List of Archived Posts

2017 Newsgroup Postings (03/26 - 04/23)

IBM & SABRE
GREAT presentation on the history of the mainframe
Single Payer
GREAT presentation on the history of the mainframe
GREAT presentation on the history of the mainframe
IBM's core business
ComputerWorld Says: Cobol plays major role in U.S. government breaches
Congress just obliterated Obama-era rules preventing ISPs from selling your browsing history
Congress just obliterated Obama-era rules preventing ISPs from selling your browsing history
Which States Account for Our Trade Deficit with Mexico?
Encryp-xit: Europe will go all in for crypto backdoors in June
The Pentagon still uses computer software from 1958 to manage its contracts
Could better financial data have stopped Bernie Madoff?
The Pentagon still uses computer software from 1958 to manage its contracts
Perry Mason TV show--bugs with micro-electronics
The Pentagon still uses computer software from 1958 to manage its contracts
When the 'S' in HTTPS also stands for shady
The Pentagon still uses computer software from 1958 to manage its contracts
IBM Pension
Mainframes are used increasingly by major banks and financial institutions
Imperial Hubris
ARM Cortex A53 64 bit
ARM Cortex A53 64 bit
ARM Cortex A53 64 bit
elliptic curve pkinit?
ARM Cortex A53 64 bit
ARM Cortex A53 64 bit
US Education
ARM Cortex A53 64 bit
ARM Cortex A53 64 bit
The Pentagon still uses computer software from 1958 to manage its contracts
ARM Cortex A53 64 bit
The very beginning of TCP/IP
ARM Cortex A53 64 bit
ARM Cortex A53 64 bit
The Pentagon still uses computer software from 1958 to manage its contracts
The Pentagon still uses computer software from 1958 to manage its contracts
The Pentagon still uses computer software from 1958 to manage its contracts
Imperial Hubris
The Pentagon still uses computer software from 1958 to manage its contracts
What are mainframes
What are mainframes
What are mainframes
The Pentagon still uses computer software from 1958 to manage its contracts
360 announce day
FW: What are mainframes
ARM Cortex A53 64 bit
Optimizing the Hard Disk Directly
360 announce day
IBM Career
Univ. 709
CPU Timerons/Seconds vs Wall-clock Time
Some IBM Research RJ reports
ARM Cortex A53 64 bit
GREAT presentation on the history of the mainframe
Should America Have Entered World War I?
Some IBM Research RJ reports
What are mainframes
Paging subsystems in the era of bigass memory
Breaking: Entire Nation Experiencing Collective Amnesia About Iraq War
Optimizing the Hard Disk Directly
Paging subsystems in the era of bigass memory
People don't actually like creativity
Paging subsystems in the era of bigass memory
Breaking: Entire Nation Experiencing Collective Amnesia About Iraq War
Paging subsystems in the era of bigass memory
Paging subsystems in the era of bigass memory
Economists are arguing over how their profession messed up during the Great Recession. This is what happened
America Can't Afford to Keep Losing the War in Afghanistan
Economists are arguing over how their profession messed up during the Great Recession. This is what happened
IBM online systems
Software as a Replacement of Hardware
more IBM online systems
US NII
Trump delay of the 'fiduciary rule' will cost retirement savers $3.7 billion
Mainframe operating systems?
Mainframe operating systems?
Trump delay of the 'fiduciary rule' will cost retirement savers $3.7 billion
Mainframe operating systems?
Mainframe operating systems?
Mainframe operating systems?
Mainframe operating systems?
Mainframe operating systems?
Mainframe operating systems?
Hottest Editors
Mainframe operating systems?
[CM] What was your first home computer?
Dodd-Frank Was Designed to Fail - and Trump Will Make it Worse
Paging subsystems in the era of bigass memory
Understanding decisions: The power of combining psychology and economics
Old hardware
A Whirlwind History of the Computer
Old hardware
United Air Lines - an OODA-loop perspective
A 40-year "conspiracy" at the VA
Vendor Licensing Frustrations
Cognitive Bias Codex, 2016
IBM revenue has fallen for 20 quarters -- but it used to run its business very differently
I.R.S. Enlists Debt Collectors to Recover Overdue Taxes
United Air Lines - an OODA-loop perspective
[CM] What was your first home computer?
Electronic Payments
Electronic Payments

IBM & SABRE

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: IBM & SABRE
Date: 26 Mar 2017
Blog: Facebook
IBM buys ROLM the quarter that ROLM goes into the red (lots of gossip about somebody fails to check the books). George was Ned(?) Lautenbach's TA and cons me in periodically going by ROLM to see if I could help (turns out I had also known ROLM datacenter manager years earlier at IBM) ... George also wants me to stop by his office at 44South when I'm on the east coast.

After leaving IBM, I was brought into SABRE to look at the ten impossible things that they can't do. I come back 2months later with implementation of all ten things ... then the hand wringing starts and after several more months they eventually said that they hadn't actually want me to fix the things, they just wanted to tell the parent AMR board that I would be working on it for next 5yrs (one of the board members I had known at IBM STL). One of the issues was that SABRE implementation had been based on trade-offs from (at least) 60s ... and required several hundred people massaging/preping the raw OAG data, it was possible to make completely different technology trade-offs in the 90s and (almost) use the OAG directly (eliminating need for about 1/4th of SABRE hdqtr employees). IBM mainframe also didn't like it, implementation ran about 100 times faster so that with ten RS/6000 990s, it could handle processing not just for SABRE but for all worldwide scheduled flt. segments (they had provided me a complete copy of raw wordlwide OAG for testing).

As aside, my wife (at IBM) had done short stint as chief architect for AMADEUS (EU res based on Eastern System/One). The communication group got her replaced because she sided with EU going with x.25 (instead of SNA), but it didn't do them much good because AMADEUS went with x.25 anyway.

One of the "impossible" things involved multiple flt numbers per physical flt segments. First one I noticed was early 70s at San Jose, TWA was parking planes overnight at San Jose Airport because fees were cheaper than at SFO. First thing in the morning, it flies to SFO under two ftl nos ... one goes on to Seattle and the other has "change of equipment" to flt that is going non-stop SFO->kennedy. Issue was screens & printed had direct flts listed first with single connects listed next. Shared flt nos, could get flt listed in the 1st group as if it was direct flt, also flts requiring more than one connect required human to stitch all the connects together. By the 90s, everybody was using shared flt numbers and common "change of equipment" euphemism for connecting flight.

One of the "impossible" things was to find how to get from origin to destination regardless of number of connections needed. For demo they would specify arbitrary origin & destination ... one was some origin local airport in Nebraska and some destination local airport in Europe ... that required five connects.

I also did analysis of raw OAG for what appeared to flt segment with the most number of flt. numbers, which appeared to be continental flt out of Honolulu to LAX (very loose equivalence between physical flts and flt. numbers). I also found the single flight number with the most number of flt segments ... which was a flt in South America which left early in the morning, making 15 short flts arriving back at the original departure late at night.

some past posts mentioning done some work on sabre
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000.html#61 64 bit X86 ugliness (Re: Williamette trace cache (Re: First view of Willamette))
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000f.html#20 Competitors to SABRE?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005o.html#24 is a computer like an airport?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006o.html#18 RAMAC 305(?)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006q.html#22 3 value logic. Why is SQL so special?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007g.html#22 Bidirectional Binary Self-Joins
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008h.html#61 Up, Up, ... and Gone?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008i.html#19 American Airlines
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009l.html#23 another item related to ASCII vs. EBCDIC
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009l.html#25 another item related to ASCII vs. EBCDIC
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009o.html#42 Outsourcing your Computer Center to IBM ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009q.html#22 The 50th Anniversary of the Legendary IBM 1401
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010b.html#73 Happy DEC-10 Day
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010j.html#53 Article says mainframe most cost-efficient platform
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011c.html#42 If IBM Hadn't Bet the Company
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011e.html#8 Multiple Virtual Memory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013g.html#87 Old data storage or data base
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014j.html#54 RR songs, was Re: e50th/60th anniversary of SABRE--real-time airline reservations computer system
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014m.html#69 RR songs, was Re: e50th/60th anniversary of SABRE--real-time airline reservations computer system
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015d.html#84 ACP/TPF
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015f.html#5 Can you have a robust IT system that needs experts to run it?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016.html#58 Man Versus System
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016f.html#109 Airlines Reservation Systems

some past posts mentioning amadeus
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001g.html#49 Did AT&T offer Unix to Digital Equipment in the 70s?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001g.html#50 Did AT&T offer Unix to Digital Equipment in the 70s?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001h.html#76 Other oddball IBM System 360's ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003d.html#67 unix
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003n.html#47 What makes a mainframe a mainframe?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004b.html#6 Mainframe not a good architecture for interactive workloads
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004b.html#7 Mainframe not a good architecture for interactive workloads
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004m.html#27 Shipwrecks
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004o.html#23 Demo: Things in Hierarchies (w/o RM/SQL)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004o.html#29 Integer types for 128-bit addressing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005f.html#22 System/360; Hardwired vs. Microcoded
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005p.html#8 EBCDIC to 6-bit and back
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006o.html#4 How Many 360/195s and 370/195s were shipped?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006r.html#9 Was FORTRAN buggy?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006y.html#14 Why so little parallelism?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006y.html#29 "The Elements of Programming Style"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007d.html#19 Pennsylvania Railroad ticket fax service
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007e.html#52 US Air computers delay psgrs
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007h.html#12 The Perfect Computer - 36 bits?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007k.html#72 The top 10 dead (or dying) computer skills
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007o.html#59 ACP/TPF
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007p.html#45 64 gig memory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008c.html#53 Migration from Mainframe to othre platforms - the othe bell?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008i.html#19 American Airlines
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008i.html#34 American Airlines
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008p.html#41 Automation is still not accepted to streamline the business processes... why organizations are not accepting newer technologies?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009j.html#33 IBM touts encryption innovation
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009l.html#55 IBM halves mainframe Linux engine prices
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009r.html#59 "Portable" data centers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010.html#23 Happy DEC-10 Day
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010g.html#29 someone smarter than Dave Cutler
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010n.html#16 Sabre Talk Information?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011.html#17 Looking for a real Fortran-66 compatible PC compiler (CP/M or DOS or Windows, doesn't matter)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011.html#41 Looking for a real Fortran-66 compatible PC compiler (CP/M or DOSor Windows
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011d.html#14 Sabre; The First Online Reservation System
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011d.html#43 Sabre; The First Online Reservation System
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011d.html#74 Multiple Virtual Memory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011i.html#77 program coding pads
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#8 The PC industry is heading for collapse
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#9 The PC industry is heading for collapse
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012h.html#52 How will mainframers retiring be different from Y2K?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012j.html#5 Interesting News Article
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012n.html#41 System/360--50 years--the future?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012o.html#13 Should you support or abandon the 3270 as a User Interface?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014c.html#69 IBM layoffs strike first in India; workers describe cuts as 'slaughter' and 'massive'
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014e.html#7 Last Gasp for Hard Disk Drives
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014g.html#54 Has the last fighter pilot been born?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015d.html#84 ACP/TPF
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015g.html#72 100 boxes of computer books on the wall
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016.html#58 Man Versus System
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016d.html#48 PL/I advertising

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

GREAT presentation on the history of the mainframe

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **
From: lynn@GARLIC.COM (Anne & Lynn Wheeler)
Subject: Re: GREAT presentation on the history of the mainframe
Newsgroups: bit.listserv.ibm-main
Date: 27 Mar 2017 11:59:17 -0700
mitchdana@GMAIL.COM (Dana Mitchell) writes:
4331 had integrated disk and communication adapters built in, no 3274, 3705, 3880 controllers required. Later machines just had parallel channels just sort of built in, not really on cards. 3090 was first with ESCON

minor nit, ESCON announced with ES/9000 in 1990 ...
https://www-03.ibm.com/ibm/history/exhibits/mainframe/mainframe_FS9000.html
Enterprise Systems Connection (ESCON) Architecture implementing fiber optic channels, which provide significantly higher data rates than traditional parallel channels and which permit input/output equipment to be located at distances up to nine kilometers (5.6 miles) from the processor;
... snip ...

from Computerworld, 20Jan1992, volXXVI, #3, pg. 29 article, "No stampeded to IBM's Escon"
IBM's Escon architecture, introduced in September 1990, is a fiber-optic-based method of connecting processors, storage devices and peripherals.
... snip ...

1980, STL cons me into doing channel extender support. They are moving 300 people from the IMS group to an offsite bldg with remote access back to STL datacenter. The victim group had tried remote 3270 support and found the human factors totally unacceptable. The channel extender support puts 3270 channel attached controllers at the offsite bldg. The channel extender support ... downloads channel programs to channel simulator at the remote site ... significantly offsetting the latency and overhead of the intensive channel protocol chatter over the extended distance. Instead streams data & channel programs simultaneously over full-duplex connection (side-by-side 3270 demos with real local channel attached and channel-extender running loop-back to offsite bldg and back ... it is not possible to tell difference).

Vendor then tries to get IBM to allow release of my support. However there is a group in POK that is playing with some fibre stuff that gets it blocked because they are concerned that if it was in the market, it would make it harder to get their stuff released. some past posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#channel.extender

STL does a special 3270 logon screen for the IMS people at the offsite bldg (standard login for all of STL is VM370, even for people working on IMS, DB2, MVS, etc). This was also in the days of increasing focus on productivity from subsecond response. Standard TSO at best was second, and most of the time much worse. Lots of internal VM370 systems were .2sec ... but I did "SJR/VM" systems that lots of internal datacenters ran that would get .1sec using same hardware with identical load (when I was at science center, it was CSC/VM that lots of internal datacenters ran, before I transfered to san jose research)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/vmhyper.jpg

3270 logo screen shot

In 1988, I'm asked to help LLNL standardize some serial technology they are working with ... which quickly becomes Fibre Channel Standard ... including concurrent streaming in both directions of data & downloaded I/O programs (minimizing latency of I/O program protocol chatter).

Then ESCON is announced 1990 with ES/9000 when it is already obsolete.

Then some POK engineers became involved with fibre channel standard and defined an extremely heavy-weight protocol that drastically cuts the native throughput, which is eventually announced as FICON. Most recent "peak I/O" benchmark I can find is z196 getting 2M IOPS using 104 FICON. About the same time there was native FCS announced for E5-2600 blade claiming over million IOPS (for single FCS, two such FCS having higher throughput than 104 FICON running over 104 FCS).

There is some mention of zHPF/TCW that is a little like what I had done originally in 1980 ... but claims only 30% improvement over standard FICON (possibly 2M IOPS with only 70 FICON?)

some past posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#ficon

3090 trivia: engineers were really upset being directed to use slow, vertical microcoded JIB-prime for 3880 disk controller. It had special hardware bypass for 3mbyte/sec data transfer ... but the controller was really slow at processing channel programs and rest of the channel protocol chatter, signicantly increasing channel busy (much, much slower than the previous horizontal microcode 3830 disk controller).

3090 had designed balanced configuration throughput assuming that channel protocol overhead busy would be similar to 3830 (with improvement that data transferred at 3mbyte/sec). When they found how bad 3880 channel busy was going to be, they had to significantly increase the number of channels ... which required an additional TCM, which increased manufacturing cost. There were semi-facetious references that the 3090 group was going to bill the 3880 controller organization for the additional TCM.

