then enter the loaded image of the kernel. This routine would write the loaded memory to disk ... setup so that when the disk was IPL'ed it would reverse the disk operation and read (instead of write). The BPS loader would also pass a pointer to the loader symbol table (all module entry points) ... so I also added code to copy the loader symbol table to the end of the pageable kernel.

As part of the pageable function, I had to carefully make sure that none of the pageable routines crossed a page boundry ... the major problem was the "console" (cp67 commands) routine was single large routine ... which had to be broken up into smaller chunks no larger than 4kbytes. This required adding additional external symbols ... since the internal command handling was no longer in single routine. This caused the number of cp67 kernel entry symbols to go over 255 ... which was the limit that could be processed by BPS loader. It first took me awhile to diagnose what the problem was (i.e. exceeding the BPS loader limit) and then real gludge to carefully limit the number of external symbols to 255.

I also identified very high use routines ... that were in the "below the line" ... that were straight library in&out calls ... that didn't need the overhead of the function implemented by supervisor call routine (which included a dynamically allocated savearea), I changed to BALR call (and the routines used single fixed savearea in "page0" ... which worked in multiprocessor mode since there was unique page0 per processor).

The BALR changes later made it out in cp67 ... since it was a significant kernel pathlength reduction (performance improvement). The pageable kernel wasn't released for cp67 ... but was picked up as part of the cp67 morph into vm370 (however, w/o the loader table hack). Did find a copy of the source for BPS loader (the only piece of cp67 that wasn't distributed in source) ... and modified the BPS loader source to increase the loader entry table size passed 255 (for the vm370 version).

misc. past posts mentioning BPS loader:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/98.html#9 ** Old Vintage Operating Systems **
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#135 sysprog shortage - what questions would you ask?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001b.html#23 Linux IA-64 interrupts [was Re: Itanium benchmarks ...]
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001b.html#26 HELP
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001b.html#27 HELP
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002h.html#35 Computers in Science Fiction
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002n.html#62 PLX
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002n.html#71 bps loader, was PLX
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002n.html#72 bps loader, was PLX
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003f.html#26 Alpha performance, why?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004g.html#45 command line switches [Re: [REALLY OT!] Overuse of symbolic constants]
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005f.html#10 Where should the type information be: in tags and descriptors
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005f.html#16 Where should the type information be: in tags and descriptors
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005g.html#52 Software for IBM 360/30
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005s.html#50 Various kinds of System reloads
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007f.html#1 IBM S/360 series operating systems history
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007n.html#57 IBM System/360 DOS still going strong as Z/VSE
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007n.html#59 IBM System/360 DOS still going strong as Z/VSE
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008s.html#56 Computer History Museum
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008s.html#64 Computer History Museum
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008s.html#65 Computer History Museum
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009.html#9 Is SUN going to become x86'ed ??
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009h.html#12 IBM Mainframe: 50 Years of Big Iron Innovation
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009s.html#25 PDP-10s and Unix
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009s.html#26 PDP-10s and Unix
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010h.html#42 IBM 029 service manual
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011c.html#3 If IBM Hadn't Bet the Company
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011g.html#64 Is the magic and romance killed by Windows (and Linux)?

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Writing article on telework/telecommuting

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: lynn@GARLIC.COM (Anne & Lynn Wheeler)
Subject: Re: Writing article on telework/telecommuting
Newsgroups: bit.listserv.ibm-main
Date: 4 Mar 2012 08:13:19 -0800
martin_packer@UK.IBM.COM (Martin Packer) writes:
One experience from teleworking which should appeal to mainframers: By and large 3270 is the least demanding data stream - so TSO / ISPF goes fast even on "broadband" as crummy as mine. (It's all the other junk that runs really slowly when the wet string dries out.)

Now I may be in a minority but I bet this counts for lots of people.

Anyhow, having telecommuted for more than 10 years I'm looking forward to this article: "You are not alone" is a useful thing to hear. :-)


recent thread on "user-friendly"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#11 Who originated the phrase "user-friendly"?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#12 Who originated the phrase "user-friendly"?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#13 From Who originated the phrase "user-friendly"?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#15 Who originated the phrase "user-friendly"?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#16 From "Who originated the phrase user-friendly" thread
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#19 From Who originated the phrase "user-friendly"?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#22 Who originated the phrase "user-friendly"?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#27 From "Who originated the phrase user-friendly" thread
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#31 Who originated the phrase "user-friendly"?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#33 Who originated the phrase "user-friendly"?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#36 Who originated the phrase "user-friendly"?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#38 Who originated the phrase "user-friendly"?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#43 Who originated the phrase "user-friendly"?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#44 Who originated the phrase "user-friendly"?

above thread includes definition from ibm jargon:

bad response - n. A delay in the response time to a trivial request of a computer that is longer than two tenths of one second. In the 1970s, IBM 3277 display terminals attached to quite small System/360 machines could service up to 19 interruptions every second from a user I measured it myself. Today, this kind of response time is considered impossible or unachievable, even though work by Doherty, Thadhani, and others has shown that human productivity and satisfaction are almost linearly inversely proportional to computer response time. It is hoped (but not expected) that the definition of Bad Response will drop below one tenth of a second by 1990.

... snip ...

part of the discussion was the horrible TSO response and significant performance degradation going from 3277/3272 combo to 3278/3274 (although TSO response was so bad that none recognized how much worse the 3274 controller was compared to 3272).

I did vm370/cms that got .11 trivial interactive response (next nearest system with similar load and configuration was more like quarter second) ... and the 3272 controller added .086 seconds ... resulting in .196 response seen by end-user. longer discussion in this post:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001m.html#19

When Santa Teresa lab (now silicon valley lab) was bursting at the seams in 1980 ... they were remoting 300 people from the IMS group to offsite building. They had looked at "remote" 3270 for interactive development ... and the IMS group users found it horrible and unacceptable compared to the vm370/cms service they were getting with channel-attached 3270 controllers in the building.

I got roped into doing the channel-extender support for putting remote channel attached 3270 controllers at the remote site (resulting in them not seeing any difference between local and remote site) Recent discussion touch on some of the topic:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#41

The transition to web/browser has caused me some annoyance ... because of end-to-end synchronized latency. Nearly a decade ago, I started making extensive use of browswer asynchronous tabs ... clicking on URL would be done in background in different tab. I even created process that would automate some of the activity ... fetching hundreds of web pages at a time into background tabs. Then I could immediate switch between different tabs w/o having to experience the synchronous web latency.

misc. past posts mentioning browser asynchronous tab operation:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004e.html#11 Gobble, gobble, gobble: 1.7 RC1 is a "turkey"!
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004e.html#54 Is there a way to configure your web browser to use multiple
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005n.html#8 big endian vs. little endian, why?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005n.html#41 Moz 1.8 performance dramatically improved
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005o.html#13 RFC 2616 change proposal to increase speed
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006q.html#51 Intel abandons USEnet news
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007m.html#8 John W. Backus, 82, Fortran developer, dies
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008b.html#32 Tap and faucet and spellcheckers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008b.html#35 Tap and faucet and spellcheckers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008h.html#10 What would be a future of technical blogs ? I am wondering what kind of services readers except to get from a technical blog in next 10 years
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008k.html#67 Intel: an expensive many-core future is ahead of us
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008p.html#29 How were you using the internet 10 years ago and how does that differ from how you use it today?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009m.html#66 What happened to computer architecture (and comp.arch?)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009r.html#36 SSL certificates and keys
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010b.html#48 Happy DEC-10 Day
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010d.html#22 OT: PC clock failure--CMOS battery?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010o.html#31 Survey Outlines Compliance Challenge Among Small Merchants
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011j.html#29 DG Fountainhead vs IBM Future Systems

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Writing article on telework/telecommuting

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: lynn@GARLIC.COM (Anne & Lynn Wheeler)
Subject: Re: Writing article on telework/telecommuting
Newsgroups: bit.listserv.ibm-main
Date: 4 Mar 2012 13:05:14 -0800
charlesm@MCN.ORG (Charles Mills) writes:
I've been doing remote mainframe development since 1200 baud dial-up was state-of-the-art. You need almost no bandwidth at all for 3270. You can refresh an entire 3270 screen with at most 4K or so characters, and ISPF does a pretty clever job of minimizing the number of characters that must actually be sent.

OTOH a millisecond glitch on your connection is nothing for e-mail and almost nothing for Web browsing, but can be a disaster for 3270 over VPN. The new and improved TSO reconnect is a HUGE help.


re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#19 Writing article on telework/telecommuting

I started in Mar1970 at home with 134.5 baud 2741.

in early 80s, for the corporate home terminal program with IBM PCs and 3270 emulation ... PC and vm370 mainframe software driver (pcterm) was written that 1) did huffman compression of data actually sent and 2) kept cache of strings at both ends ... recently used (and attempted to transmit string cache index in lieu of the actual string). a few past PCTERM posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003n.html#7 3270 terminal keyboard??
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003p.html#44 Mainframe Emulation Solutions
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006y.html#0 Why so little parallelism?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008n.html#51 Baudot code direct to computers?

the corporate home terminal program also came up with special 2400 baud encrypting modems (handshake dynamically generating unique key for each dialup session).

mid-80s, I tried to bring a NCP emulator to market that masked most of the traditional SNA shortcomings ... it used real networking and did a lot of things not found in traditional SNA implementations (all outboard of the host VTAM) ... part of presentation I made to the Oct86 SNA architecture review board:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#67

of course it caused huge amount of internal political problems and got killed ... but it wasn't terribly unlike the later spoofing that was done in the 3737 ... to try and get SNA host-to-host transfer close to handling a T1 link ... old email
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011g.html#email880130
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011g.html#email880606
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011g.html#email881005
recently discussed in this post:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#41

now for internet, it frequently it isn't so much the amount of data ... but the latency for round-trips. HTTP started out as connectionless protocol built on top of tcp reliable session ... with tcp session setup/teardown for every session.

in the mid-90s as webservers started to ramp up ... there was massive scaleup problem. majority of the tcp/ip stack implementations did a linear search of the FINWAIT list (time-out of closed sessions to catch dangling packets) ... originally implemented under assumption that session setup/teardown was relatively infrequent. However the (mis-)use by HTTP (& HTTPS) was resulting in thousands on the FINWAIT list and large webserver processors spending 95% of CPU running the FINWAIT list.

This could be seen in the rapidly increasing number of servers at NETSCAPE ... this was before DNS & router load-balancing ... so needed users to manually select different servers. This continued until NETSCAPE switched to a Sequent server (Sequent claimed it had been doing large commercial unix with 20,000 concurrent telnet/tcp sessions and so had already encountered & fixed the FINWAIT list problem). Eventually the other webserver platform vendors also started to deploy FINWAIT fixes.

The issue in TCP is it requires a minimum of seven packet exchange for session setup/teardown ... and it was effectively being mis-used by the connectionless oriented HTTP(S) protocol. Later versions of HTTP & browsers have attempted to map multiple HTTP connectionless operations over longer-lived TCP session.

The other performance component of more complex webpages ... isn't necessarily the aggregate amount of data involved (although inclusion of multiple jpeg images can be mbyte or more) ... it is that they are multiple different data elements ... each tending to require sequential end-to-end handshake latency. There is continuing work on trying to overlap as many of these operations concurrent to minimize the elapsed time (but taking advantage of higher peak transmission rates).

recent Google+ thread
https://plus.google.com/u/0/102794881687002297268/posts/Z76SXbLVpxs
referencing:

Happy Webiversary
http://www.symmetrymagazine.org/cms/?pid=1000922

for the first webserver outside Europe on the SLAC vm370 system
http://www.slac.stanford.edu/history/earlyweb/history.shtml

disclaimer ...

in the 80s, I was on the XTP technical advisory board where a reliable transport protocol was worked out that required minimum of only 3 packet exchange (compared to 7 for tcp). some past posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#xtphsp

and

had done the rfc1044 support for mainframe tcp/ip product. Original code was on vm370 (written in pascal/vs) that got about 44kbytes/sec thruput using 3090 processor. In some tuning tests at cray research, I got 1mbyte/sec sustained (channel speed) between cray and 4341, using only modest amount of 4341 processor (possibly 500 times improvement in bytes transferred per instruction executed). This product was later made available on MVS ... by providing emulation for some of the vm370 function. misc. past posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#1044

also

reference to Jan92 meeting in Ellison's conference room on cluster scaleup
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/95.html#13

two of the people mentioned in above meeting later leave and join small silicon valley startup.

After the cluster scaleup work is transferred and we were told we couldn't work on anything with more than four processors, we decide to depart also.

Those two people become responsible for something called the "commerce server" at the startup ... and we get brought in as consultants because they want to do payment transactions on their server; the startup had also invented this technology they called "SSL" they want to use. We spend some amount of time working on what is now called "electronic commerce" ... including something called a "payment gateway" that transfers transactions back&forth between commerce servers on the internet and the payment networks.

misc. past posts related to SSL
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subpubkey.html#sslcert
misc. past posts related to payment gateway
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#payment

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Inventor of e-mail honored by Smithsonian

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Inventor of e-mail honored by Smithsonian
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Sun, 04 Mar 2012 23:13:49 -0500
hancock4 writes:
Back then WU tried a variety of things to drum up offpeak business, like social greetings. Presumably they were sent at the night letter rate, making use of otherwise idle facilities.

I forgot the details, but some of the promotions they tried in the 1960s seemed a little silly for a large communications company--they were more like what a small neighborhood appliance store would do.

I remain amazed at the number of local town or neighborhood offices they opened in the 1950s. A number of WU operated offices were still around circa 1980, but most were replaced by contracted agents, and almost all retail business was money transfers; which is what the successor company (using the name) focuses on today.

I recall in the 1970s if one was late applying to take the SATs there were instructions in the booklet on filing a request by telegram. [sarc] I'm sure parents appreciated getting the bill for that request; $10+ back then was nothing to sneeze at.


re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#10 Inventor of e-mail honored by Smithsonian
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#12 Inventor of e-mail honored by Smithsonian
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#1 Inventor of e-mail honored by Smithsonian
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#17 Inventor of e-mail honored by Smithsonian

with phone and email replacing telegram information delivery ... companies moved into money transfer.

item about connections between kkr, amex, first data, gerstner and ibm ... from linkedin "greater ibm" discussion
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#57 The Myth of Work-Life Balance
other recent post mentioning Gerstner
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#45 You may ask yourself, well, how did I get here?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#92 Has anyone successfully migrated off mainframes?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#104 Can a business be democratic? Tom Watson Sr. thought so

in 1992, first data spin-off from amex includes moneygram (in competition with western union). First Data then is somewhat in bidding war for western union with First Financial (which would have met divesting moneygram) ... but First Financial "won". A couple years later First Data and First Financial merge ... and condition of the merger was divesting moneygram (anti-trust with both moneygram and western union in the same company).

later, middle of last decade, western union is spun off as independent IPO and then kkr does leverage buyout for the remaining portion of first data.

wik first data
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Data

wiki moneygram
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MoneyGram

wiki western union
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Western_Union

wiki kkr
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kohlberg_Kravis_Roberts

kkr reverse ipo
http://www.forbes.com/2007/04/02/kohlberg-first-data-markets-equity-cx_af_0402markets08.html

wiki american express
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_Express

misc other recent posts in greater ibm
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012b.html#44 What's the most interesting thing you do in your non-work life?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012b.html#56 What's the most interesting thing you do in your non-work life?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012b.html#59 Original Thinking Is Hard, Where Good Ideas Come From
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012b.html#68 Original Thinking Is Hard, Where Good Ideas Come From
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012b.html#72 Original Thinking Is Hard, Where Good Ideas Come From
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012b.html#88 Original Thinking Is Hard, Where Good Ideas Come From
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012b.html#93 Original Thinking Is Hard, Where Good Ideas Come From
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#24 Original Thinking Is Hard, Where Good Ideas Come From
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#16 IBM cuts more than 1,000 U.S. Workers

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Hardware for linked lists

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Hardware for linked lists
Newsgroups: comp.arch
Date: Sun, 04 Mar 2012 23:38:49 -0500
Andrew Reilly <areilly---@bigpond.net.au> writes:
Bjarne Stroustrup made a similar argument in the last issue of IEEE Computer magazine that crossed my desk. He explained that while linked lists are nominally O(1) for some sorts of variable-length update tasks, modern hardware can make the constant scale factor quite large, compared to using explicit arrays to do the same thing. His example pitted a doubly-linked list against an array for a random insertion and deletion task on integers (yes, dumb), and found that the linked list only got faster for problems larger than 500000 elements (on his laptop.) Not a terribly convincing argument, but there is definitely value in picking the right structure for the job.

many 360/67s had search-list (SLT) instruction RPQ ... courtesy of Lincoln Labs. It was used by cp67 kernel storage management to search link list for matching storage size (link list is ordered via real storage address). lots of data showed search depth be on the order of 500 elements (or greater) and SLT saved on instruction fetch&decode overhead (non-pipeline, non-cache machine) ... but still had to do at least two storage fetches per list element.

even with SLT instruction ... storage management was starting to push 30% or more of total cp67 kernel pathlength (after lots of other kernel instruction paths had been highly optimized).

then a switch was made to cp67 kernel storage management with subpools for most common storage sizes managed with push/pop management strategy. For majority of storage management routine calls ... pathlength droped to 14 instructions and percent of kernel overhead dropped to 2-3%.

360/67 functional characteristics (& timing for standard instructions) can be found here
http://www.bitsavers.org/pdf/ibm/360/funcChar/

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

IBM cuts more than 1,000 U.S. Workers

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: lynn@garlic.com (Lynn Wheeler)
Date: 5 Mar, 2012
Subject: IBM cuts more than 1,000 U.S. Workers
Blog: Greater IBM
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#16 IBM cuts more than 1,000 U.S. Workers

both IBM 43xx and vax sold into the mid-range market about equivalent numbers in the orders involving small numbers. the big difference for 43xx were the corporate orders involving large number of machines ... several cases hundreds at a time. This was the leading edge of distributed computing tsunami. Then starting in the mid-80s, the large PC & workstations started to take over the mid-range market and also put a dent in the high-end market. The 4361/4381 were expected to see comparable explosion in sales as 4331/4341 ... but didn't happen. This is old post with a decade of vax numbers, sliced&diced by year, model, us/non-us ... that starts to show the change in the mid-80s (something similar seen by 4361/4381)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002f.html#0
past email mentioning 43xx
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/lhwemail.html#43xx

DEC was even more affected by this than IBM ... with IBM going into the red in the early 90s ... but IBM had high-end mainframes that wasn't as badly affected by the decimating of the mid-range ... that took out DEC. The DEC numbers show DEC trying to re-act with micro-vax going head-to-head with PCs ... that had short burst but couldn't compete long term either.

IBM had contributing factor ... in the late 80s, a senior disk engineer got a talk scheduled at the annual, world-wide, internal communication group conference ... and opened the talk that the communication group was going to responsible for the demise of the disk division (which has since come to pass). The issue was that the communication group had stranglehold on the datacenter and disk division was starting to see drop-off in sales with data fleeing the datacenter to more distributed computing friendly platforms (larger PCs and workstations that had taken over mid-range & server). The disk division had come up with several products to address the problem, but they were vetoed by the communication group that had strategic ownership of everything that crossed the datacenter walls. related past posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#emulation

The combination had severe downside on IBM in the early 90s going into the red ... and required Gerstner to come in and clean house to "resurrect" ibm. I have much longer-winded post mentioning "Strategic Thinking" which has section comparing Microsoft, Apple, Google, and Gerstner's "resurrection of IBM"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#92
and a little earlier in a "Greater IBM" discussion
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#57
also
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#21

Apple didn't do chips ... they were part of the leading wave of packaging single chip processors into PCs. My brother was regional marketing rep for Apple and in the early 80s he would come into town and I would get to attend some of the business dinners and argue with the guys responsible for MAC about the design (before the MAC had been announced). At the time, Apple was run on System/38 and my brother had worked out how to dial into the System/38 and track manufacturing and delivery schedules.

There was recent item about when Jobs was called back in to resurrect Apple when it was on the verge of going under ... that Jobs twisted Gates arm into emergency investment into Apple to keep it afloat (comment that m'soft was in apple patent violation to the tune of billions, apple would go under but the patent litigation would drag on for ages ... however, a couple hundred million could avoid all that).

Apple later got somewhat into hardware with its participation in AIM (apple, Ibm, and motorola) and Somerset ... with redoing 801/risc RIOS chipset into 60x single-chip 801/risc processors and power/pc. Note that the power/pc was not only used by Apple but also by the AS/400 that was the followon to the S/38 ... that Apple had been using to run the company more than decade earlier. misc. past posts related to 801, risc, romp, rios, power, somerset, etc
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#801

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Inventor of e-mail honored by Smithsonian

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Inventor of e-mail honored by Smithsonian
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Mon, 05 Mar 2012 12:35:43 -0500
hancock4 writes:
I heard PROFS is no longer supported by IBM. Is that true? I miss it. Didn't have to worry about viruses. Of course, PROFS (the one I used) handled text only land most emails these days are sent with HTML.

ROSCOE had an internal messaging feature. VM had one, too. We could send VM messages from the signon screen before logging in (until they closed that window).


re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#10 Inventor of e-mail honored by Smithsonian
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#12 Inventor of e-mail honored by Smithsonian
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#1 Inventor of e-mail honored by Smithsonian
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#17 Inventor of e-mail honored by Smithsonian
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#21 Inventor of e-mail honored by Smithsonian

discontinued 6Oct2003
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM_OfficeVision

cp67 had messaging between users on same machine. Pisa science center modified cp67 to allow software to intercept messages going to user terminal (this also allowed for application to application messaging). This was ported to vm370 internally ... and I included it in my spring 1975 csc/vm distribution that went out to large number of internal datacenters.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006w.html#email750430
this later email has more detailed discussion of SPM (including being superset of various generations & combinations of VMCF & IUCV)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006k.html#email851017

slight correction since I obviously got earlier version than 12Aug1975 for my spring 1975 csc/vm distribution

this post includes portion of old SPM document
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006w.html#16 intersection between autolog command and cmsback (more history)

RSCS was able to use SPM (intercept messages going to terminal) and forward them over the network to users on different machines.

some past posts mentioning internal network
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#internalnet
bitnet univ. network used similar technology to internal network, some past posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#bitnet
bitnet wiki
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BITNET

The author of REXX used it to implement a multi-user spacewar game ... where it was used to communicate between spacewar clients and the spacewar server ... it was able to leverage the RSCS support to provide for spacewar clients both on the same machine and/or different machines on the internal network. The original spacewar client started out as application that displayed all user status on 3270 screen and took commands from keyboard. Fairly early there were automated players written (sort of early version of automnomous drones) that would beat human players. The spaceware server was then modified to increase user energy use non-linearly as interval between commands dropped below human expected threshold ... attempt to somewhat level the playing field.

Note that the "first" multi-user game mentioned in the BITNET wiki was years after the internal multi-user spacewar game.

I also included my "autolog" command in the spring 75 csc/vm ... I had originally developed for automated benchmarking ... being able to start synthetic workload scripts to do large different kinds of loads. This was quickly adopted for also automated bringup of service virtual machines (original version of whats currently called virtual appliance) ... complementing service virtual machines to "accept" commands & control via SPM.

I had also been blamed for online computer conferencing on the internal network in the late 70s and early 80s (folklore is that when the executive committee was informed of online computer conferencing and the internal network ... 5of6 wanted to fire me). Somewhat as a result, a researcher was paid to sit in my office for nine months and take notes on how I communicated (they also went with me to meetings). They also got copies of all my incoming and outgoing email and logs of all instant messages. The result was research report, a Stanford PHD thesis (joint between language and computer AI), and material for some number of papers and books. misc. past posts mentioning computer mediated converstation
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#cmc

past posts mentioning service virtual machines &/or virtual appliances
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002m.html#26 Original K & R C Compilers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003c.html#77 COMTEN- IBM networking boxes
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004q.html#72 IUCV in VM/CMS
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005.html#59 8086 memory space
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005j.html#58 Q ALLOC PAGE vs. CP Q ALLOC vs ESAMAP
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006p.html#10 What part of z/OS is the OS?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006t.html#45 To RISC or not to RISC
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006t.html#46 To RISC or not to RISC
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006v.html#22 vmshare
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006w.html#16 intersection between autolog command and cmsback (more history)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006w.html#25 To RISC or not to RISC
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006w.html#52 IBM sues maker of Intel-based Mainframe clones
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006x.html#6 Multics on Vmware ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006x.html#8 vmshare
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007i.html#21 John W. Backus, 82, Fortran developer, dies
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007i.html#36 John W. Backus, 82, Fortran developer, dies
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007k.html#26 user level TCP implementation
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007k.html#48 John W. Backus, 82, Fortran developer, dies
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007m.html#67 Operating systems are old and busted
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007m.html#70 Is Parallel Programming Just Too Hard?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007o.html#3 Hypervisors May Replace Operating Systems As King Of The Data Center
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007q.html#25 VMware: New King Of The Data Center?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007s.html#4 Why do we think virtualization is new?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007s.html#26 Oracle Introduces Oracle VM As It Leaps Into Virtualization
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007s.html#35 Oracle Introduces Oracle VM As It Leaps Into Virtualization
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007u.html#39 New, 40+ yr old, direction in operating systems
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007u.html#41 New, 40+ yr old, direction in operating systems
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007u.html#81 IBM mainframe history, was Floating-point myths
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007v.html#75 virtual appliance
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007v.html#80 software preservation volunteers ( was Re: LINC-8 Front Panel Questions)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008.html#59 old internal network references
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008b.html#39 folklore indeed
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008b.html#52 China's Godson-2 processor takes center stage
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008c.html#2 folklore indeed
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008c.html#55 Kernels
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008e.html#11 Kernels
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008e.html#15 Kernels
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008g.html#6 It's Too Darn Hot
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008g.html#22 Was CMS multi-tasking?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008h.html#47 Microsoft versus Digital Equipment Corporation
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008h.html#97 Is virtualization diminishing the importance of OS?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008l.html#14 recent mentions of 40+ yr old technology
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008l.html#21 recent mentions of 40+ yr old technology
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008m.html#67 Is Virtualisation a Fad?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008m.html#68 New technology trends?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008n.html#22 VMware Chief Says the OS Is History
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008n.html#51 Baudot code direct to computers?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008n.html#57 VMware renders multitasking OSes redundant
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008q.html#62 Virtualization: What is it exactly?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008s.html#56 Computer History Museum
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009h.html#59 Operating Systems for Virtual Machines
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009h.html#64 Operating Systems for Virtual Machines
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009l.html#66 ACP, One of the Oldest Open Source Apps
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009n.html#67 Status of Arpanet/Internet in 1976?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009o.html#1 Status of Arpanet/Internet in 1976?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009o.html#35 Operation Virtualization
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009q.html#5 real-time messages
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010d.html#62 LPARs: More or Less?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010d.html#73 LPARs: More or Less?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010d.html#74 Adventure - Or Colossal Cave Adventure
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010e.html#11 Crazed idea: SDSF for z/Linux
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010h.html#0 What is the protocal for GMT offset in SMTP (e-mail) header time-stamp?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010k.html#25 Was VM ever used as an exokernel?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010k.html#26 Was VM ever used as an exokernel?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010k.html#31 Was VM ever used as an exokernel?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010k.html#33 Was VM ever used as an exokernel?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010k.html#35 Was VM ever used as an exokernel?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010k.html#37 taking down the machine - z9 series
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010o.html#19 Virtualization: Making Seductive Promises a Reality
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010o.html#48 origin of 'fields'?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011e.html#84 New job for mainframes: Cloud platform
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011f.html#6 New job for mainframes: Cloud platform
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011f.html#48 A brief history of CMS/XA, part 1
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011g.html#49 My first mainframe experience
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011g.html#56 VAXen on the Internet

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

PC industry is heading for more change

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From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: PC industry is heading for more change
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Mon, 05 Mar 2012 13:52:07 -0500
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#11 PC industry is heading for more change

The Foreclosure-to-Rental Boondoggle
http://www.counterpunch.org/2012/03/02/the-foreclosure-to-rental-boondoggle/
Ask the mineshaft: what's gone wrong with America? The decay spreads faster than I imagined possible.
http://fabiusmaximus.wordpress.com/2012/03/02/36115/
Why the Fed Ignored Warnings and Let Banks Pay Shareholders Billions
http://motherjones.com/politics/2012/03/fed-shrugged-warnings-let-banks-pay-shareholders-billions
Fed Shrugged Off Warnings, Let Banks Pay Shareholders Billions
http://www.propublica.org/article/fed-shrugged-off-warning-let-banks-pay-shareholders-billions
Reckless: The Inside Story of How the Banks Beat Washington (Again)
http://www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2012/03/reckless-the-inside-story-of-how-the-banks-beat-washington-again/253883/

tv business news this morning had a couple guests ... with the theme that sheila bair (former chairman FDIC) was right and nearly all the rest of the regulators have been doing the wrong thing.

examples included that #2
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#5 PC industry is heading for more change

in doing his Enron "favor" & exempting CDS from regulation ... was really a form of insurance (example given of homeowner and possibly his neighbors had dozens of fire insurnace policies on his house ... and when there was a fire ... all had to payoff full value of house) ... which was major contribution to the whole economic mess which hasn't been fixed and continues to this day (with left open that it is great motivation to encourage such a fire). There was comment that decade ago ... the various investment banking players looked at the situation and figured that could skim off enormous amounts and be long gone from the position by the time there was any reckoning (becoming an institution and coutry problem and they have just walked away).

another example/analogy was regulators encouraging banks to go for racetrack speed record (reckless behavior & heavy leverage) as fast as possible on the straight-a-way ... and even tho they've always crashed going into the curve ... not to worry since the US taxpayer will always make them whole.

$700T
http://www.atimes.com/atimes/Global_Economy/ML14Dj02.html
recen reference
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011p.html#70 No One Telling Who Took $586B in Fed Swaps
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#39 Greek knife to Wall Street

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Can SSL Certificate Checking System Be Saved?

Refed: **, - **, - **
From: lynn@garlic.com (Lynn Wheeler)
Date: 5 Mar, 2012
Subject: Can SSL Certificate Checking System Be Saved?
Blog: Google+
re:
https://plus.google.com/u/0/102794881687002297268/posts/XRNeAVXsu8K

Can SSL Certificate Checking System Be Saved?
http://www.informationweek.com/news/security/vulnerabilities/231300216?cid=RSSfeed_IWK_security

from above:
Google says Web certificate revocation checking system is broken, joins other browser vendors at RSA to discuss solutions.

... snip ...

at annual acm (database) sigmod meeting in san jose (circa 1992), in main session, somebody in the audience asked what was all this x.5-hundred stuff was about ... and one of the people on the stage characterized it as a bunch of network engineers attempting to re-invent 1960s DBMS technology.

disclaimer: in the early 90s, we were brought in as consults to small client/server startup that wanted to payment transactions on their server; they had also invented this technology they called "SSL" they wanted to use; the result is now frequently called "electronic commerce". During the audit and review of "SSL" as well as the CA business players ... we come up with a number of deployment requirements ... that were almost immediately violated. That was about the time I originated the term comfort certificates to try and differentiate sense of comfort from real security. misc. past posts on the subject
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subpubkey.html#sslcert

somewhat as a result of the work on "electronic commerce", in the mid-90s we were asked to participate in the x9a10 financial standard working group that was given the requirement to preserve the integrity of the financial infrastructure for ALL retail payments. X9A10 activity included looking at end-to-end threat & vulnerabilities of broad range of different kinds of retail payments (point-of-sale, face-to-face, unattended, internet, etc) and came up with X9.59 ... some references:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/x959.html#x959

which allows for strong public key authentication w/o requiring digital certificates. Part of x9.59 was slightly tweaking the payment paradigm to eliminate any need to "hide" transaction information in order to provide security (transaction information in transmission and in databases can be fully divulged w/o risk of leading to fraudulent transactions). As side-effect, it eliminated the major use of SSL in the world today.

A contributing factor to certificate-less x9.59 transaction was that appending digital certificate on every payment transactions ... besides being redundant and superfluous ... also would increase the typical payment transaction payload size by 100 times (for no useful purpose) ... some past posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subpubkey.html#bloat

other posts on certificate-less public key operation
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subpubkey.html#certless

for some archeological references

ACM SIGMOD Record - Tribute to honor Jim Gray
http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1379387&picked=prox

also sponsored&held at UCB a couple past posts mentioning tribute
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008i.html#32
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008i.html#36
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008i.html#40

old email with references to when Jim was leaving research (and original relational/sql project) for Tandem, he was palming stuff off on to me (over 30 yrs ago):
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007.html#email801006
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007.html#email801016

and some old email discussing certificate-less, pgp-like public key implementation (over 30yrs ago):
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007d.html#email810506
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006w.html#email810515

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Inventor of e-mail honored by Smithsonian

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Inventor of e-mail honored by Smithsonian
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Mon, 05 Mar 2012 21:07:57 -0500
Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com> writes:
Note that the "first" multi-user game mentioned in the BITNET wiki was years after the internal multi-user spacewar game.

re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#24 Inventor of e-mail honored by Smithsonian

bitnet wiki
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BITNET

mentions 1984, multi-user game on bitnet

past post
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005u.html#4 Fast action games on System/360+?

with snippet from MFF PLI (client space war)

another past post
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010d.html#74 Adventure - Or Colossal Cave Adventure

with old email referencing MFF
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010d.html#email800804
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010d.html#email800807
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010d.html#email800807b
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010d.html#email800814

another snippet from MFF PLI:


   DCL LINE23 CHAR(80) STATIC INIT (
'PF7=DOCK/UNDOCK, PF9=FIRE, PF10=WARP, PF11=SHIELD, PF12=HYPERSPACE,  PA2=COMMAND.');

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

NASA unplugs their last mainframe

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From: lynn@garlic.com (Lynn Wheeler)
Date: 6 Mar, 2012
Subject: NASA unplugs their last mainframe
Blog: MainframeZone
re:
http://lnkd.in/Uz6-ck
and
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#2 NASA unplugs their last mainframe
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#6 NASA unplugs their last mainframe

Note that part of IBM issue was that native processors were pretty much unique to each 360 & 370 model ... so that was huge proliferation of different, incompatible processors ... each requiring their own infrastructure. Something similar was embedded processors ... 3830 disk controller was horizontal microcode engine (much more difficult to program ... also tended to be found in high-end 370 processors) ... but move to much slower vertical microcode (JIB-prime) for 3880 controller. some old posts about being let to play disk engineer in bldgs 14&15
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#disk

I've periodically mentioned that long ago and far away, my wife was con'ed into going to POK to be in charge of loosely-couple architecture ... where she developed peer-coupled shared data architecture ... some past posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#shareddata

however there was a combination of little uptake (except for IMS hotstandby until sysplex) and ongoing skirmishes with communication group over trying to force her to use SNA for loosely-coupled operation ... she didn't stay long.

Later when we were doing HA/CMP ... we were looking for apps to move to cluster operation (i.e. non-mainframe for loosely-coupled) and there were numerous non-mainframe RDBMS that had done VAX Cluster support. We spent some amount of time with these vendors about migrating their VAX Cluster support to our HA/CMP platform. Based on loosely-coupled and mainframe database experience we had a distributed lock manager ... but to ease porting RDBMS vax cluster support ... needed to add vax cluster compatible API. However, several of the vendors had their top-ten list of how vax cluster had done it wrong (and could be done much better ... especially from the standpoint of RDBMS operation). Having started from scratch ... I didn't have to worry about lots of legacy issues and could work from clean sheet. some past posts:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#hacmp

original relational/SQL implementation (System/R) done in bldg 28 on vm/370
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#systemr

For slightly other drift & repeat from above ... reference to Jan1992 cluster scaleup meeting in Ellison's conference room
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/95.html#13

Mainframe DB2 group had complained that if we were allowed to proceed with HA/CMP RDBMS cluster scaleup ... we would be at least five years ahead of them. Old email about cluster scaleup activity (not just commercial but also numerical intensive in conjunction with national labs)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/lhwemail.html#medusa

Possibly within hrs of the last email referenced in above (end of Jan1992), the cluster scaleup was transferred and we were told we couldn't work on anything with more than four processors. Within a couple weeks it was announced ... old press item
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001n.html#6000clusters1 17Feb1992
for scientific and numerical intensive only ... another press item
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001n.html#6000clusters2 11May 1992

We had also been participating in the Fiber-Channel Standard (FCS) activity since late 80s ... then in the 92 timeframe started to see participation from POK channel engineers attempting to do extremely unnatural things to FCS in order to create FICON.

ESCON had actually been knocking around POK for quite some time before it was released. One of the rs6000 engineers took specification ... improved bandwidth by about ten percent and used different driver technology that significantly reduced the cost ... and allowed it to be full-duplex ... more than doubling aggregate thruput (before escon was released) ... but incompatible with escon and anything else on the market. He then wanted to do an 800mbit version ... but we convinced him instead to work on FCS ... as interoperable industry standard. misc. past posts mentioning 801, risc, iliad romp, pc/rt, rios, rs/6000, power/pc, etc
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#801

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Inventor of e-mail honored by Smithsonian

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Inventor of e-mail honored by Smithsonian
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Tue, 06 Mar 2012 11:32:58 -0500
Peter Flass <Peter_Flass@Yahoo.com> writes:
Is this code around anywhere?

re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#24 Inventor of e-mail honored by Smithsonian
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#27 Inventor of e-mail honored by Smithsonian

i just have bits and pieces ... try contacting mike and ask him ... he is still active in number of things ... i saw him on the west coast last fall.

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Inventor of e-mail honored by Smithsonian

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Inventor of e-mail honored by Smithsonian
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Tue, 06 Mar 2012 12:47:56 -0500
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#24 Inventor of e-mail honored by Smithsonian
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#27 Inventor of e-mail honored by Smithsonian
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#29 Inventor of e-mail honored by Smithsonian

the spacewar client and server were writtin in (mainframe) pli ... I have some version of the client MFF2 PLI (but not the assembler subroutines and/or the server), i can email? ... contact Mike to see if he has more

Note that the MFF client attempted to use the 3270 in full-duplex mode ... updating screen and accepting keystrokes asynchronously ... however the 3270 was actually a half-duplex device ... having a bad habit of locking the keyboard, if you hit any key at the moment the screen was being updated ... and then have to stop and hit the keyboard reset key.

The 3272-controller/3277-terminal pair had much of the electronics in the terminal ... and it was possible to do local hacks. One was a small fifo box ... unplug the keyboard from the head, plug in the fifo box and plug the keyboard into fifo box (some amount of physical engineering since the space inside the terminal was cramped). The fifo box would sense if the screen was being updated and queue any keystrokes ... avoiding the keyboard lock and somewhat simulating full-duplex operation.

The 3274-controller and later 327x terminals moved a lot of the terminal electronics back into the shared controller ... eliminating the terminal hacks ... and also degrading terminal response and performance. recent posts mentioning the issue:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#19 Writing article on telework/telecommuting
reference old comparisons in this post
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001m.html#19 3270 protocol

I also don't have any of the autonomous players that were done.

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Can SSL Certificate Checking System Be Saved?

From: lynn@garlic.com (Lynn Wheeler)
Date: 6 Mar, 2012
Subject: Can SSL Certificate Checking System Be Saved?
Blog: Google+
re:
https://plus.google.com/u/0/102794881687002297268/posts/XRNeAVXsu8K
and
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#26

One of the issues that I observed was that the "certificate" model has businesses (certification authorities) making money off the certificates ... most of the other, more efficient model ... lack a champion that sees revenue stream and significant profit. At one point in the late 90s, the CA industry was circulating business plans on wall street showing $20B/annum revenue; $100/person/year.

We had been brought in to help wordsmith the cal. electronic signature legislation ... and the CA industry was heavily lobbying that the legislation mandate digital certificates ... which never happened. some past posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subpubkey.html#signature

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

PC industry is heading for more change

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From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: PC industry is heading for more change
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Tue, 06 Mar 2012 16:10:01 -0500
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#25 PC industry is heading for more change

Lords of Finance: The Bankers Who Broke the World
http://www.amazon.com/Lords-Finance-Bankers-Broke-ebook/dp/B001QIGZEK
pg.323 (refering to Federal Reserve):
It did in fact succeed in curbing the amount of money going into brokers' loans from banks—between early 1928, when the Board first declared war on brokers' loans, and October 1929, banks cut their loans to brokers from $2.6 billion to $1.9 billion. Meanwhile, other sources of credit—U.S. corporations with excess cash, British stockbrokers, European bankers flush with liquidity, even some Oriental potentates—more than made up for the decline by increasing their funding of brokers' loans from $1.8 billion to $6.6 billion.

... snip ...

reference to $27T in triple-A rated toxic CDOs:

Evil Wall Street Exports Boomed With 'Fools' Born to Buy Debt
http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=newsarchive&refer=home&sid=a0jln3.CSS6c

I've in the past mentioned being asked to HTML'ize Percora Hearings along with href/links between last time and this time .... CDOs this time being equivalent to Brokers' Loans the last time ... and Federal Reserve interest rate controls having similar lack of influence ... because of influx of monery from other sources. And the money from the triple-A rated toxic CDOs being used to fuel the real-estate mortgage market speculation (instead of the stock market).

from Percora Hearings:

BROKERS' LOANS AND INDUSTRIAL DEPRESSION

For the purpose of making it perfectly clear that the present industrial depression was due to the inflation of credit on brokers' loans, as obtained from the Bureau of Research of the Federal Reserve Board, the figures show that the inflation of credit for speculative purposes on stock exchanges were responsible directly for a rise in the average of quotations of the stocks from sixty in 1922 to 225 in 1929 to 35 in 1932 and that the change in the value of such Stocks listed on the New York Stock Exchange went through the same identical changes in almost identical percentages.


... snip ...

past posts mentioning Pecora Hearings and
Brokers' Loans:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009d.html#0 PNC Financial to pay CEO $3 million stock bonus
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009d.html#28 I need insight on the Stock Market
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009d.html#62 Is Wall Street World's Largest Ponzi Scheme where Madoff is Just a Poster Child?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009d.html#73 Should Glass-Steagall be reinstated?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009d.html#77 Who first mentioned Credit Crunch?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009e.html#8 The background reasons of Credit Crunch
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009e.html#23 Should FDIC or the Federal Reserve Bank have the authority to shut down and take over non-bank financial institutions like AIG?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009e.html#40 Architectural Diversity
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009f.html#27 US banking Changes- TARP Proposl
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009f.html#38 On whom or what would you place the blame for the sub-prime crisis?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009f.html#49 Is the current downturn cyclic or systemic?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009f.html#53 What every taxpayer should know about what caused the current Financial Crisis
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009f.html#56 What's your personal confidence level concerning financial market recovery?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009f.html#65 Just posted third article about toxic assets in a series on the current financial crisis
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009g.html#5 Do the current Banking Results in the US hide a grim truth?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009g.html#52 Future of Financial Mathematics?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009h.html#22 China's yuan 'set to usurp US dollar' as world's reserve currency
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009h.html#25 The Paradox of Economic Recovery
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009h.html#29 Analysing risk, especially credit risk in Banks, which was a major reason for the current crisis
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009i.html#40 64 Cores -- IBM is showing a prototype already
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009i.html#57 In the USA "financial regulator seeks power to curb excess speculation."
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009j.html#35 what is mortgage-backed securities?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009n.html#47 Opinions on the 'Unix Haters' Handbook'
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009o.html#23 Opinions on the 'Unix Haters' Handbook'
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010l.html#38 Who is Really to Blame for the Financial Crisis?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010l.html#53 Who is Really to Blame for the Financial Crisis?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010l.html#69 Who is Really to Blame for the Financial Crisis?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010p.html#7 What banking is. (Essential for predicting the end of finance as we know it.)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010p.html#17 What banking is. (Essential for predicting the end of finance as we know it.)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011.html#49 What do you think about fraud prevention in the governments?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011b.html#27 The Zippo Lighter theory of the financial crisis (or, who do we want to blame?)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011b.html#43 Productivity And Bubbles
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011d.html#23 The first personal computer (PC)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011e.html#36 On Protectionism
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011g.html#55 Mobius Says Financial Crisis 'Around the Corner'
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011g.html#71 Pressing Obama, House Bars Rise for Debt Ceiling
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011h.html#5 Home prices may drop another 25%, Shiller predicts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011h.html#24 US Housing Crisis Is Now Worse Than Great Depression
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011j.html#44 S&P Downgrades USA; Time to Downgrade S&P?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011n.html#52 The men who crashed the world
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011n.html#82 The men who crashed the world
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011o.html#36 Civilization, doomed?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011p.html#88 Fed Report Finds Speculators Played Big Role in Housing Collapse
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011p.html#93 World faces 1930-type Depression
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#52 PC industry is heading for more change

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

TINC?

Refed: **, - **, - **
From: lynn@GARLIC.COM (Anne & Lynn Wheeler)
Subject: Re: TINC?
Newsgroups: bit.listserv.ibm-main
Date: 6 Mar 2012 16:51:01 -0800
edgould1948@COMCAST.NET (Ed Gould) writes:
We used to run MFT and everyday we changed the partition sizes without an IPL. Now if you are saying to change from MFT to MVT then indeed an IPL was needed, as well PCP to MFT (or for that matter MVT)?

The OS is the "key" issue and indeed VM you can "ipl" an OS and it probably does not require an IPL(machine wise) a virtual machine needs to be brought in .

Maybe I am missing some distinction here.


recent post about vm370 handshaking being done at univ. for MVT
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#16 5 Byte Device Addresses?

vm370 has function to save an virtual memory image from virtual machine and then restore it using IPL command (using ipl-by-name function) .... sort like checkpoint/restart ... but for system. they identified place in MVT where everything was quiesced and could jump back in ... provided for hot-restart significantly cutting MVT IPL elapsed time startup.

note that one of the customers that had been sold 360/67 was boeing huntsville to run tss/360 ... tss/360 was never fully realize ... and many customers ran machine as 360/65 with os/360. boeing huntsville had 360/67 two-processor multiprocessor configurated to run as two independent single processor processors ... with MVT supporting several 2250M1s and long-running graphic applications. The problem was that MVT had a horrible storage fragmentation with long running applications. As a result, Boeing Hunstsville had modified release 13 MVT to run in virtual memory mode but w/o paging. The virtual memory hardware was used to re-order storage addresses as compensation for significant MVT storage fragmentation associated with long running applications.

This is similar ... but different to the justification for adding virtual memory as standard to all 370s ... and move from MVT to SVS ... discussed in this past post:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011d.html#73 Multiple Virtual Mmeory

.... part of quote in above:
Evans around. For reasons unknown to me, the TSO group had the flip charts and wallboard zzzzz used. The clincher was the ability to run 16 initiators simultaneously on a 1 megabyte system, taking advantage of the fact that MVT normally used only 25% of the memory in a partition. The resulting throughput gain (compared to real hardware) was substantial enough to convince Bob. It helped that Tom Simpson and Bob Crabtree had hosted an MFT II system TSS-Style and shown similar performance gains. Of course, since CP67 was a pickup group they weren't considered and we had the OS/VS adventure instead.

... snip ...

Simpson and Crabtree had done HASP ... and then Simpson went on to do modified MFT-II implementation using TSS-Style paged-mapped filesystem paradigm called RASP (significant performance advantage over the approach taken by SVS&MVS preseving the OS/360 disk paradigm).

This wasn't picked up and Simpson left for Amdahl where he there was "clean-room" do-over. There was legal action about theft of code (even tho there was no intention of ever using RASP) ... and the resulting court audits only found a couple accidental incidents examples of identical code. a couple old email mentioning RASP do-over:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011e.html#email810408
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011e.html#email820907
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011e.html#email870302

a few past posts mentioning RASP:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000f.html#68 TSS ancient history, was X86 ultimate CISC? designs)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000f.html#69 TSS ancient history, was X86 ultimate CISC? designs)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000f.html#70 TSS ancient history, was X86 ultimate CISC? designs)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001b.html#73 7090 vs. 7094 etc.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002g.html#0 Blade architectures
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002i.html#63 Hercules and System/390 - do we need it?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002j.html#75 30th b'day
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002q.html#31 Collating on the S/360-2540 card reader?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003e.html#65 801 (was Re: Reviving Multics
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005p.html#44 hasp, jes, rasp, aspen, gold
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006f.html#19 Over my head in a JES exit
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006w.html#24 IBM sues maker of Intel-based Mainframe clones
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006w.html#28 IBM sues maker of Intel-based Mainframe clones
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007m.html#69 Operating systems are old and busted
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010i.html#44 someone smarter than Dave Cutler
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010o.html#0 Hashing for DISTINCT or GROUP BY in SQL
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010p.html#42 Which non-IBM software products (from ISVs) have been most significant to the mainframe's success?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011.html#85 Two terrific writers .. are going to write a book
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011e.html#26 Multiple Virtual Memory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011e.html#47 junking CKD; was "Social Security Confronts IT Obsolescence"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#67 Has anyone successfully migrated off mainframes?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#69 Has anyone successfully migrated off mainframes?

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Gordon Gekko Says

Refed: **, - **, - **
From: lynn@garlic.com (Lynn Wheeler)
Date: 6 Mar, 2012
Subject: Gordon Gekko Says
Blog: Financial Crime Risk, Fraud and Security
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#12 Gordon Gekko Says

Stanford Convicted of Defrauding Investors
http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2012-03-06/stanford-is-found-guilty-on-13-of-14-counts-in-7-billion-investment-fraud.html

more in the long litany of inaction by regulators and SEC specifically, not doing anything last decade.