Then marketing spins all the additional channels as how much it increases the 3090 I/O throughput (obfuscating the fact that the additional channels were required for the significant increase in channel busy overhead).

past posts getting to play disk engineer in bldgs14&15
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#disk

recent posts in this thread:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#80 Great mainframe history(?)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#81 GREAT presentation on the history of the mainframe
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#82 Great mainframe history(?)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#83 Great mainframe history(?)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#84 Great mainframe history(?)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#85 Great mainframe history(?)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#86 GREAT presentation on the history of the mainframe
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#87 GREAT presentation on the history of the mainframe
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#88 GREAT presentation on the history of the mainframe
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#89 GREAT presentation on the history of the mainframe
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#94 GREAT presentation on the history of the mainframe
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#95 GREAT presentation on the history of the mainframe

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Single Payer

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Single Payer
Date: 27 Mar 2017
Blog: Facebook
Single payer has been part of the various proposed acts for decades. Folklore is that single-payer was dropped after industry meetings in the white house ... where they agreed to support the affordable health care act in return for concessions, like dropping single-payer

Aside, medicare part-d is the first major bill after fiscal responsible act was allowed to lapse in 2002 (spending can't exceed tax revenue, on its way to eliminating all federal debt). 60mins did segment on the 18 republicans responsible for getting part-d passed in 2003. Just before final vote, they insert change that prevents competitive bidding and prevent CBO from distributing report on the change. six months after bill passes, 60mins found that all 18 have resigned and are on drug industry payroll. 60mins show drugs from VA (allowed to have competitive bidding) that are 1/3rd the price of same drugs from part-d. US comptroller general claims that part-d comes to be a long term $40T item that swamps all other budget items.

medicare part-d
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#medicare.part-d
US comptroller general
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#comptroller.general

2010 CBO does report that 2003-2009, tax revenue cut $6T and spending increased $6T, for $12T gap compared to fiscal responsible budget (frst time taxes were cut to not pay for two wars). Since then tax not restored and only modest spending cuts so debt continues to increase. 2005, US Comptroller General was including in speeches that nobody in congress was capable of middle school arithmetic for how badly they were savaging budget (republican congress in the new century is the exact opposite of the 90s republican congress responsible for the fiscal responsibility act).

fiscal responsibility act
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#fiscal.responsibility.act

2008, annual economist conference, they have televised roundtable discussing congress is the most corrupt institution on earth, in large part for selling tax loopholes to special interests. Spring 2011, speaker of the house on local washington DC sat. morning program tells how he is putting the new republican party darlings on the tax committee ... because members of the tax committee get the most money from lobbyists (highlighting throwing them into the deep end of DC graft and corruption). K-street lobbyists touts reports that buying tax loopholes from congress has highest business ROI ... in excess of 1000%.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#tax.evasion

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

GREAT presentation on the history of the mainframe

From: lynn@GARLIC.COM (Anne & Lynn Wheeler)
Subject: Re: GREAT presentation on the history of the mainframe
Newsgroups: bit.listserv.ibm-main
Date: 27 Mar 2017 13:29:28 -0700
mitchdana@GMAIL.COM (Dana Mitchell) writes:
4331 had integrated disk and communication adapters built in, no 3274, 3705, 3880 controllers required. Later machines just had parallel channels just sort of built in, not really on cards. 3090 was first with ESCON

re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#1 GREAT presentation on the history of the mainframe

"4331" was "boeblingen" machine, like 115&125, with integrated channels & integrated controllers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#86 GREAT presentation on the history of the mainframe
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#95 GREAT presentation on the history of the mainframe

... while "4341" was "Endicott" machine, with integrated channels like 370/158 ... however 4341 was faster than 158&3031 ... and 4341 integrated channels were much faster than 158 integrated channels (158 integrated channels was also used as external channel for all 303x processors). 4341 integrated channels were so fast that with slight tweak ... they could be used for 3380 3mbyte/sec testing.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#80 Great mainframe history(?)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#87 GREAT presentation on the history of the mainframe

past posts getting to play disk engineer in bldgs14&15 htttp://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#disk

mid-range disks for 4331&4341 were FBA (3310 & 3370) .... also low environmentals so straight-foward to deploy in non-datacenter environments.
https://www-03.ibm.com/ibm/history/exhibits/storage/storage_3370.html
https://www-03.ibm.com/ibm/history/exhibits/storage/storage_3370b.html

high-end datacenter disks were 3380 3mbyte/sec, still CKD ... but small fixed cell size (for things like error correcting) ... so record lengths had to be rounded up to cell size ... for determining records/track. As POK favorite son operating system continued to fail to deploy FBA support ... and all physical disks moved to industry standard fixed-block, CKD became a legacy anachronism, all simulated on industry standard fixed-block disks (decades after CKD stopped being built). past posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#dasd

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

GREAT presentation on the history of the mainframe

From: lynn@GARLIC.COM (Anne & Lynn Wheeler)
Subject: Re: GREAT presentation on the history of the mainframe
Newsgroups: bit.listserv.ibm-main
Date: 27 Mar 2017 14:44:49 -0700
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#81 GREAT presentation on the history of the mainframe
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#82 Great mainframe history(?)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#83 Great mainframe history(?)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#84 Great mainframe history(?)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#85 Great mainframe history(?)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#86 GREAT presentation on the history of the mainframe
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#87 GREAT presentation on the history of the mainframe
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#88 GREAT presentation on the history of the mainframe
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#89 GREAT presentation on the history of the mainframe
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#94 GREAT presentation on the history of the mainframe
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#95 GREAT presentation on the history of the mainframe
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#1 GREAT presentation on the history of the mainframe
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#3 GREAT presentation on the history of the mainframe

even more 3090 trivia:

before starting work on LLNL fibre channel standard (pair of fibre-optic dedicated to transmission in each direction, original getting 1gbit/sec concurrent, full-duplex, 2gbit/sec aggregate) ... LANL started standardization of the Cray 100mbyte/sec parallel channel. HIPPI
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HIPPI

there then forms some competition between LLNL FCS and LANL HIPPI, where HIPPI is being extended to serial HIPPI fiber optic and 200MB/s.

3090 added vector processing as part of playing in the supercomputer market ... however that required that they also be able to support 100mbyte/sec (and/or 1gbit/sec) I/O. 3090 was barely able to get up to 4.5mbyte/sec transfers ... so what to do?

turns out that physical memory packaging had created a problem for 3090 and to address the problem they came up with memory hierarchy with extended store ... wide, fast bus with instructions to synchronously move 4k bytes between processor memory and extended store memory (although the memory chip technology was the same). The extended store interface turns out to be the only part of 3090 capable of handling the data rate.

There is kludge that hooks HIPPI I/O interface into reserved addresses in the extended store bus ... and a sort of PC I/O paradigm using sort of peek/poke convention for doing I/O (extended store bus instructions moving data to/from these reserved addresses). That enables being to attach things like 40mbyte/sec disk arrays to 3090.

There was lab. in Kingston that worked with these kinds of applications ... but it was populated with dozen FPS (floating point systems) boxes that included 40mbyte/sec disk array support as part of native environment.

one of projects I had was HSDT and was suppose to get $20M from the director of NSF to interconnect the NSF supercomputer centers (or at least before congress cuts the budget). However, one of my internal HSDT links was into the (IBM) Kingston datacenter that had all these FPS boxes. some past HSDT posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#hsdt

some past 3090 extended store posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006.html#16 Would multi-core replace SMPs?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008i.html#10 Different Implementations of VLIW
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013g.html#41 A History Of Mainframe Computing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013h.html#3 The cloud is killing traditional hardware and software
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013i.html#50 The Subroutine Call
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013m.html#99 SHARE Blog: News Flash: The Mainframe (Still) Isn't Dead
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#69 The ICL 2900

past posts mentioning FPS boxes (and 40mbyte/sec disk arrays in the mid-80s)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000c.html#5 TF-1
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000c.html#61 TF-1
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001b.html#56 Why SMP at all anymore?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001d.html#32 Imitation...
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001m.html#25 ESCON Data Transfer Rate
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002e.html#31 Hardest Mistake in Comp Arch to Fix
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002i.html#12 CDC6600 - just how powerful a machine was it?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002j.html#30 Weird
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003b.html#29 360/370 disk drives
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003g.html#68 IBM zSeries in HPC
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003m.html#20 360 Microde Floating Point Fix
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006m.html#4 The Power of the NORC
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006o.html#1 harris
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009j.html#54 A Complete History Of Mainframe Computing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010b.html#72 Happy DEC-10 Day
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010f.html#61 Handling multicore CPUs; what the competition is thinking
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011h.html#74 Vector processors on the 3090
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011n.html#36 Last Word on Dennis Ritchie
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012n.html#28 390 vector instruction set reuse, was 8-bit bytes
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013g.html#41 A History Of Mainframe Computing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013g.html#44 What Makes code storage management so cool?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014b.html#4 IBM Plans Big Spending for the Cloud ($1.2B)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014b.html#5 IBM Plans Big Spending for the Cloud ($1.2B)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014j.html#35 curly brace languages source code style quides
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014j.html#36 curly brace languages source code style quides

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

IBM's core business

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: IBM's core business
Date: 28 Mar 2017
Blog: Facebook
IBM's core business is maximizing executive compensation ... which translates into whatever the executive compensation plan calls for.

reference to corporate governance doesn't ever mention maximizing shareholder value (... but tends to be a rallying cry behind which maximizing executive compensation occurs)
http://www.nakedcapitalism.com/2013/10/why-the-maximizing-shareholder-value-theory-of-corporate-governance-is-bogus.html

If you review any of the numerous guides prepared for directors of corporations prepared by law firms and other experts, you won't find a stipulation for them to maximize shareholder value on the list of things they are supposed to do. It's not a legal requirement. And there is a good reason for that.

Directors and officers, broadly speaking, have a duty of care and duty of loyalty to the corporation. From that flow more specific obligations under Federal and state law. But notice: those responsibilities are to the corporation, not to shareholders in particular.

... snip ...

& from Stockman's "The Great Deformation: The Corruption of Capitalism in America" ... just one of the corporate examples pg464/loc9995-10000:
IBM was not the born-again growth machine trumpeted by the mob of Wall Street momo traders. It was actually a stock buyback contraption on steroids. During the five years ending in fiscal 2011, the company spent a staggering $67 billion repurchasing its own shares, a figure that was equal to 100 percent of its net income.
pg465/10014-17:
Total shareholder distributions, including dividends, amounted to $82 billion, or 122 percent, of net income over this five-year period. Likewise, during the last five years IBM spent less on capital investment than its depreciation and amortization charges, and also shrank its constant dollar spending for research and development by nearly 2 percent annually.
... snip ...

stock buybacks
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#stock.buyback

references to the effect of FS failure had on corporate culture, Ferguson & Morris, "Computer Wars: The Post-IBM World", Time Books, 1993,
... and perhaps most damaging, the old culture under Watson Snr and Jr of free and vigorous debate was replaced with sycophancy and make no waves under Opel and Akers. It's claimed that thereafter, IBM lived in the shadow of defeat

and ...
But because of the heavy investment of face by the top management, F/S took years to kill, although its wrongheadedness was obvious from the very outset. "For the first time, during F/S, outspoken criticism became politically dangerous," recalls a former top executive.
... snip ...

other references
http://people.cs.clemson.edu/~mark/fs.html
and
http://www.jfsowa.com/computer/memo125.htm
Future System postings
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#futuresys

Mid-80s, top executives were predicting IBM revenue would double, mostly based on mainframe business ... and had massive internal building program to double mainframe manufacturing capacity, there was also big influx of "fast-track" MBAs (apparently in preparation for big surge in business)

However, a senior disk engineer gets a talk scheduled at internal annual world-wide communication group conference supposedly on 3174 performance ... but opens the talk with the statement that the communication group was going to be responsible for the demise of the disk division. The issue was that the communication group had stanglehold on datacenters with strategic responsibility for everything that crossed the datacenter walls and were fiercely fighting off client/server and distributed computing, trying to preserve their (emulated) dumb terminal paradigm and install base. The disk division was seeing data fleeing the data center to more distributed computing friendly platforms with drop in disk sales. The disk division had come up with several solutions to address the problem but they were constantly being vetoed by the communication group. A few short years later the company has gone into the red.

Dumb Termainal posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#terminal

AMEX and KKR are in competition for private-equity LBO of RJR, KKR wins but runs into trouble and hires away the president of AMEX to help
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barbarians_at_the_Gate:_The_Fall_of_RJR_Nabisco

IBM has gone into the red and is being reorganized into the 13 "baby blues" in preparation for breaking up the company, How IBM Was Left Behind ... 28Dec1992 (behind paywall but some lives free at wayback machine)
http://web.archive.org/web/20101120231857/http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,977353,00.html

we have left IBM but get a call from somebody in the bowels of Armonk about helping with the breakup. Operations were using MOUs to piggyback off supplier contracts from different divisions, that would then be in different companies. All these MOUs have to be cataloged and turned into real contracts. Before we get started, the board hires away former AMEX president to reverse the breakup and resurrect the company, he then uses some of the same techniques used with RJR
http://www.ibmemployee.com/RetirementHeist.shtml

private equity
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#private.equity
former AMEX president
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#gerstner

Former president of AMEX then leaves to head up another large private-equity company ... which will acquire beltway bandits that employes Snowden ... huge uptic of government outsourcing last decade to private-equity owned subsidiaries. ... including 70% of intelligence budget and over half the people
http://www.investingdaily.com/17693/spies-like-us
which contributes to the rapidly spreading success of failure culture (multiple failures represent more revenue for for-profit companies)
http://www.govexec.com/excellence/management-matters/2007/04/the-success-of-failure/24107/

success of failure
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#sucess.of.failure

trivia: all during the FS period, I continued to work on 360&370 and would even periodically ridicul the FS activity (which wasn't exactly career enhancing). Internal politics during the FS period was killing off 370 development ... the lack of 370 products during this period is credited with giving clone system makers market foothold. That also contributed to uptic in IBM sales/marketing FUD ... since they had little else during the period.

4331/4341 was disruptive change in the late 70s ... huge uptic in the low-end & mid-range market. 4300s & DEC VAX sold similar numbers in single and small unit orders. However, there were large corporations ordering hundreds of 4300s at a time for deployment out in departmental areas ... the leading edge of the distributed computing tsunami. Old post with decade of VAX, slice&diced by year, model, US/non-US.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002f.html#0

In 1979, I also got con'ed into doing benchmarks on engineering 4341 for LLNL that was looking at getting 70 for compute farm ... sort of the leading edge of coming cluster supercomputers. old 4300 email.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/lhwemail.html#4341

4361/4381 were expecting continued explosion in sales, but as can be seen in the VAX numbers ... market was moving to workstations and large PCs.

trivia: inside IBM, so many vm/4341s were being deployed in departmental conference rooms that conference rooms were becoming a scarce commodity.

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

ComputerWorld Says: Cobol plays major role in U.S. government breaches

From: lynn@GARLIC.COM (Anne & Lynn Wheeler)
Subject: Re: ComputerWorld Says: Cobol plays major role in U.S. government breaches
Newsgroups: bit.listserv.ibm-main
Date: 28 Mar 2017 14:20:50 -0700
john@CROSSNO.US (John Crossno) writes:
Just in...
http://www.computerworld.com/article/3185530/government-it/trump-s-son-in-law-jared-kushner-prepares-for-cobol-cloud-mainframes.html


from article
O'Malley showed Chaffetz the developers at work. "They see a working environment that looks exactly like Amazon (Web Services) and we're doing it in the mainframe," he said. "If you have code that works and works well, that is like gold -- you do not want to throw that away."
....
But the challenge with older Cobol system systems is that many were not designed to be extensible and everything that needs to be done has to be rely on custom code, said McCarthy.
... snip ...

re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#96 ComputerWorld Says: Cobol plays major role in U.S. government breaches

note that large part of cloud environment is "on-demand" ... each cloud megadatacenter with hundreds of thousands of systems, large percentage sitting idle waiting for instant-on to handle "on-demand" requirements. Dataprocessing system & software prices have dropped so dramatically that major expense for cloud megadatacenters are increasingly power & environmentals. Side-effect is that major vendors are doing custom chips for cloud megadatacentors meeting the instant-on and optimized power&cooling requirements (cloud megadatacenters repreasent over half server chip business).

ever since the rise of "killer micros" from when IBM went into the red in the early 90s (and was being reorged into the 13 "baby blues" in preparation for breaking up the company) ... majority have migrated off, but there have been a number of failed (mainframe) "modernization" efforts ... particularly in financial and government (including treasury/irs).

last decade with huge uptic in gov.outsourcing and the rapidly spreading success of failure culture ... where beltway bandits clear lot more profit from series of failures
http://www.govexec.com/excellence/management-matters/2007/04/the-success-of-failure/24107/

70% of the intelligence budget and over half the people (trivia, former CEO of IBM headed up this private-equity owner of beltway bandit & employer of Snowden)
http://www.investingdaily.com/17693/spies-like-us

to address some of the opportunities, there has been a lot of middle layer/middleware ... leave legacy stuff relatively untouched ... and write new intermediate applications to translate between whatever new is needed and whatever the legacy cobol implements.