Chilling Dissent on Wall Street
http://www.thenation.com/article/166621/chilling-dissent-wall-street
Eyal Press, Chilling Dissent on Wall Street
http://www.tomdispatch.com/archive/175512/

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Layer 8: NASA unplugs last mainframe

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From: lynn@garlic.com (Lynn Wheeler)
Date: 7 Mar, 2012
Subject: Layer 8: NASA unplugs last mainframe
Blog: Mainframe Experts
re:
http://lnkd.in/djmeWv

I have several posts in similar thread (NASA unplugs their last mainframe) in MainframeZone ...
http://lnkd.in/Uz6-ck
... that have a lot of other URLs.

fully configured 80 processor z196 is $28M and rated at 50BIPS (configurations range from $1m-$28m)
http://www.foxnews.com/tech/2010/09/01/ibm-unveils-worlds-fastest-microprocessor/

by comparison this rated intel i7 3690x @3.3ghz at 178BIPS ... the equivalent $103M worth of z196.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Instructions_per_second

references this for 3690x ... which also includes benchmark of 3690x overclocked to 4.8ghz
http://hardocp.com/article/2011/11/14/intel_core_i73960x_sandy_bridge_e_processor_review/4

i've claimed that numerous of the mega-datacenters, individually have more processing power than the aggregate of all currently installed mainframes in the world.

many of the mega-datacenters are doing white-box blades ... basically their own assembly line for massive compute processing ... close to cost of the components. Some of the early activity along this line was started in the 90s at some gov. datacenters ... including nasa locations.

intel i7 3690x chip goes for $1000
http://ark.intel.com/products/63696/Intel-Core-i7-3960X-Processor-Extreme-Edition-%2815M-Cache-3_30-GHz%29

say <$3k per blade for compute processing of $100m worth of z196? ... even if the blades were $10k ... that would still be 10,000 times the z196 price/performance for numerical intensive.

part of the issue in the MainframeZone thread is NASA needing lots of numerical intensive work

archived posts in the MainframeZone thread
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#2 NASA unplugs their last mainframe
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#6 NASA unplugs their last mainframe
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#28 NASA unplugs their last mainframe

Latest round of commodity chips

Intel Xeon E5: Server Chips With Virtualization Secrets
http://www.informationweek.com/news/infrastructure/management/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=210605082
Intel Xeon E5 Processors Hit the Streets
http://www.pcworld.com/article/251421/intel_xeon_e5_processors_hit_the_streets.html

whole variety at different clock speeds but makes mention of 80% better performance

in one of the other threads there was some comment about CISC vs RISC being played out ... but nearly all the new chips are actually RISC ... with hardware layer translating CISC instructions into RISC micro-ops for actual execution ... which presumably has contributed to increasing computational performance of the latest CISC processors. recent reference
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#59

post in long running thread in (linkedin, closed) Greater IBM (current/former employees)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#57

with some discussion of Gerstner & his coming in to resurrect IBM. Gerstner's "resurrection of IBM" is also discussed in Strategic Intuition
http://www.amazon.com/Strategic-Intuition-Creative-Achievement-Publishing-ebook/dp/B0097D773O/

that has section that somewhat juxtapositions Microsoft, Google, Apple, and Gerstner's resurrection of IBM

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

McCain calls for U.S.-led airstrikes in Syria

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From: lynn@garlic.com (Lynn Wheeler)
Date: 7 Mar, 2012
Subject: McCain calls for U.S.-led airstrikes in Syria
Blog: Facebook
McCain calls for U.S.-led airstrikes in Syria
http://news.yahoo.com/blogs/ticket/mccain-calls-u-led-airstrikes-syria-203424110.html

In the 90s, lots of humint were turfed (excuse was that technology and electronics could do the job), Lots showed up in silicon valley applying for internet security jobs. The explanation was holding line on budget neutral ... cost of the balkans was offset by budget cuts elsewhere. By comparison, this has increase $2+T over baseline in the last decade $1+T for the war and the other $$trillion$$ unaccounted for:
http://www.cdi.org/program/document.cfm?documentid=4623
this has CBO showing last decade $6T decrease in revenues coupled with aggregate $6T increase in spending:
http://www.amazon.com/Benefit-Burden-ebook/dp/B005LJEVDM

but last decade it became the growing Success of Failure culture ... roared past billions and moved up to to trillions
http://www.govexec.com/management/management-matters/2007/04/the-success-of-failure/24107/
and
http://www.nextgov.com/nextgov/ng_20080220_1637.php

... coupled with expiring financial responsibility act the end of 2002, congress started going wild (starting with Medicare Part-D early 2003). Head of GAO, comptroller general then would include in talks that nobody in congress knew how to do middle school arithmetic ... with regard to the enormously growing gap between revenues and spending.

wasn't limited to budget matters ... but also creating and promoting many of the conditions for the economic bubble/crash ... would have periodic references to Congress as Kabuki Theater 1603-1629
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kabuki

but the big beltway bandits would milk it further by failing ... and then have a sequence of enormously bloated failing efforts ... with the beltway bandits skimmed it off ... across the whole intelligence community and DOD. Increasingly things being outsource ... having their own employees was viewed as leaving money on the table that wasn't going to beltway bandits.

disclaimer ... The Winds of Reform:
http://web.archive.org/web/20070320170523/http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,953733,00.htm
... was 7Mar1983 article that led to me sponsoring Col. Boyd's briefings at IBM ... do little inflation adjustment of some of the numbers and could almost be one of Spinney's current articles.

Recently there was some assistant to Ike that claimed he was originally going to say Military-Industrial-Congressional Complex (MICC) but shortened it at the last minute .... MICC is the term that Spinney (and some number of others) have taken to using ...... and talking about "perpetual conflict" as business strategy

steele
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_David_Steele

use to complain about my disrupting his presentations with boyd references, now he frequently references spinney
http://www.phibetaiota.net/tag/spinney/

i've "coined" financial-regulatory-congressional complex (FRCC) which makes the MICC look like pikers. then there is pharmaceutical-regulatory-congressional complex (PRCC)

misc. URLs & past posts referencing Boyd
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subboyd.html

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

IBM cuts more than 1,000 U.S. Workers

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From: lynn@garlic.com (Lynn Wheeler)
Date: 7 Mar, 2012
Subject: IBM cuts more than 1,000 U.S. Workers
Blog: Greater IBM
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#16 IBM cuts more than 1,000 U.S. Workers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#23 IBM cuts more than 1,000 U.S. Workers

Early 80s, the corporation included 3270 terminals as part of annual budget process ... being treated as scarce resource ... and many parts of the business restricting them to terminal rooms (and requiring VP signoff for person to have 3270 on their desk). Then there was period where there was rapid spreading rumor that a certain senior executive was doing email ... which had domino effect that other senior executives had to do email ... propagating down into upper reaches of middle management. This had effect of the executives and middle-management preempting the 3270 terminal allocation for their desks ... however for majority of the cases ... the 3270 terminal on executive desk was purely for show ... with some assistant actually handling the email. This eventually led to jokes about PROFS menu burned into screen of executives trying to demonstrate they did email ... i.e. logon in the morning and the 3270 sat the whole day doing nothing but the PROFS menu being solidly burned into the screen.

I did a business case showing that 3year amortized monthly 3270 cost was less than the cost of business phone that sat on every employee's desk as matter of course ... and why was vp sign-off required on such a trivial cost item.

This could be seen later ... where managers would preempt brand-new 486 PS2-80 with "large" 8514 screens ... needed for departmental projects ... for their desk ornament ... still being only used for burning PROFS menu into the screen.

from IBM Jargon:

PROFS - profs n. Professional Office System. A menu-based system that provides support for office personnel such as White House staff, using IBM mainframes. Acclaimed for its diary mechanisms, and accepted as one way to introduce computers to those who don't know any better. Not acclaimed for its flexibility. PROFS featured in the international news in 1987, and revealed a subtle class distinction within the ranks of the Republican Administration in the USA. It seems that Hall, the secretary interviewed at length during the Iran-Contra hearings, called certain shredded documents PROFS notes as do IBMers who use the system. However, North, MacFarlane, and other professional staff used the term PROF notes. v. To send a piece of electronic mail, using PROFS. PROFS me a one-liner on that. A PROFS one-liner has up to one line of content, and from seven to seventeen lines of boiler plate. VNET

... snip ...

a couple recent posts in inventor of email threads:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#17 .
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#21 .
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#24

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Invention of Email

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From: lynn@garlic.com (Lynn Wheeler)
Date: 7 Mar, 2012
Subject: Invention of Email
Blog: IBM Historic Computing
here have been a number of threads recently regarding the "invention of email" ... some in a.f.c. newsgroups ... a couple urls with pieces archived
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#17
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#24
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#27
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#30

and some snippet

discontinued 6Oct2003
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM_OfficeVision

cp67 had messaging between users on same machine. Pisa science center modified cp67 to allow software to messages going to user terminal (this also allowed for application to application messaging). This was ported to vm370 internally ... and I included it in my spring 1975 csc/vm distribution that went out to large number of internal datacenters.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006w.html#email750430

this later email has more detailed discussion of SPM (including being superset of various generations & combinations of VMCF & IUCV)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006k.html#email851017

slight correction since I obviously got earlier version than 12Aug1975 for my spring 1975 csc/vm distribution

this post includes portion of old SPM document
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006w.html#16 intersection between autolog command and cmsback (more history)

RSCS was able to use SPM (intercept messages going to terminal) and forward them over the network to users on different machines.

some past posts mentioning internal network
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#internalnet
bitnet univ. network used similar technology to internal network, some past posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#bitnet
bitnet wiki
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BITNET

The author of REXX used it to implement a multi-user spacewar game ... where it was used to communicate between spacewar clients and the spacewar server ... it was able to leverage the RSCS support to provide for spacewar clients both on the same machine and/or different machines on the internal network. The original spacewar client started out as application that displayed all user status on 3270 screen and took commands from keyboard. Fairly early there were automated players written (sort of early version of automnomous drones) that would beat human players. The spaceware server was then modified to increase user energy use non-linearly as interval between commands dropped below human expected threshold ... attempt to somewhat level the playing field.

Note that the "first" multi-user game mentioned in the BITNET wiki was years after the internal multi-user spacewar game.

I also included my "autolog" command in the spring 75 csc/vm ... I had originally developed for automated benchmarking ... being able to start synthetic workload scripts to do large different kinds of loads.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#benchmark

This was quickly adopted for also automated bringup of service virtual machines (original version of whats currently called virtual appliance) ... complementing service virtual machines to "accept" commands & control via SPM.

I had also been blamed for online computer conferencing on the internal network in the late 70s and early 80s (folklore is that when the executive committee was informed of online computer conferencing and the internal network ... 5of6 wanted to fire me). Somewhat as a result, a researcher was paid to sit in my office for nine months and take notes on how I communicated (they also went with me to meetings). They also got copies of all my incoming and outgoing email and logs of all instant messages. The result was research report, a Stanford PHD thesis (joint between language and computer AI), and material for some number of papers and books. misc. past posts mentioning computer mediated converstation
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#cmc

another (spacewar) old/past post
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010d.html#74

another snippet from MFF PLI:

DCL LINE23 CHAR(80) STATIC INIT ( 'PF7=DOCK/UNDOCK, PF9=FIRE, PF10=WARP, PF11=SHIELD, PF12=HYPERSPACE, PA2=COMMAND.');

the spacewar client and server were writtin in (mainframe) pli ... I have some version of the client MFF2 PLI (but not the assembler subroutines and/or the server), i can email? ... contact Mike to see if he has more

Note that the MFF client attempted to use the 3270 in full-duplex mode ... updating screen and accepting keystrokes asynchronously ... however the 3270 was actually a half-duplex device ... having a bad habit of locking the keyboard, if you hit any key at the moment the screen was being updated ... and then have to stop and hit the keyboard reset key.

The 3272-controller/3277-terminal pair had much of the electronics in the terminal ... and it was possible to do local hacks. One was a small fifo box ... unplug the keyboard from the head, plug in the fifo box and plug the keyboard into fifo box (some amount of physical engineering since the space inside the terminal was cramped). The fifo box would sense if the screen was being updated and queue any keystrokes ... avoiding the keyboard lock and somewhat simulating full-duplex operation.

The 3274-controller and later 327x terminals moved a lot of the terminal electronics back into the shared controller ... eliminating the terminal hacks ... and also degrading terminal response and performance. recent posts mentioning the issue:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#19
reference old comparisons in this post
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001m.html#19

I also don't have any of the autonomous players that were done. ...

not apl, there was adventure
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colossal_Cave_Adventure

fortran on pdp10 ... tymshare got copy at stanford and brought it over to their pdp10 and somebody at tymshare ported to their vm370. I was in the process of getting copy from tymshare when I got a copy over the internal network from location in europe.

I made executable available internal and if somebody got all points, i would send them a copy of the source.

tymshare
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tymshare

made their cms-based online computer conferencing available for free to SHARE as vmshare in aug76 ... archive here:
http://vm.marist.edu/~vmshare

some old adventure email
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008s.html#email780321 .
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006y.html#email780405 .
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006y.html#email780405b .
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007m.html#email780414 .
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007m.html#email780517 .
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007o.html#email790912

The PDP1 space-war at MIT
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spacewar!

was completely different from the multi-user spacewar done by the author of rexx for 3270s.

The IBM Cambridge Science Center was formed 1Feb1964 at 545 tech sq
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech

some of the mit CTSS people went to project mac on the 5th flr of 545 tech sq and some of the people went to the science center on the 4th flr of 545 tech sq.

The science center at 360/40 (with special virtual memory hardware) to do initial version of virtual machines ... cp40 ... reference ... presentation on cp40 done at 1982 SEAS
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/cp40seas1982.txt

and also a 2250-M4 ... basically 2250 with 1130 computers (2250-M1 was 360 channel attached version ... a M1 and M4 were about the same cost ... M4 1130 being used instead of expensive M1 controller and channel interface).
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM_2250
and
http://www.bitsavers.org/pdf/ibm/2250/A27-2723-0_2250mod4Descr.pdf

The PDP1 spacewar was ported to the 1130/2250 at the science center. The 2250 keyboard was split in the middle with two players using keys on their half of the keyboard to for operations.

The spacewar done by author of REXX had clients running in CMS virtual machines communicating with the server via SPM ... and could leverage RSCS forwarded SPM to different machines ... resulted in spacewar clients being able to run on different real machines than the spacewar server.

Later when 360/67 (360/65 with virtual memory hardware standard) become available the 360/40 was replaced with 360/67 and cp40 morphs into cp67.

I joined the science center in Feb. 1970 ... and would sometimes bring kids in on weekends and they would play spacewar on 1130/2250.

Note that in the early 70s, took a version of apl360 and ported it to cp67/cms for cmsapl. All the monitor & multi-tasking in apl360 could be completely eliminated and the storage management had to be redone for virtual memory environment ... aka apl360 completely swapped 16kbyte workspaces ... the apl360 strategy for constantly touching every available workspace address wasn't painful in apl360 ... but caused enormous problems with virtual machine sized workspaces running in a demand page virtual memory environment.

An API was also done for cmsapl that allowed access to CMS system services ... this caused lots of push back from APL purists as violating APL. However, the combination of really large workspace sizes and system services API ... opened APL to real world applications.

Science center would also run their CP67 for external access (students/staffs at educational locations around cambridge) as well as other corporate locations. One early big user of cmsapl was the business people in Armonk ... that loaded the most valuable of corporate assets on the cambridge system (extensive detail customer information) and used cmsapl for business modeling. It did require some amount of security to make sure non-authorized people (including non-employees and area students) had access to the most valuable IBM corporate assets. --
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Fannie and Freddie must go - here's how

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From: lynn@garlic.com (Lynn Wheeler)
Date: 7 Mar, 2012
Subject: Fannie and Freddie must go - here's how
Blog: Google+
re:
https://plus.google.com/u/0/116060095457534579153/posts/Gxz7tAAjFgX

Fannie and Freddie must go - here's how
http://money.cnn.com/2011/12/19/news/fannie_freddie/index.htm

Note that Buffett was largest Freddie shareholder in 2000/2001 and got completely out claiming it was because of their accounting practices. This has been brought up more recently about both Freddie&Fannie ... but it has been going on for a at least a decade. Freddie/Fannie may be something at scapegoat ... GAO apparently thinking SEC wasn't doing anything and doing reports of public company fraudulent financial filings ... even showing uptic after sarbanes-oxley (hundreds if not thousands). Possibly unique to Freddie/Fannie ... CBS news had a report a few years ago that they had more people on retainer (mostly former members of congress and their staffers) than they had employees ... but didn't seem to uniquely differentiate them from others highlighted in GAO reports
http://www.gao.gov/special.pubs/gao-06-1079sp//

misc. past posts mentioning Buffett, Fannie &/or Freddie,
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007s.html#25 Translation of IBM Basic Assembler to C?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008e.html#59 independent appraisers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008g.html#66 independent appraisers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008j.html#20 dollar coins
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008k.html#1 dollar coins
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008k.html#9 dollar coins
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008k.html#19 dollar coins
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008k.html#44 SEC bans illegal activity then permits it
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008k.html#71 Cormpany sponsored insurance
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008m.html#17 Fraud due to stupid failure to test for negative
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008m.html#75 Fraud due to stupid failure to test for negative
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008m.html#76 When risks go south: FM&FM to be nationalized
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008m.html#77 Fraud due to stupid failure to test for negative
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008m.html#78 When risks go south: FM&FM to be nationalized
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008m.html#80 Fraud due to stupid failure to test for negative
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008m.html#83 Fraud due to stupid failure to test for negative
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008m.html#85 Fraud due to stupid failure to test for negative
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008m.html#86 WSJ finds someone to blame.... be skeptical, and tell the WSJ to grow up
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008m.html#87 Fraud due to stupid failure to test for negative
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008m.html#92 Blinkylights
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008n.html#0 Blinkylights
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008n.html#2 Blinkylights
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008n.html#10 Blinkylights
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008n.html#28 Blinkylights
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008n.html#37 Success has many fathers, but failure has the US taxpayer
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008n.html#53 Your thoughts on the following comprehensive bailout plan please
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008n.html#56 VMware Chief Says the OS Is History
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008n.html#69 Another quiet week in finance
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008n.html#72 Why was Sarbanes-Oxley not good enough to sent alarms to the regulators about the situation arising today?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008n.html#74 Why can't we analyze the risks involved in mortgage-backed securities?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008n.html#78 Isn't it the Federal Reserve role to oversee the banking system??
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008n.html#80 Why did Sox not prevent this financal crises?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008n.html#82 Fraud in financial institution
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008o.html#15 Financial Crisis - the result of uncontrolled Innovation?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008o.html#26 SOX (Sarbanes-Oxley Act), is this really followed and worthful considering current Financial Crisis?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008o.html#28 Does anyone get the idea that those responsible for containing this finanical crisis are doing too much?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008o.html#43 The human plague
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008o.html#75 In light of the recent financial crisis, did Sarbanes-Oxley fail to work?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008p.html#8 Global Melt Down
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008p.html#9 Do you believe a global financial regulation is possible?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008r.html#61 The vanishing CEO bonus
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008s.html#5 Greed - If greed was the cause of the global meltdown then why does the biz community appoint those who so easily succumb to its temptations?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008s.html#9 Blind-sided, again. Why?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008s.html#24 Garbage in, garbage out trampled by Moore's law
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008s.html#41 Executive pay: time for a trim?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008s.html#70 Garbage in, garbage out trampled by Moore's law
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009.html#73 CROOKS and NANNIES: what would Boyd do?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009.html#80 Are reckless risks a natural fallout of "excessive" executive compensation ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009b.html#25 The recently revealed excesses of John Thain, the former CEO of Merrill Lynch, while the firm was receiving $25 Billion in TARP funds makes me sick
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009b.html#80 How to defeat new telemarketing tactic
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009c.html#29 How to defeat new telemarketing tactic
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009e.html#8 The background reasons of Credit Crunch
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009o.html#38 U.S. house decommissions its last mainframe, saves $730,000
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009p.html#2 Opinions on the 'Unix Haters' Handbook
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009p.html#3 Opinions on the 'Unix Haters' Handbook
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010b.html#81 Happy DEC-10 Day
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010b.html#84 Happy DEC-10 Day
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010f.html#81 The 2010 Census
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010h.html#27 In the News: SEC storms the 'Castle'
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010j.html#12 Warren Buffett faces hearing over ratings agencies
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010k.html#6 taking down the machine - z9 series
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010k.html#29 Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010l.html#53 Who is Really to Blame for the Financial Crisis?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010n.html#32 Idiotic programming style edicts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010n.html#33 Idiotic programming style edicts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010n.html#35 Idiotic programming style edicts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010n.html#40 Idiotic programming style edicts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010p.html#17 What banking is. (Essential for predicting the end of finance as we know it.)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010p.html#69 Moody's hints at move that could be catastrophic for US debt
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010q.html#40 Ernst & Young sued for fraud over Lehman
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011b.html#42 Productivity And Bubbles
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011b.html#43 Productivity And Bubbles
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011b.html#45 Productivity And Bubbles
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011c.html#46 If IBM Hadn't Bet the Company
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011d.html#25 The first personal computer (PC)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011d.html#30 The first personal computer (PC)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011h.html#24 US Housing Crisis Is Now Worse Than Great Depression
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011i.html#2 'Megalomania, Insanity' Fueled Bubble: Munger
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011i.html#16 'Megalomania, Insanity' Fueled Bubble: Munger
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011j.html#24 rating agencies
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011j.html#44 S&P Downgrades USA; Time to Downgrade S&P?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011k.html#18 What Uncle Warren doesn't mention
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011k.html#46 Sand in Machine Makes a Stable Market
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011k.html#56 50th anniversary of BASIC, COBOL?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011l.html#68 computer bootlaces
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011l.html#69 computer bootlaces
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011n.html#57 The Mortgage Crisis---Some Inside Views
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011n.html#79 The men who crashed the world
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011o.html#37 Civilization, doomed?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011o.html#38 Civilization, doomed?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011o.html#60 Civilization, doomed?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011p.html#28 The men who crashed the world
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011p.html#41 The men who crashed the world
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011p.html#92 Bank Failures Cost $88 Billion
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#21 Zombie Banks
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#72 Chris Dodd's SOPA crusading
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012b.html#19 "Buffett Tax" and truth in numbers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012b.html#53 Can America Lead the World's Fight Against Corruption?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012b.html#54 The New Age Bounty Hunger -- Showdown at the SEC Corral
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012b.html#65 Why Wall Street Should Stop Whining
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012b.html#87 The Benefit and The Burden
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012b.html#90 IBM Doing Some Restructuring?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#2 Occupy the SEC (Securities & Exchange Commission)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#5 Too big not to fail
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#13 Study links ultrafast machine trading with risk of crash
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#19 Occupy the SEC Pitches An Extreme Makeover of Wall Street
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#30 US real-estate has lost $7T in value
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#45 Fannie, Freddie Charge Taxpayers For Legal Bills
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#46 PC industry is heading for more change
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#48 PC industry is heading for more change
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#54 PC industry is heading for more change
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#55 PC industry is heading for more change
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#62 Why Is Finance So Big?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#10 PC industry is heading for more change
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#11 PC industry is heading for more change
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#12 Gordon Gekko Says
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#13 PC industry is heading for more change

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Strategy subsumes culture

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From: lynn@garlic.com (Lynn Wheeler)
Date: 8 Mar, 2012
Subject: Strategy subsumes culture
Blog: Boyd Strategy
re:
http://lnkd.in/wkmFbf
and
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012b.html#26 Strategy subsumes culture
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012b.html#42 Strategy subsumes culture
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#14 Strategy subsumes culture
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#18 Strategy subsumes culture

from recent news

Stumped by a Problem? This Technique Unsticks You
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/03/120307112749.htm

also references

Creativity: Anyone Can Learn to Be More Inventive, Expert Says
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/02/120209172603.htm

long-winded thread in Greater IBM (closed group) that started with recent layoffs, but wondered into number of areas, pieces archived here:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#16 .
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#23 .
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#37

the most recent has description of much of IBM middle management in the 80s having chosen "To Be" (in Boyd's To Be or To Do choice) with regard to terminals as a status symbol and desk ornament (even preempting them when needed for productive work; in the period there were also references to executives, where their dominant activity was managing their careers). Other parts of the thread talks about much of the company apparently heading blindly to the early 90s & going into the red. One of the snippets from the last entry:

During HA/CMP days ... my wife would periodically remind corporate executives that I had never been wrong ... it wasn't strictly true ... but sufficiently that they were constantly motivated to want to do the exact opposite of anything that I would recommend.

... snip ...

there were several things that contributed to our taking early-out offer in 92 ... and I've commented a number of times in the executive exit interview I was told "they could have forgiven you for being wrong but they were never going to forgive you for being right".

some of the "compromise" scenarios involve situations where culture focus on single variable optimization ... and terms "compromise" & "trade-offs" becomes an attempt to describe multi-variable optimization. currently finishing up "Lords of Finance: The Bankers Who Broke the World"
http://www.amazon.com/Lords-Finance-Bankers-Broke-ebook/dp/B001QIGZEK

covers world economy leading up to WW1 through the 30s. talks about extremes of deflation leading to high unemployment, but printing money leads to inflation and wipes out the savers.

pg.268:
It seemed as if, thanks to Moreau, France, of all the European countries, had finally hit upon the right recipe for dealing with the financial legacy of the war, avoiding the two extremes of German-style inflation and British-style deflation

... snip ...

for other drift, pg.167:
The gold standard had only worked in the late nineteenth century because new mining discoveries had fortuitously kept pace with economic growth. There was no guarantee that this accident of history would continue. Moreover, while the original rationale for a gold standard -- the commitment that paper money could be converted into something unequivocally tangible -- might have been necessary to instill confidence at some point in history, this was no longer the case.

... snip ...

Boyd characterized fighter planes with multiple dimensions ... which led to comparing different fighters as a whole, fighter pilot strategy then became operate in parts of the envelope where your fighter had the advantage and avoid areas where your fighter had the disadvantage (developing tactics oriented towards your relative advantages and disadvantages).

this evolved into being used to design fighters ... somewhat holistically ... but sometimes characterized as compromise or trade-offs. fall back to "flatlanders"
http://www.amazon.com/Flatland-romance-dimensions-Edwin-Abbott-ebook/dp/B0083ZRQR4/

where being able to only see/focus piecemeal fails to appreciate the whole.

As undergraduate in the 60s, i did lot of work on dynamic adaptive scheduling algorithms ... including doing implementations that were picked up and shipped in IBM products. Part of it was something I called "scheduling to the bottleneck" ... i.e. dynamic adjusting scheduling weights according to resources that represented resource throughput bottleneck (basically a different kind of multiple dimension characterizing). some past posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#fairsare

When prejudices become a disadvantage
http://www.physorg.com/news/2012-03-prejudices-disadvantage.html

common state-of-the-art of the period focused on single dominant resource for scheduling and resource decisions ... which became institutionalized in various sectors of the industry and would dominate for decades. the issue was that over period of decades, the dominance of different resources as bottleneck would shift as specific technology advances occurred.

15 yrs later, I would point that specific technologies had progressed by a factor of 50 ... while other technologies only advanced by less than five times ... radically shifting the relative merits of different technologies & corresponding resources (but numerous sectors of the industry still clung to single-truth that had evolved in the 60s).

URLs &/or past posts referencing Boyd
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subboyd.html

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Layer 8: NASA unplugs last mainframe

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From: lynn@garlic.com (Lynn Wheeler)
Date: 9 Mar, 2012
Subject: Layer 8: NASA unplugs last mainframe
Blog: Mainframe Experts
re:
http://lnkd.in/djmeWv
and
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#35 Layer 8: NASA unplugs last mainframe

the upthread comment was about NASA being numerical intensive oriented. The upthread reference:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Instructions_per_second

is the "dhrystone" benchmark prorated to the performance of VAX machine from the late 70s as 1MIPS ... as a measure of numerical intensive throughput (aka the measure isn't direct count of the number of instructions but the ratio of the dhrystone benchmark to 1970s VAX machine assumed to be 1MIPS).