I did review of beltway bandit large, new 3yr gov. contract. I spent all day explaining how it wasn't going to work and what was needed to make it work. They spent all day saying that they would be doing exactly what the contract called for. At the end of the day, somebody explained (when everybody else had left) that when the existing contract ran out, they might consider getting it rewritting to something that would work. Their constant refrain was "leave no money on the table" (renegotiating existing contract to something that would work, met less revenue).

Last decade, I estimated development of a few government added/new web pages with full regression testing and security at $30k, a beltway bandit won the development contract for $10M ... 33333% markup ... right out of the military-industrial complex. disclaimer: I use to sponsor Boyd's briefings at IBM, one of Boyd acolytes wrote this account
https://www.amazon.com/Pentagon-Wars-Reformers-Challenge-Guard-ebook/dp/B00HXY969W/
which HBO made into movie:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Pentagon_Wars

data breach posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#data.breach.notification
success of failure posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#success.of.failure
Boyd posts and WEB URLs
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subboyd.html

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Congress just obliterated Obama-era rules preventing ISPs from selling your browsing history

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Congress just obliterated Obama-era rules preventing ISPs from selling your browsing history
Date: 29 Mar 2017
Blog: Facebook
Congress just obliterated Obama-era rules preventing ISPs from selling your browsing history
http://www.zdnet.com/article/congress-repeals-obama-internet-history-privacy-rules/

we were brought in to help wordsmith some cal. state legislation. they were working on:
1) electronic signature act 2) data breach notification act 3) "opt-in" personal information sharing act

#1 & #2 passed, but before #3, "opt-in" could pass, "opt-out" information sharing was added to GLBA (now better known for repeal of Glass-Steagall). Folklore is that congress "owed" wallstreet GLBA because wallstreet had provided congress with $250M (about evenly divided between the two parties).

"opt-in" requires institution to have record of individual agreeing to their information being shared. "opt-out" allows sharing unless individual is on record objecting to their information being shared. At 2004, national, annual privacy conference in Washington DC, there was panel of the FTC commissioners. Individual in the audience asked the panel if they were going to do anything about "opt-out" sharing. He said he worked for major callcenter company ... and their client institutions didn't provide any means of making a record for those answerring "opt-out" 1-800 calls (there would never be an "opt-out" record.

data breach trivia: some of the participants had done in-depth public privacy surveys and the #1 issue was fraudulent financial transactions in large part as result of breaches. There was little or nothing being done about breaches and it was hoped that the publicity from breach notification would motificate security measures. The issue was that entities normally take security measures in self protection, however in the breach case, it wasn't the institution at risk, it was the public. more trivia: there have been a dozen or so FEDERAL data breach notification bills (none yet passed), about half similar to the cal. act and half that would effectively eliminate requirement for notification.

GLBA triva: The original rhetoric on the floor congress as to the primary purpose of GLBA was that if you already had a banking charter, you got to keep it, but if you didn't already have a banking charter, you couldn't get one (i.e. keep new entities with more cost effective technologies out of banking).

electronic signature
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subpubkey.html#signature
data breach notification
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#data.breach.notification

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Congress just obliterated Obama-era rules preventing ISPs from selling your browsing history

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Congress just obliterated Obama-era rules preventing ISPs from selling your browsing history
Date: 30 Mar 2017
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#7 Congress just obliterated Obama-era rules preventing ISPs from selling your browsing history

Person behind GLBA is also #2 on times list of those responsible for economic mess, not so much for GLBA (and repeal of Glass-Steagall) but for preventing CFTC from regulating CDS gambling bets
http://content.time.com/time/specials/packages/article/0,28804,1877351_1877350_1877330,00.html

The chair of CFTC suggested regulating CDS gambling bets, the chair is then quickly replaced by the wife of the senator behind GLBA, while the senator gets law passed preventing CFTC from regulating CDS gambling bets. This was originally billed as gift to ENRON (that was heavily using CDS). The wife then resigns and joins ENRON board and audit committee.
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/warning/
http://www.villagevoice.com/2002-01-15/news/phil-gramm-s-enron-favor/
http://www.nytimes.com/2008/11/17/business/17grammside.html

Wallstreet found that they could pay credit rating agencies for triple-A ratings on securitized mortgages, even when the rating agencies knew they weren't worth triple-A (from Oct2008 congressional hearing testimony into the role that the rating agencies played). Triple-A met they could sell off every thing they generated into the bond market (and no longer have to care about borrowers' qualifications or loan quality) in large part enabling over $27T to be done 2001-2008 (including selling to those restricted to only dealing in safe investments, like large pension funds).

Then they find that they can design securitized mortgages to fail, pay for triple-A, sell to their customers and take out CDS gambling bets they would fail (now they cared about borrowers' qualifications, but not in the traditional way). The largest holder of the CDS gambling bets was AIG and negotiating to pay off at 50cents on the dollar. Then the SECTREAS steps in and has them sign a document that they can't sue those making the bets and to take TARP funds to pay off at face value. The largest recipient of TARP funds is AIG, and the largest recipient of face value payoffs is the firm formally headed by SECTREAS.

"too big to fail"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#too-big-to-fail
toxic CDOs
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#toxic.cdo
Pecora hearings &/or (repeal) Glass-Steagall
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#Pecora&/orGlass-Steagall

past posts mentioning Senator's wife replacing head of CFTC and then joining ENRON board
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009c.html#39 'WHO IS RESPONSIBLE FOR THE GLOBAL MELTDOWN'
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009c.html#46 How to defeat new telemarketing tactic
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009c.html#48 How to defeat new telemarketing tactic
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009c.html#53 How to defeat new telemarketing tactic
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009c.html#55 Who will give Citigroup the KNOCKOUT blow?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009c.html#65 is it possible that ALL banks will be nationalized?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009d.html#10 Who will Survive AIG or Derivative Counterparty Risk?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009d.html#28 I need insight on the Stock Market
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009d.html#61 Quiz: Evaluate your level of Spreadsheet risk
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009d.html#62 Is Wall Street World's Largest Ponzi Scheme where Madoff is Just a Poster Child?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009d.html#63 Do bonuses foster unethical conduct?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009d.html#73 Should Glass-Steagall be reinstated?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009e.html#0 What is swap in the financial market?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009e.html#13 Should we fear and hate derivatives?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009f.html#29 What is the real basis for business mess we are facing today?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009f.html#51 On whom or what would you place the blame for the sub-prime crisis?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009f.html#53 What every taxpayer should know about what caused the current Financial Crisis
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009g.html#7 Just posted third article about toxic assets in a series on the current financial crisis
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009g.html#33 Treating the Web As an Archive
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009h.html#17 REGULATOR ROLE IN THE LIGHT OF RECENT FINANCIAL SCANDALS
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009i.html#60 In the USA "financial regulator seeks power to curb excess speculation."
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009j.html#30 An Amazing Document On Madoff Said To Have Been Sent To SEC In 2005
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009o.html#84 Opinions on the 'Unix Haters' Handbook'
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009q.html#77 Now is time for banks to replace core system according to Accenture
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010b.html#82 Oldest Instruction Set still in daily use?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010f.html#54 The 2010 Census
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010h.html#28 Our Pecora Moment
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010h.html#67 The Python and the Mongoose: it helps if you know the rules of engagement
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010l.html#38 Who is Really to Blame for the Financial Crisis?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010n.html#36 Idiotic programming style edicts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010q.html#29 Ernst & Young sued for fraud over Lehman
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011e.html#9 I actually miss working at IBM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011e.html#36 On Protectionism
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011e.html#38 On Protectionism
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011f.html#52 Are Americans serious about dealing with money laundering and the drug cartels?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011j.html#41 Advice from Richard P. Feynman
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011k.html#30 Regulators seek to plug derivatives data gaps
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011k.html#54 50th anniversary of BASIC, COBOL?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011l.html#74 computer bootlaces
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011n.html#41 The men who crashed the world
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#31 US real-estate has lost $7T in value
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#5 PC industry is heading for more change
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012e.html#57 speculation
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012g.html#59 Why Hasn't The Government Prosecuted Anyone For The 2008 Financial recession?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012g.html#77 Monopoly/ Cartons of Punch Cards
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012i.html#94 Naked emperors, holy cows and Libor
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012k.html#38 Four Signs Your Awesome Investment May Actually Be A Ponzi Scheme
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013.html#49 Insider Fraud: What to Monitor
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013b.html#41 Adair Turner: A New Debt-Free Money Advocate
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013b.html#46 Bankers Who Made Millions In Housing Boom Misled Investors: Study
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013d.html#73 What Makes an Architecture Bizarre?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013k.html#28 Flag bloat
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013k.html#29 The agency problem and how to create a criminogenic environment
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013l.html#13 Jack Lew Shows His True Colors By Forcing Deregulation of Derivatives on the CFTC
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014.html#98 Royal Pardon For Turing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014h.html#37 Married Couples and the Financial Mess
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014i.html#15 Instead of focusing on big fines, law enforcement should seek long prison terms for the responsible executives
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014i.html#95 How Comp-Sci went from passing fad to must have major
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014m.html#21 Senate Democrats vs. the Middle Class; Senators elected in 2008 made Obama's agenda possible, and its results have harmed most Americans
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014m.html#73 The Watchdog that Didn't Bark ... Again
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014m.html#121 Presenting The $303 Trillion In Derivatives That US Taxpayers Are Now On The Hook For
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014m.html#126 Wall Street's Revenge
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014m.html#131 Memo To WSJ: The CRomnibus Abomination Was Not "A Rare Bipartisan Success"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014m.html#150 LEO
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015.html#17 Cromnibus cartoon
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016g.html#31 Economic Mess
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016g.html#32 Ma Bell is coming back and, boy, is she pissed! She bought Bugs Bunny!

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Which States Account for Our Trade Deficit with Mexico?

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Which States Account for Our Trade Deficit with Mexico?
Date: 30 Mar 2017
Blog: Facebook
Which States Account for Our Trade Deficit with Mexico?
https://www.stlouisfed.org/on-the-economy/2017/march/states-account-trade-deficit-mexico

AMEX is in competition with KKR for a private-equity LBO of RJR and KKR wins:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barbarians_at_the_Gate:_The_Fall_of_RJR_Nabisco
KKR runs into some problems with RJR and hires away president of AMEX to help. Then IBM has gone into the red and was being re-org'ed into 13 "baby blues" in preparation for breaking up the company. The board then hires the former president of AMEX to reverse the breakup and resurrect the company, using some of the techniques used with RJR
http://www.ibmemployee.com/RetirementHeist.shtml

About the same time IBM goes into the red, AMEX spins off large amount of its (mainframe) dataprocessing in the largest IPO up until that time as FDC (including doing over half of all credit card outsourcing in the US). Then FDC & First Financial are in competition to buy the ailing Western Union and FDC drops out. Later in the 90s, FDC acquires WU in its merger with First Financial (and must spin-off MoneyGram). After the turn of the century, with the explosion in illegal workers sending money home, WU revenue enormously increases until by 2005 it is half of FDC's bottom line. FDC then spins-off WU in IPO (possibly in part because President of Mexico had invited FDC executives to his country to be thrown in jail).

Note this has account around the start of the century, national chamber of commerce begins heavily lobbying on behalf of corporations employing large number of illegal workers (and some local chambers of commerce divorce themselves from the national organization).
https://www.amazon.com/Influence-Machine-Commerce-Corporate-American-ebook/dp/B00NDTUDHA/

former AMEX president
http://www.garilc.com/~lynn/submisc.html#gerstner
private-equity posts
http://www.garilc.com/~lynn/submisc.html#private.equity

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Encryp-xit: Europe will go all in for crypto backdoors in June

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Encryp-xit: Europe will go all in for crypto backdoors in June
Date: 30 Mar 2017
Blog: Facebook
Encryp-xit: Europe will go all in for crypto backdoors in June
https://www.theregister.co.uk/AMP/2017/03/30/ec_push_encryption_backdoors/

In the 80s, I had HSDT project ... past posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#hsdt

Part of it was high-speed links for the internal network (larger than arapnet/internet from just about the beginning until sometime in the mid-80s), past posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#internalnet

and part of it was working with the NSF director to link together the NSF supercomputer centers (which eventually becomes NSFNET backbone, precursor to the modern internet). past posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#nsfnet

Big difference with internal network was that all links had to be encrypted (mid-80s claim was that the internal network had more than half of all the link encryptors in the world). Problem was I hated what I had to pay for T1 link encryptors and it was almost impossible to find link encryptors faster than T1. So I got involved in doing link encryptor that was to be less than $100 to make and handle significantly faster than T1. Initially the IBM crypto product group said that it significantly weakened the crypto standard. It took me 3months to figure out how to explain to them what was happening, rather than significantly weaker, it was significantly stronger than the crypto standard. It was hollow victory, I was told that there was only one organization in the world that could use such a facility, I could make as many as I wanted, but they all had to be shipped to an address in Maryland. It was when I realized that there was 3kinds of crypto in the world 1) the kind they don't care about, 2) the kind you can't do, and 3) the kind you can only do for them.

Trivia: early 80s, software DES took whole 3081 processor for T1 stream, full-duplex T1 DES encryption/decryption would require both 3081 processors.

In the 90s, gov. was somewhat giving up on encryption ... days of clipper chip
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clipper_chip

and progressing to "key escrow" program ... and I was a industry rep to the meetings. At one point, I establish escrowing keys used for authentication was fundamental security violation. Government complained that people would cheat and use authentication keys for encryption. I believe that was the last "key escrow" meeting. I was also involved in writing X9 financial standards (including co-author of x9.99 the industry privacy standard) and because many X9 standards were promoted to ISO, I had to take into considerations of other countries (including EU data protection directive).

some old crypto email ... including PGP-like proposal in the early 80s
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/lhwemail.html#crypto

In the 90s, I was also pontificating at conferences that I would take a $500 milspec piece, aggressively cost reduce it to less than $5 while making it more secure. By 2000, it was droppping below dollar. Technical director to agency information assurance directorate is having is having assurance panel in the trusted computing tract at IDF and asks me to talk about the chip ... super secure and only does (crypto) authentication ... old reference gone 404, but lives on at wayback machine
http://web.archive.org/web/20011109072807/http://www.intel94.com/idf/spr2001/sessiondescription.asp?id=stp+s13

It was being fab'ed at new Siemens/Infineon security chip plant in Dresden (I had to do security walk through of the plant) ... and the EAL security evaluation was done by lab also in Germany. references and patents
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/x959.html#aads

I was also having something of dustup with EMV, their chip was much slower, much more expensive, and much less secure (I had also been asked by transit to be able to do transaction within turnstyle limits, less than .1sec just using contractless chip power, w/o sacrificing any security). Almost 20yrs later, EMV still requires contact power and takes several seconds elapsed time. some past posts about the EMV "yes card"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subintegrity.html#yescard

past posts mention IDF
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aadsm5.htm#asrn1 Assurance, e-commerce, and some x9.59 ... fyi
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/aepay6.htm#idf Intel Developer's Forum ... fyi
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001c.html#20 Something wrong with "re-inventing the wheel".?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009j.html#58 Price Tag for End-to-End Encryption: $4.8 Billion, Mercator Says
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009k.html#5 Moving to the Net: Encrypted Execution for User Code on a Hosting Site
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009m.html#48 Hacker charges also an indictment on PCI, expert says
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010d.html#7 "Unhackable" Infineon Chip Physically Cracked - PCWorld
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010d.html#34 "Unhackable" Infineon Chip Physically Cracked
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010d.html#38 search engine history, was Happy DEC-10 Day
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010d.html#63 LPARs: More or Less?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010f.html#74 Is Security a Curse for the Cloud Computing Industry?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010g.html#9 Far and near pointers on the 80286 and later
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010g.html#53 Far and near pointers on the 80286 and later
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010o.html#50 The Credit Card Criminals Are Getting Crafty
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010p.html#72 Orientation - does group input (or groups of data) make better decisions than one person can?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010p.html#73 From OODA to AAADA
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011b.html#11 Credit cards with a proximity wifi chip can be as safe as walking around with your credit card number on a poster
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011c.html#59 RISCversus CISC
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011e.html#24 The first personal computer (PC)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011l.html#72 Selectric Typewriter--50th Anniversary
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011p.html#48 Hello?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012g.html#53 The secret's out for secure chip design
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012n.html#58 2012 History Conference
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012n.html#63 history of Programming language and CPU in relation to each other
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013i.html#77 Insane Insider Threat Program in Context of Morally and Mentally Bankrupt US Intelligence System
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013k.html#66 German infosec agency warns against Trusted Computing in Windows 8
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013k.html#88 NSA and crytanalysis
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013l.html#55 "NSA foils much internet encryption"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014g.html#41 Special characters for Passwords
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014j.html#24 UEFI?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014k.html#42 LA Times commentary: roll out "smart" credit cards to deter fraud
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014l.html#55 LA Times commentary: roll out "smart" credit cards to deter fraud
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014m.html#26 Whole Earth
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015.html#83 Winslow Wheeler's War
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015b.html#72 Do we really?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015f.html#20 Credit card fraud solution coming to America...finally
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015f.html#43 No, the F-35 Can't Fight at Long Range, Either
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016b.html#43 Ransomware
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016b.html#66 Catching Up on the OPM Breach
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016c.html#55 Institutional Memory and Two-factor Authentication
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016e.html#8 Intel spyware chip?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016f.html#40 Misc. Success of Failure
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016f.html#63 Missile Defense
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016g.html#11 Rogue sysadmins the target of Microsoft's new 'Shielded VM' security
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#39 History of Mainframe Cloud
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#41 History of Mainframe Cloud

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

The Pentagon still uses computer software from 1958 to manage its contracts

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: The Pentagon still uses computer software from 1958 to manage its contracts
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Fri, 31 Mar 2017 10:06:51 -0700
The Pentagon still uses computer software from 1958 to manage its contracts
http://www.businessinsider.com/pentagon-computers-software-from-1958-2017-3

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Could better financial data have stopped Bernie Madoff?