The I7-3960x is single socket/chip 8-core (aka processor) doing the benchmark at approx. 4 times the throughput of 80 processor z196 ... or the price/performance for numerical intensive workload is approx. 10,000 times better than the z196 ... regardless of the other specific components of the respective machines and/or what the supposed target market for the components are.

One of the new E5 announcements makes references to 128 "socket" machine ... where a "socket" holds an E5 chip & at 8cores/chip, a 128 "socket" 8-core would be 1024 processor with interconnect needed between sockets/chips. The E5 is possibly only half the numerical intensive thruput of I7-3960x (but starting price at $200/chip in quantities of 1000). Recent reference to Xeon E5 with two 8core sockets/chips
http://www.tomshardware.com/reviews/xeon-e5-2687w-benchmark-review,3149.html
and comparison with i7-3960x
http://www.tomshardware.com/reviews/core-i7-3960x-x79-sandy-bridge-e,3071.html

I've mentioned that the mega-datacenters doing tens of thousands or hundreds of thousands of blades in racks have effectively taken to doing their own manufacturing lines ... producing blades for barely more than their individual component costs (claims are 1/3rd the cost of equivalent brand named blade). These are operations where processing requirements isn't in BIPS, but TIPS (thousand BIPS) and PIPS (million BIPS). One of the things these operations will do is not take the bleeding edge performance component ... but will use chips in the mid-range where overall cost/performance is much better and make it up by having more (but better overall aggregate cost/performance).

Long ago and far away ... they would let me play disk engineer ... misc posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#disk

The disk labs would get the 2nd or 3rd engineering machine for testing with disks. For awhile I had better access to early 4341 for benchmarking than the 4341 performance test group in endicott had ... so would do benchmarks for them. This is (late 70s) reference to doing the Lawrence Livermore National Lab "RAIN" benchmark (precursor to dhrystone) on a number of machines. The 4341 was slightly faster than VAX.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000d.html#0

The 4341 was less expensive, much less physical & environmental requirements, and better performance than 3031. Clusters of 4341 were less expensive, much less physical & environmental requirements and better performance than 3033. At one point the internal politics had the head of POK getting corporate to cut in half the allocation of critical 4341 manufacturing component ... as a way of dealing with the perceived competition. The 4300 significant better price/performance and much reduced physical & environmental requirements also had 4300 machines being deployed out into departmental areas (large corporations ordering hundreds at a time) .. the leading tsunami wave of distributed computing. Old email mentioning 4300
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/lhwemail.html#43xx

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

China's J-20 Stealth Fighter Is Already Doing A Whole Lot More Than Anyone Expected

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From: lynn@garlic.com (Lynn Wheeler)
Date: 9 Mar, 2012
Subject: China's J-20 Stealth Fighter Is Already Doing A Whole Lot More Than Anyone Expected
Blog: Facebook
China's J-20 Stealth Fighter Is Already Doing A Whole Lot More Than Anyone Expected
http://www.businessinsider.com/chinas-j-20-mighty-dragon-fighter-jet-2012-3

China military spending to top $100 billion in 2012, alarming neighbors
http://www.washingtonpost.com/world/china-military-spending-to-top-100-billion-this-year/2012/03/04/gIQAJRnypR_story.html
Chinese J-20 Stealth Fighter Advances
http://www.aviationweek.com/aw/generic/story_channel.jsp?channel=defense&id=news/dti/2012/01/01/DT_01_01_2012_p59-402522.xml

Inside China: Security spending tops defense
http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2012/mar/7/inside-china-security-spending-tops-defense/
also need to factor in the effectiveness of amount spent ... the spreading Success of Failure culture ..
http://www.govexec.com/management/management-matters/2007/04/the-success-of-failure/24107/
and more recent reference
http://www.phibetaiota.net/2012/03/eagle-nsa-whistle-blower-obama-worse-than-bush/

extra MICC $2+T the last decade over the baseline, extra $1T for the wars (strategy of perpetual conflict) and the other $1T went ????
http://www.cdi.org/program/document.cfm?documentid=4623

MICC $2+T last decade above baseline, $100B/annum for perpetual conflict, $100B/annum apparently unaccounted for. Benefit&Burden
http://www.amazon.com/Benefit-Burden-ebook/dp/B005LJEVDM

has CBO showing aggregate revenue shortfall of $6T last decade plus aggregate $6T increase in spending (for $12T budget gap) much of it kicked off immediately after congress allowed the fiscal responsibility act to expire in 2002 (baseline had surpluses retiring *ALL* federal debt by 2010). That $12T plus the $27T in triple-A rated toxic CDOs
Evil Wall Street Exports Boomed With 'Fools' Born to Buy Debt
http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=newsarchive&refer=home&sid=a0jln3.CSS6c

is nearly $40T that seems to have went somewhere the last decade.

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Layer 8: NASA unplugs last mainframe

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From: lynn@garlic.com (Lynn Wheeler)
Date: 10 Mar, 2012
Subject: Layer 8: NASA unplugs last mainframe
Blog: Mainframe Experts
re:
http://lnkd.in/djmeWv
and
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#35 Layer 8: NASA unplugs last mainframe
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#41 Layer 8: NASA unplugs last mainframe

part of recent long-winded post
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#41
in "Old Geeks" group thread
http://lnkd.in/5iXpFi

that spends quite a bit of time on mainframe communication group and a project I had that I called "HSDT" (high-speed data transport) ... some past posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#hsdt

and then later when we were doing HA/CMP product ... some of it had evolved from days when we working with LLNL on some serial technology that evolves into the fiber-channel standard (FCS) activity (I've mentioned before that later some of the mainframe channel engineers start participating and doing very unnatural things to the standard in order to be able to support FICON). Some past posts mentioning HA/CMP
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#hacmp

a related post regarding ha/cmp and cluster scaleup for commercial applications ... Jan92 meeting in Ellison's conference room (the mainframe DB2 people at the time complained that if it was allowed to continue, it would be a minimum of 5yrs ahead of what they were doing)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/95.html#13

other old email related to cluster scaleup work ... some of it turns out being called in to look at NASA requirements to handle data downlink operating at 100megabits/sec continuously and never loosing any data.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/lhwemail.html#medusa

within possibly hrs of the last email mentioned in the above (29Jan1992) ... the cluster-scaleup was transferred and we were told we couldn't work on anything with more than four processors. Within a couple weeks it was announced as supercomputer for scientific and numerical-intensive "ONLY" ... press item
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001n.html#6000clusters1 17Feb1992
and another press item later than spring
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001n.html#6000clusters2 11May1992

as an aside, one of the efforts that HSDT was involved in was TDMA communication system that included use of transponder on SBS4 ... and so got invited to the bird going up on 41D.

And recent post
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#6
in MainframeZone thread on NASA unplugs their last mainframe
http://lnkd.in/Uz6-ck

that talks about some of the same items ... also discussing my wife had been con'ed into going to POK for a stint in charge of loosely-coupled architecture ... where she developed peer-coupled shared data architecture ... some past posts

http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#shareddata

which, except for IMS hot-standby, saw little uptake until sysplex. The lack of uptake contributed to her not staying long ... that and the ongoing skirmishes with the communication group attempting to force her into using SNA for loosely-couple operation.

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Faster, Better, Cheaper: Why Not Pick All Three?

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From: lynn@garlic.com (Lynn Wheeler)
Date: 10 Mar, 2012
Subject: Faster, Better, Cheaper: Why Not Pick All Three?
Blog: Facebook
Faster, Better, Cheaper: Why Not Pick All Three?
http://www.nationaldefensemagazine.org/archive/2012/April/Pages/Faster,Better,CheaperWhyNotPickAllThree.aspx

I periodically pontificate about KISS can initially take longer that the complexity that is frequently the result of quick&dirty. The primary difference is frequently that KISS actually requires that you really understand what you are doing.

I've claimed that taking a well-written and tested applications and turning them into a service & business-critical software ... can take 4-10 times the original effort ... and actually requires understanding what you are doing (but doesn't necessarily mean more lines-of-code)

on the other hand their baseline may be the pervasive bloat that is part of the Success of Failure culture

past posts mentioning the 4-10 times for business critical software:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/96.html#27 Mainframes & Unix
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/96.html#31 Mainframes & Unix
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/96.html#32 Mainframes & Unix
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/97.html#15 OSes commerical, history
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/98.html#18 Reviving the OS/360 thread (Questions about OS/360)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/98.html#51 Mainframes suck? (was Re: Possibly OT: Disney Computing)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#224 X9.59/AADS announcement at BAI this week
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000e.html#46 Where are they now : Taligent and Pink
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001b.html#25 what is interrupt mask register?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001b.html#60 monterey's place in computing was: Kildall "flying" (was Re: First OS?)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001c.html#16 database (or b-tree) page sizes
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001d.html#56 Pentium 4 Prefetch engine?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001f.html#75 Test and Set (TS) vs Compare and Swap (CS)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001n.html#11 OCO
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001n.html#85 The demise of compaq
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001n.html#91 Buffer overflow
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001n.html#93 Buffer overflow
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002c.html#30 OS Workloads : Interactive etc
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002d.html#14 Mainframers: Take back the light (spotlight, that is)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002l.html#15 Large Banking is the only chance for Mainframe
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002n.html#11 Wanted: the SOUNDS of classic computing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002p.html#6 unix permissions
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003.html#38 Calculating expected reliability for designed system
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003c.html#23 diffence between itanium and alpha
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003g.html#62 IBM says AMD dead in 5yrs ... -- Microsoft Monopoly vs. IBM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003j.html#15 A Dark Day
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003p.html#37 The BASIC Variations
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004b.html#8 Mars Rover Not Responding
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004b.html#48 Automating secure transactions
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004k.html#20 Vintage computers are better than modern crap !
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004l.html#49 "Perfect" or "Provable" security both crypto and non-crypto?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004m.html#51 stop worrying about it offshoring - it's doing fine
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004m.html#56 RISCs too close to hardware?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004p.html#23 Systems software versus applications software definitions
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004p.html#63 Systems software versus applications software definitions
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004p.html#64 Systems software versus applications software definitions
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005.html#18 IBM, UNIVAC/SPERRY, BURROUGHS, and friends. Compare?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005b.html#40 [Lit.] Buffer overruns
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005d.html#42 Thou shalt have no other gods before the ANSI C standard
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005f.html#38 Where should the type information be: in tags and descriptors
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005h.html#16 Today's mainframe--anything to new?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005i.html#42 Development as Configuration
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005k.html#17 More on garbage collection
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005n.html#26 Data communications over telegraph circuits
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005n.html#30 Data communications over telegraph circuits
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005o.html#24 is a computer like an airport?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006h.html#54 Mainframe vs. xSeries
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006n.html#20 The System/360 Model 20 Wasn't As Bad As All That
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006o.html#24 computational model of transactions
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006x.html#18 The Future of CPUs: What's After Multi-Core?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006x.html#19 The Future of CPUs: What's After Multi-Core?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006x.html#28 The Future of CPUs: What's After Multi-Core?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007e.html#52 US Air computers delay psgrs
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007f.html#37 Is computer history taught now?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007g.html#38 Can SSL sessions be compromised?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007g.html#51 IBM to the PCM market(the sky is falling!!!the sky is falling!!)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007h.html#78 John W. Backus, 82, Fortran developer, dies
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007m.html#36 Future of System/360 architecture?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007n.html#10 The top 10 dead (or dying) computer skills
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007n.html#41 Windows: Monitor or CUSP?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007n.html#76 PSI MIPS
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007n.html#77 PSI MIPS
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007n.html#82 mainframe developer = permanent position - Dublin Ireland
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007o.html#23 Outsourcing loosing steam?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007o.html#34 EZPass: Yes, Big Brother IS Watching You!
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007p.html#34 what does xp do when system is copying
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007p.html#54 Industry Standard Time To Analyze A Line Of Code
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007p.html#58 what does xp do when system is copying
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007s.html#42 ongoing rush to the new, 40+ yr old virtual machine technology
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007v.html#53 folklore indeed
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008.html#88 folklore indeed
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008b.html#22 folklore indeed
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008e.html#41 IBM announced z10 ..why so fast...any problem on z 9
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008e.html#50 fraying infrastructure
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008e.html#53 Why Is Less Than 99.9% Uptime Acceptable?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008g.html#29 CA ESD files Options
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008g.html#50 CA ESD files Options
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008i.html#33 Mainframe Project management
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008i.html#62 Ransomware
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008i.html#70 Next Generation Security
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008l.html#21 recent mentions of 40+ yr old technology
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008m.html#40 IBM--disposition of clock business
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008n.html#20 Michigan industry
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008n.html#35 Builders V. Breakers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008n.html#63 To what extent do IP networks meet the stringent requirements of High Availability (HA) where the target performance is 99.999%? What performance is obtained in practice
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008p.html#5 Privacy, Identity theft, account fraud
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008p.html#48 How much knowledge should a software architect have regarding software security?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008p.html#68 "The Register" article on HP replacing z
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008r.html#50 Security is a subset of Reliability
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009.html#0 Is SUN going to become x86'ed ??
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009c.html#25 Crypto Craft Knowledge
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009c.html#33 H5: Security Begins at the Application and Ends at the Mind
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009i.html#7 My Vintage Dream PC
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009m.html#26 comp.arch has made itself a sitting duck for spam
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009r.html#7 The 50th Anniversary of the Legendary IBM 1401
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009r.html#8 The 50th Anniversary of the Legendary IBM 1401
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009s.html#35 Larrabee delayed: anyone know what's happening?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010c.html#66 Happy DEC-10 Day
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010f.html#56 Handling multicore CPUs; what the competition is thinking
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010g.html#15 Far and near pointers on the 80286 and later
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010g.html#16 Far and near pointers on the 80286 and later
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010g.html#59 Far and near pointers on the 80286 and later
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010g.html#60 Far and near pointers on the 80286 and later
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010m.html#56 About that "Mighty Fortress"... What's it look like?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011c.html#56 The real cost of outsourcing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011d.html#65 IBM100 - Rise of the Internet
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011i.html#27 PDCA vs. OODA
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011k.html#67 Somewhat off-topic: comp-arch.net cloned, possibly hacked
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#101 Has anyone successfully migrated off mainframes?

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Banks Repaid Fed Bailout With Other Fed Money: Government Report

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From: lynn@garlic.com (Lynn Wheeler)
Date: 10 Mar, 2012
Subject: Banks Repaid Fed Bailout With Other Fed Money: Government Report
Blog: Facebook
Banks Repaid Fed Bailout With Other Fed Money: Government Report
http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/03/09/bank-tarp_n_1335006.html

I've been doing long-winded posts about this for a couple years

There was interview with Bernanke where he was wringing his hands ... that he was dumping money into the too-big-to-fail for purpose of lending to mainstreet ... but they weren't and he claimed he didn't have authority to force them how to use the money. I'm finishing up reading "The Bankers Who Broke The World"
http://www.amazon.com/Lords-Finance-Bankers-Broke-ebook/dp/B001QIGZEK
about the crash of '29 and the following depression ... and there were analogous events.

a couple other recent posts:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#32 PC industry is heading for more change
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#40 Strategy subsumes culture

Bernanke shouldn't have been surprised when he pumped $16T into the too-big-to-fail for lending to mainstreet and they didn't do it (needing big stick). When Bush nominated him, one of the qualifications was expert on the Depression and the banks periodically didn't do it then.

Bernanke wiki ... including a governors of fed reserve 2002-2005
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ben_Bernanke

Bernanke wringing his hands

Bernanke Pushes for More Small Biz Loans
http://www.mainstreet.com/article/small-business/financing/bernanke-pushes-more-small-biz-loans
Round Two: Bernanke Faces More Grilling From Congress
http://www.cnbc.com/id/35542268/Round_Two_Bernanke_Faces_More_Grilling_From_Congress
Geithner, Bernanke have little in arsenal to fight new crisis
http://www.washingtonpost.com/business/economy/geithner-bernanke-have-little-in-arsenal-to-fight-new-crisis/2011/08/12/gIQAFuFvFJ_story.html

$10T as of 2010 ...
http://www.csmonitor.com/USA/2010/1201/Federal-Reserve-s-astounding-report-We-loaned-banks-trillions
but claim $30T as of end 2011
http://www.ritholtz.com/blog/2011/12/bailout-total-29-616-trillion-dollars/

almost finished with (from before ww1 thru depression) "The Bankers Who Broke The World" pg439: ... early 1932 ... The two new measures combined -- the infusion of additional capital into the banking system and the injection of reserves -- allowed the Fed finally to pump money into the system on the scale required ... instead of lending out the money used the capital so injected to build up their own reserves. Total bank credit kept shrinking at a rate of 20 percent a year.

misc past posts mentioning Bernanke
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007t.html#50 Newsweek article--baby boomers and computers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008e.html#42 Banks failing to manage IT risk - study
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008e.html#65 Banks failing to manage IT risk - study
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008h.html#90 subprime write-down sweepstakes
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008i.html#30 subprime write-down sweepstakes
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008i.html#77 Do you think the change in bankrupcy laws has exacerbated the problems in the housing market leading more people into forclosure?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008j.html#38 dollar coins
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008j.html#76 lack of information accuracy
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008m.html#16 Fraud due to stupid failure to test for negative
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008m.html#26 Fraud due to stupid failure to test for negative
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009d.html#22 Is it time to put banking executives on trial?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009d.html#30 I need insight on the Stock Market
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009d.html#36 Bernanke Says Regulators Must Protect Against Systemic Risks
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009d.html#40 Bernanke Says Regulators Must Protect Against Systemic Risks
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009d.html#45 Bernanke Says Regulators Must Protect Against Systemic Risks
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009d.html#46 Bernanke Says Regulators Must Protect Against Systemic Risks
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009f.html#43 On whom or what would you place the blame for the sub-prime crisis?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009f.html#47 TARP Disbursements Through April 10th
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009f.html#49 Is the current downturn cyclic or systemic?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009f.html#53 What every taxpayer should know about what caused the current Financial Crisis
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009f.html#56 What's your personal confidence level concerning financial market recovery?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009f.html#65 Just posted third article about toxic assets in a series on the current financial crisis
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009g.html#3 Do the current Banking Results in the US hide a grim truth?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009g.html#27 Flawed Credit Ratings Reap Profits as Regulators Fail Investors
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009g.html#34 Board Visibility Into The Business
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009g.html#37 Future of Financial Mathematics?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009g.html#53 We Can't Subsidize the Banks Forever
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009h.html#3 Consumer Credit Crunch and Banking Writeoffs
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009h.html#25 The Paradox of Economic Recovery
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009h.html#29 Analysing risk, especially credit risk in Banks, which was a major reason for the current crisis
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009h.html#49 IBM to Build Europe, Asia 'Smart Infrastructure'
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009i.html#60 In the USA "financial regulator seeks power to curb excess speculation."
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009j.html#35 what is mortgage-backed securities?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010.html#61 Happy DEC-10 Day
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010.html#64 Happy DEC-10 Day
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010f.html#4 LPARs: More or Less?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010f.html#46 not even sort of about The 2010 Census
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010l.html#38 Who is Really to Blame for the Financial Crisis?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010p.html#17 What banking is. (Essential for predicting the end of finance as we know it.)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010q.html#24 Ernst & Young sued for fraud over Lehman
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011d.html#26 The first personal computer (PC)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011k.html#4 Geithner, Bernanke have little in arsenal to fight new crisis
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011k.html#59 50th anniversary of BASIC, COBOL?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011m.html#68 Bernanke Hearings
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011m.html#75 Banks Awash in Cash, Which Isn't Good News
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011n.html#42 The Godfather of Kathmandu
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#48 Fed's image tarnished by newly released documents
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012b.html#13 We are on the brink of a historic decision [referring to defence cuts]
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012b.html#15 The PC industry is heading for collapse
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#45 Fannie, Freddie Charge Taxpayers For Legal Bills
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#46 PC industry is heading for more change
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#55 PC industry is heading for more change

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Is Washington So Bad at Strategy?

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From: lynn@garlic.com (Lynn Wheeler)
Date: 10 Mar, 2012
Subject: Is Washington So Bad at Strategy?
Blog: Facebook
Is Washington So Bad at Strategy?
http://www.informationdissemination.net/2012/03/is-washington-so-bad-at-strategy.html

Possibly lots of obfuscation and misdirection as part of this $2+T over baseline last decade $1+T for the war and $1T ($100B/yr) has gone where?
http://www.cdi.org/program/document.cfm?documentid=4623

and this:
http://www.amazon.com/Benefit-Burden-ebook/dp/B005LJEVDM

has CBO showing $6T cut in revenues (compared to baseline) & aggregate $6T increase in spending (compared to baseline), creating $12T budget gap ... much of it kicked off right after congress allowed fiscal responsibility act to expire in 2002.

some other recent posts on the subject:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012b.html#87 The Benefit and The Burden
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#50 They're Trying to Block Military Cuts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#52 PC industry is heading for more change
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#53 PC industry is heading for more change
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#36 McCain calls for U.S.-led airstrikes in Syria
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#42 China's J-20 Stealth Fighter Is Already Doing A Whole Lot More Than Anyone Expected

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

You Don't Need a Cyber Attack to Take Down The North American Power Grid

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From: lynn@garlic.com (Lynn Wheeler)
Date: 10 Mar, 2012
Subject: You Don't Need a Cyber Attack to Take Down The North American Power Grid
Blog: Facebook
You Don't Need a Cyber Attack to Take Down The North American Power Grid
http://globalguerrillas.typepad.com/globalguerrillas/2012/03/you-dont-need-a-cyber-attack-to-take-down-the-north-american-power-grid.html

Much of infrastructure grew up designed for the kitchen table with no countermeasures and then internet connections were added (sort of like shoving somebody out the airlock w/o space suit). There is lack of sense of business critical computing as well as extremely large attack surfaces. In the early days, somebody decided to implement signature-based countermeasures and quarantine potential contagions. The list of signatures quickly grew to be significantly larger than the effort required to have reduced the attack surface (aka robust organism with natural defenses).

when I was undergraduate in the 60s, I did lots of operating system stuff, which was picked up and shipped by the vendor ... even getting requests from the vendor. I didn't learn of these guys until much later, but in retrospect ... some of the stuff was of the nature that could have originated from them:
http://web.archive.org/web/20090117083033/http://www.nsa.gov/research/selinux/list-archive/0409/8362.shtml

another two decades had spread to much of the rest of the gov, from IBM Jargon:

PROFS - profs n. Professional Office System. A menu-based system that provides support for office personnel such as White House staff, using IBM mainframes. Acclaimed for its diary mechanisms, and accepted as one way to introduce computers to those who don't know any better. Not acclaimed for its flexibility. PROFS featured in the international news in 1987, and revealed a subtle class distinction within the ranks of the Republican Administration in the USA. It seems that Hall, the secretary interviewed at length during the Iran-Contra hearings, called certain shredded documents PROFS notes as do IBMers who use the system. However, North, MacFarlane, and other professional staff used the term PROF notes. v. To send a piece of electronic mail, using PROFS. PROFS me a one-liner on that. A PROFS one-liner has up to one line of content, and from seven to seventeen lines of boiler plate. VNET

... snip ...

was platform for PROFS ... note that the PROFS email client had come from internal VMSG ... some old VMSG related email
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/lhwemail.html#vmsg

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

IBM cuts more than 1,000 U.S. workers

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From: lynn@garlic.com (Lynn Wheeler)
Date: 10 Mar, 2012
Subject: IBM cuts more than 1,000 U.S. workers
Blog: Greater IBM
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#16 IBM cuts more than 1,000 U.S. Workers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#23 IBM cuts more than 1,000 U.S. Workers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#37 IBM cuts more than 1,000 U.S. Workers

Reference that worker wages have essentially been flat since the 70s
http://globalguerrillas.typepad.com/globalguerrillas/2011/10/journal-why-the-us-middle-class-is-broken.html

Besides reference to corporations stop publishing add/loss US jobs ... because they had taken stimulus funds to add US jobs ... and it didn't look good if any added US jobs were more than offset by other jobs that were sent over seas ... yesterday/Friday's business news show mentioned that recent american corporate profits are at all-time high (having spent past couple yrs aggressively cuttings costs & employees). The "problem" now is that further profit growth can only come from increasing business (they've pushed cost cutting about as far as it can go)

Also in the financial industry ... some of it is because:

Banks Repaid Fed Bailout With Other Fed Money: Government Report
http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/03/09/bank-tarp_n_1335006.html

year or so ago, when Bernanke was asked about the $16T he pumped into the too-big-to-fail for them to lend to mainstreet ... and when they didn't, he just wrung his hands saying he couldn't actually force them. Note that Bernanke shouldn't have been surprised ... when he was nominated, he was touted as expert in the Great Depression ... where something similar happened a number of times.

Note that "age of greed"
http://www.amazon.com/Age-Greed-Triumph-Finance-ebook/dp/B004DEPF6I

claims that the ratio of executive to worker compensation spiked over 500:1

recent posts mentioning "age of greed" &/or "middle class is broken"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#1 The war on terabytes
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#3 We are on the brink of a historic decision [referring to defence cuts]
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#30 Age of Greed: The Triumph of Finance and the Decline of America, 1970 to the Present
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#31 Who originated the phrase "user-friendly"?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#37 Romney's Opponents Intensify Attacks as Voting Nears
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#40 Age of Greed: The Triumph of Finance and the Decline of America, 1970 to the Present
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#45 You may ask yourself, well, how did I get here?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#47 Avoiding a lost decade
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#48 Fed's image tarnished by newly released documents
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#57 The Myth of Work-Life Balance
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#62 Railroaded
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#70 Regulatory Agency logo
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#72 Chris Dodd's SOPA crusading
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#77 Age of Greed: The Triumph of Finance and the Decline of America, 1970 to the Present
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#79 Bain: A consulting firm too hot to handle? (Fortune, 1987)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#87 The PC industry is heading for collapse
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#92 Has anyone successfully migrated off mainframes?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#95 Can anyone offer some insight
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012b.html#12 Sun Tzu, Boyd, strategy and extensions of same
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012b.html#19 "Buffett Tax" and truth in numbers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012b.html#29 The speeds of thought, complexities of problems
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012b.html#43 Where are all the old tech workers?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012b.html#54 The New Age Bounty Hunger -- Showdown at the SEC Corral
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012b.html#74 IBM Doing Some Restructuring?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012b.html#90 IBM Doing Some Restructuring?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012b.html#99 New theory of moral behavior may explain recent ethical lapses in banking industry
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#2 Occupy the SEC (Securities & Exchange Commission)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#5 Too big not to fail
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#19 Occupy the SEC Pitches An Extreme Makeover of Wall Street
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#54 PC industry is heading for more change
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#62 Why Is Finance So Big?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#13 PC industry is heading for more change
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#14 PC industry is heading for more change

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Do you know where all your sensitive data is located?