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Could better financial data have stopped Bernie Madoff?
Date: 30 Mar 2017
Blog: Facebook
Could better financial data have stopped Bernie Madoff?
https://gcn.com/articles/2017/03/31/financial-data-standards.aspx
In a column supporting passage of the Financial Transparency Act last year, Hultgren said that "if the regulators adopted consistent data fields and formats for the information they already collect, instead of using PDF documents, they would have a better chance of catching fraudsters like Bernie Madoff and would make better decisions in crises."
... snip ...

In the congressional Madoff hearings, they had the person that had tried unsuccesfully for a decade to get SEC to do something about Madoff (SEC's hands were forced when Madoff turned himself in). Congress asked him if new regulations were needed. He answered that while new regulations might be needed, better would be transparency and visibility (possibly since SEC wasn't doing much about existing regulation). He also testified that whistleblowers turns up 13 times more fraud than audits, and while SEC had a 1-800 number for companies to complain about audits, they didn't have a 1-800 for whistleblowers.

Madoff postings
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#madoff
and whistleblowers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#whistleblower

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

The Pentagon still uses computer software from 1958 to manage its contracts

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: The Pentagon still uses computer software from 1958 to manage its contracts
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Sat, 01 Apr 2017 10:03:15 -0700
John Levine <johnl@iecc.com> writes:
The real article is here:

https://www.technologyreview.com/s/538966/what-is-the-oldest-computer-program-still-in-use/

It's not as stupid as it might sound. The program's been updated over the years and has had GUIs and stuff wrapped around it. It manages over $1 trillion (with a T) in ongoing contracts so any replacement would have the mother of all flash cutovers.

It was more impressed that it's now running on an IBM z10 model 2098 mainframe, which was announced in 2008 and withdrawn in 2012. Now *that* is obsolete.


re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#11 The Pentagon still uses computer software from 1958 to manage its contracts

there are some problems ... mid-90s congress passed a law requiring all agencies pass financial audits. it is more than 20yrs on and DOD is only one that has yet to pass a financial audit. A couple years ago, the commandant of the marine corp insisted on announcing the the corp was first DOD organization to pass a financial audit ... even tho lots of people told him not to ... later marine corp had to withdraw the statement. Two years ago they were predicting that DOD would finally be able to pass audit in 2017 ... but that has came and gone with no further mention of passing an audit.

2010, CBO released report that after congress allowed fiscal responsibility act to lapse in 2002 (spending couldn't exceed tax revenue, on its way to eliminating all federal debt), 2003-2009 taxes revenue cut by $6T and spending increased by $6T for $12T gap compared to fiscal responsibility budget (first time taxes were cut to not pay for two wars). CBO report included that there was over trillion in 2003-2009 spending increase for DOD that they couldn't find anything that it was used for (apparently just evaported) ... that is separate from the enormous military industrial complex waste and graft that they could identify.

Note that there are things identified, like something between $40B and $60B in pallets of shrink wrapped $100 bills airlifted to Iraq .. and dispersed in tribute and bribes as part of the surge (payments to reduce violence and attacks, something straight out of the roman empire) ... along with strong suspicion that lots of it was skimmed along the way.

in the graft & corruption column, military-industrial tricks include things like USAID. Military-industrial complex wanted the Iraq invasion so badly that corporate reps were telling former soviet block countries that if they voted for the invasion in the UN, they would get NATO membership and (directed appropriation) USAID (that could only be spent on modern US arms). From law of unintended consequences ... in the invasion, they were told to bypass ammo dumps looking for WMDs. When they got around to going back, a million metric tons had evaporated. Later started seeing large artillery shell IEDs ... even taking out Abrams
http://www.amazon.com/Prophets-War-Lockheed-Military-Industrial-ebook/dp/B0047T86BA

White house initially justifies Iraq invasion based on claimed support for Al-Queda and that it would only cost $50B (there was going to be that much in shrink wrapped $100s). later they switch the justification to WMDs. Decommissioned WMDs tracing back to the US (part of US support for Iraq/Iran war) were found early in the invasion, but the information was classified until the fall of 2014 (well before the invasion, Iran UN delegation had provided white house proof that the WMDs had been decommissioned).

fiscal responsibility act posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#fiscal.responsibility.act
"perpetual war" reference (one of Boyd acolytes)
http://chuckspinney.blogspot.com/p/domestic-roots-of-perpetual-war.html
"perpetual war" posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#perpetual.war
military-industrial(-congressional) complex posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#military.industrial.complex
and posts on the Iraqi WMD issue
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#wmds

Boyd posts & URLs
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subboyd.html

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Perry Mason TV show--bugs with micro-electronics

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Perry Mason TV show--bugs with micro-electronics
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Sat, 01 Apr 2017 10:13:13 -0700
Jon Elson <elson@pico-systems.com> writes:
Sometime during the Viet Nam war, probab ly between 1965 and 1969, the US bugged a phone line between Hanoi and Beijing. Ho Chi Minh had long talks with Mao Ze Dong over that line.

The CIA rigged some helicopters with low-noise kits (lower rotor speed, modified tail rotor and engine mufflers) and trained some Hmong tribesmen for the mission. They built a bug INSIDE a glass phone pole insulator, and made a solar cell array that lay on top of the crossarm. Then, in a tree a few hundred yards away, they put a repeater that sent the signal to, I think, Laos. They had to go to all this trouble because the line was checked periodically from the air and ground. The bug on the pole was totally invisible from the ground, and all you could see was the solar cells from the air, which might have had some sort of cover or surface treatment to make it the same color as the crossarm.

There was a story about this in Air & Space magazine about a decade ago. The US presumably got a LOT of good intelligence out of this before the thing was found.


then there is "spook base"

While undergraduate in the 60s I was brought in as fulltime (one of the first half dozen) employees into hdqtrs to help form Boeing Computer Services ... consolidate dataprocessing into independent business unit to better monetize the investment (even offering services to non-Boeing entities). I thought Renton was possibly the largest IBM mainframe datacenter in the world ... 360/65s were arriving faster than they could be installed and being staged in the hallways around the machine room. They were getting ready to replicate Renton datacenter up at the new 747 plant in Everett ... disaster scenario where Mt. Rainier heats up and mudslide takes out Renton datacenter. 747#3 was flying the skies of seattle getting FAA flt. certification. Tour of the 747 passenger mockup (south of Boeing field) included statement that there would be so many passengers on 747, that it would never be served by fewer than four jetways (how many people have been on 747 that were even served by 4 jetways?)

Much later I sponsored Boyd's briefings at IBM ... and he would refer to being put in charge of "spook base" (possibly as punishment because he would talk about constantly claiming that it wouldn't work) about the time I was at Boeing. One of his biographies claims that "spook base" was $2.5B windfall for IBM (approx ten times the late 60s estimate of mainframe computers in Renton datacenter), "spook base" reference gone 404, but lives on at wayback machine ... including drones:
http://web.archive.org/web/20030212092342/http://home.att.net/~c.jeppeson/igloo_white.html
Batcat flights were replaced by a joint USAF/DARPA program code-named Pave Eagle that was phased in for operational field trials in 1970. Under the program, six Beech A-36 Debonaire airframes were modified as YQU-22A development aircraft. Later, one was designated as YAU-22A, and twenty seven were produced as QU-22B aircraft, intended to be operated as pilotless drones.
... snip ...

Boyd posts & URLs
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subboyd.html

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

The Pentagon still uses computer software from 1958 to manage its contracts

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: The Pentagon still uses computer software from 1958 to manage its contracts
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Sat, 01 Apr 2017 10:22:20 -0700
Andreas Kohlbach <ank@spamfence.net> writes:
There was a story about an Amiga still controlling the environment (heat, AC) of some schools recently. It was until then they hadn't replaced it because they had no money. Now (2015 that is) they got (or will get) funding and would replace it by an expensive PC with Windows software, although there is no need to (It ain't broke, don't fix it)?

re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#11 The Pentagon still uses computer software from 1958 to manage its contracts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#13 The Pentagon still uses computer software from 1958 to manage its contracts

threat analysis in the 90s identified lots of remote dailin access ... including HVAC control systems (later migrating to internet) ... including large major financial datacenter that was offline for 24hrs because somebody had remotely reset HVAC resulting in all computers dropping power with thermal condition (claims that it impacted 1/3rd of transactions normally done on NYSE).

past posts mentioning wardialing:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002b.html#38 "war-dialing" etymology?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002b.html#41 "war-dialing" etymology?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005c.html#48 [Lit.] Buffer overruns
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008m.html#73 Blinkylights
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010n.html#76 Mainframe hacking?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012g.html#50 Cartons of Punch Cards
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012g.html#52 Wardialing statistics( was: "Cartons of Punch Cards" )
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012g.html#62 Caches, was Wardialing statistics(
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015c.html#100 On a lighter note, even the Holograms are demonstrating
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015e.html#50 old amiga HVAC
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016f.html#88 Why the cloud is bad news for Cisco, Dell, and HP

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

When the 'S' in HTTPS also stands for shady

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: When the 'S' in HTTPS also stands for shady
Date: 01 Apr 2017
Blog: Facebook
When the 'S' in HTTPS also stands for shady
https://www.engadget.com/2017/03/31/when-the-s-in-https-also-stands-for-shady/

Long ago and far away we were brought in as consultants for small client/server startup that wanted to do payment transactions on their server. Two people responsible for something they called "commerce server", we had previously worked with when they were at Oracle. The startup had also invented this technology they called "SSL" they wanted to use. The result is now frequently called "electronic commerce". I had complete authority over the server to payment networks gateways ... but could only make recommendations on the client/server side ... some of which were almost immediately violated accounting for exploits that continue to this day.

On the server/gateway side, I did several publickey things that effectively negated any use of digital certificates, but they continued to appear, a side-effect of the publickey crypto library used. On the client/server side, I started frequently pontificating about the SSL digital certficates being redundant and superfluous ... as "merchant comfort certificates" ... providing a sense of comfort (rather than security). past posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subpubkey.html#sslcerts

related posts, relying party certificates
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subpubkey.html#rpo
coined the term certificate manufacturing (to differentiate from PKI) posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subpubkey.html#manufacture
certificate-less operation posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subpubkey.html#certless
catch22 certificate operation posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subpubkey.html#catch22
enormous redundant and superfluous certificate payload bloat posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subpubkey.html#bloat

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

The Pentagon still uses computer software from 1958 to manage its contracts

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: The Pentagon still uses computer software from 1958 to manage its contracts
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Sat, 01 Apr 2017 12:45:21 -0700
hancock4 writes:
The IBM Z series is not obsolete, and widely used today. Just because it's a _slightly_ older model is not relevant.

re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#11 The Pentagon still uses computer software from 1958 to manage its contracts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#13 The Pentagon still uses computer software from 1958 to manage its contracts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#15 The Pentagon still uses computer software from 1958 to manage its contracts

IBM financials has IBM mainframe hardware around 4% of revenue and declining for most of this century. More recently they stoped giving exact percentage ... just mainframe revenue compared to previous quarter or year.

past posts analyzing 2014 1st quarter financials ... mainframe revenue was equivalent of 14 max configured EC12 systems (56 on annualized basis)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014g.html#14 Is end of mainframe near ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014g.html#49 Is end of mainframe near ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014h.html#57 [CM] Mainframe tech is here to stay: just add innovation
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014h.html#61 Are you tired of the negative comments about IBM in this community?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014h.html#68 Over in the Mainframe Experts Network LinkedIn group
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014l.html#43 IBM 'major announcement' points to deal on chip manufacturing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014l.html#56 This Chart From IBM Explains Why Cloud Computing Is Such A Game-Changer
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015f.html#83 Miniskirts and mainframes
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015g.html#19 Linux Foundation Launches Open Mainframe Project

big thing was the whole mainframe group is 25% of revenue and 40% of profit ... milking software cash cow as it declines.
z900, 16 processors, 2.5BIPS (156MIPS/proc), Dec2000 z990, 32 processors, 9BIPS, (281MIPS/proc), 2003 z9, 54 processors, 18BIPS (333MIPS/proc), July2005 z10, 64 processors, 30BIPS (469MIPS/proc), Feb2008 z196, 80 processors, 50BIPS (625MIPS/proc), Jul2010 EC12, 101 processors, 75BIPS (743MIPS/proc), Aug2012

z196 documentation claims that half the per processor performance improvement (compared to z10), is the introduction of out-of-order (compared to being used for decades in other processors) ... i.e. half of 156MIPS increase from 469MIPS to 625MIPS. Part of the 118MIPS improvement from z196 to EC12 is attributed to further refinement in out-of-order implementation.

z13 claims 30% increased (system) throughput (over EC12) or about 100BIPS with 40% increase in no. of processors or about 710MIPS/proc. z13 is around $300k/BIPS. IBM base price for e5-2600v1 blade (before it sold off its server business) was $1815 or a little over $3/BIPS. also big cloud operators claims they assemble their own servers for 1/3rd cost of brand name blades ($1/BIPS) ... possibly contributing to IBM selling off its server business.

most recent published "peak I/O" benchmark I can find, is 2M IOPS using 104 FICON (heavy weight channel protocol running over fiber channel standard that drastically cuts native throughput) with z196. About the same time, a (single) fibre channel was announce for e5-2600v1 blade claiming over million IOPS (two such fibre channel has higher throughput that 104 FICON running over 104 fibre channel). some posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#ficon

z196 era e5-2600v1 blades are rated at 400-500+BIPS (depending on model/frequency) ... latest e5-2600v4 blades are 3-4 times that, around 1.5TIPS (1500BIPS) ... they've had decades more experience with processor design for throughput.

recent e5-2600 blade posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016.html#15 Dilbert ... oh, you must work for IBM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016.html#19 Fibre Chanel Vs FICON
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016b.html#23 IBM's 3033; "The Big One": IBM's 3033
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016b.html#27 Qbasic
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016b.html#74 Fibre Channel is still alive and kicking
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016b.html#103 You count as an old-timer if (was Re: Origin of the phrase "XYZZY")
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016b.html#104 You count as an old-timer if (was Re: Origin of the phrase "XYZZY")
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016c.html#24 CeBIT and mainframes
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016c.html#28 CeBIT and mainframes
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016c.html#60 Which Books Can You Recommend For Learning Computer Programming?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016c.html#61 Can commodity hardware actuallly emulate the power of a mainframe?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016d.html#24 What was a 3314?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016d.html#81 The mainframe is dead. Long live the mainframe!
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016e.html#42 How the internet was invented
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016f.html#25 Samsung's million-IOPS, 6.4TB, 64Gb/s SSD is ... well, quite something
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016g.html#28 Computer hard drives have shrunk like crazy over the last 60 years -- here's a look back
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016h.html#40 The F-22 Raptor Is the World's Best Fighter (And It Has a Secret Weapon That Is Out in the Open)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016h.html#53 Why Can't You Buy z Mainframe Services from Amazon Cloud Services?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016h.html#55 Why Can't You Buy z Mainframe Services from Amazon Cloud Services?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016h.html#95 Retrieving data from old hard drives?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016h.html#98 A Christmassy PL/I tale
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#19 follow up to dense code definition
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#73 The ICL 2900
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#6 How do BIG WEBSITES work?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#16 System z: I/O Interoperability Evolution - From Bus & Tag to FICON
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#1 GREAT presentation on the history of the mainframe

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

IBM Pension

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: IBM Pension
Date: 01 Apr 2017
Blog: Facebook
some of court suits by ibm employees over change in pension plan
http://www.ibmemployee.com/PDFs/MiddleTennesseeStateUniversityCashBalance.pdf
and
http://www.ibmemployee.com/Highlights030802.shtml

note AMEX had been in competition with KKR for private equity take-over of RJR. KKR runs into problems and hires away AMEX president to help with RJR.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barbarians_at_the_Gate:_The_Fall_of_RJR_Nabisco
IBM has gone into the red and is being re-orged into 13 "baby blues" in preparation for breaking up the company. The board then hires away the former AMEX president to reverse the breakup and resurrecting the company ... using some of the same techniques as at RJR.
http://www.ibmemployee.com/RetirementHeist.shtml

So many companies have been declaring bankruptcy and dumping their pension plans on PBGC that they are worried about running out of money (even when PBGC benefits are significantly less than original pension plans)
http://www.gao.gov/highrisk/pension_benefit/why_did_study
http://www.crfb.org/blogs/pension-insurer-expects-be-out-funds-2022

trivia: starting in the late 80s started to see more corporations re-orging so that human intensive subsidiaries operated at break-even or a loss and majority of profits were booked in separate subsidiary with very few employees. The airline industry did this by booking profits in their res/ticket subsidiaries and actual operations were break-even. Even when operations were operating at a substantial loss, the parent company would show a significant profit (ticket sales profit more than offsetting operations loss). Some of the airlines then declared bankruptcy for the operations and dumped the pension plans on PBGC.