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From: lynn@garlic.com (Lynn Wheeler)
Date: 11 Mar, 2012
Subject: Do you know where all your sensitive data is located?
Blog: MainframeZone
re:
http://lnkd.in/-UcQTJ

We were tangentially involved in the Cal. state data breach notification legislation. We had been called in to help wordsmith the cal. state electronic signature legislation. some past posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subpubkey.html#signature

several of the parties were heavily involved in privacy issues and had done detailed, in-depth public surveys ... and the #1 issue was identity theft ... primarily fraudulent financial transactions as the result of compromised sources of prior financial transactions (skimming, harvesting, evesdropping, data breaches, etc). The issue was that little or nothing was being done about the matter ... part of the issue was that the institutions suffering such compromises weren't the victims of the fraudulent financial transactions ... it was their customers (typical scenario is security proportional to risk ... and the institutions weren't experiencing the financial loss). It was then hoped that the publicity from the breach notifications might motivate the institutions to take corrective action.

Since then there have been numerous federal "preemption" notification bills introduced (none yet passed) about equally divided between similar notification requirements and those that effectively eliminate requirement for notifications (in part justified by industry activity like PCI efforts).

For other drift, I was co-author of financial industry x9.99 privacy standard ... part of the effort involved meetings with federal agency behind HIPAA and looking at intersection with HIPAA ... aka financial statements with items for payments to labs that specialize in specific kind of disease or other medical condition testing.

In the cal. state related privacy suveys ... the #2 issue was "denial of service" scenarios ... gov. agencies and other institutions using PII information for denying something (employment, insurance coverage, etc). Again, the institution wasn't the victim ... so it was another instance of the institution lacking any financial motivation to provide security (i.e. as in the financial fraud ... it was the individuals that that were the victims, not the institution) ... this was a scenario of attempting to motivate the institutions to protect individuals from being victims by actions (or inaction) by the institutions.

We were brought in as consultants to small client/server startup that wanted to do payment transactions on their server, they had also invented this technology they wanted to use called "SSL"; the result is now frequently called "electronic commerce".

Somewhat as a result of doing work for "electronic commerce", we were asked to participate in the X9A10 financial standard working group that had been given the requirement to preserve the integrity of the financial infrastructure for *ALL* retail transactions (aka all as in face-to-face, point-of-sale, unattended, internet, etc, aka *ALL*). We did several detailed, end-to-end, threat & vulnerability studies of the different kinds of retail payments and came up with the x9.59 standard.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/x959.html#x959

One of the things in x9.59 was to slightly tweak the paradigm and eliminate ability to use information from previous transactions to perform fraudulent financial transactions. As a result it would also eliminate the primary use of both "SSL" and "PCI" (primarily attempting to prevent such information from falling into the hands of crooks and thereby eliminating their ability to perform fraudulent transactions; x9.59 eliminated the fraudlent transactions even if they have the information ... so eliminates majority of both "SSL" and "PCI"). some past posts related to current paradigm
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subintegrity.html#harvest

We have used a couple metaphors for the current paradigm 1) security proportional to risk and 2) dual-use

1) security proportional to risk metaphor; the value of the transaction information to the merchant is the profit from the transaction, possibly only a couple dollars (for transaction processor, possibly only a few cents). in the current paradigm, the value of the information to the crooks is the account balance or credit limit ... frequently several hundreds to possibly large thousands. As a result, crooks may be able to outspend by a factor of 100 times attacking the infrastructure (as the defenders can afford to spend defending the infrastructure).

2) dual-use metaphor; the same information that needs to be hidden, kept confidential and never divulged is the same information that is needed by dozens of business processes at millions of locations around the world. As a result, we've claimed that if the planet was buried under miles of information hiding encryption, it still couldn't stop information leakage.

... aka x9.59 tweaked the paradigm so it eliminates the dual-use characteristic and the need to hide the transaction information (and there is no longer a fraud threat from information being copied)

a couple recent posts mentioning PROFS:

from Greater IBM:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#37 IBM cuts more than 1,000 U.S. Workers

& from Facebook
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#47 You Don't Need a Cyber Attack to Take Down The North American Power Grid

from IBM Jargon:

PROFS - profs n. Professional Office System. A menu-based system that provides support for office personnel such as White House staff, using IBM mainframes. Acclaimed for its diary mechanisms, and accepted as one way to introduce computers to those who don't know any better. Not acclaimed for its flexibility. PROFS featured in the international news in 1987, and revealed a subtle class distinction within the ranks of the Republican Administration in the USA. It seems that Hall, the secretary interviewed at length during the Iran-Contra hearings, called certain shredded documents PROFS notes as do IBMers who use the system. However, North, MacFarlane, and other professional staff used the term PROF notes. v. To send a piece of electronic mail, using PROFS. PROFS me a one-liner on that. A PROFS one-liner has up to one line of content, and from seven to seventeen lines of boiler plate. VNET

... snip ...

most of the security was based on underlying system ... this referenced post
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#47
references this item:
http://web.archive.org/web/20090117083033/http://www.nsa.gov/research/selinux/list-archive/0409/8362.shtml

this is really long winded post in "IBM Historic Computing" on email ... but towards the ends mentioning armonk corporate business people loading the most valuable for corporate data on the cambridge system ... even tho the system was also accessed by non-employees and students at colleges/univ. in the Cambridge area
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#38 Invention of Email

The internal network was larger than arpanet/internet from just about the beginning until possibly late '85/early '86 ... some past posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#internalnet
some old vnet related email
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/lhwemail.html#vnet

the univ. BITNET used similar technology (but distinct, separate network) ... wiki reference:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BITNET
some past posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#bitnet

bitnet had a social engineering email attack ... a CMS exec was distributed that displayed xmas greetings on 3270 ... i tried to reproduce a (benign) version from the internal network that would also leverage color if it ran from 3279:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007v.html#54

however this particular (bitnet) email, when the user executed the exec, also did stealth extract of the users' address book and automatically forwarding itself to everybody ... eventually totally clogging bitnet ... from nov87
http://vm.marist.edu/~vmshare/browse?fn=CHRISTMA&ft=PROB
old risk digest
http://catless.ncl.ac.uk/Risks/5.81.html#subj1

social engineering attacks requires convincing the end user to execute something ... in this case, there wasn't any actual theft of information ... just overloaded the email system with continuous automatic resending to every entry in email address books.

as an aside ... this was almost exactly a year before the internet morris worm
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Morris_worm

for other drift ... for the corporate network, there was a requirement that all links be encrypted ... from the 80s this required hardware link encryptors. there was a claim in the mid-80s that the internal corporate network had over half of all link encryptors in the world.

this is some old crypto related email
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/lhwemail.html#crypto

including a couple emails discussing a PGP-like public key infrastructure:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007d.html#email810506
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006w.html#email810515

there was also some discussion that at the time ... do software DES encryption ran at 150kbytes/sec on 3081K processor ... implication was to handle full-duplex T1 link encryption in software ... each direction running at 150kbytes/sec sustained ... would required dedicating both 3081K processors just for encryption.

for even more drift long-winded post discussing support for T1 (1.5mbits/sec)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#41 Where are all the old tech workers?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#20 Writing article on telework/telecommuniting)

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Layer 8: NASA unplugs last mainframe

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From: lynn@garlic.com (Lynn Wheeler)
Date: 12 Mar, 2012
Subject: Layer 8: NASA unplugs last mainframe
Blog: Mainframe Experts
re:
http://lnkd.in/djmeWv
and
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#35 Layer 8: NASA unplugs last mainframe
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#41 Layer 8: NASA unplugs last mainframe
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#43 Layer 8: NASA unplugs last mainframe

related to item about Amazon does 240TIP ondemand supercomputer ... compared to if every one of the estimated 10,000 mainframes in the world were upgraded to maximum configured 50BIP z196 ... that would be 500TIP (sort of upper limit on aggregate mainframe processing in the world)
http://lnkd.in/2syFGU
and
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#78 Has anyone successfully migrated off mainframes?

expanding cloud computing

Amazon Hails Era of 'Utility Supercomputing'
http://www.pcworld.com/article/251536/amazon_hails_era_of_utility_supercomputing.html

from above:
Amazon in November launched a public beta of Cluster Compute Eight Extra Large (CC2), its most powerful cloud service yet. Every CC2 instance has two Intel Xeon E5 processors, each with eight hardware cores, as well as 60.5GB of RAM and 3.37TB of storage. It communicates with other instances - or virtual servers - in a cluster using 10 gigabit ethernet.

... snip ...

more E5:
http://www.istorya.net/forums/computer-hardware-21/485176-intel-xeon-e5-2690-and-e5-2660-8-core-sandy-bridge-ep-review.html

from above ... two socket (chips) E5-2690, 8cores/chip, 16cores (processors) at 2.9Ghz ... runs 527.55 ... or about eleven and half fully configured 80processor z196 @50BIPS/z196. Then 866 "Amazon CC2" would be equivalent of all estimated installed mainframes (assuming all upgraded to max 50BIPS z196)

more "Amazon CC2"
http://news.techworld.com/storage/3318489/amazon-web-services-adds-supercomputing-service-to-its-cloud/

IBM's support of Xeon E5
http://itcandor.net/2012/03/06/ibm-x86-q112/
more IBM support of Xeon E5
http://www.brightsideofnews.com/news/2012/3/7/intel-announces-e5-2600-cpu2c-new-king-of-big-iron.aspx

there is mention of coming E5-4600, four socket (aka @8cores, 32cores aggregate)

older description of Dhrystone "MIPS"
http://www.roylongbottom.org.uk/dhrystone%20results.htm

Note that the "IBM's support of Xeon E5"
http://itcandor.net/2012/03/06/ibm-x86-q112/

gives graph of IBM's server revenue by type (z, x, and power) and quarter from 2004-2011 ... z is still leader ... but presumably there is significant higher profit margin on z than x ... so significantly larger number of "x" systems have to be sold than "z"

However, even IBM's HS23 E5-2600 is only $1815 (with no disks)
http://www.theregister.co.uk/2012/03/09/ibm_xeon_e5_server_lineup/page2.html

IBM specs:
http://www-03.ibm.com/systems/bladecenter/hardware/chassis/bladeht/

Blades 12u high & 12 blades/wide

IBM racks 42u high
http://www-03.ibm.com/systems/x/options/rackandpower/index.html

Which implies could get 36 HS32 E5-2600 blades in single rack ... $65,340 base HS23 price (mega-datacenters have been claiming they mass produce their own blades for about 1/3rd the cost of brand name blades) , and aggregate of over 20TIPS processing power or approx. equivalent 415 fully configured z196 @50BIPS/z196 ... which would cost around $12B.

the other CC2 reference
http://news.techworld.com/storage/3318489/amazon-web-services-adds-supercomputing-service-to-its-cloud/

mentions Amazon is charging $2.40/hr for CC2 (E5-2600 with 60GB memory & 3.4T disk) ... or reserved instance for $4146 & $.54/hr (with one year contract) ... also 290 CC2 are less than $1000/hr ... 167TIPS approx. processing equivalent of 1/3rd of all estimated mainframes in the world (assuming all upgraded to 50BIPS z196)

refers to total size of Amazon cloud (presumably majority are older generation of chips) ... implies avg. 64blades/rack
http://huanliu.wordpress.com/2012/03/13/amazon-data-center-size/

if all 454,400 blades were upgraded to CC2 @2chips/blade = 908,800 chips, @16cores/blade = 7,270,400 cores, @527.55BIPS/blade = 262,416TIPs

with regard to upgrading all blades/racks to CC2, I would expect that they would staged roll-over ... one of the more recent is environmental & power savings from newer generation technology might accelerate roll-over trade-offs. ballpark might be $20k-$50k for the 7000 racks ... say $140M to $350M.

Compare this to upgrading estimated 10,000 mainframes in the world to max. z196 at $29M ... $290B (about 100 times as much) ... which would be approx. 500TIPS aggregate processing power ... compared to above 262,416 TIPS ... about 1/500th ... 50,000 times price/performance difference?

this has mainframe hardware sales running $4B-$6B for the past several years.
http://itcandor.net/2012/03/06/ibm-x86-q112/

with $290B for upgrading all the estimated 10,000 to max. configured z196, at $5B/year ... it would take 58years

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

From Who originated the phrase "user-friendly"?

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From: lynn@garlic.com (Lynn Wheeler)
Date: 13 Mar, 2012
Subject: From Who originated the phrase "user-friendly"?
Blog: IBM Historic Computing
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#13 From Who originated the phrase "user-friendly"?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#16 From "Who originated the phrase user-friendly" thread
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#19 From Who originated the phrase "user-friendly"?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#27 From "Who originated the phrase user-friendly" thread

... parts also repeated in this Old Geeks discussion
http://lnkd.in/5iXpFi

the various virtual machine based commercial online services moved up the value chains to provide more information and facilities for them to access (a few notable from the late 60s & 70s were NCSS, IDC, and TYMSHARE). all started at the science center ... 545 tech sq
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech

RAMIS by Mathematica was one of the offerings (by NCSS), a first 4generation language ... being able to generate reports in a few statements that might take hundreds of lines of Cobol.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ramis_software

then NCSS does its own, NOMAD
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nomad_software

Then person that did RAMIS does FOCUS
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FOCUS

along the way there is some competition between NCSS and TYMSHARE with offerings.
http://corphist.computerhistory.org/corphist/view.php?s=stories&id=139&PHPSESSID=ccd241...

Also in the 70s, SJR did the original relational/SQL implementation on vm/cms ... some past posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#systemr

It was possible to do tech transfer of system/r to Endicott for sql/ds ... "under the radar" ... because the main corporate DBMS effort was all focused on doing EAGLE. Then when EAGLE imploded ... there was big push to do a port to MVS for what becomes DB2.

past posts about (virtual machine based) online services & earlier generation of "cloud computing"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#timeshare

and from the NCSS Nomad software wiki entry:
NCSS and its time-sharing competitors primarily sold services to large corporations, at a time when most MIS departments were bogged down on huge COBOL implementation projects (see Brooks's famous The Mythical Man-Month for the contemporary mind-set). Because of development backlogs, outside services like NCSS became attractive. Tools like Nomad made end-users self-sufficient: If they had discretionary budgets, and could get the necessary raw data from their MIS departments, then they could solve their own information problems. Many users were content to answer seemingly simple aggregate reporting questions that baffled the MIS departments of the day -- like "rank departments by profitability." Other end-users went beyond basic reporting to build large, mission-critical applications, either by learning the necessary skills, or by hiring their own technicians who didn't report through the MIS hierarchy. NCSS developed a large support infrastructure, including training, consulting, and other services, to foster end-user independence. (Dissatisfaction with traditional MIS methods and resources would later also fuel the personal computer revolution, which in turn would displace time-sharing vendors like NCSS.)

... snip ...

The bottleneck with centralized MIS was also somewhat the rise of the large number of distributed vm/4300 (both within ibm and other corporations) ... before the transition to PCs.

the "other" thread:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#11 Who originated the phrase "user-friendly"?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#12 Who originated the phrase "user-friendly"?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#15 Who originated the phrase "user-friendly"?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#22 Who originated the phrase "user-friendly"?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#31 Who originated the phrase "user-friendly"?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#33 Who originated the phrase "user-friendly"?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#36 Who originated the phrase "user-friendly"?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#38 Who originated the phrase "user-friendly"?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#43 Who originated the phrase "user-friendly"?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#44 Who originated the phrase "user-friendly"?

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Goldman Exec Quits In A Scathing NYT Op-Ed About How The Firm Abuses Its Clients

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From: lynn@garlic.com (Lynn Wheeler)
Date: 14 Mar, 2012
Subject: Goldman Exec Quits In A Scathing NYT Op-Ed About How The Firm Abuses Its Clients
Blog: Facebook
Goldman Exec Quits In A Scathing NYT Op-Ed About How The Firm Abuses Its Clients
http://www.businessinsider.com/greg-smith-goldman-exec-resigns-via-nyt-op-ed-2012-3

Retiring PR executive said something similar about a month ago ... and Taibbi has been reporting on this for quite some time

The TV business news this morning was reporting the "op-ed" as if it was an isolated instance ... and there hasn't been other similar events or reporting in the past.

The earlier articles on the retiring PR executive also included discussion of GS clients suing. ... Google+ from last month about retiring PR executive
https://plus.google.com/u/0/102794881687002297268/posts/R764UHhPtVz

one of the earlier articles about GS clients suing
http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/10/28/basis-yield-alpha-fund-sues-goldman-sachs_n_1063762.html

one of the PR exec articles from last month
http://dealbook.nytimes.com/2012/02/17/goldman-sachs-p-r-chiefs-accidental-exit-interview/

more grist for the Goldman mill ... not just isolated instance
http://www.rollingstone.com/politics/blogs/taibblog/a-goldman-executives-brave-departure-20120314

it hasn't been the first, but tv business news this morning treating it as if it were ... and then more during the day: Two Billionaires Side With Greg Smith Against Goldman
http://www.forbes.com/sites/ryanmac/2012/03/14/two-billionaires-side-with-greg-smith-against-goldman/
Crisis Experts: The Damage To Goldman Is Piling Up
http://www.forbes.com/sites/susanadams/2012/03/14/crisis-experts-the-damage-to-goldman-is-piling-up/

long litany on latest Goldman theme ... including this old item. Greenberg is on tv business news this morning repeating the theme ... he said big culture change was when Goldman went public and clients interests were downgraded ... also during the bubble there was effectively collusion at the US treasury with it being run by former Goldman CEO and so many positions at treasury occupied by Goldman executives

Greenberg Blames Goldman for A.I.G.'s Collapse
http://dealbook.nytimes.com/2010/01/11/greenberg-blames-goldman-for-aigs-collapse/

Note stories at the time was AIG was in the process of settling all the CDS for 50cents on the dollar when the Secretary of the Treasury steps in and claims it is illegal for AIG to settle for less than 100cents on the dollar ... forces AIG to take gov. money to settle for 100cents on the dollar (biggest recipient was Goldman) and also forces AIG to sign document that it won't sue any of the entities that played CDS (aka part of selling toxic CDOs to clients knowing that the CDOs would fail ... and then taking CDS bets that they would fail)

other recent posts mentioning Goldman
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#0 New theory of moral behavior may explain recent ethical lapses in banking industry
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#25 Goldman Sachs P.R. Chief's Accidental Exit Interview
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#32 US real-estate has lost $7T in value

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

"Scoring" The Romney Tax Plan: Trillions Of Dollars Of Deficits As Far As The Eye Can See

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From: lynn@garlic.com (Lynn Wheeler)
Date: 14 Mar, 2012
Subject: "Scoring" The Romney Tax Plan: Trillions Of Dollars Of Deficits As Far As The Eye Can See
Blog: Facebook
"Scoring" The Romney Tax Plan: Trillions Of Dollars Of Deficits As Far As The Eye Can See
http://www.businessinsider.com/scoring-the-romney-tax-plan-trillions-of-dollars-of-deficits-as-far-as-the-eye-can-see-2012-3

MICC spending $2+T over baseline ... $1+T for the wars and $1T went where? (also reference policy of continuous conflict):
http://www.cdi.org/program/document.cfm?documentid=4623

this has CBO reference that baseline budget surpluses retired all Fed. debt by 2010 ... but past decade had $6T cut in tax revenues and $6T increase in spending (over baseline) resulting in $12T deficit ... starting in earnest after the fiscal responsibility act was allowed to expire in 2002.
http://www.amazon.com/Benefit-Burden-ebook/dp/B005LJEVDM

recent posts referencing budget deficit
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#6 We are on the brink of a historic decision [referring to defence cuts]
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012b.html#87 The Benefit and The Burden
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#50 They're Trying to Block Military Cuts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#52 PC industry is heading for more change
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#53 PC industry is heading for more change
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#36 McCain calls for U.S.-led airstrikes in Syria
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#42 China's J-20 Stealth Fighter Is Already Doing A Whole Lot More Than Anyone Expected
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#46 Is Washington So Bad at Strategy?

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

IBM cuts more than 1,000 U.S. Workers

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From: lynn@garlic.com (Lynn Wheeler)
Date: 14 Mar, 2012
Subject: IBM cuts more than 1,000 U.S. Workers
Blog: Greater IBM
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#16 IBM cuts more than 1,000 U.S. Workers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#23 IBM cuts more than 1,000 U.S. Workers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#37 IBM cuts more than 1,000 U.S. Workers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#48 IBM cuts more than 1,000 U.S. workers

The "doubling" prediction in the mid-80s was to $120B ... primarily based on massive increase in mainframe sales ... and so they had a massive internal construction program for doubling mainframe manufacturing capacities .... even when that business was starting to shift in the other direction. The current $100B is 83% software & services ... with 17% for everything else ... including all kinds of hardware.

There are discussions in a couple of the mainframe groups about NASA turning off its last mainframe. Mainframe Experts
http://lnkd.in/djmeWv
and MainframeZone
http://lnkd.in/Uz6-ck

where I've included reference to:
http://itcandor.net/2012/03/06/ibm-x86-q112/

which shows ibm mainframe sales (2003-2011) running between $4B-$6B ... a far cry from the majority of $120B predicted for the early 1990s (even less when the $120B inflation adjusted is around $250B in today's dollars) ... aka it wasn't exactly career enhancing in the mid-80s to be claiming that the mainframe business was heading in the opposite direction claimed by the executive committee

Total aside, in the early 90s, the US auto industry had C4 taskforce to completely remake themselves ... and since they were planning on heavily leveraging IT technology ... representatives from various vendors were invited to participate. They could accurately characterize the foreign competition, the US problems, and how US needed to remake themselves in order to be competitive ... however, moving forward two decades ... all the major stakeholders resisted any change (offline, I would chide the mainframe brethren about what could they contribute since they suffered from many of the same problems). For other drift ... in the early 80s, there was an article calling for 100% unearned profit tax on the US auto industry. Supposedly the import quotas was to reduce competition, giving the US auto industry enormously increased profits which they were suppose to use to completely remake themselves ... which they just pocketed, continuing business as usual. A couple recent posts mentioning auto industry C4 taskforce:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#22 Who originated the phrase "user-friendly"?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#31 Who originated the phrase "user-friendly"?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#26 Why Can't America Catch UP?

posts in the NASA mainframe discusssions:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#2 NASA unplugs their last mainframe
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#6 NASA unplugs their last mainframe
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#28 NASA unplugs their last mainframe
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#35 Layer 8: NASA unplugs last mainframe
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#41 Layer 8: NASA unplugs last mainframe
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#43 Layer 8: NASA unplugs last mainframe
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#50 Layer 8: NASA unplugs last mainframe

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Do you know where all your sensitive data is located?

From: lynn@garlic.com (Lynn Wheeler)
Date: 14 Mar, 2012
Subject: Do you know where all your sensitive data is located?
Blog: MainframeZone
re:
http://lnkd.in/-UcQTJ
and
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#49 Do you know where all your sensitive data is located?

recent item in linkedin Boyd group (I had sponsored Boyd's briefings at IBM and OODA-loop paradigm was originated by Boyd): Measuring the OODA-loop of security thinking -- Can you say - firewalls & SSL?
http://lnkd.in/PCgpDJ

references this item in the (internet) IETF (standards)
http://lnkd.in/FCwpMR

as well as this discussion on sensitive data.

the original blog entry is here:
http://financialcryptography.com/mt/archives/001368.html

which also references

Information Security Debt Clock
http://1raindrop.typepad.com/1_raindrop/2009/03/information-security-debt-clock.html

which also has earlier item on "attack surface"
http://1raindrop.typepad.com/1_raindrop/2009/03/fx-on-attack-surface-of-modern-applications.html

which I had mentioned in this Facebook item regarding taking down power grid:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#47

related to "electronic commerce" work ... part of it was a "payment gateway" ... some past posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#gateway

which handles payment transactions between commerce servers on the internet and the payment networks ... I've also claim was the original SOA (service oriented architecture).

The major theme from the detailed privacy studies was that the top two items (#1 leakage of information from personal financial transactions being copied and crooks doing fraudulent financial transactions and #2 leakage of PII being used by institutions for denial of service) involved copying individual related information in possession of institutions.

The traditional security motivation for an entity is to prevent threats and exploits to the entity. However in both these cases the threats and exploits were against the individual ... not the institutions that needed to secure the information. Since the institutions had nothing at risk ... they hadn't been doing anything. It was then necessary to try and come up with motivation for institutions to protect individual information ... where there wasn't any direct threat to the institution.

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Server time Protocol and CICS

From: lynn@GARLIC.COM (Anne & Lynn Wheeler)
Subject: Re: Server time Protocol and CICS
Newsgroups: bit.listserv.ibm-main
Date: 14 Mar 2012 15:04:55 -0700
johnwgilmore0918@GMAIL.COM (John Gilmore) writes:
The original design of CICS envisaged making elegant use of the announced facilities of OS/MVT. When the time came to implement CICS 1) some of these facilities were not yet available and 2) some of them did not yet work reliably. The implementers of CICS were thus forced to take a RYO approach. They in effect gutted an MFT partition and installed their own functionally MVT-like facilities in it, calling their storage-management interfacing macros GETMAIN and FREEMAIN, etc., etc.

The result was an in many ways a superb table-driven system, one that improved significantly over the succeeding years. Its chief 'defect' was the implementation of its user interfaces as a set of assembly-language macros, which meant that applications run under it had to be written in assembly language. This was 'remedied' in various ways, some elegant and some not, and finally by introducing a 'command'---as opposed to the old 'macro'---level CICS; ultimately it became possible to write CICS APs even in RPG, although these could not be even quasi-reentrant.

The major marketing obstacles to its use by other than assembly-language programmers were thus gradually removed.

In my own doubtless elitist view CICS never fully recovered from these initiatives. They did enable ribbon clerks to write CICS APs, and opinions about whether that was beneficial differ widely.

What is not in my view open to argument is that criticism of the present state of CICS and other such subsystems that is not diachronic is all but certain to be irrelevant.

We are all, ineluctably, creatures of our experience. If you don't know the history of CICS, IMS, DB2, whatever, mug it up if you wish to discuss that subsystem; and stai zitt' until you have mastered it. (Controversy will not thus be eliminated or perhaps even much reduced; equally informed views can, do differ sharply; quaint irrelevance will be reduced).


I've more characterized that pathlengths for os/360 was so enormous that there was no way to do light-weight operations. CICS effectively batched a large percentage of os/360 operations at startup ... and then used its own lightweight versions for actual operation.

Disclaimer: Univ library got ONR grant to do online catalog and used part of the funds to get 2321 datacell. It was also selected for one of the beta test sites for CICS program product (1969) ... and I got tasked for supporting & debugging the deployment. Part of the CICS birthing experience was shooting some number of bugs related to the library choosing different BDAM options than the site where CICS was originally developed. misc. past posts mentioning CICS &/or BDAM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#cics
other cics history (gone 404 but lives on at the wayback machine):
http://web.archive.org/web/20080123061613/http://www.yelavich.com/history/toc.htm

The Evolution of CICS: CICS Services for Performance (1968)
http://web.archive.org/web/20060325095459/http://www.yelavich.com/history/ev196805.htm

from above:
In the very beginning, CICS attempted to use services provided by the operating system(s) (PCP, MFT and MVT), however it quickly proved to be unacceptable because of the relatively high overhead of those services (CPU cycles and storage consumed with regard to the particular service).

... snip ...

I've made similar claims (about large part of design involved countermeasures for heavyweight os/360 services) ... old email Jim Gray wanting me to be take responsibility for consulting with the IMS group when he was leaving for Tandem:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007.html#email801016
IMS wiki
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM_Information_Management_System

as to DB2 ... original relational/sql was done at sjr on vm370 some number of past posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#systemr

the standard folklore was that we were able to do tech. transfer from sjr to endicott for sql/ds "under the radar" when the corporation was distracted with the official DBMS product, EAGLE. Then when EAGLE imploded, there was a request about how fast could there be a port to MVS ... eventually turning into DB2.

for random other DB2 lore ... one of the people mentioned in this Jan92 meeting in Ellison's conference room claims to have done the SQL/DS transfer from Endicott back to STL
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/95.html#13

... separate from the SJR work. Additional relational/SQL lore:
http://www.mcjones.org/System_R/SQL_Reunion_95/index.html

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Study Confirms The Government Produces The Buggiest Software

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From: lynn@garlic.com (Lynn Wheeler)
Date: 15 Mar, 2012
Subject: Study Confirms The Government Produces The Buggiest Software
Blog: Facebook
Study Confirms The Government Produces The Buggiest Software
http://www.forbes.com/sites/andygreenberg/2012/03/13/study-confirms-governments-produce-the-buggiest-software/

Is it my imagination or do I see Success of Failure everywhere I look?

re: mideast; currently reading "Extreme Prejudice"
http://www.amazon.com/EXTREME-PREJUDICE-Terrifying-Patriot-ebook/dp/B004HYHBK2
& I keep thinking this has got to be fiction

... similar feeling when I was reading Economic Hit Man
http://www.amazon.com/Confessions-Economic-Hit-Man-ebook/dp/B001AFF266

Goes far beyond anything in Scheuer's books.

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Where are all the old tech workers?

From: lynn@garlic.com (Lynn Wheeler)
Date: 15 Mar, 2012
Subject: Where are all the old tech workers?
Blog: Old Geeks
re:
http://lnkd.in/5iXpFi
and
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#74 Where are all the old tech workers?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#84 Where are all the old tech workers?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#89 Where are all the old tech workers?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#93 Where are all the old tech workers?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012b.html#43 Where are all the old tech workers?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012b.html#47 Where are all the old tech workers?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#40 Where are all the old tech workers?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#41 Where are all the old tech workers?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#42 Where are all the old tech workers?

who didn't? recent really long-winded post in ibm-main (mainframe) mailing list:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#56

both CICS & IMS from 68.

Relational/sql didn't come until the 70s with System/R at SJR ... past posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#systemr

as well as formal definition for atomic "transaction" with commit protocols ... credited with boost for computerizing financial infrastructure (aka extra integrity for the auditors in computerized records) ... attributed largely to the work of Jim Gray ... some discussed at the tribute held at Berkeley ... a couple past posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008i.html#32 A Tribute to Jim Gray: Sometimes Nice Guys Do Finish First
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008i.html#36 A Tribute to Jim Gray: Sometimes Nice Guys Do Finish First
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008i.html#40 A Tribute to Jim Gray: Sometimes Nice Guys Do Finish First

above mentions Jim palming stuff on me when he was leaving for Tandem.

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

A computer metaphor for systems integration

From: lynn@garlic.com (Lynn Wheeler)
Date: 15 Mar, 2012
Subject: A computer metaphor for systems integration.
Blog: Boyd Strategy
A computer metaphor for systems integration.
http://lnkd.in/K_yWFm

...

Operating Systems and Programming Languages (things used to implement applications) ... try to present paradigms that ease the development of applications (faster, better quality, etc).

This is recent post in a "user-friendly" thread ... touching specifically on both the virtual machine paradigm
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#51

virtual machine paradigm originated at the science center (4th flr, 545 tech sq) in the mid-60s ... some past posts mentioning science center
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech

It also mentions 4th generation languages that evolved on virtual machine platforms in the 70s ... that significantly eased application development (as central corporate datacenters & MIS departments were becoming bottlenecks ... extreme friction).

At the other extreme is I've frequently pontificated that string-handling paradigm in the C programming language have been the source of major security vulnerabilities and exploits ... lots of past posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subintegrity.html#buffer

Long ago and far away, I was involved in doing a TCP/IP (aka internet) protocol stack implementation in VS/PASCAL language ... which had none of the string-related security vulnerabilities and exploits that have been characteristic of TCP/IP protocol stack implementation in C language. ... for some drift, posts about working with VS/PASCAL implementation
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#1044

This reference to an Air Force security review of another operating system (which was done on 5th flr of 545 tech sq) ... done in PLI language ... and also not found to have any of the security vulnerabilities and exploits that are epidemic in implementations done in C language.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002l.html#42 Thirty Years Later: Lessons from the Multics Security Evaluation

reference to the 1974 study:
http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/history/karg74.pdf

Old reference to institutions with high security concerns using virtual machine platforms:
http://web.archive.org/web/20090117083033/http://www.nsa.gov/research/selinux/list-archive/0409/8362.shtml

which I didn't find out about until much later.

There was a little rivalry between the people on the 5th flr and the people on the 4th flr. This is reference to major user (AFDS) of a 5th flr system doing a visit and eventually ordering 210 virtual machine systems (I had transferred to the west coast by this time)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001m.html#email790404b
in this post
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001m.html#15

In the science center ... we would periodically draw comparison with the productivity of our little group (tended to be in the 30-35 range for much of that period) against the enormous tens of thousands in the mainstream groups ... shows up in Brook's Mythical Man-month.

recent reference to evolution of GML (invented at science center in 1969) to HTML
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#15

And lots of reference to the internal network ... technology created at the science center
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#internalnet

which was larger than the arpanet/internet from just about the beginning until sometimes late '85 or early '86
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#3

by this former co-worker
http://iheartthisapp.com/cool-to-be-clever-edson-hendricks-interactive-storybook-app-for-children-6/

for a little other drift

VisiCalc's Dan Bricklin On the Tablet Revolution
http://hardware.slashdot.org/story/12/03/15/1452237/visicalcs-dan-bricklin-on-the-tablet-revolution

the "other" co-creator of the "PC revolution's killer app" (aka visicalc/spreadsheets) ... and the person that did the implementation ... had been working at one of the virtual-machine based online service bureaus in the 70s ... and before that at MIT & at 545tech sq. ... and I was at a meeting with him a couple weeks ago.

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Memory versus processor speed

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From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Memory versus processor speed
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Fri, 16 Mar 2012 07:28:14 -0400
Grey Maus <greymausg@mail.com> writes:
Therein reads English history. The British Army is directly descended from the force organized by Parliment in the 1640s, and which switched alligence to Charles II later, the oldest regiments were organized at that time. The English, like the later US, were very wary of professional armies.

"Military-Industrial complex"


past posts in this thread:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#58 Memory versus processor speed
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#59 Memory versus processor speed
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#60 Memory versus processor speed
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#9 Memory versus processor speed
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#18 Memory versus processor speed

there are recent observations that Eisenhower originally intended to say military-industrial-congressional complex (MICC) but shorten it to MIC. part of the issue is that MIC is significantly distorted by congressional activity. i've used the paradigm for creation of reference to Financial-Regulatory-Congressional Complex (FRCC) which was behind much of the recent financial mess.

while this refers to $1+T over baseline for the war over the past decade ... it also points out there was an additional $1T over the baseline during the last decade that can't really be explained:
http://www.cdi.org/program/document.cfm?documentid=4623

this has CBO showing aggregate $6T reduction in revenues (compared to baseline) coupled with aggregate $6T increase in spending (compared to baseline) over the last decade ... creating $12T budget gap ... really kicked off after congress let the fiscal responsibility act expire in 2002 (baseline had budget surpluses retiring all federal debt by 2010):
http://www.amazon.com/Benefit-Burden-ebook/dp/B005LJEVDM

the enormous federal debt created after the fiscal responsibility act expired in 2002 ... coupled with war draw down ... is putting significant pressure to reduce MICC spending (compared to peak, which included the extra $1T that can't seemed to be explained). Part of the MICC scenario is explained by the strategy for "perpetual conflict" in order to keep the MICC funds flowing ... discussed in "Pentagon Labyrinth"
http://www.cdi.org/program/document.cfm?DocumentID=4639

Other facets are the gold-plated beltway bandits and the spreading Success of Failure culture ... that have determined they take more money off the table with a series of failures than with success. past article:
http://www.govexec.com/management/management-matters/2007/04/the-success-of-failure/24107/

On the FRCC side there is even greater amounts of money slushing around.

recent posts mentioning MICC &/or FRCC:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#3 We are on the brink of a historic decision [referring to defence cuts]
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#5 We are on the brink of a historic decision [referring to defence cuts]
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#8 Ruminating on Strategic Thinking II. : Social Conditions
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012b.html#38 PC industry is heading for more change
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012b.html#39 PC industry is heading for more change
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#50 They're Trying to Block Military Cuts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#51 How would you succinctly desribe maneuver warfare?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#53 PC industry is heading for more change
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#56 Update on the F35 Debate
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#36 McCain calls for U.S.-led airstrikes in Syria
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#42 China's J-20 Stealth Fighter Is Already Doing A Whole Lot More Than Anyone Expected
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#53 "Scoring" The Romney Tax Plan: Trillions Of Dollars Of Deficits As Far As The Eye Can See

recent posts mentioning Success of Failure culture:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012b.html#14 The PC industry is heading for collapse
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012b.html#15 The PC industry is heading for collapse
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012b.html#39 PC industry is heading for more change
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012b.html#42 Strategy subsumes culture
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012b.html#76 IBM Doing Some Restructuring?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012b.html#80 U.S. Cybersecurity Debate Risks Leaving Critical Infrastructure in the Dark
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012b.html#86 Spontaneous conduction
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#36 McCain calls for U.S.-led airstrikes in Syria
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#42 China's J-20 Stealth Fighter Is Already Doing A Whole Lot More Than Anyone Expected
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#44 Faster, Better, Cheaper: Why Not Pick All Three?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#57 Study Confirms The Government Produces The Buggiest Software

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virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Why Republicans Aren't Mentioning the Real Cause of Rising Prices at the Gas Pump

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From: lynn@garlic.com (Lynn Wheeler)
Date: 16 Mar, 2012
Subject: Why Republicans Aren't Mentioning the Real Cause of Rising Prices at the Gas Pump
Blog: Facebook
Why Republicans Aren't Mentioning the Real Cause of Rising Prices at the Gas Pump
http://www.huffingtonpost.com/robert-reich/obama-gas-prices_b_1350358.html

Taibbi had chapter in "Griftopia" on commodities markets being opened up to select speculators with 19 "secret" letters ... results included the big oil/gas price spike/bubble summer of 2008. then there was big uproar when a senator released the trades showing the speculation. item from last year:
http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/08/19/us-cftc-dataleak-idUSTRE77I4NR20110819

... remember it was the head of the CFTC that proposed regulating CDS (which would have helped damped down the financial mess) ... they were almost immediately replaced and bill passed to prevent CFTC from doing anything.

another CFTC oil speculation
http://www.thenation.com/article/159078/will-congress-crack-down-oil-speculators

speculators were exlcuded prior to the 19 "secret" letters because they result in wild, irrational price swings. they operate on change & volitility ... they bet on it going up and then pump it ... and then they bet on it going down and they help deflate it.

past articles were that the worst of the oil speculation abuses would be fixed in 2012 ... but that is looking less likely. The congressional rhetoric that led to such expectations was possibly more of their Kabuki theater with little actually what it seems

misc. past posts mentioning oil/gas speculation
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009e.html#13 Should we fear and hate derivatives?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010p.html#6 What banking is. (Essential for predicting the end of finance as we know it.)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010p.html#50 TCM's Moguls documentary series
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010p.html#57 TCM's Moguls documentary series
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010q.html#55 Programmer Charged with thieft (maybe off topic)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011.html#53 What do you think about fraud prevention in the governments?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011f.html#90 CFTC Limits on Commodity Speculation May Wait Until Early 2012
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011g.html#17 Hey all you Old Geeks (and younger ones too), with gas heading towards $6.00/gal, remote support, satellite offices and home office will become more cost effective
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011k.html#46 Sand in Machine Makes a Stable Market
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011k.html#76 FIA shocked and outraged after Senator leaks oil trading data
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011l.html#21 HOLLOW STATES and a CRISIS OF CAPITALISM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011m.html#18 computer bootlaces
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011n.html#80 A Close Look at the Perry Tax Plan
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011o.html#47 Civilization, doomed?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011o.html#61 Civilization, doomed?

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Gordon Gekko Says

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From: lynn@garlic.com (Lynn Wheeler)
Date: 17 Mar, 2012
Subject: Gordon Gekko Says
Blog: Financial Crime Risk, Fraud and Security
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#12 Gordon Gekko Says
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#34 Gordon Gekko Says

Note that there have a number of articles in the UK about people are now suppose to report (financial) fraud to their banks ... and the banks will decide whether they report to the authorities. This is in apparent change to "burden of proof" ... where the individual now has to prove they weren't responsible for the transactions ... where before the institution had responsibility to prove it was the individual (as opposed to some crook).

some past Blog entries
http://www.lightbluetouchpaper.org/2007/02/08/financial-ombudsman-on-chip-pin-infallibility/ .
http://www.lightbluetouchpaper.org/2008/01/23/financial-ombudsman-losing-it/

there were some scenarios where the burden of proof was on the individual to prove it wasn't them at the ATM machine ... and needed the bank's ATM surveillance video ... but the bank said it couldn't find the video (compared to when the burden of proof is on the bank and becomes the bank's responsibility to produce the ATM surveillance video ... not the individual).

In one of the cases, I was contacted by email from legal representative of individual involved in such a case.

and this entry gone 404 but lives on at the wayback machine
http://www.moneyexpert.com/News/Credit-Card/18106248/New-rules-to-report-fraud-announced.aspx

from above:
New procedures to report debt will make financial institutions the first port of call for victims of credit card, cheque or online fraud offences, it has been announced.

From April 1st 2007, people in England, Wales and Northern Ireland will be required to bypass the police and go straight to the banks when claiming a fraudulent crime.

It is then up to the financial body to pass the details on to the authorities.


... snip ...

past posts mentioning some of the above:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007h.html#28 sizeof() was: The Perfect Computer - 36 bits?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008d.html#84 The hands-free way to steal a credit card
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009g.html#38 Top 10 Cybersecurity Threats for 2009, will they cause creation of highly-secure Corporate-wide Intranets?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009i.html#56 Credit cards

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Fans of Threat Modelling reach for their guns ... but can they afford the bullets?

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From: lynn@garlic.com (Lynn Wheeler)
Date: 17 Mar, 2012
Subject: Fans of Threat Modelling reach for their guns ... but can they afford the bullets?
Blog: Financial Crime Risk, Fraud and Security
Fans of Threat Modelling reach for their guns ... but can they afford the bullets?
https://financialcryptography.com/mt/archives/001360.html

to throw a monkey wrench into the whole thing ... nominally institutions are doing threat modeling as part of evaluating their risks, leading to (self-interest) taking countermeasures to the risks (a variation on security proportional to risk ... specifically the risks to the institution).

this is a discussion in a linkedin mainframe group about sensitive data
http://lnkd.in/-UcQTJ
and my contributions archived here
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#49 .
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#55

the issue is that there is large class of threats involving copying sensitive data ... but where things get short circuited ... the risk is not to the institution ... but to individuals. aka the institutions have no risk. The challenge then was trying to come up with ways to motivate institutions to take countermeasures (where the institutions have no risk and self-interest).

The specific instances was HIPAA (to motivate institutions to protect individual PII information) and data breach notification legislation (possibly indirectly motivating institutions to protect individual financial transaction information).

For other side-track, SSL has been used to hide financial transaction information ... for point-to-point transaction transmission. However, that is trivial portion of the end-to-end transaction business process (especially taken from the standpoint of the elapsed time of the transmission compared to the total lifetime that the transaction information continues to a represent a risk).

As periodically mentioned before, we were involved in deployment of SSL for doing payment transactions on webservers ... now frequently called "electronic commerce" ... nearly 20yrs ago now ... and for almost the whole time I've pointed out that SSL is only trivial part of the end-to-end business process.

and in the theme of "can they afford the bullets" ... another facet of (often repeated over the years) Security Proportional To Risk ... with respect to financial transactions

the value of the financial transaction information to the merchant is the profit on the transactions ... possibly a couple dollars (possibly only a few cents to the transaction processor). The value of the financial transaction to the crooks is the account balance and/or credit limit ... typically hundreds to thousands of dollars. As a result, the crooks can potentially afford to out-spend by 100 times, or more, attacking the system ... as the merchants/transaction-processors can afford to spend defending the system.

this is separate from the fact that exploit risk is to the individual ... not the merchant or transaction processor.

I have a similar jaundiced view of a lot of the threat model stuff in the mid-late 90s ... Lots of parties had the solution (PKI) and they were using the facade of threat models to narrowly focus in portion of problem needing PKI as solution (they had the answer, now they needed to find the question). The industry was floating business plans on wall street $20B/annum for annual $100 digital certificates for individuals. We had been called in to help wordsmith the cal. state electronic signature legislation ... and the industry was heavily lobbying that the legislation mandate (annual, individual) digital certificates.

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970 g

Layer 8: NASA unplugs last mainframe

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From: lynn@garlic.com (Lynn Wheeler)
Date: 17 Mar, 2012
Subject: Layer 8: NASA unplugs last mainframe
Blog: Mainframe Experts
re:
http://lnkd.in/djmeWv
and
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#35 Layer 8: NASA unplugs last mainframe
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#41 Layer 8: NASA unplugs last mainframe
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#43 Layer 8: NASA unplugs last mainframe
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#50 Layer 8: NASA unplugs last mainframe

One of the issues regarding Mhz rate is that currently measuring the latency involved in a cache miss ... measured in number processor cycles ... is around the order of magnitude of a 360 disk access latency (measured in number of 360 processor cycles).

As a result, aggregate processor throughput is becoming more & more sensitive to being able to overlap other work while waiting for fetching data from main storage (cache miss).

RISC processors have done work in this area for going on 30yrs ... combination of things like out-of-order, branch-prediction and speculative execution as well as hyperthreading. As previously mentioned the current generation of "86" processors are all RISC with hardware layer that converts "86" instructions into RISC "micro-ops" for actual execution.

As an aside ... long ago and far away the 370/195 guys came to me to talk about supporting a hyperthreaded multiprocessor implementation. The issue at the time was that the 195 with out-of-order execution overlapped pipeline ... would have throughput of approx. 10MIPs ... but most codes ran around 5MIPs. The issue was the 195 didn't have branch-prediction and/or speculative execution ... the result was that anytime it encountered a conditional branch ... it would drain the pipeline waiting for the condition to be set that controlled the execution sequence. The idea was to simulate to processor execution with two instruction streams feading the pipeline and execution units. The two instruction streams might individual operate at 5MIPs ... because the frequency of conditional branches ... but the combination of two independent instruction streams (each operating at 5MIPs, two instruction streams simulating multiprocessor operation) would keep the pipeline full and the execution units operating at a aggregate throughput of 10MIPs.

Part of e5-2600 throughput improvement (compared to previous generation) is several improvements in all of the related areas ... large amount directed to mask the significant throughput impact of cache miss and having to wait for data to come in from main storage ... aka serialize execution.

Imagine throughput of a large DBMS if it could only perform one disk I/O at a time ... and nothing else could execute while waiting for the disk I/O to complete.

A co-worker that helped me do some internal CMSBACK releases (CMSBACK eventually morphs into customer product as workstation datasave ... which morphs into ADSM and finally now TSM) ... some old email
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/lhwemail.html#cmsback

leaves and starts doing a lot of consulting work for a chip/vlsi house up valley (that was heavily leveraging vm/370 mainframes ... could trace back to cp67 in the late 60s). He does a port of the AT&T 370 C compiler to CMS (in early 80s AT&T had a effort with IBM to do an AT&T internal-only effort that took at stripped down TSS/370 supervisor and layered higher levels of unix on top), fixed numerous bugs and rewrote the code-optimizer ... all part of porting Berkeley unix-based c-language chip design tools to CMS. He then worked with a C language vendor on release as a product and in the mid-80s ... IBM also offers it as a 370 C language product.

The former co-worker also does work to interconnect the mainframes using ethernet to a large number of graphic workstations being used by engineers in designing chips. The local branch office rep visits one day and asks what he is doing and he explains. The local branch office rep then tells him that he should consider supporting Token-Ring (instead of Ethernet) ... or otherwise they might find that the mainframe service won't be what they have been used to. I then get a call and am forced to listen to an hour of four letter words. The next morning the company has a big press conference to tell the world that they are replacing all their IBM mainframes with SUN servers. IBM then launches a task force to investigate (only) whatever technical issues might be involved in the decision.

as previously mentioned, many of the MIPS ratings are from running dhrystone benchmark and using ratio to VAX thruput (late 70s) as one MIP.

dhrystone may be "broken" ... but it is still being used ... prevous MIPS ratings mentioned upthread:
http://www.enotes.com/topic/Instructions_per_second
http://hardocp.com/article/2011/11/14/intel_core_i73960x_sandy_bridge_e_processor_review/4
http://www.istorya.net/forums/computer-hardware-21/485176-intel-xeon-e5-2690-and-e5-2660-8-core-sandy-bridge-ep-review.html

original relational/sql was system/r on vm370/cms 370/145 at san jose research ... some past posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#systemr

then when Jim Gray was leaving for Tandem ... he was palming some number of things on me ... consulting with the IMS dbms group and interfacing with some of the customers running system/r ... some old email:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007.html#email801006
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007.html#email801016

Jim then pioneered TPC ... reference:
http://www.tpc.org/information/who/gray.asp

as mentioned in above there was tribute celebrating Jim in 2008 ... some past posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008i.html#32
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008i.html#36
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008p.html#27

however, dhrystone benchmark used for e5-2600 MIPS rating (and bunch of other stuff) ... and seems more relavent to the topic of NASA ... which tends to be more computational intensive workload.

as mentioned upthread we attempted to do both commercial (& RDBMS) and numerical intensive cluster scaleup ... it was then transferred, we were told we couldn't work on anything with more than four processors ... and after a couple weeks announced as supercomputer for numerical intensive only.

A couple old posts "From the Annals of Release No Software Before Its Time"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009p.html#43
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009p.html#46

includes mention Oracle RAC & Exadata vis-a-vis pureScale

there is some comment that at some point quantity becomes quality ... a difference of 50,000 times in price/performance is significant. With all the quibbling about whether there is real apples-to-apples ... could give up a factor of ten and it would still be factor of 5,000 times in price/performance

for a non-mainframe "big" processor from Friday

Fujitsu's supercomputing MONSTER thrashes Top 500 rivals
http://www.theregister.co.uk/2012/03/16/fujitsu_k_computer/

MIPS is million instructions/sec GIPS/BIPS is 1000 MIPS TIPS is million MIPS PIPS is thousand million MIPs or million GIPS/BIPS

flops are equivalent for floating point operations/sec

this is ten pflop machine (10**16 flops/sec) ... with 88,000 sparc chips (with each chip having 8 "cores") in 864 racks (about 100 chips/rack).

Such operations would be considered much more inline with the majority of NASA computational workload ...

fujitsu is major sparc manufacture and backed HAL doing 1st sparc64 ... before taking it over. this doesn't mention it was HAL:
http://www.fujitsu.com/global/services/computing/server/sparcenterprise/technology/protection/roadmap.html
... but this does:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SPARC

some number of the people at HAL had been involved in 801 (for a time in IBM, I was direct report to the person that started HAL).

similar thread in MainframeZone
http://lnkd.in/Uz6-ck
and
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#2 NASA unplugs their last mainframe
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#6 NASA unplugs their last mainframe
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#28 NASA unplugs their last mainframe

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

FAA 9020 - S/360-65 or S/360-67?