Last decade they got congress to add some special loopholes so they could domicile the profitable subsidiaries in a tax haven.
https://www.icij.org/project/luxembourg-leaks

past posts mentioning former AMEX president
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#gerstner
private equity
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#private.equity

past posts mentioning PBGC:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006o.html#61 Health Care
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007j.html#91 IBM Unionization
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008.html#65 As Expected, Ford Falls From 2nd Place in U.S. Sales
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010b.html#24 Happy DEC-10 Day
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010d.html#46 search engine history, was Happy DEC-10 Day
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010i.html#77 Favourite computer history books?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#94 Bankruptcy a reprieve for some companies
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013k.html#4 copyright protection/Doug Englebart
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014m.html#8 weird apple trivia
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014m.html#10 weird apple trivia
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014m.html#24 weird apple trivia
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014m.html#90 Is IBM Suddenly Vulnerable To A Takeover?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015.html#7 weird apple trivia
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015.html#59 IBM Data Processing Center and Pi
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015e.html#81 prices, was Western Union envisioned internet functionality
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015e.html#89 prices, was Western Union envisioned internet functionality
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016b.html#83 Qbasic - lies about Medicare
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016b.html#98 Qbasic - lies about Medicare
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016c.html#94 Pension Funds at Risk
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016e.html#98 E.R. Burroughs
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016f.html#45 OT: DuPont seeks to screw workers of their pensions
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016f.html#100 D.C. Hivemind Mulls How Clinton Can Pass Huge Corporate Tax Cut

past posts mentioning luxembourg leaks:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014l.html#86 Brand-name companies' secret Luxembourg tax deals revealed
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014l.html#93 Brand-name companies' secret Luxembourg tax deals revealed
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014l.html#95 weird apple trivia
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015.html#52 Report: Tax Evasion, Avoidance Costs United States $100 Billion A Year
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015d.html#46 Remember 3277?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015e.html#4 Western Union envisioned internet functionality
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015e.html#48 These are the companies abandoning the U.S. to dodge taxes
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015e.html#81 prices, was Western Union envisioned internet functionality
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015h.html#29 Ernst & Young Confronts Madoff's Specter in Trial Over Audits
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016.html#80 Thanks Obama
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016b.html#85 Qbasic - lies about Medicare
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016b.html#98 Qbasic - lies about Medicare
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016b.html#107 Qbasic - lies about Medicare
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016c.html#17 Globalization Worker Negotiation
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016e.html#93 Delta Outage
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016f.html#45 OT: DuPont seeks to screw workers of their pensions
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016f.html#100 D.C. Hivemind Mulls How Clinton Can Pass Huge Corporate Tax Cut
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016f.html#109 Airlines Reservation Systems
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016h.html#58 Every US taxpayer has effectively paid Apple at least $6 in recent years

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Mainframes are used increasingly by major banks and financial institutions

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Mainframes are used increasingly by major banks and financial institutions
Date: 01 Apr 2017
Blog: Facebook
Mainframes are used increasingly by major banks and financial institutions
http://www.planetmainframe.com/2017/03/mainframes-used-increasingly-major-banks-financial-institutions/

The major references to mainframe being dead is back in the early 90s when so many had migrated off mainframes and the business had dropped so far, that IBM had gone into the red and was being organized into the 13 "baby blues" in preparation for breaking up the company. A major industry sticking with mainframes was banking and financial ... and the former president of AMEX was brought in as CEO to reverse the breakup and resurrect the company.

In the late 80s, a senior disk engineer got a talk scheduled at internal annual world-wide communication group conference supposedly on 3174 performance ... but opens the talk with the statement that the communication group was going to be responsible for the demise of the disk division. The issue was that the communication group had stranglehold on datacenters with strategic responsibility for everything that crossed the datacenter walls and were fiercely fighting off client/server and distributed computing, trying to preserve their (emulated) dumb terminal paradigm and install base. The disk division was seeing data fleeing the datacenter to more distributed computing friendly platforms with drop in disk sales. The disk division had come up with several solutions to address the problem but they were constantly being vetoed by the communication group.

former AMEX president posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#gerstner
talk about demise of disk division
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#terminal

Note that the internal network was larger than the internet/arpanet from just about the beginning until sometime mid-80s. The internal network saw huge explosion in number of nodes with the advent of 4300s starting in 1979. However the arpanet/internet had big conversion to internetworking protocol on 1Jan1983 ... and then workstations and PCs starting to appear as (peer) network nodes in the mid-80s (when internal network was still restricting them to dumb terminal emulation). In the 80s, the communication group was spreading a lot of misinformation internally about needing to convert the internal network to SNA/VTAM and SNA/VTAM could be used for the NSFNET backbone (precursor to modern internet). Somebody was collecting a lot of the misinformation email and forwarded a copy to us ... posted here, heavily snipped and redacted to protect the guilty
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006w.html#email870109

some internal network posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#internalnet
some NSFNET posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#nsfnet

sorry for the typo ... however, we had already left but in late 1992 we started hearing from former co-workers about top executives seemed to be totally focused on moving expenses from the following year into the current year ... and otherwise neglecting running the business.

I've mentioned before about being contacted by somebody in the bowels of Armonk about helping with the corporate breakup (internal businesses were using MOUs to leverage supplier contracts in other divisions which had to be inventoried and turned into real contracts for the breakup ... since they would no longer be in the same company). We asked him about all the expense shifting. He said that the top executives wouldn't get bonus when company is in the red, but if they could shift expenses so the following year was barely in the black, the way the executive bonus plan was written, they would get bonuses more than twice as large as any previous bonus (effectively making money for taking the company into the red).

posts mentioning inventory interdivision MOUs as part of breakup
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005j.html#29 IBM Plugs Big Iron to the College Crowd
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010f.html#24 Would you fight?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014d.html#8 Microsoft culture must change, chairman says
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014d.html#55 Difference between MVS and z / OS systems
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014d.html#70 Last Gasp For Hard Disk Drives
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014e.html#7 Last Gasp for Hard Disk Drives
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014f.html#54 IBM Sales Fall Again, Pressuring Rometty's Profit Goal
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014h.html#68 Over in the Mainframe Experts Network LinkedIn group
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014m.html#90 Is IBM Suddenly Vulnerable To A Takeover?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014m.html#143 LEO
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015.html#81 Ginni gets bonus, plus raise, and extra incentives
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015d.html#42 Remember 3277?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016d.html#89 China builds world's most powerful computer
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016e.html#15 Leaked IBM email says cutting 'redundant' jobs is a 'permanent and ongoing' part of its business model
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016e.html#97 IBM History
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016e.html#108 Some (IBM-related) History
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016f.html#29 Samsung's million-IOPS, 6.4TB, 64Gb/s SSD is ... well, quite something
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016g.html#20 How to Fix IBM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#62 Big Shrink to "Hire" 25,000 in the US, as Layoffs Pile Up
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#40 Job Loyalty
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#5 IBM's core business

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Imperial Hubris

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Imperial Hubris
Date: 01 Apr 2017
Blog: Facebook
Imperial Hubris: Why the West Is Losing the War on Terror (2004)
https://www.amazon.com/Imperial-Hubris-West-Losing-Terror-ebook/dp/B005CWJ70U/

pg84/loc1891-95:
In regard to evaluating risks, however, post-11 September U.S. officialdom is anything but adult. Fixed on protecting their posteriors, U.S. officials are determined to warn every American about every threat they can lay their hands on. The so-called threat matrix briefed to the president each morning--and now a weekly television program on a channel near you--has become nearly as famous as the Department of Homeland Security's multicolored, streetlight-of-death warning system, surely the ultimate example of what Mark Helprin described as "a series of bureaucratic absurdities that attempt little, achieve nothing, and protect no one."
... snip ...

however, Scheuer hadn't heard of Success of Failure yet, failing is just an excuse to increasing funding for system that collects everything
http://www.govexec.com/excellence/management-matters/2007/04/the-success-of-failure/24107/

success of failure posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#success.of.failure

loc97-100:
Given that these easy-to-reach conclusions can be drawn from materials found in the public library and on the Internet, Americans should wonder why their political, intelligence, military, and media leaders have not made them. The answer, I believe, lies in another point made by Robert Baer. "I knew enough about the way Washington worked to know that when it did not like some piece of information it did everything in its power to discredit the messenger,"
... snip ...

and from early 90s, ... sat. photo analyst notifies white house (bush1 now president & Cheney SECDEF) that Saddam is marshaling forces to invade Kuwait. White House says that Saddam has told them that he would do no such thing (and proceeds to discredit the analyst). Then the analyst notifies the white house that Saddam is marshaling forces to invade Saudi Arabia, now the white house has to choose between Saddam and Saudis.
http://www.amazon.com/Long-Strange-Journey-Intelligence-ebook/dp/B004NNV5H2/

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

ARM Cortex A53 64 bit

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: ARM Cortex A53 64 bit
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Sun, 02 Apr 2017 11:49:58 -0700
Mike Tomlinson <mike@jasper.org.uk> writes:
They're too caught up in the tangle of cables going back decades. Serial, Token Ring, thick ethernet, thin ethernet, twisted pair ethernet, fibre, phones, power...

The underfloor space of some server rooms must resemble Cthulhu's lair.


claim is major motivation for token-ring was because all the point-to-point 3270 coax cables (controllers in datacenter to every 3270 terminal) in many bldgs (frequently overhead cable trays) was starting to exceed weight bearing limit in many bldgs. bascially replaced with modest number of (token ring, shielded) "cat" to local wiring closet (MAUs) and then "cat" from local wiring closets out to (emulated) terminals.

microchannel (ps2) 16mbit token-ring cards had design point of per card throughput assuming 300+ terminals all sharing 16mbit LAN bandwidth doing dumb terminal emulation.

RS/6000 was dealt blow when corporate directed them that they had to use PS2 microchannel cards (and couldn't design their own, LANs, SCSI, graphics, etc) ... claim was that RS/6000 wouldn't have higher throughput than PS2. Example was that AWD designed PC/RT 16bit (at-bus) 4mbit token-ring card ... had higher card throughput than the PS2 32bit (microchannel) 16mbit token-ring card (i.e. PC/RT 4mbit token-ring server had higher throughput than RS/6000 16mbit token-ring server). One of the work-arounds to the corporate mandate was RS/6000 730 with VMEBUS (and since PS2 wasn't doing VMEBUS cards, AWD could do what it wanted).

terrminal emulation posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#terminal
801/risc, Iliad, ROMP, PC/RT, RC/6000, POWER, POWER/PC, etc, posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#801

disclaimer: in former life, my wife was co-inventor on early ring token-passing patent.

my wife had introduced 3-tier network architecture in a response to gov. request for campus, highly secure campus environment. we were then out pitching 3-tier architecture in customer executive presentations ... and taking arrows in the back from the communication group who were vigorously fighting off 2-tier, client/server and distributec computing trying to preserve their dumb (emulated) terminal paradigm and install base.

part of the presentation also compared 10mbit ethernet to 16mbit token-ring. The new (san jose ibm) almaden research bldg had been heavily wired with cat5 (for token-ring), but they found running 10mbit ethernet lans over cat5, had both lower LAN latency and higher aggregate LAN throughput (than 16mbit token-ring over same cat5). The IBM Dallas E/S center had done a 16mbit token-ring to ethernet comparison ... but seemed to have used early 3mbit ethernet before listen-before-transmit (CSMA/CA) protocol. part of 3-tier presentation in this posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002q.html#40 ibm time machine in new york times

the above used $300 for enet cards, even tho there were high-speed enet cards on the street for $69 ... updated comparison
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013m.html#9 Voyager 1 just left the solar system using less computing powerthan your iP

other past posts mentioning 3-tier network (and communication group SAA)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#3tier

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

ARM Cortex A53 64 bit

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: ARM Cortex A53 64 bit
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Sun, 02 Apr 2017 13:16:52 -0700
Charlie Gibbs <cgibbs@kltpzyxm.invalid> writes:
When it comes to hernias, few terminals beat Univac's Uniscope 200 (and its little brother the U100). They had solid metal cases and weighed about 50 pounds.

re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#21 ARM Cortex A53 64 bit

march 1970, "portable" 2741 ... two 50(?)lb cases, one in each hand ... replaced in april with real 2741 ... maybe 180lb?. later 3270 terminal head were 95-120lbs (depending on model) and 20lbs for the (separate) keyboard.

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

ARM Cortex A53 64 bit

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: ARM Cortex A53 64 bit
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Sun, 02 Apr 2017 13:31:10 -0700
JimP. <solosam90@gmail.com> writes:
When we took all the video terminals, nice big CRTS, in at my last job for recycling... some of them were over 50 inches and weighed about 75 pounds. I was required to get help, I don't think I could have lifted it by myself anyway.

re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#21 ARM Cortex A53 64 bit
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#22 ARM Cortex A53 64 bit

there is picture of me at 18 holding my new born son ... my biceps were bigger than the baby .... had been working construction, regularly carrying 350lbs.

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

elliptic curve pkinit?

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: elliptic curve pkinit?
Newsgroups: comp.protocols.kerberos
Date: Sun, 02 Apr 2017 14:35:27 -0700
krb writes:
Has MIT kerberos implemented pkinit with elliptic curve certs/keys? Some initial searching points me to an informational ietf RFC posted out there, but nothing official.

long ago and far away, i wrote early draft of pkinit w/o certificates and for elliptical curve ... but there was heavy pressure to do pkinit (only) for certificates and rsa. later the person responsible told me maybe I was right and apologized ... but it was way too late.

around the turn of the century there was sample certificate-less elliptic curve implementation code online for both pkinit and radius ... but that has long since gone away.

early draft from 1998
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/draft-wheeler-ipki-aads-01.txt

before he passed, postel use to let me help do std1 ... and earlier in 1998 sponsored me for a talk on AADS at ISI ... and also inviting USC network security people over.

the following year we did a stint with the kerberos company that had been hired by m'soft to do their original kerberos implementation.

contributing in that period was NIST had published an elliptic curve standard test suite and then pulled it ... making it hard to get certification

past posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subpubkey.htmlkerberos

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

ARM Cortex A53 64 bit

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: ARM Cortex A53 64 bit
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Mon, 03 Apr 2017 10:20:07 -0700
Mike Tomlinson <mike@jasper.org.uk> writes:
ps. for a time I worked for a firm doing support and maintenance for a number of major banks and financial institutions, including credit card companies operating out of various premises in Chester, UK.

This was around the time those companies were migrating from 327x or 525x terminals to PCs on Token Ring LANs. Most of the workers had both a terminal and a PC during the transition period lasting several years, which left little room on their desk for anything else. This was mainly because the PC terminal emulation software was so slow and unreliable they had to keep, and continue paying for servicing of, the original 70s clapped-out terminals.

My abiding memory of those places is how miserable the employees looked. I was always glad to do the job and get out.


re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#21 ARM Cortex A53 64 bit
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#22 ARM Cortex A53 64 bit
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#23 ARM Cortex A53 64 bit

around 1980 ... there was some amount of studies about how subsecond (.2 second) response improved human productivity. one of the internal ibm locations wrote report including claim that they had best online system in the company with .2 second (system) response. however, the SJR/VM system I distributed and supported had .11 sec response for identical hardware and workload.

the transition from 3277/3272 terminal/controller to 3278/3274 terminal controller moved a lot of electronics from the terminal back to the (shared) controller which enormously increased hardware response. 3277/3272 had .086sec hardware resposne ... while 3274/3278 typically was .53sec (or worse, somewhat data sensitive). My system response of .11sec plus 3277/3272 hardware response gave .196sec seen by human (only way to get .2sec response seen by human). This was for direct channel attached controllers, other hardware configurations (sna/vtam, remote 327x controllers, could significantly increase that). The issue was that with electronics moved back to the controller ... there was enormous increase in protocol chatter latency flowing over the coax cable.

some of us wrote complaint to the 3278/3274 product administrator ... and finally got a response back that 3278/3274 wasn't designed for online interactive system use ... but for online data entry (aka electronic keypunch).

Later, there were two kinds of 3270 (coax cable) ibm/pc emulation cards, 3277 and 3278. The 3277 emulation cards had three times the upload/download throughput of the 3278 emulation cards.

past post
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001m.html#19 3270 protocol

around the same time (1980), i got con'ed into doing channel extender support for the STL that were moving 300 people from the IMS (dbms) group to offsite bldg with access back to the STL datacenter. The group had tried "remote" 3270s (over 19.2kbit/sec lines) and found the human factors totally acceptable. I did channel extender support that put local channel attach 3270 controllers at the offsite bldg. Tests with channel extender loop-back to remote bldg. and back with channtel attached and channel extender sitting side-by-side in STL ... showed no distinguishable difference. One of the issues was that there is enormous channel program chatter that goes on that isn't noticeable within datacenter differences ... but gets noticable over channel-extender differences. The solution was to have channel emulator at the remote site and download channel programs to the channel emulator (so channel protocol chatter distances was measured in feet rather than miles).

The vendor tried to get IBM to allow release of my support ... but there was group in POK that was playing with some serial stuff that objected (afraid that if my stuff was in the market, it would make it hardware to get their stuff released). some past posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#channel.extender

In 1988, I got asked if I could help LLNL to standardize some serial stuff they were playing with which quickly becomes fibre channel standard ... which included being able to download I/O programs to remote end for execution (as transfer speeds go up, protocol chatter latency can come to dominate elapsed time). fibre channel standard started out at 1gbit/sec running full-duplex (2gibt/sec aggregate).

later in 1990, the POK people get their stuff released as ESCON when it is already obsolete. ESCON ran 17mbyte/sec ... but channel protocol chatter ran over ESCON and continued to operate half-duplex (even with parallel fiber) which significantly aggrevates the channel protocol chatter latency.

later POK channel people become involved in fibre channel standard and define a heavy weight protocol that drastically reduces the native throughput (channel protocol chatter running half-duplex over the link). This is eventually released as FICON. Most recent numbers I can find is "peak I/O" throughput for z196 getting 2M IOPS using 104 FICON (running over 104 FCS). About the same time a (native) fibre channel standard was announced for e5-2600 blade claiming over million IOPS (native, two such having higher throughput than 104 FICON).
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#ficon

I've mentioned before in late 80s, senior disk engineer getting talk scheduled at internal, world-wide, communication group conference supposedly on 3174 performance (i.e. 16mbit token-ring controller), but opened the talk that with statement that communication group was going to be responsible for the demise of the disk division. some past posts about communication group vigorously fighting off client/server and distributed computing trying to preserve their dumb terminal paradigm
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#terminal

one of the things the disk divisiion backed was release of mainframe tcp/ip support ... which the communication group couldn't get it killed ... they claimed that since the communication group had strategic ownership of everything that crossed datacenter walls, they required ownership of the product. What shipped was a controler that was priced at $40k rather than original objective of $5k and aggregate throughput was 44kbytes/sec using nearly whole 3090 processor.

I then did the software enhancements to support RFC1044 and in some tuning tests at cray research between 4341 and cray, got 4341 channel sustained throughput (mbyte/sec) using only modest amount of 4341 processor (around 500 times improvement in bytes moved per instruction executed)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#1044

some past posts mentioning SJR/VM (one of my hobbies was doing enhanched operating systems distribution and support for internal datacenters, originallly CSC/VM at the science center).
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006u.html#26 Assembler question
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006y.html#35 The Future of CPUs: What's After Multi-Core?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007.html#3 The Future of CPUs: What's After Multi-Core?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007b.html#51 Special characters in passwords was Re: RACF - Password rules
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007c.html#12 Special characters in passwords was Re: RACF - Password rules
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008h.html#46 Whitehouse Emails Were Lost Due to "Upgrade"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008s.html#39 The Internet's 100 Oldest Dot-Com Domains
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009i.html#35 SEs & History Lessons
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010b.html#100 "The Naked Mainframe" (Forbes Security Article)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010d.html#70 LPARs: More or Less?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010f.html#24 Would you fight?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010l.html#20 Old EMAIL Index
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010n.html#62 When will MVS be able to use cheap dasd
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010o.html#63 They always think we don't understand
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010q.html#41 Old EMAIL Index
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011.html#70 Speed of Old Hard Disks
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011m.html#41 CMS load module format
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#14 HONE
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013e.html#88 Sequence Numbrs (was 32760?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013f.html#58 The cloud is killing traditional hardware and software
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014f.html#89 Real Programmers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014g.html#85 Costs of core
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015c.html#27 30 yr old email
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015d.html#2 Knowledge Center Outage May 3rd
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015d.html#3 30 yr old email
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015g.html#54 Mainframes open to internet attacks?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015h.html#106 DOS descendant still lives was Re: slight reprieve on the z
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016c.html#1 You count as an old-timer if (was Re: Origin of the phrase "XYZZY")
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#1 GREAT presentation on the history of the mainframe

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

ARM Cortex A53 64 bit

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: ARM Cortex A53 64 bit
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Mon, 03 Apr 2017 10:57:07 -0700
Charlie Gibbs <cgibbs@kltpzyxm.invalid> writes:
Yes, IBM realized their mistake when they published the specs for the original Personal Computer. After the clones took off, they introduced MicroChannel in a (fortunately futile) attempt to close Pandora's box again. (Remember how the last thing left in Pandora's box was Hope?)

re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#21 ARM Cortex A53 64 bit
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#22 ARM Cortex A53 64 bit
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#23 ARM Cortex A53 64 bit
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#25 ARM Cortex A53 64 bit

Boca was making all sorts of (internal) claims about the PC market and market prices for PS2. To try and offset this, I was publishing on internal forums single unit clone prices from SJMN sunday advertisements (that was less than 1/3rd what boca was claiming). Then there was this fall ... when the clone makers (on the other side of the pacific) had built up enormous 286 inventory for the holiday season ... and Intel dropped the floor out of the market with 386sx ... and there were enormous 286 fire sales.

around that time there was joke that Boca was loosing $5 on every PS2 sale, but was planning on making it with volume.

past posts with info from SJMN
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001n.html#79 a.f.c history checkup... (was What specifications will the standard year 2001 PC have?)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001n.html#80 a.f.c history checkup... (was What specifications will the standard year 2001 PC have?)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001n.html#81 a.f.c history checkup... (was What specifications will the standard year 2001 PC have?)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001n.html#82 a.f.c history checkup... (was What specifications will the standard year 2001 PC have?)

Then head of Boca (at the time had been brought in from head of mainframe POK) hired Dataquest (Dataquest had since been bought by Gartner) to do study of future of PC market ... that included a several hour video taped round table of silicon valley experts. I knew the person running the study for Dataquest and they asked me to be one of the silicon valley experts. I cleared it with my IBM management ... and Dataquest agreed to garble my identification (so boca wouldn't recognize it was IBM employee).

past posts mentioning dataquest:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002k.html#55 Moore law
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004.html#34 Two subjects: 64-bit OS2/eCs, Innotek Products
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005t.html#21 What ever happened to Tandem and NonStop OS ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007g.html#81 IBM to the PCM market
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007h.html#0 The Perfect Computer - 36 bits?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008d.html#60 more on (the new 40+ yr old) virtualization
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008o.html#5 Houses
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008o.html#6 Houses
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009b.html#69 Intel's Future is integrated
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010.html#62 How long before Microsoft goes the way of DEC (and in part, IBM)?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010c.html#10 Happy DEC-10 Day
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010c.html#78 SLIGHTLY OT - Home Computer of the Future (not IBM)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011f.html#47 First 5.25in 1GB drive?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012k.html#44 Slackware
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013i.html#4 IBM commitment to academia
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014c.html#20 9th Feb 2014
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014c.html#24 IBM sells Intel server business, company is doomed
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014f.html#26 upcoming TV show, "Halt & Catch Fire"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014l.html#46 Could this be the wrongest prediction of all time?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016g.html#94 What would Klinger look like in business attire?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#23 IBM "Breakup"

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

US Education

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: US Education
Date: 03 Apr 2017
Blog: Facebook
.... census report '94 or so, claimed half the (us) 18 year olds were functionally illiterate ... in the mid-90s we were working with somebody from one of the largest mid-west state univ and they pointed out that between 60s and early '90s, textbooks for entering freshman classes went thru three different cycles of being dumbed down.

in the 90s new hire interviews we did, only 4.0 graduates were non-us. also over half of the advanced technical (STEM) degree graduates at cal. institutions were non-us ... major part of internet revolution in silicon valley were the non-us advanced technical graduates.

in 80s, when foreign auto makers were setting up plants in the US, they found that they had to require junior college degrees in order to get workers with high school education.

last decade, there were lots of states constantly postponing requiring 7th grade proficiency tests for high school graduation.

I got in dustup at conference with some stanford professors pointing out that there were many US company advanced technology projects almost totally staffed by non-US ... their education (at US institutions) had been paid for by their governments and were obligated to return home after working in the US for a few years.

on the other hand, at recent marine corp university conferences (in quantico), it was raised that top problem is "helicopter" parents who have raised their children never having to figure out things for themselves.

manuerverists ... ala John Boyd; 89/90, commandant of the marine corp leveraged boyd for makeover of the corp. the author of this tome (listed as anonymous) is member.
http://www.mca-marines.org/gazette/attritionist-letters-archives
also archived here
https://fabiusmaximus.com/2011/05/11/27461/
fyi
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maneuver_warfare#Boyd_and_US_acceptance_of_maneuver_warfare

the wiki reference to maneuver warfare ... mentions Vandergriff ... when
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andrew_Marshall_(foreign_policy_strategist)
retired as head of office of net assessment, there was a campaign to get Vandergriff named the new yoda (as an aside, there are many quibbles with several of Marshall's "star" protegres).

past posts mentioning functionally illiterate and/or proficiency tests:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002k.html#45 How will current AI/robot stories play when AIs are real?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003i.html#28 Offshore IT
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003i.html#45 Offshore IT
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003i.html#55 Offshore IT
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003p.html#33 [IBM-MAIN] NY Times editorial on white collar jobs going
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004b.html#42 The SOB that helped IT jobs move to India is dead!
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004d.html#18 The SOB that helped IT jobs move to India is dead!
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004h.html#18 Low Bar for High School Students Threatens Tech Sector
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005e.html#48 Mozilla v Firefox
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005g.html#43 Academic priorities
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006g.html#20 The Pankian Metaphor
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006l.html#63 DEC's Hudson fab
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007g.html#7 U.S. Cedes Top Spot in Global IT Competitiveness
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007i.html#24 John W. Backus, 82, Fortran developer, dies
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007i.html#79 John W. Backus, 82, Fortran developer, dies
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007j.html#31 IBM Unionization
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007j.html#51 IBM Unionization
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007j.html#80 IBM Unionization
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007j.html#85 IBM Unionization
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007k.html#10 IBM Unionization
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007k.html#30 IBM Unionization
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007k.html#34 IBM Unionization
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007k.html#42 IBM Unionization
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007n.html#68 Poll: oldest computer thing you still use
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007o.html#21 U.S. Cedes Top Spot in Global IT Competitiveness
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007o.html#22 U.S. Cedes Top Spot in Global IT Competitiveness
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007v.html#29 folklore indeed
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008.html#39 competitiveness
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008b.html#57 Govt demands password to personal computer
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008k.html#5 Republican accomplishments and Hoover
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008q.html#55 Can outsourcing be stopped?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008s.html#20 Five great technological revolutions
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009f.html#43 On whom or what would you place the blame for the sub-prime crisis?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009f.html#47 TARP Disbursements Through April 10th
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009s.html#43 Larrabee delayed: anyone know what's happening?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010.html#38 Happy DEC-10 Day
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010o.html#66 They always think we don't understand
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011.html#80 Chinese and Indian Entrepreneurs Are Eating America's Lunch
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011k.html#48 50th anniversary of BASIC, COBOL?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011l.html#36 The Next Convergence: The Future of Economic Growth in a Multispeed World
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011n.html#18 Great Brian Arthur article on the Second Economy
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011p.html#125 UC-Berkeley and other 'public Ivies' in fiscal peril
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012g.html#75 Monopoly/ Cartons of Punch Cards
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012h.html#18 How do you feel about the fact that India has more employees than US?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012j.html#39 Monopoly/ Cartons of Punch Cards
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012k.html#36 Race Against the Machine
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014h.html#32 How Comp-Sci went from passing fad to must have major
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015h.html#5 Decimal point character and billions
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015h.html#9 Decimal point character and billions
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016e.html#52 E.R. Burroughs

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

ARM Cortex A53 64 bit

Refed: **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: ARM Cortex A53 64 bit
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Mon, 03 Apr 2017 15:14:22 -0700
Bob Eager <news0006@eager.cx> writes:
We ran a non-proprietary ring (well, several) for about 12 years. It worked well, no collisions. It only died because of a major screwup by DEC.

re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#21 ARM Cortex A53 64 bit
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#22 ARM Cortex A53 64 bit
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#23 ARM Cortex A53 64 bit
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#25 ARM Cortex A53 64 bit
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#26 ARM Cortex A53 64 bit

1988, ACM SIGCOMM had paper on 10mbit ethernet .... one showed standard 30 station lan configurations all with low-level drivers constantly transmitting minimum sized packets ... showing effective aggregate LAN throughput drops off to 8.5mbit/sec. There was also paper showing slow-start (window-based pacing) in large heterogeneous network being non-stable. One scenario is that ACKs queuing up and arrive in bunch at transmitoring opening multiple windows resulting in multiple back-to-back packet transmissions resulting in congestion and overrun.