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From: lynn@garlic.com (Lynn Wheeler)
Date: 17 Mar, 2012
Subject: FAA 9020 - S/360-65 or S/360-67?
Blog: IBM Historic Computing
the 360/67 simplex (uniprocessor) was 360/65 with the additional of virtual address translation hardware (8entry associative array) that would do perform virtual address translation ... also had control registers for pointer to segment table.

360 functional characteristics
http://www.bitsavers.org/pdf/ibm/360/funcChar/
http://www.bitsavers.org/pdf/ibm/360/funcChar/A22-6884-3_360-65_funcChar.pdf
http://www.bitsavers.org/pdf/ibm/360/funcChar/GA27-2719-2_360-67_funcChar.pdf

The 360/65 multiprocessor were much like two-processor 370s ... effectively two processors that shared memory ... but everything else was processor specific ... and could be separated into and run as two independent single processors.

The 360/67 multiprocessor had independent channel "controller" and configuration switches ... and was designed for up to 4-processor configuration ... but nearly all that were built were two-processors and one or two 3-processors. The channel director allowed multiprocessor configuration to split into independent single processors (like 360/65) ... but allowed multiprocessor configuration where all processors could access all memory and all channels.
http://infolab.stanford.edu/pub/voy/museum/pictures/display/FAA9020.html

wiki 9020
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM_9020

Systems Journal Article ... but they have moved behind ieee paywall
http://domino.research.ibm.com/tchjr/journalindex.nsf/9fe6a820aae67ad785256547004d8af0/720f85f2446ebfc485256bfa00685a26?OpenDocument

this talks about originally a 9020 was six 360/50s .... then configuration upgraded to three 360/65s for compute elements and three 360/50s for i/o control. http://www.glennsmuseum.com/ibm/ibm.html

my impressions was that the 9020s used 360/65s (not 360/67s) ... presumably the article behind the paywall would have more detail. Since 9020 didn't make use of virtual memory ... there would be no point in using a 360/67 "simplex" (since the only difference with 360/65 was the addition of the virtual memory) ... and the description of the 9020 multiprocessor makes it sound like a different kind of implementation than what was done for 360/67 multiprocessor and channel controller.

unrelated side note ... the original announcement had 60, 62, and 70 ... which was 8byte memory path with 1microsecond memory. There was enhancement to 750ns memory access and the machine models got renamed.

this was first i've heard that 9020 used address translation ... but I have no real information one way or another ... other than the reference to original implementation was a six 360/50 implementation for 9020 ... and upgrade was for three of the 360/50s to 360/65s.

One of the other differences between 360/67 multiprocessor and 360/65 multiprocessor was that 360/67 multiprocessor had multi-ported memory (while 360/65 single processor & multiprocessor and 360/67 single processor all had effectively same memory subsystem).

This can be seen in the increase in memory access time (over 750ns) for 360/67 multiprocessor (360/67 functional characteristic mentioned upthread, pg.30 "access time", pg37 "system data flow", avg. instruction times starting pg.50) ... even in "half-duplex" configuration ... when there is actually only single processor installed. In purely compute intensive environment with no I/O ... the simplex 360/67 should run faster than (nearly identical) half-duplex 360/67 ... however, under heavy i/o loads the reduced memory bus interference could result in half-duplex 360/67 having higher thruput than 360/67 simplex

re upthread bitsavers reference
http://www.bitsavers.org/pdf/ibm/360/funcChar/GA27-2719-2_360-67_funcChar.pdf

ga27-271902_360-67_funcChar.pdf pg.37
In a Model 67-2 system, each CPU and each Channel Controller is connected, with separate bus, to each storage unit in the system. For example, a system with two CPUs and two Channel Controllers has four buses. Each bus can connect to as many as eight storage units. Conflicts that occur among the several buses connected to each storage unit are resolved at the storage unit. Channel Controller requests for storage cycles are give priority over CPU request. Each CPU has a BCU that controls the storage bus with which the CPU is associated. The Channel Controller performs two types of tasks in the Model 67-2 data transfer function: it communicates with the storage units, and it serves the requests from its channels. In a Model 67-1 system, both tasks are performed by the CPU BCU.

The channel data path provides for the transfer of data between the Channel Controller or CPU BCU and the attached channels. The path is eight bytes wide, including the associated parity bits. All data transfers between the BCU and the attached channels is accomplished over a single path; time-sharing of the path is controlled by the BCU. The definition of signals on this path (except signals required for establishing priority among channels) is the same as for signals on the storage bus


... snip ...

refer to figure 8. model 67-1 minium configuration on pg.36 (single memory bus for processor and channel), figure 9. Model 67-2 half-duplex system, minimum configuration on pg 37, and figure 10. model 67-2 duplex system, minimum configuration, pg. 38

... I have no way of knowing ... but might consider that the location of extra frame used in 360/67 for address translation, might also been the location of any extra frame used for the extra 9020 functions.

cp67's cms may have had 32kbytes of code to simulate os/360 system services that allowed various os/360 compilers and applications to execute in the cms environment.

in the morph from cp67 to vm370, some additional os/360 simulation was added as well as some simulation for (optional) dos/360 system services ... but still less than 64kbytes of code. in the mid-70s ... there was some joke that the 64kbytes of os/360 simulation was significantly more cost effective than the 8mbytes of that they used in mvs to simulate os/360 (aka mvs had separate 16mbytes virtual address space for every application ... but 8mbytes was devoted for image of the mvs kernel that occupied every virtual address space).

In this period the vm370 development group had outgrown the space on the 3rd flr of 545 tech sq and moved out to the old (vacant) SBC building in Burlington Mall (SBC had been given to CDC as part of some legal settlement). However, during much of this period was during the Future System era and lots of resources were being spent on various FS activities and lots of 370 stuff was being shutdown.

With the demise of FS ... there was mad rush (all over the corporation) to get stuff back into the 370 hardware and software product pipelines (the delays and lack of products during this period has been used to explain the mainframe clone processors being able to get market foothold). It possibly also explains decision to pickup some of the stuff I had been doing all during the FS period and release it (my periodic ridicule of FS activity also probably wasn't exactly career enhancing). misc. past posts mentioning FS
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#futuresys

Some old email about doing cp67 stuff and then moving to vm370 ... including making highly modified vm370 version available to large number of internal datacenters:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006v.html#email731212
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006w.html#email750102
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006w.html#email750430

In this period, somebody had been completely reworking the os/360 simulation making it much more complete ... including low level support for actually full access to os/360 formated disks (in addition to mapping numerous kinds of os/360 access methods into cms filesystem operation).

however, in this period, the head of POK also managed to convince corporate to kill vm370, shutdown the burlington mall development group and move all the people to POK (or otherwise he wouldn't be able to meet the mvs/xa customer ship schedule in the 80s). The strategy was to not tell the burlington mall group until the last possible minute ... as part of minimize the number of people escaping the move. Somebody managed to inform the burlington mall group early ... and from then until the shutdown there was a very bad atmosphere in the building as witch-hunt for who leaked the information (fortunately for me, nobody divulged who the source of information was). In any case, there was subsequent joke that head of pok was significant contributor to vax/vms (because so many people escaped the move and went to work for dec). This included the person that had done all the additional os/360 simulation work ... which was lost with no evidence that it every existed.

Endicott was eventually able to save the vm370 product development mission ... but had to reconstitute a development group from scratch (lots of customer comments during the period as to poor quality of vm370 work as the new development group came up to speed).

In the early 80s, there was internal explosion in vm/4341 machines and some large development shops had enormous mvs-hosted development applications ... but were being constrained by central datacenter constraints ... and wanted to migrate to the big proliferation in vm/4341s showing up in every department. One such applications that made extensive use of MVS system services ... was moved to CMS with the addition of 12kbytes of os/simulation. an old email
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006v.html#email800717
other old email mentioning 4341
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/lhwemail.html#4341

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

FAA 9020 - S/360-65 or S/360-67?

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: FAA 9020 - S/360-65 or S/360-67?
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Sun, 18 Mar 2012 13:16:36 -0400
recent discussion in linkedin IBM Historic Computing (closed no public URLs) on "FAA 9020 - S/360-65 or S/360-67?" ... my part archived here
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#65

the issue was that 9020 started out with six 360/50s and then three of the "compute" 360/50 processrs (there other three 360/50s dedicated for i/o processing) were upgrade to 360/65.

part of the question was that the 9020 360/65 had an extra "frame" apparently located where the 360/67 extra frame with the address translation hardware ... however, this frame could have instead been where the extra 9020 hardware was located.

a couple references from other posts in the thread:
http://www.ibm360.info/Misc/DATFrame.JPG
and
http://www.ibm360.info/9020%20Complex%20IBM360.JPG

the above shows 7 busses to each storage unit ... with three 360/50 "I/O" processors and four 360/65 (compute?) processors (each having dedicated bus).

past posts mentioning 9020
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#102 IBM 9020 computers used by FAA (was Re: EPO stories (was: HELP IT'S HOT!!!!!))
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#103 IBM 9020 computers used by FAA (was Re: EPO stories (was: HELP IT'S HOT!!!!!))
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#108 IBM 9020 computers used by FAA (was Re: EPO stories (was: HELP IT'S HOT!!!!!))
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001h.html#15 IBM 9020 FAA/ATC Systems from 1960's
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001h.html#17 IBM 9020 FAA/ATC Systems from 1960's
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001h.html#71 IBM 9020 FAA/ATC Systems from 1960's
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001i.html#2 Most complex instructions (was Re: IBM 9020 FAA/ATC Systems from 1960's)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001i.html#3 Most complex instructions (was Re: IBM 9020 FAA/ATC Systems from 1960's)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001i.html#14 IBM 9020 FAA/ATC Systems from 1960's
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001i.html#15 IBM 9020 FAA/ATC Systems from 1960's

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

FAA 9020 - S/360-65 or S/360-67?

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: FAA 9020 - S/360-65 or S/360-67?
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Sun, 18 Mar 2012 16:15:29 -0400
"Joe Morris" <j.c.morris@verizon.net> writes:
I recall seeing an article on the 9020 in an issue of IBM Systems Journal but my old copies disappeared long ago during a move.

re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#65 FAA 9020 - S/360-65 or S/360-67?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#66 FAA 9020 - S/360-65 or S/360-67?

as mentioned ... the article has gone behind IEEE paywall

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Memory versus processor speed

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Memory versus processor speed
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Mon, 19 Mar 2012 12:15:01 -0400
David Dyer-Bennet <dd-b@dd-b.net> writes:
It does? Huh; most of our problems here in the US seem to relate to inadequate regulation (or inadequate enforcement of existing regulations). Big things like the bank bubble bursting, for example.

re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#58 Memory versus processor speed
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#59 Memory versus processor speed
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#60 Memory versus processor speed
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#9 Memory versus processor speed
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#18 Memory versus processor speed
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#60 Memory versus processor speed

recent Bill Moyers:

Encore: How Big Banks Are Rewriting the Rules of Our Economy
http://billmoyers.com/episode/encore-how-big-banks-are-rewriting-the-rules-of-our-economy/

another recent item on things raised in above
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#52 Goldman Exec Quits In A Scathing NYT Op-Ed About How The Firm Abuses Its Clients

a lot of furor generated from the op-ed is to focus on the person writing the as part of obfuscation and misdirection from the issues. there are a couple articles that a few years ago, GS paid the largest SEC fine ever levied, effectively for its culture practices (but could be viewed as part of cost of doing business ... since it is so small compared to amounts involved) ... and supposedly there was new corporate guidelines drafted afterwards to change the culture ... but recent article calls into question whether it was just for show.

topic drift with one of my hot buttons ... KISS ... do detailed end-to-end process threat&risk analysis asking simple questions as who is at risk, what is at risk, what is its value, who are the defenders, what does defense cost, what are the attacks, what is the value/motivation for the attackers, and what are the costs to the attackers. This isn't just doing faster, this is Boyd doing detailed understanding of the factors (not just constantly iterating the loop, but also constantly looking from every possible viewpoint). One of the misuse of KISS is in simplifying OODA to just be faster ... somewhat as a formula for rote learning ... w/o requiring understanding.

This is with respect to the current financial transaction paradigm ... where there are lots of stakeholders that want to preserve the current status quo. discussion from Sat. in financial cryptography blog
http://financialcryptography.com/mt/archives/001360.html
some of my archived comments in the discussion
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#63

part of the issue is that the entities expected to defend are unrelated to those that are at risk ... so there is little self-interest in doing countermeasures. also any value to the defenders is possibly two orders of magnitude (factor of 100 times) less than the value to the attackers (attackers can potentially afford to outspend the defenders by ten to hundred times)

Real solution is to slightly tweak the paradigm ... but such a change can drastically change the landscape for major stakeholders. This has overlap with MICC and policy of "continuous conflict". In the financial payment sphere, risk&fraud in electronic payments justify significant surcharge payed by merchants to financial institutions (for every transaction; has averaged 40% or more of bottom line for large card issuers). Eliminating the risk&fraud, can be viewed as commoditizing electronic payments and eliminating justification for most of the charges (by at least a factor of ten times, near the actual cost of performing the service). Such a change might result in a 1/3rd hit to the bottom line of many large US financial institutions.

Walmart is notorious for removing costs from infrastructure. In the late 90s Walmart was looking at doing it for the payment infrastructure ... and the financial industry responded with lobbying congress for GLBA. Even though GLBA is now better known for repeal of Glass-Steagall, rhetoric on the floor of congress was that primary purpose of GLBA was to prevent Walmart and Microsoft from becoming banks ("if you were already a bank, you could remain a bank, if you weren't already a bank you didn't get to become a bank"). Roll-forward to the behind the scenes tens of trillions that Federal Reserve provided as its role in the financial mess bail-out; some number of the investment banks that played major role in creating the mess didn't have bank charters ... but the Federal Reserve handed them ones (so they could have access to Federal Reserve assistance) ... theoretically in violation of GLBA (repeal of Glass-Steagall allowed regulated depository institutions to add unregulated, risky investment banking units ... but the "primary" claimed purpose for GLBA would prevent unregulated, risky investment banking institutions to add bank charters).

a few past alt.folklore.computers on the subject:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007b.html#61 Securing financial transactions a high priority for 2007
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007c.html#10 Securing financial transactions a high priority for 2007
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007f.html#72 Securing financial transactions a high priority for 2007
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007o.html#13 EZPass: Yes, Big Brother IS Watching You!
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007s.html#55 Translation of IBM Basic Assembler to C?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007t.html#6 Translation of IBM Basic Assembler to C?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007v.html#44 Education ranking
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007v.html#45 Education ranking
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007v.html#94 folklore indeed
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008c.html#11 Toyota Sales for 2007 May Surpass GM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008d.html#4 Toyota Sales for 2007 May Surpass GM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008f.html#97 Bush - place in history
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008m.html#73 Blinkylights
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009b.html#47 How to defeat new telemarketing tactic
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009b.html#58 OCR scans of old documents
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009b.html#60 OCR scans of old documents
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009e.html#40 Architectural Diversity
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009i.html#40 64 Cores -- IBM is showing a prototype already
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009i.html#54 64 Cores -- IBM is showing a prototype already
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009n.html#56 Opinions on the 'Unix Haters' Handbook'
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009n.html#62 Opinions on the 'Unix Haters' Handbook'
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009o.html#23 Opinions on the 'Unix Haters' Handbook'
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009o.html#84 Opinions on the 'Unix Haters' Handbook'
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009p.html#2 Opinions on the 'Unix Haters' Handbook
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009p.html#23 Opinions on the 'Unix Haters' Handbook
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009p.html#25 Opinions on the 'Unix Haters' Handbook
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009p.html#51 Opinions on the 'Unix Haters' Handbook
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009r.html#35 70 Years of ATM Innovation
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009r.html#53 70 Years of ATM Innovation
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009r.html#73 70 Years of ATM Innovation
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010b.html#82 Oldest Instruction Set still in daily use?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010b.html#86 Oldest Instruction Set still in daily use?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010c.html#87 search engine history, was Happy DEC-10 Day
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010e.html#74 LPARs: More or Less?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010f.html#36 The 2010 Census
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010f.html#51 The 2010 Census
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010f.html#54 The 2010 Census
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010f.html#62 The 2010 Census
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010f.html#69 The 2010 Census
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010h.html#69 Idiotic programming style edicts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010h.html#74 Idiotic programming style edicts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010h.html#75 Idiotic programming style edicts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010i.html#77 Favourite computer history books?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010k.html#7 taking down the machine - z9 series
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010k.html#29 Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010k.html#43 Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010l.html#17 History--automated payroll processing by other than a computer?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010m.html#67 Idiotic programming style edicts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010n.html#29 Idiotic programming style edicts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010n.html#33 Idiotic programming style edicts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010n.html#35 Idiotic programming style edicts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010n.html#36 Idiotic programming style edicts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010p.html#16 Rare Apple I computer sells for $216,000 in London
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010p.html#54 TCM's Moguls documentary series
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010p.html#59 TCM's Moguls documentary series
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010q.html#16 TCM's Moguls documentary series
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011d.html#19 The first personal computer (PC)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011d.html#27 The first personal computer (PC)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011d.html#28 The first personal computer (PC)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011e.html#74 The first personal computer (PC)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011i.html#18 Happy 100th Birthday, IBM!
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011i.html#42 Happy 100th Birthday, IBM!
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011i.html#45 Happy 100th Birthday, IBM!
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011k.html#53 50th anniversary of BASIC, COBOL?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011l.html#67 computer bootlaces
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011l.html#69 computer bootlaces
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011l.html#73 computer bootlaces
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011l.html#74 computer bootlaces
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011m.html#0 computer bootlaces
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011m.html#2 computer bootlaces
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011m.html#14 computer bootlaces
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011m.html#18 computer bootlaces
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011o.html#36 Civilization, doomed?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011o.html#52 Civilization, doomed?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012b.html#5 The round wheels industry is heading for collapse
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#52 PC industry is heading for more change
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#54 PC industry is heading for more change
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#5 PC industry is heading for more change
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#25 PC industry is heading for more change
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#32 PC industry is heading for more change

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Memory versus processor speed

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Memory versus processor speed
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Mon, 19 Mar 2012 13:18:48 -0400
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#68 Memory versus processor speed

some more on the topic:

Wake Up Congress; Before the Next Collapse; Goldman Sachs' Trader Finds a New Occupy Tactic
http://www.counterpunch.org/2012/03/19/goldman-sachs-trader-finds-a-new-occupy-tactic/

above touches on number of topics including "dark" markets with no visibility and transparency and congress preventing CFTC from derivatives oversight. Also mentions parallels betwen today and 1929 (which I spent some work on when html'izing Peroca hearings).

some past posts about interaction between bank modernization act (GLBA) and commodity trading modernization act (preventing any derivative oversight):
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009c.html#39 'WHO IS RESPONSIBLE FOR THE GLOBAL MELTDOWN'
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009c.html#46 How to defeat new telemarketing tactic
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009c.html#48 How to defeat new telemarketing tactic
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009c.html#53 How to defeat new telemarketing tactic
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009c.html#55 Who will give Citigroup the KNOCKOUT blow?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009c.html#65 is it possible that ALL banks will be nationalized?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009d.html#10 Who will Survive AIG or Derivative Counterparty Risk?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009d.html#28 I need insight on the Stock Market
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009d.html#61 Quiz: Evaluate your level of Spreadsheet risk
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009d.html#62 Is Wall Street World's Largest Ponzi Scheme where Madoff is Just a Poster Child?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009d.html#63 Do bonuses foster unethical conduct?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009d.html#73 Should Glass-Steagall be reinstated?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009e.html#0 What is swap in the financial market?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009e.html#13 Should we fear and hate derivatives?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009f.html#29 What is the real basis for business mess we are facing today?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009f.html#51 On whom or what would you place the blame for the sub-prime crisis?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009g.html#7 Just posted third article about toxic assets in a series on the current financial crisis
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009g.html#33 Treating the Web As an Archive
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009h.html#17 REGULATOR ROLE IN THE LIGHT OF RECENT FINANCIAL SCANDALS
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009i.html#60 In the USA "financial regulator seeks power to curb excess speculation."
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009o.html#84 Opinions on the 'Unix Haters' Handbook'
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009q.html#77 Now is time for banks to replace core system according to Accenture
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010f.html#54 The 2010 Census
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010h.html#28 Our Pecora Moment
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010h.html#67 The Python and the Mongoose: it helps if you know the rules of engagement
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010l.html#38 Who is Really to Blame for the Financial Crisis?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010n.html#36 Idiotic programming style edicts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010q.html#29 Ernst & Young sued for fraud over Lehman
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011f.html#52 Are Americans serious about dealing with money laundering and the drug cartels?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011j.html#41 Advice from Richard P. Feynman
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011k.html#54 50th anniversary of BASIC, COBOL?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011l.html#74 computer bootlaces
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011n.html#41 The men who crashed the world
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#31 US real-estate has lost $7T in value
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#5 PC industry is heading for more change

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Mainframe System 370

Refed: **, - **, - **
From: lynn@garlic.com (Lynn Wheeler)
Date: 19 Mar, 2012
Subject: Mainframe System 370
Blog: Facebook
Mainframe System 370
http://www.forbes.com/sites/davidewalt/2012/03/19/mainframe-system-370/

May '75, Endicott came by to con me in to helping with microcode assist (ECPS) for virgil/tully (aka 138&148) ... old post with more detail
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/94.html#21

and then the product administrator con'ed me in to running around with him on&off for nearly a year all over the world ... explaining to different country business planners & forecasters 138/148. Then vm370 release3 PLC9(?) ships with ECPS support at same time as 138/148 ... ann june 1976
http://www-03.ibm.com/ibm/history/exhibits/mainframe/mainframe_PP3148.html

One of the difference between US & world trade ... is regional US business forecasts had no meaning ... but WT forecasts met that the country ordered the machines ... which were shipped to the country ... and the country had responsibility (US marketing could just ignore whatever they had claimed for forecast).

One of the things that Endicott tried to do was make all 138/148 "vm370" machines ... shipped from the factory (somewhat like LPARS are today) ... but got slapped down by corporate. POK was convincing corporate to kill vm370 product and transfer all the people to POK for MVS/XA (they were planning on waiting to last minute to tell everybody in the Burlington Mall development group that they were moving to POK, the information manage to leak and there is joke that head of POK was one of the largest contributors to VAX/VMS). Endicott eventually manages to save the vm370 product mission but had to recreate a development group from scratch

oh ... there was massive witch hunt in burlington mall to try and find out who leaked the shutdown information ... fortunately for me ... nobody squeeled.

misc. past posts mentioning burlington mall:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/94.html#2 Schedulers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/98.html#7 DOS is Stolen!
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#179 S/360 history
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000b.html#54 Multics dual-page-size scheme
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000b.html#55 Multics dual-page-size scheme
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001m.html#47 TSS/360
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001m.html#49 TSS/360
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001n.html#67 Hercules etc. IBM not just missing a great opportunity...
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002e.html#27 moving on
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002h.html#34 Computers in Science Fiction
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002h.html#59 history of CMS
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002j.html#17 CDC6600 - just how powerful a machine was it?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002m.html#9 DOS history question
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002o.html#78 Newsgroup cliques?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002p.html#14 Multics on emulated systems?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003c.html#0 Wanted: Weird Programming Language
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003d.html#8 IBM says AMD dead in 5yrs ... -- Microsoft Monopoly vs. IBM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003f.html#53 Alpha performance, why?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003g.html#22 303x, idals, dat, disk head settle, and other rambling folklore
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003h.html#34 chad... the unknown story
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003k.html#0 VSPC
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003k.html#55 S/360 IPL from 7 track tape
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004.html#20 BASIC Language History?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004.html#32 BASIC Language History?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004c.html#47 IBM 360 memory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004d.html#42 REXX still going strong after 25 years
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004e.html#37 command line switches [Re: [REALLY OT!] Overuse of symbolic
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004g.html#24 |d|i|g|i|t|a|l| questions
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004g.html#35 network history (repeat, google may have gotten confused?)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004g.html#38 Infiniband - practicalities for small clusters
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004k.html#23 US fiscal policy (Was: Bob Bemer, Computer Pioneer,Father of
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004m.html#6 a history question
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004m.html#54 Shipwrecks
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004n.html#7 RISCs too close to hardware?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004q.html#72 IUCV in VM/CMS
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005f.html#58 Where should the type information be: in tags and descriptors
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005h.html#37 Software for IBM 360/30
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005j.html#25 IBM Plugs Big Iron to the College Crowd
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005j.html#54 Q ALLOC PAGE vs. CP Q ALLOC vs ESAMAP
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005p.html#0 Article: The True Value of Mainframe Security
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005q.html#12 What ever happened to Tandem and NonStop OS ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005q.html#14 What ever happened to Tandem and NonStop OS ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005s.html#35 Filemode 7-9?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005s.html#36 Filemode 7-9?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006b.html#18 {SPAM?} Re: Expanded Storage
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006j.html#44 virtual memory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006l.html#25 Mainframe Linux Mythbusting (Was: Using Java in batch on z/OS?)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006m.html#21 The very first text editor
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006m.html#25 Mainframe Limericks
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006m.html#28 Mainframe Limericks
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006o.html#51 The Fate of VM - was: Re: Baby MVS???
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006r.html#41 Very slow booting and running and brain-dead OS's?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006s.html#1 Info on Compiler System 1 (Univac, Navy)?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006u.html#28 Assembler question
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007f.html#25 The Perfect Computer - 36 bits?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007f.html#28 The Perfect Computer - 36 bits?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007g.html#39 Wylbur and Paging
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007l.html#58 Scholars needed to build a computer history bibliography
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007m.html#66 Off Topic But Concept should be Known To All
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007p.html#29 Newsweek article--baby boomers and computers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007p.html#35 Newsweek article--baby boomers and computers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007q.html#0 A question for the Wheelers - Diagnose instruction
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007s.html#33 Age of IBM VM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007s.html#36 Oracle Introduces Oracle VM As It Leaps Into Virtualization
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007t.html#68 T3 Sues IBM To Break its Mainframe Monopoly
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007u.html#40 Computer language history
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007v.html#96 source for VAX programmers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008l.html#75 Intel: an expensive many-core future is ahead of us
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009b.html#67 IBM tried to kill VM?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009c.html#14 Assembler Question
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009c.html#54 THE runs in DOS box?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009i.html#37 Why are z/OS people reluctant to use z/OS UNIX?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009k.html#62 Hercules; more information requested
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009r.html#33 While watching Biography about Bill Gates on CNBC last Night
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009r.html#41 While watching Biography about Bill Gates on CNBC last Night
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009r.html#51 "Portable" data centers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010.html#4 360 programs on a z/10
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010b.html#10 Happy DEC-10 Day
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010b.html#37 Happy DEC-10 Day
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010b.html#44 sysout using machine control instead of ANSI control
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010c.html#46 Mythical computers and magazine reviews
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010d.html#59 LPARs: More or Less?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010d.html#66 LPARs: More or Less?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010e.html#14 Senior Java Developer vs. MVS Systems Programmer (warning: Conley rant)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010h.html#8 Far and near pointers on the 80286 and later
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010j.html#1 History: Mark-sense cards vs. plain keypunching?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010j.html#54 Article says mainframe most cost-efficient platform
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010l.html#19 Old EMAIL Index
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010l.html#45 PROP instead of POPS, PoO, et al
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010p.html#42 Which non-IBM software products (from ISVs) have been most significant to the mainframe's success?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010q.html#9 EXTERNAL: Re: Problem with an edit command in tso
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010q.html#41 Old EMAIL Index
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011.html#18 IBM Future System
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011b.html#70 vm/370 3081
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011c.html#83 IBM Future System
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011d.html#52 Maybe off topic
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011f.html#39 At least two decades back, some gurus predicted that mainframes would disappear in future and it still has not happened
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011g.html#8 Is the magic and romance killed by Windows (and Linux)?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011h.html#69 IBM Mainframe (1980's) on You tube
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011k.html#9 Was there ever a DOS JCL reference like the Brown book?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011k.html#12 Was there ever a DOS JCL reference like the Brown book?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011l.html#18 Selectric Typewriter--50th Anniversary
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011o.html#6 John R. Opel, RIP
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011o.html#92 Question regarding PSW correction after translation exceptions on old IBM hardware
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011p.html#82 Migration off mainframe
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011p.html#114 Start Interpretive Execution
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#65 FAA 9020 - S/360-65 or S/360-67?