That summer Van Jacobson also presented some of his onw data ... besides slow-start ... about the bit*latency product for gbit coast-to-coast terrestrial link was similar to slower-speed synchronous satellite transmission ... upthread reference to protocol chatter latency becoming increasingly bottleneck as speeds get faster.

in HSDT ... past posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#hsdt

we had been doing adaptive rate-based pacing ... as much more efficient than slow-start (I've periodically commented that rate-based needed timing facilities, and at the time many of the platforms that slow-start was used on had poor or non-existant timer facilities). I was on the XTP technical advisory board ... some past posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#xtphsp
and wrote this on dynamic rate-based pacing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/xtprate.html

past posts mentioning 1988 ACM SIGCOMM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000f.html#38 Ethernet efficiency (was Re: Ms employees begging for food)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000f.html#39 Ethernet efficiency (was Re: Ms employees begging for food)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001j.html#20 OT - Internet Explorer V6.0
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002.html#38 Buffer overflow
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002b.html#4 Microcode? (& index searching)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002q.html#40 ibm time machine in new york times?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002q.html#41 ibm time machine in new york times?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003j.html#46 Fast TCP
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003p.html#13 packetloss bad for sliding window protocol ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004e.html#17 were dumb terminals actually so dumb???
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004p.html#55 IBM 3614 and 3624 ATM's
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005q.html#18 Ethernet, Aloha and CSMA/CD -
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007g.html#80 IBM to the PCM market(the sky is falling!!!the sky is falling!!)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009m.html#80 A Faster Way to the Cloud
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009m.html#83 A Faster Way to the Cloud
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011d.html#41 Is email dead? What do you think?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012g.html#39 Van Jacobson Denies Averting 1980s Internet Meltdown
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013b.html#32 Ethernet at 40: Its daddy reveals its turbulent youth
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013i.html#83 Metcalfe's Law: How Ethernet Beat IBM and Changed the World
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013m.html#18 Voyager 1 just left the solar system using less computing powerthan your iP
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013m.html#30 Voyager 1 just left the solar system using less computing powerthan your iP
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014m.html#128 How Much Bandwidth do we have?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015d.html#41 Western Union envisioned internet functionality

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

ARM Cortex A53 64 bit

Refed: **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: ARM Cortex A53 64 bit
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Mon, 03 Apr 2017 20:15:01 -0700
Peter Flass <peter_flass@yahoo.com> writes:
Of course, logically, if you want to run a LAN containing both RES/6000s and PS/2s, perhaps as desktops, the data rate has to be compatible.

re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#21 ARM Cortex A53 64 bit

so make them all tcp/ip w/ethernet and routers.

another problem with communication group was that they didn't have a network layer ... so everything was bridges and all data appeared on all nework segments ... i.e. 300+ all sharing same bandwidth.

16mbit t/r as IBM Almaden research found had less than 8mbit aggregate lan throughput ... besides every microchannel 16mbit t/r card have lower per card throughput than even some 4mbit t/r cards.

re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#28 ARM Cortex A53 64 bit

as 1988 acm sigcomm report for 10mbit ethernet that for typical 30 station 10mbit ethernet, all running low-level driver constantly transmitting minimum sized packet, aggregate effective bandwidth drops to 8.5mbit/sec.

re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#21 ARM Cortex A53 64 bit
and
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#3tier

in the late 80s, for some high end ... there were some high-end routers with multi-hundred mbit backblane ... couple FDDI 100mbit connections coming in from servers and 16 10mbit ethernet on the client side. configuration referenced here (compared to communication group 300 16mbit t/r lan)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013m.html#9 Voyager 1 just left the solar system using less computing powerthan your iP

trivia ... some people i had worked with were brought into netcom.com to rewrite packet trace/monitor (wasn't fast enough to handle 100mbit FDDI that were being used within netcom datacenter)
https://www.amazon.com/Takedown-Pursuit-Capture-Kevin-Mitnick/dp/0786862106/

old google post
https://plus.google.com/+LynnWheeler/posts/fVphqt42NRA

netcom
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Netcom_(United_States)

In the timeframe of early sna architecture ... (in previous life) my wife was co-author of peer-to-peer networking, (IBM) AWP39 architecture ... as opposed to SNA ... not a System, not a Network, and not an Architecture ... it was communication layer & terminal control program.

Closest thing that might be consisdered SNA & network layer was APPN. At the time, guy responsible for AWP164 (would become APPN) reported to same executive as I did. I kept telling him to come work on "real" networking (tcp/ip) because the SNA people would never appreciate what he was doing. When they went to announce APPN, the SNA group non-concurred and there was six weeks delay while they escalated the issue and eventually rewrote APPN announcement letter to carefully NOT imply that there was any association between APPN and SNA.

past posts mentioning AWP39, AWP164, and/or APPN:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000.html#51 APPC vs TCP/IP
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000.html#53 APPC vs TCP/IP
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000b.html#89 "Database" term ok for plain files?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000c.html#54 WHAT IS A MAINFRAME???
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001i.html#31 3745 and SNI
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002.html#28 Buffer overflow
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002b.html#54 Computer Naming Conventions
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002c.html#43 Beginning of the end for SNA?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002g.html#48 Why did OSI fail compared with TCP-IP?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002h.html#12 Why did OSI fail compared with TCP-IP?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002h.html#48 Why did OSI fail compared with TCP-IP?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002k.html#20 Vnet : Unbelievable
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003.html#67 3745 & NCP Withdrawl?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003d.html#49 unix
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003h.html#9 Why did TCP become popular ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003o.html#55 History of Computer Network Industry
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003p.html#2 History of Computer Network Industry
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003p.html#39 Mainframe Emulation Solutions
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004g.html#12 network history
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004n.html#38 RS/6000 in Sysplex Environment
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004p.html#31 IBM 3705 and UC.5
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005p.html#8 EBCDIC to 6-bit and back
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005p.html#9 EBCDIC to 6-bit and back
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005p.html#15 DUMP Datasets and SMS
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005p.html#17 DUMP Datasets and SMS
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005q.html#20 Ethernet, Aloha and CSMA/CD -
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005q.html#27 What ever happened to Tandem and NonStop OS ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005u.html#23 Channel Distances
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006h.html#52 Need Help defining an AS400 with an IP address to the mainframe
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006j.html#31 virtual memory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006k.html#9 Arpa address
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006k.html#21 Sending CONSOLE/SYSLOG To Off-Mainframe Server
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006l.html#4 Google Architecture
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006l.html#45 Mainframe Linux Mythbusting (Was: Using Java in batch on z/OS?)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006o.html#62 Greatest Software, System R
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006r.html#4 Was FORTRAN buggy?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006r.html#9 Was FORTRAN buggy?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006t.html#36 The Future of CPUs: What's After Multi-Core?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006u.html#28 Assembler question
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006u.html#55 What's a mainframe?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007b.html#9 Mainframe vs. "Server" (Was Just another example of mainframe
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007b.html#48 6400 impact printer
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007b.html#49 6400 impact printer
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007d.html#55 Is computer history taugh now?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007h.html#35 sizeof() was: The Perfect Computer - 36 bits?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007h.html#39 sizeof() was: The Perfect Computer - 36 bits?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007l.html#62 Friday musings on the future of 3270 applications
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007o.html#72 FICON tape drive?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007p.html#12 JES2 or JES3, Which one is older?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007p.html#23 Newsweek article--baby boomers and computers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007q.html#46 Are there tasks that don't play by WLM's rules
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007r.html#10 IBM System/3 & 3277-1
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007v.html#53 folklore indeed
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008b.html#42 windows time service
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008d.html#71 Interesting ibm about the myths of the Mainframe
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008e.html#73 Convergent Technologies vs Sun
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008i.html#97 We're losing the battle
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008m.html#61 CHROME and WEB apps on Mainframe?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008r.html#37 What if the computers went back to the '70s too?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009e.html#56 When did "client server" become part of the language?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009i.html#26 Why are z/OS people reluctant to use z/OS UNIX?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009l.html#3 VTAM security issue
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009l.html#7 VTAM security issue
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009l.html#43 SNA: conflicting opinions
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009q.html#83 Small Server Mob Advantage
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010d.html#62 LPARs: More or Less?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010e.html#5 What is a Server?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010g.html#29 someone smarter than Dave Cutler
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010q.html#73 zLinux OR Linux on zEnterprise Blade Extension???
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011l.html#26 computer bootlaces
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011m.html#6 What is IBM culture?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011n.html#2 Soups
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#92 Has anyone successfully migrated off mainframes?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#41 Where are all the old tech workers?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012h.html#17 Hierarchy
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012i.html#25 Can anybody give me a clear idea about Cloud Computing in MAINFRAME ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012k.html#23 How to Stuff a Wild Duck
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012k.html#41 Cloud Computing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012k.html#68 ESCON
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012m.html#24 Does the IBM System z Mainframe rely on Security by Obscurity or is it Secure by Design
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012o.html#13 Should you support or abandon the 3270 as a User Interface?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012o.html#52 PC/mainframe browser(s) was Re: 360/20, was 1132 printer history
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013.html#6 Is Microsoft becoming folklore?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013g.html#44 What Makes code storage management so cool?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013j.html#66 OSI: The Internet That Wasn't
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013j.html#67 OSI: The Internet That Wasn't
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013n.html#19 z/OS is antique WAS: Aging Sysprogs = Aging Farmers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013n.html#26 SNA vs TCP/IP
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014.html#99 the suckage of MS-DOS, was Re: 'Free Unix!
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014d.html#50 Can we logon to TSO witout having TN3270 up ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014d.html#66 Can we logon to TSO witout having TN3270 up ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014e.html#7 Last Gasp for Hard Disk Drives
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014e.html#15 Last Gasp for Hard Disk Drives
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014m.html#25 Microsoft Open Sources .NET, Saying It Will Run on Linux and Mac
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015g.html#96 TCP joke
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015h.html#99 Systems thinking--still in short supply
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016d.html#48 PL/I advertising
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016e.html#124 Early Networking
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#55 The ICL 2900

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

The Pentagon still uses computer software from 1958 to manage its contracts

Refed: **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: The Pentagon still uses computer software from 1958 to manage its contracts
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Tue, 04 Apr 2017 10:47:38 -0700
Quadibloc <jsavard@ecn.ab.ca> writes:
How much a z10 or a z13 actually goes for, I'm not sure offhand; I think one has to get confidential quotes to get pricing information.

max. config z10 thru z13 ("list") have gone for around $29M-$30m while BIPS rate went from 30BIPS & 64 processors ($1M/BIPS & 469MIPS/proc) to 100BIPS and 141 processors ($300K/BIPS & 710MIPS/proc). However, software monthly charge is also major part of total bill ... and various calculations about "enabled" processors for some part of the month.

re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#11 The Pentagon still uses computer software from 1958 to manage its contracts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#13 The Pentagon still uses computer software from 1958 to manage its contracts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#15 The Pentagon still uses computer software from 1958 to manage its contracts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#17 The Pentagon still uses computer software from 1958 to manage its contracts

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

ARM Cortex A53 64 bit

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: ARM Cortex A53 64 bit
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Tue, 04 Apr 2017 11:21:33 -0700
Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com> writes:
so make them all tcp/ip w/ethernet and routers.

re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#29 ARM Cortex A53 64 bit

other, one of the RS6000 engineers worked on POK serial stuff (announced in 1990 as ESCON) increasing raw bit rate from 200mbit/sec (half-duplex 17mbyte/sec effective) to 220mbit and making it full-duplex (440mbit/sec aggregate) ... announce as SLA (serial link adaptor) ... but since it was proprietary, all it could be used is with other RS6000s.

We talked a high-end router vendor into offering SLA ... so RS6000 server could talk to the router at 440mbit/sec (full-duplex) with up to 16 10mbit ethernet LANs. The same router vendor was also selling full T3 (45mbits/sec full-duplex) in that time-frame.

The engineer then wanted to do an enhanced 800bmit SLA ... but instead talked him into joining fibre channel standard committee ... which was major factor in getting FCS on RS/6000 ... accounting for "medusa" some old email
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/lhwemail.html#medusa

and our HA/CMP
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#hacmp

cluster scaleup ... old reference to commercial/RDBMS cluster scaleup with JAN1992 meeting in Ellison's conference room
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/95.html#13

as I've mentioned, within a few weeks of the Ellison meeting, cluster scaleup was transferred, announced as IBM supercomputer (*ONLY*) and we were told we couldn't work on anything with more than four processors.

press 17Feb1992, announced for "scientific and technical only"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001n.html#6000clusters1

press 11May1992, IBM caught by surprise in national labs interest in cluster scaleup
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001n.html#6000clusters2

however, as I've periodically pontificated, 1988 I was asked to help LLNL (national lab) standardize some serial stuff they were working with (which quickly became fibre channel standard) ... and big part of "medusa" was already working with national labs (including LLNL).

some past posts mentioning serial link adapter
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000f.html#31 OT?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001m.html#25 ESCON Data Transfer Rate
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002e.html#32 What goes into a 3090?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003d.html#37 Why only 24 bits on S/360?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003h.html#0 Escon vs Ficon Cost
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005e.html#12 Device and channel
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005l.html#26 ESCON to FICON conversion
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006m.html#52 TCP/IP and connecting z to alternate platforms
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006x.html#11 The Future of CPUs: What's After Multi-Core?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007o.html#54 mainframe performance, was Is a RISC chip more expensive?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009p.html#85 Anyone going to Supercomputers '09 in Portland?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009s.html#32 Larrabee delayed: anyone know what's happening?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014h.html#87 The Tragedy of Rapid Evolution?

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

The very beginning of TCP/IP

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: The very beginning of TCP/IP
Date: 04 Apr 2017
Blog: Facebook
late 80s, senior disk engineer getting talk scheduled at internal, world-wide, communication group conference supposedly on 3174 performance (i.e. 16mbit token-ring controller), but opened the talk that with statement that communication group was going to be responsible for the demise of the disk division. The issue was that communication group had corporate strategic ownership of everything that crossed datacenter wall and was fiercely fighting off client/server and distributed computing, trying to preserve their dumb (emulated) terminal paradigm and install base. The disk division was seeing data fleeing datacenters to more distributed computing platforms with drop in disk sales. some past posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#terminal

one of the things the disk divisiion backed was release of mainframe tcp/ip support ... and when the communication group couldn't get it killed ... they claimed that since the communication group had strategic ownership of everything that crossed datacenter walls, they required ownership of the product. What shipped was a controler that was priced at $40k rather than original objective of $5k and aggregate throughput was 44kbytes/sec using nearly whole 3090 processor.

I then did the software enhancements to support RFC1044 and in some tuning tests at cray research between 4341 and cray, got 4341 channel sustained throughput (mbyte/sec) using only modest amount of 4341 processor (around 500 times improvement in bytes moved per instruction executed). some past posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#1044

The original mainframe TCP/IP product was done in VS/Pascal ... and had none of the exploits that have been epidemic in C-language implementations. I did the enhancements for (internet standard) RFC1044.

Much later the communication group hired a outside consultant to implement TCP/IP support in VTAM. He demo'ed his initial implementation running much faster than LU6.2 and was told that everybody "knows" that a "proper" TCP/IP implementation would be much slower than LU6.2 ... and they would only pay for a "proper" implementation.

trivia: in the 90s, the RFC Editor (postel, until he passes) would let me help do (internet standard) STD1 (updates).

other triva: in the early 80s I started HSDT project and one of the things we were doing was working with the director of NSF and was suppose to get $20M to interconnect the NSF supercomputer centers ... then congress cuts the budget, some other things happen, and finally NSF releases an RFP (largely based on what we already had running). Internal politics prevent us from bidding. The NSF director tries to help, writing the company a letter (with support from other agencies), but that just makes the internal politics worse (as did comments that what we already had running was at least 5yrs ahead of all RFP responses). As regional networks connect into the centers, it evolves into the NSFNET "backbone" (precursor to the modern internet). Some old NSF related email
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/lhwemail.html#nsfnet
some old HSDT related email
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/lhwemail.html#hsdt

even more trivia: the great cut-over of arpanet/internet from IMPs (and host-to-host protocol) to internetworking protocol was 1Jan1983 at time when they had approx. 100 (network) IMPs and 255 connected hosts. At that time the internal network was quickly approaching 1000 nodes (which it passed that summer). Old post with list of corporate locations that added one or more network nodes during 1983:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006k.html#8

internal network posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#internalnet
nsfnet posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#nsfnet
hsdt posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#hsdt

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

ARM Cortex A53 64 bit

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: ARM Cortex A53 64 bit
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Tue, 04 Apr 2017 13:15:46 -0700
Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com> writes:
Then head of Boca (at the time had been brought in from head of mainframe POK) hired Dataquest (Dataquest had since been brought by Gartner) to do study of future of PC market ... that included a several hour video taped round table of silicon valley experts. I knew the person running the study for Dataquest and they asked me to be one of the silicon valley experts. I cleared it with my IBM management ... and Dataquest agreed to garble my identification (so boca wouldn't recognize it was IBM employee).

re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#26 ARM Cortex A53 64 bit

It's 30 years ago: IBM's final battle with reality; It's 30 years ago: IBM's final battle with reality
https://www.theregister.co.uk/2017/04/04/30_years_ago_ibms_final_battle_with_reality/

OS/2 is an oft-told story, not least here at the Reg, where we gave an account of the OS wars on the 25th anniversary of OS/2. Dominic Connor also shared lots of evocative detail about the IBM culture at the time here (Part One) and here (Part Two). So there's no need to do so again.