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Memory versus processor speed

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From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Memory versus processor speed
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Mon, 19 Mar 2012 16:48:05 -0400
David Dyer-Bennet <dd-b@dd-b.net> writes:
It does? Huh; most of our problems here in the US seem to relate to inadequate regulation (or inadequate enforcement of existing regulations). Big things like the bank bubble bursting, for example.

re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#68 Memory versus processor speed

graphics from today:

The Myth Of Over-Regulation In The US
http://www.businessinsider.com/chart-the-myth-of-over-regulation-in-the-us-2012-3

from above:
It should be immediately obvious that the U.S. (along with the U.K) is the least regulated advanced economy in the world. This seriously threatens the idea that companies are going to move themselves to a similarly stable country simply because of less business regulation. Particularly not when U.S. employees are the most productive in the developed world

... snip ...

A possible corollary is the extensive use of dark markets w/o transparency and visibility along with claims that large percentage of those currently on wallstreet are psychopaths, lack ethics (of much of the rest of the population) ... and are in significant need of adult supervison.

some misc. past posts on the subject:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008s.html#27 Garbage in, garbage out trampled by Moore's law
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008s.html#29 Let IT run the company!
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008s.html#30 How reliable are the credit rating companies? Who is over seeing them?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009b.html#11 Amid Economic Turbulence, Mainframes Counter IT Cost-Cutting Trend
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009b.html#17 Fraud -- how can you stay one step ahead?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009b.html#25 The recently revealed excesses of John Thain, the former CEO of Merrill Lynch, while the firm was receiving $25 Billion in TARP funds makes me sick
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009b.html#36 A great article was posted in another BI group: "To H*** with Business Intelligence: 40 Percent of Execs Trust Gut"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009b.html#53 Credit & Risk Management ... go Simple ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009b.html#73 What can we learn from the meltdown?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009d.html#75 Whistleblowing and reporting fraud
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009e.html#36 Architectural Diversity
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010e.html#77 Madoff Whistleblower Book
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010f.html#15 LPARs: More or Less?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010h.html#41 Profiling of fraudsters
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010o.html#37 WHAT, WHY AND HOW - FRAUD, IMPACT OF AUDIT
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010o.html#39 Compressing the OODA-Loop - Removing the D (and maybe even an O)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010q.html#24 Ernst & Young sued for fraud over Lehman
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011b.html#59 Productivity And Bubbles
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011n.html#24 AMERICA IS BROKEN, WHAT NOW?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011n.html#30 Have you ever wondered why some people seem to get rich easily
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011o.html#26 The men who crashed the world
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011o.html#40 Civilization, doomed?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011o.html#80 How Pursuit of Profits Kills Innovation and the U.S. Economy
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#4 The Myth of Work-Life Balance
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#30 Age of Greed: The Triumph of Finance and the Decline of America, 1970 to the Present
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012b.html#16 Interview of Mr. John Reed regarding banking fixing the game
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012b.html#99 New theory of moral behavior may explain recent ethical lapses in banking industry
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#1 Spontaneous conduction: The music man with no written plan

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

megabytes per second

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From: lynn@GARLIC.COM (Anne & Lynn Wheeler)
Subject: Re: megabytes per second
Newsgroups: bit.listserv.ibm-main
Date: 21 Mar 2012 09:06:22 -0700
ronjhawkins@SBCGLOBAL.NET (Ron Hawkins) writes:
I'm afraid sequential pre-fetch kinda of makes your point invalid for sequential IO.

when ibm first came out with full-track cache (3880-13/sheriff) ... it advertised a 90% hit rate ... based on 3380 track, 10 records per track and sequential read, where first sequently read on track would fetch the full track ... and then the next 9 sequential reads would already be in cache.

however, if the application when to full-track buffering ... the same exact application and data would go from 90% hit ratio to zero percent hit ratio (effectively each track would be read as a whole, streamed through the 3880-13 cache right into processor memory ... and then wouldn't have any additional cache reference for the track). double "full-track" buffering would then overlap retrieval of the following track with the processing of the records in the previous track (masking disk retrieval latency, aka akin to instruction execution with prefetch &/or out-of-order execution to mask processor cache miss latency).

misc. past posts mentioning 3880-13 full-track cache:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001.html#18 Disk caching and file systems. Disk history...people forget
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001b.html#61 Disks size growing while disk count shrinking = bad performance
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001c.html#17 database (or b-tree) page sizes
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001d.html#49 VTOC position
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001d.html#68 I/O contention
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001l.html#53 mainframe question
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001l.html#54 mainframe question
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001l.html#55 mainframe question
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001l.html#63 MVS History (all parts)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002d.html#55 Storage Virtualization
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002o.html#3 PLX
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002o.html#52 ''Detrimental'' Disk Allocation
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003b.html#7 Disk drives as commodities. Was Re: Yamhill
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003i.html#72 A few Z990 Gee-Wiz stats
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004g.html#13 Infiniband - practicalities for small clusters
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004g.html#17 Infiniband - practicalities for small clusters
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004g.html#20 Infiniband - practicalities for small clusters
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004g.html#21 Infiniband - practicalities for small clusters
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004g.html#22 Infiniband - practicalities for small clusters
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004l.html#29 FW: Looking for Disk Calc program/Exec
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005m.html#28 IBM's mini computers--lack thereof
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005t.html#50 non ECC
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006.html#4 Average Seek times are pretty confusing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006c.html#46 Hercules 3.04 announcement
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006e.html#45 using 3390 mod-9s
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006e.html#46 using 3390 mod-9s
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006i.html#41 virtual memory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006j.html#14 virtual memory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006s.html#32 Why magnetic drums was/are worse than disks ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006v.html#31 MB to Cyl Conversion
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007e.html#10 A way to speed up level 1 caches
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007e.html#38 FBA rant
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008b.html#15 Flash memory arrays
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008d.html#52 Throwaway cores
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008i.html#41 American Airlines
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008s.html#39 The Internet's 100 Oldest Dot-Com Domains
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010.html#47 locate mode, was Happy DEC-10 Day
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010.html#51 locate mode, was Happy DEC-10 Day
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010g.html#11 Mainframe Executive article on the death of tape
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010g.html#55 Mainframe Executive article on the death of tape
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010i.html#20 How to analyze a volume's access by dataset
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010n.html#14 Mainframe Slang terms
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011.html#67 Speed of Old Hard Disks
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011.html#68 Speed of Old Hard Disks
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#34 nested LRU schemes
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#47 nested LRU schemes

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Execution Velocity

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From: lynn@GARLIC.COM (Anne & Lynn Wheeler)
Subject: Re: Execution Velocity
Newsgroups: bit.listserv.ibm-main
Date: 21 Mar 2012 12:37:45 -0700
m42tom-ibmmain@YAHOO.COM (Tom Marchant) writes:
To look at it another way, cache exists because main storage is very slow compared to the processor speed. Without cache, the processor would not be able to execute instructions nearly as fast as it could. Cache allows data from main storage to be kept very close to the processor in extremely fast memory, allowing the processor to execute instructions as fast as possible.

there have been observations that the latency of a cache miss (elapsed to retrieve data from main storage), measured in number of "processor cycles" is on the order of the 60s disk access ... measured in number of 60s processor cycles. the effort in the 60s to improve throughput was to have multitasking and/or multithreading ... be able to switch to some other work ... while waiting for disk accesses.

a lot of work was done in this area starting in the 80s ... especially for risk processors, for out-of-order execution and speculative execution ... allowing execution of other instructions (that had their data in cache) ... while a "stalled" instruction was waiting on cache-miss. The 60s equivalent to not simply trying to make infinite sized storage, as countermeasure to serialized miss latency, but multiprogramming to be able to switch to something else while waiting.

there was work on hyperthreading ... independent instruction streams feeding common execution units ... that while one stalled instruction stream (waiting on cache miss), there could be instruction execution from other independent instruction stream ... basically simulates multiple processors ... but w/o actual double all of the hardware.

possibly one of the original hyperthreading efforts was for 370/195 ... which didn't actually ship. 370/195 was pipelined and allowed out-of-order execution ... but didn't have speculative execution and/or branch prediction ... so conditional branch stalled the processor. Peak throughput of 195 was approx. 10mips ... but most codes only got 5mips because of abundance of conditional branches. The 195 hyperthreading effort was to simulate multiprocessing with two instruction streams, PSWs, registers, etc ... but not twice the hardware (instructions in pipeline would have one flag bit indicating which instruction stream it was associated with). Two (simulated multiprocessor, independent) instruction streams ... each executing in the pipeline at 5mips (because of stall waiting for conditional branches) ... would be able to keep the execution units operating at effective throughput of 10mips.

One of the issues of current and past several generation of "86" ("CISC") chips ... are that they are actually RISC chips ... with a hardware layer translating the CISC instructions into RISC micro-ops for actual execution. This has resulted in significantly closing the MIP thruput rate of CISC vis-a-vis traditional RISC.

The current generation of chips have cache sizes larger than the 60s processor memory sizes. However, the relative performance degradation of a cache miss today is about the same as virtual memory page fault from the 60s. Some applications today are tuned to maintain their "working set" in cache (and minimize cache misses) ... in much the same way that virtual memory apps in the 60s were tuned to maintain their working sets in real storage (and minimize page faults).

The science center ... some past posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech

besides having done a lot of virtual memory with (virtual machine) cp67 in the 60s and early 70s ... also did a lot of work with performance monitoring, performance simulated, and workload profiling (some of which then evolved into capacity planning). Science center also did a lot of paging algorithm and paging simulation work. One such was full instruction trace that was then fed into paging simulator ... that also had support for doing semi-automatic program re-organization to optimize operation in virtual memory environment. This was eventually released as a product called VS/Repack in 1976. However, even before it was released, internally a lot of products made extensive use of it to improve their operations ... including a lot of OS/360 applications, subsystems, and products making the transition to "virtual storage" environment.

Some of the high-use, performance sensitive applications do something similar today ... but from the standpoint of improved throughput in a processor cache environment (i.e. today's cache has become the 60s real storage for 60s virtual memory page fault systems)

For a total different take ... there have been some current high-throughput processors done w/o caches ... but with something like 128 "hyper-threads", aka 128 independent instruction streams (simulated multi-processors) ... that while the processor execution is stalled waiting for data from other threads ... the hardware is able to switch to some thread that has instruction with data ready for execution (think of it as hardware multiprogramming and hardware WAIT/POST and its own dispatch/scheduling)

misc. recent posts mentioning 370/195
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#60 Has anyone successfully migrated off mainframes?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012b.html#0 Happy Challenger Day
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012b.html#18 The PC industry is heading for collapse
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#8 The PC industry is heading for collapse
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#56 Update on the F35 Debate
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#58 Memory versus processor speed
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#21 Inventor of e-mail honored by Smithsonian
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#64 Layer 8: NASA unplugs last mainframe

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Execution Velocity

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **
From: lynn@GARLIC.COM (Anne & Lynn Wheeler)
Subject: Re: Execution Velocity
Newsgroups: bit.listserv.ibm-main
Date: 22 Mar 2012 07:35:50 -0700
shmuel+ibm-main@PATRIOT.NET (Shmuel Metz , Seymour J.) writes:
Virtual multiprocessors go back to the late 1950's[1] and early 1960's[2], although IBM and Intel came late to the game.

[1] Honeywell 800

[2] Peripheral Processors on CDC 6600


re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#73 Execution Velocity

not 50s, but this old post on dual i-stream 195 keeping execution units fed:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004e.html#1 A POX on you, Dennis Ritchie!!!

in a.f.c. news group ... references the 1-bit flag in the pipeline as red/black instruction streams (as part of common pipeline keeping track of which instructions/registers were associated with which instruction stream) ... and believing it appeared in IBM's ACS project from early 60s ... but I can't find any mention at ACS reference site (IBM Advanced Computing Systems -- 1961 - 1969)
http://people.cs.clemson.edu/~mark/acs.html

however above does mention ACS and out-of-order instruction execution that appears in 360/91.

Part of the current environment is deep-pipeline, dual instruction streams, out-of-order execution, speculative execution (re: conditional branches) and decomposing into RISC micro-ops ... provides execution units with a queue of large tens of pending operations for execution ... and if some operation stalls with a cache miss (and requires latency of storage fetch) ... there are a large number of other pending operations that may be executed (helping mask cache-miss, main storage fetch delay/latency).

ACS timeline
http://www.cs.clemson.edu/~mark/acs_timeline.html

as in above timeline Amdahl resigns from IBM sept. 1970 ... supposedly as result of decision not to do ACS.

Claims have been that Amdahl was not aware of the subsequent "Future System" effort that was going to completely replace all 370 ... but at a seminar he gave at MIT in the early 70s (several of us at the science center attended), he was asked what justifications did he use with investors for his new clone company. He mentioned that customers had already invested billions of dollars in 360 software development, and even if IBM were to completely walk away from 360(/370), that software base would keep him in business until the end of the century (which could be claimed to be a veiled reference to "Future System"). misc. past posts mentioning Future System
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#futuresys

for more topic drift ... additional Future System details:
http://people.cs.clemson.edu/~mark/fs.html

This claims motivation for Future System effort was clone controllers:
http://web.archive.org/web/20110718153549/http://www.ecole.org/Crisis_and_change_1995_1.htm
http://www.ecole.org/en/seances/CM07

from above:
IBM tried to react by launching a major project called the 'Future System' (FS) in the early 1970's. The idea was to get so far ahead that the competition would never be able to keep up, and to have such a high level of integration that it would be impossible for competitors to follow a compatible niche strategy. However, the project failed because the objectives were too ambitious for the available technology. Many of the ideas that were developed were nevertheless adapted for later generations. Once IBM had acknowledged this failure, it launched its 'box strategy', which called for competitiveness with all the different types of compatible sub-systems. But this proved to be difficult because of IBM's cost structure and its R&D spending, and the strategy only resulted in a partial narrowing of the price gap between IBM and its rivals.

... snip ...

Ferguson & Morris book, "Computer Wars: The Post-IBM World", Time Books, 1993, mention that distraction of Future System and killing off work on 370 products ... and then after Future System was killed with delay in getting 370 efforts restarted, allowed clone processors to gain market foothold.

some discussion of restarting 370 efforts (3033 & 3081)
http://www.jfsowa.com/computer/memo125.htm

for other topic drift ... as undergraduate in the 60s, I had extended cp67 terminal support to include tty/ascii ... and tried to do something with the 2702 terminal controller that it couldn't quite do. This was somewhat behind university effort to do a clone controller (started with an Interdata/3 minicomputer) that would (at least) support both automatic terminal type identification as well as automatic line speed identification. this is picked up as product and sold as clone controller by Interdata (later bought by Perkin-Elmer and marketed under their brand name) ... four of us at the univ. get written up as responsible for (some part of) clone controller business. misc. past posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#360pcm

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

megabytes per second

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From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: megabytes per second
Newsgroups: bit.listserv.ibm-main
Date: Thu, 22 Mar 2012 12:57:04 -0400
ronjhawkins@SBCGLOBAL.NET (Ron Hawkins) writes:
I didn't get to work with the 3880-13, but with the 3880-23 I think I recall sequential pre-fetch was initially fetching three tracks, using a wrap-around buffer to keep track of the last block read and maintaining two tracks beyond the last track accessed in cache.

With 3990-3 I think this increased to five tracks, and I have no idea about 3990-6 and beyond.

With HDS Arrays the sequential pre-fetch buffering is based on the stripe length of the underlying parity group and the data length of the start SSCH that triggers the sequential pre-fetch staging and monitoring.


re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#72 megabytes per second

main difference 3880-13 and 3880-23 was increase in cache size from 8mbytes to 32mbytes ... i don't remember -23 controller recognizing sequential and prefetch ... jib-prime used in 3880 controller was relatively slow microprocessor ... and didn't implement a lot of function. sequential pre-fetch strategies have been done for host-systems for applications that are file/application specific operations ... which is not insensitive to concurrent accesses by other applications using shared device (which 3880-23 couldn't differentiate).

I found old email from 1987 about somebody doing sequential read performance test on 3880-23 ... and the data didn't seem to show that 3880-23 was doing preread. There is also a discussion does the 3880-23 wait for address/marker before starting track transfer ... or can it start as soon as head-settle and wrap-around. The discussion was about whether the 3880-23 would mask RPS-miss (which it didn't) and whether 3880-23 would start full-track data transfer into cache as soon as head settled (w/o waiting for address marker) after a seek operation ... even before processing set-sector, any search, and/or even getting to actual data-transfer channel program. Cache operation was also write "store-through" ... aka synchronous to disk ... and no indication that 3880 controller would do its own seek operation (to move to different track for pre-fetch) independent of what was explicit from some channel program.

for other drift, this mentions processor being able to do cache bypass operations .... for instance if the system is doing form of caching with main memory ... until no longer needed ... then it can be redundant when an identical copy is maintained in controller cache (especially when controller cache may be smaller to very little larger than processor cache):
http://publib.boulder.ibm.com/infocenter/tivihelp/v42r1/topic/com.ibm.omegamon_xezos.doc/epilog_users_guide86.htm

I had used the scenario for "dup"/"no-dup" page management (used with 3880-11 & 3880-21 page record cache) ... recent post with reference
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#47 nested LRU schemes

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

megabytes per second

From: lynn@GARLIC.COM (Anne & Lynn Wheeler)
Subject: Re: megabytes per second
Newsgroups: bit.listserv.ibm-main
Date: 22 Mar 2012 11:26:21 -0700
Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com> writes:
data-transfer channel program. Cache operation was also write "store-through" ... aka synchronous to disk ... and no indication that 3880 controller would do its own seek operation (to move to different track for pre-fetch) independent of what was explicit from some channel program.

re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#72 megabytes per second
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#75 megabytes per second

also
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#73 Execution Velocity
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#74 Execution Velocity

at least by 80s, some processors were started to do "store-into" caches (rather than store-through) for additional performance ... store operation happened in cache and write could be done asynchronously at some later point without involving stalling instructions (with store operations).

Issue with disk caches (& "store-into" for later writing as opposed to "store-through") was processor cache&memory data was typically viewed as ephemeral ... i.e. in power failure, changes weren't expected to survive. However, for disk caches ... store-into had to wait until there was (typically redundant) battery-backed &/or flash memory ... since data written to "disk" was expected to survive power failure (would survive in cache until power was sufficient to eventually write to disk).

note that ibm dasd/channel operation use to have peculiar power-failure, failure mode for a long time. data to be written was in processor memory and if power failed in the middle of the write operation ... there could be sufficient power for the disk to complete the write operation ... but not enough to power processor memory and transfer of data to disk. The symptoms was that disk would propagate write with all zeros ... and then write correct error code for the partial zero record (no hardware error condition).

there were even countermeasure system designs through the 80s that all physical records were guaranteed to end in non-zero (systeme) data ... what wouldn't be seen by applications ... as a validity check for power-failure partially valid record with propagated zeros.

FBA drives developed strategy that there was sufficient power and data to always complete a write operation, once it started. Once all CKD DASD migrated to simulation on top of FBA (there hasn't been any real CKD DASD for decades) ... along with various intermediate cache memory ... there problem has been mitigated. misc. past posts mentioning CKD & FBA
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#dasd

misc. past posts mentioning getting to play disk engineer in bldgs. 14&15
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#disk

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Pre-Friday fun: Halon dumps and POK Resets

From: lynn@GARLIC.COM (Anne & Lynn Wheeler)
Subject: Re: Pre-Friday fun: Halon dumps and POK Resets
Newsgroups: bit.listserv.ibm-main
Date: 22 Mar 2012 11:39:20 -0700
maryanne4psu@GMAIL.COM (Mary Anne Matyaz) writes:
Customer designs a new datacenter, moves in, has an issue where a guy in a backhoe clips the incoming power source. Customer is patting themselves on the back for the wisdom of having two separate power lines, one on each side of the building.

early days of internet ... connectivity out of the boston area was set up with nine(?) different 56kbit links with diverse routing (telco provisioning) ... physically separate lines & exchanges

over the years, telco company eventually consolidated all nine links until they were being carried on a common fiber-optic trunk ... one day, someplace in Connecticut, a backhoe clips the fiber-optic trunk ... and boston was partitioned from the rest of the internet.

...

one customer we were marketing ha/cmp to ... had major datacenter in large metropolitan area ... carefully chosen to be in building that was fed by multiple water mains down different sides of the building, four different power feeds from different physical power substations and four different telephone trunks to different physical central exchanges (all different sides)

one day transformer in the basement blew ... contaminating the bldg. with PCB ... everything was off and bldg. had to be evacuated.

ha/cmp had started work on supporting physical separate and I coin the marketing terms "disaster survivable" and "geographic survivable" (to differentiate from disaster/recovery). I get asked to write section in corporate continuous available strategy document ... but the section gets pulled when both Rochester and POK complain (that they couldn't meet the requirements, at least at that time).

misc. past posts mentioning ha/cmp
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#hacmp

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

megabytes per second

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: megabytes per second
To: <ibm-main@bama.ua.edu>
Date: Thu, 22 Mar 2012 15:05:32 -0400
ronjhawkins@SBCGLOBAL.NET (Ron Hawkins) writes:
I didn't get to work with the 3880-13, but with the 3880-23 I think I recall sequential pre-fetch was initially fetching three tracks, using a wrap-around buffer to keep track of the last block read and maintaining two tracks beyond the last track accessed in cache.

With 3990-3 I think this increased to five tracks, and I have no idea about 3990-6 and beyond.


re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#72 megabytes per second
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#75 megabytes per second
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#76 megabytes per second

this mentions that sequential detect is new function as of June1996 for 3990-3/6 ftp://public.dhe.ibm.com/eserver/zseries/zos/vse/pdf3/veioperf.pdf

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

NASA unplugs their last mainframe

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: lynn@garlic.com (Lynn Wheeler)
Date: 23 Mar, 2012
Subject: NASA unplugs their last mainframe
Blog: MainframeZone
re:
http://lnkd.in/Uz6-ck
and
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#2 NASA unplugs their last mainframe
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#6 NASA unplugs their last mainframe
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#28 NASA unplugs their last mainframe

recent posts in thread in ibm-main mailing list
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#73 .
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#74

which discusses some of the hardware design issues ... included old effort to "hyper-thread" the 370/195 ... and the precursor "ACS" ... decision not to do ACS was claimed to be the reason that Amdahl left IBM. However, one of the other principle people involved in ACS went on to do 801/risc (I've claimed the motivation to do an extremely simple risc design was in reaction to the extreme complexity that was part of Future System design). "IBM Advanced Computing Systems 1961-1969" reference:
http://people.cs.clemson.edu/~mark/acs.html

However, as mentioned in the ibm-main postings as well as upthead in this discussion, recent generations of "86" chips are actually risc processors with hardware layer that translates "86" instructions into RISC micro-ops for execution ... significantly closing the throughput gap between CISC/"86" and RISC.

Part of the overall processor design infrastructure is to create a huge queue of pending executable operations to draw on as part of masking the huge throughput hit when any particular operation is stalled because of cache-miss. This continues the theme that latency for memory access (because of cache-miss), when measured in number of processor cycles ... is comparable to latency for '60s disk access, when measured in number of "60s" processor cycles. The 60s&70s approach was to implement multiprogramming and multitasking as means of increasing aggregate processor throughput (when one operation was stalled waiting for disk i/o).

for other drift ... additional posts in ibm-main ... discussing some similarities between disk cache technologies and processor cache technologies
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#75 .
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#76 .
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#78

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virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970




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