... snip ...

other trivia: .... boca os/2 group contacted the vm370 about how to do scheduling, the os/2 people were sent to me ... some old email
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007i.html#email871204
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007i.html#email871204b

past scheduling posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#fairshare

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

ARM Cortex A53 64 bit

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: ARM Cortex A53 64 bit
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Tue, 04 Apr 2017 18:12:07 -0700
pechter@pechter.dyndns.org (William Pechter) writes:
Totally agree... Of course this was in 1987 or so... and triple redundant minis were rare unless this was banking or other money making enterprise.

For the tape library database... the downtime was acceptable. However, expectations have changed over the last 20 years and the funding of IT hasn't.

Spent my last job working every weekend because I was the only Unix/Linux guy and there were 10 Windows guys splitting the on call rotation... and me getting woken up every week and doing all the changes on Saturday through Sunday @6am.


when we were doing HA/CMP, we spent some time talking to the bellcore 1-800 people. They had a requirement for 5-nines and were running a platform that provided hardware processor redundant. The problem was that simple software maintenance used a century of allowed outage/downtime. We were pitching redundant systems where it was possible to do rolling system updates w/o taking out the service (and achieve five-nines, and was much cheaper than the redundant hardware solution)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#hacmp

It was straight-forward to implement since the telco switches had they already had replicated T1 links, and if it didn't get response, it would repeat the request over different link.

after Gray left research for tandem, he did a study of outages and found that hardware was becoming so reliable that outages were shifting to environmental, software, and/or people mistakes. old overview from Jim
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/grayft84.pdf

when I was out marketing HA/CMP, I coined the terms disaster survivability and geographic survivability ... and then was asked to write a section for the corporate continuous availability strategy document. The section got pulled when rochester (as/400) and POK (mainframe) complain they couldn't meet the requirements.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#available

posts in thread
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#21 ARM Cortex A53 64 bit
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#22 ARM Cortex A53 64 bit
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#23 ARM Cortex A53 64 bit
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#25 ARM Cortex A53 64 bit
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#26 ARM Cortex A53 64 bit
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#28 ARM Cortex A53 64 bit
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#29 ARM Cortex A53 64 bit
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#31 ARM Cortex A53 64 bit
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#33 ARM Cortex A53 64 bit

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

The Pentagon still uses computer software from 1958 to manage its contracts

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: The Pentagon still uses computer software from 1958 to manage its contracts
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Wed, 05 Apr 2017 09:48:44 -0700
hancock4 writes:
I thought that even WW II battleships had mechanical analog computers to aim the guns.

Anyway, in the 1980s, they had an open house for a Canadian naval vessel. In the bridge, there were plain office desks, and atop were standard IBM PC's. On the text screen were text representations of the power control--ahead full, half, back full, etc. No more of the classic wheel.


I was on XTP technical advisory board in the 80s ... some past posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#xtpshp

... and there were various gov. participants ... including navy using it for SAFENET-2 running over FDDI ...
http://proceedings.spiedigitallibrary.org/proceeding.aspx?articleid=952310

The SAFENET II standard is a seven layer network profile which is being developed for use in Navy computer networks. SAFENET II employs the ANSI FDDI standard as its physical and data link layers. The profile also includes protocols from 051 and MAP as well as the emerging Xpress Transfer Protocol (XTP).

... snip ...

the reference is a little garbled since it reference XTP & 7-level network profile ... aka gov. went thru period of mandating GOSIP and the elimination of TCP/IP. We had taken XTP to ANSI X3S3.3 (OSI level 3&4 standard). Eventually they said that ISO required standardization work to conform to OSI. XTP violated OSI because
1) supported internetworking protocol, non-existant layer between OSI 3 & 4 2) went directly from transport to LAN/MAC ... bypassing level 3/4 interface 3) it went directly to LAN/MAC ... doesn't exist in OSI, sits approx. in middle of layer 3

more safenet
http://www.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a223942.pdf

interop '88 lots of booths were showing OSI applications ... being prodded by government GOSIP to move to OSI (and eliminate tcp/ip) ... sort of strange for conference nominally for Internet interoperability. some past posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#interop88

One way that IETF would differentiate IETF/Internet and ISO/OSI ... was that IETF required two intereoperable implementations as part of progressing to standard ... while ISO could have standards that turn out to not even be implementable.

posts in thread
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#11 The Pentagon still uses computer software from 1958 to manage its contracts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#13 The Pentagon still uses computer software from 1958 to manage its contracts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#15 The Pentagon still uses computer software from 1958 to manage its contracts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#17 The Pentagon still uses computer software from 1958 to manage its contracts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#30 The Pentagon still uses computer software from 1958 to manage its contracts

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

The Pentagon still uses computer software from 1958 to manage its contracts

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: The Pentagon still uses computer software from 1958 to manage its contracts
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Wed, 05 Apr 2017 12:17:23 -0700
timcaffrey420 writes:
And now there is PCIe based disks:
http://www.anandtech.com/show/11208/intel-introduces-optane-ssd-dc-p4800x-with-3d-xpoint-memory

500K IOPS (4K random) for a single board. I suspect that will get better as the IO stack is optimized for low latency storage.


re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#25 ARM Cortex A53 64 bit

as previously noted, CKD disks are still required, but haven't been manufactured for decades, all emulated on industry fixed-block disks.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#dasd
and
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#ficon

HIPPI (LANL, slightly earlier and then serial HIPPI to compete with FCS), FCS (LLNL), and SCI (SLAC) all evolved about the same time. The serial implementations were replacing half-duplex bus protocols with full-duplex, constantly streaming in both directions ... to help mask the growing latency issues.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#ficon

SCI is part of the evolution
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#73 The ICL 2900
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#49 The ICL 2900

futurebus
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Futurebus
Infiniband
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/InfiniBand

before PCIe, PCI Express-based fabrics: A low-cost alternative to InfiniBand
http://www.networkworld.com/article/2167120/tech-primers/pci-express-based-fabrics--a-low-cost-alternative-to-infiniband.html
InfiniBand predated PCIe and was originally envisioned as a unified fabric to replace most other data center interconnects. In the end, however, it did not achieve that goal, but did develop a niche as a high-speed clustering interconnect that replaced some proprietary solutions.

InfiniBand, like PCIe, has evolved considerably since its introduction. The initial speed supported was the Single Data Rate (SDR), 2Gbps, the same data rate as PCIe Gen 1. The original PCIe specification borrowed heavily from InfiniBand at the signaling level. It has been enhanced through Double Data Rate (DDR) at 4Gbps, QDR at 8Gbps, and is now shipping at Fourteen Data Rate (FDR) at 13.64Gbps. Higher speeds are envisioned moving forward.

... snip ...

PCI Express
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PCI_Express
Serial bus
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PCI_Express#Serial_bus
The bonded serial bus architecture was chosen over the traditional parallel bus due to inherent limitations of the latter, including half-duplex operation, excess signal count, and inherently lower bandwidth due to timing skew. Timing skew results from separate electrical signals within a parallel interface traveling through conductors of different lengths, on potentially different printed circuit board (PCB) layers, and at possibly different signal velocities. Despite being transmitted simultaneously as a single word, signals on a parallel interface have different travel duration and arrive at their destinations at different times. When the interface clock period is shorter than the largest time difference between signal arrivals, recovery of the transmitted word is no longer possible. Since timing skew over a parallel bus can amount to a few nanoseconds, the resulting bandwidth limitation is in the range of hundreds of megahertz.

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

The Pentagon still uses computer software from 1958 to manage its contracts

Refed: **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: The Pentagon still uses computer software from 1958 to manage its contracts
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Wed, 05 Apr 2017 12:28:38 -0700
scott@slp53.sl.home (Scott Lurndal) writes:
There have been flash-based PCIe based (m.2 and NVME) SSD for several years now.

The optane is faster, lower-latency but also lower capacity.


re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#17 The Pentagon still uses computer software from 1958 to manage its contracts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#25 ARM Cortex A53 64 bit
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#36 The Pentagon still uses computer software from 1958 to manage its contracts

optane
http://www.anandtech.com/show/11208/intel-introduces-optane-ssd-dc-p4800x-with-3d-xpoint-memory
parent article, has bunch of other
http://www.anandtech.com/tag/pcie-ssd

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Imperial Hubris

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Imperial Hubris
Date: 05 Apr 2017
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#20 Impreial Hubris

pg85/1916-18:
America's current option was better defined by General Curtis Lemay during World War II. "I'll tell you what war is about," Lemay once said. "You have got to kill people, and when you have killed enough of them they stop fighting."
... snip ...

in long tradition, (Commanders of the civil war reconsidered) loc6085-88:
Despite the mixed results of his approach to cavalry and the moral ambiguity (in the Indian Wars verging on genocide) of his policy of waging war on civilians, it cannot be denied that Sheridan was a superb leader of troops, a fine tactician, and an aggressive fighter, who was especially effective in forcing Lee to surrender his Army of Northern Virginia in the closing weeks of the Civil War.
... snip ...

Note: in 20s & 30s, John Foster Dulles played major role in rebuilding Germany's industry and military. From the law of unintended consequences, 1943 US Strategic Bombing Program, they needed German industrial and military targets and coordinates, they got the information and detailed plans from wallstreet.

however, (high altitude) strategic bombing, had hard time hitting targets, even with exact coordinates. (european campaign) loc2582-85:
The bomber preparation of Omaha Beach was a total failure, and German defenses on Omaha Beach were intact as American troops came ashore. At Utah Beach, the bombers were a little more effective because the IXth Bomber Command was using B-26 medium bombers. Wisely, in preparation for supporting the invasion, maintenance crews removed Norden bombsights from the bombers and installed the more effective low-level altitude sights.
... snip ...

Then towards the end, switch to (high altitude strategic) fire-bombing cities, possibly because it would be almost impossible to miss whole cities, McNamara is LaMay's staff planning fire bombing half-dozen German cities (including Dresden), and then 67 Japanese cities. McNamara then leaves for auto industry but comes back for Vietnam as SECDEF and Laos becomes the most bombed country in history, more bombs than dropped on Germany and Japan combined. Years later McNammara quotes Lemay as saying if US had lost ww2, they would have been prosecuted for war crimes.

military-industrial complex posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#military.industrial.complex

past posts mentioning 1943 strategic bombing program:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015b.html#52 IBM Data Processing Center and Pi
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015b.html#68 Why do we have wars?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015b.html#69 past of nukes, was Future of support for telephone rotary dial ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015d.html#13 Fully Restored WWII Fighter Plane Up for Auction
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015f.html#54 1973--TI 8 digit electric calculator--$99.95
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015f.html#77 1973--TI 8 digit electric calculator--$99.95
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015h.html#120 For those who like to regress to their youth? :-)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016c.html#91 Qbasic
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016d.html#11 Study: Cost of U.S. Regulations Larger Than Germany's Economy
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016d.html#88 "Computer & Automation" later issues--anti-establishment thrust
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016g.html#63 America's Over-Hyped Strategic Bombing Experiment
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016h.html#36 "I used a real computer at home...and so will you" (Popular Science May 1967)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016h.html#83 "I used a real computer at home...and so will you" (Popular Science May 1967)

other past posts mentioning LeMay:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011o.html#67 Downwind from Alamogordo
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015c.html#13 past of nukes, was Future of support for telephone rotary dial ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015c.html#28 Kill Chain: The Rise of High Tech Assassins
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015c.html#70 God No, the U.S. Air Force Doesn't Need Another Curtis LeMay
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015c.html#76 Your earliest dream?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015f.html#52 1973--TI 8 digit electric calculator--$99.95
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015f.html#81 1973--TI 8 digit electric calculator--$99.95
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015h.html#33 The wars in Vietnam, Iraq, and Afghanistan were lost before they began, not on the battlefields
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016.html#60 For those who like to regress to their youth? :-)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016c.html#73 Qbasic
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016d.html#8 What Does School Really Teach Children
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016d.html#30 AM radio Qbasic
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016d.html#90 "Computer & Automation" later issues--anti-establishment thrust
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016f.html#64 Strategic Bombing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016h.html#21 "I used a real computer at home...and so will you" (Popular Science May 1967)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016h.html#32 "I used a real computer at home...and so will you" (Popular Science May 1967)

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

The Pentagon still uses computer software from 1958 to manage its contracts

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: The Pentagon still uses computer software from 1958 to manage its contracts
Date: 05 Apr 2017
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#11 The Pentagon still uses computer software from 1958 to manage its contracts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#13 The Pentagon still uses computer software from 1958 to manage its contracts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#15 The Pentagon still uses computer software from 1958 to manage its contracts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#17 The Pentagon still uses computer software from 1958 to manage its contracts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#30 The Pentagon still uses computer software from 1958 to manage its contracts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#35 The Pentagon still uses computer software from 1958 to manage its contracts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#36 The Pentagon still uses computer software from 1958 to manage its contracts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#37 The Pentagon still uses computer software from 1958 to manage its contracts

Jim Gray remembered, DBMS including financial dataprocessing, formal transaction definition improving auditor trust in computer records.

A Tribute to Jim Gray: Sometimes Nice Guys Do Finish First
http://bits.blogs.nytimes.com/2008/05/31/a-tribute-to-jim-gray-sometimes-nice-guys-do-finish-first/
During the 1970s and '80s at I.B.M. and Tandem Computer, he helped lead the creation of modern database and transaction processing technologies that today underlie all electronic commerce and more generally, the organization of digital information. Yet, for all of his impact on the world, Jim was both remarkably low-key and approachable. He was always willing to take time to explain technical concepts and offer independent perspective on various issues in the computer industry
... snip ...

Tribute to Honor Jim Gray (gone 404, but lives on at way back machine)
http://web.archive.org/web/20080616153833/http://www.eecs.berkeley.edu/IPRO/JimGrayTribute/pressrelease.html
Gray is known for his groundbreaking work as a programmer, database expert and Microsoft engineer. Gray's work helped make possible such technologies as the cash machine, ecommerce, online ticketing, and deep databases like Google. In 1998, he received the ACM A.M. Turing Award, the most prestigious honor in computer science. He was appointed an IEEE Fellow in 1982, and also received IEEE Charles Babbage Award.
... snip ...

Over the years, real-time, online financial transactions were added, but they were still being left to overnight batch Cobol for settlement. In the 90s, when lots of other industries were moving off mainframes, billions were spent by financial industry to redo overnight Cobol batch window with "straight-through" processing on large number of parallel "killer" micros ... motivated by increasing workload and globalization decreasing window size. They were using some industry standard parallel libraries and ignored warnings that their overhead was hundred times that of Cobol batch. The eventual large pilot deployments went down in spectacular flames (overhead increases totally swamping anticipated throughput improvements from large number of killer micros).

Middle of last decade I was involved in taking a different approach to financial industry bodies. It leverages high-level business rule descriptions that were decomposed into fine-grain SQL operations (parallelization). It relied on the enormous work on cluster throughput scaleup by all the major RDBMS vendors (including IBM). Initially there was really favorable acceptance, and then it hit brick wall. Eventually told that there were still lots of financial executives that bore the scars of the failures in the 90s and it would take a new generation before it was tried again.

When Jim was leaving for Tandem ... he palms off bunch of stuff on me, consulting with the IMS DBMS group in STL, helping support Bank Of America in their installation of the original SQL/relational RDBMS, System/R installation ... some old email
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007.html#email801016

posts mentioning System/R
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#systemr

much later (after leaving) IBM, we are brought into small client/server startup as consultants. A couple of people we had worked with at Oracle were now at the startup responsible for something called a "commerce server" and they wanted to do payment transactions on the server. The startup had also invented this technology they called "SSL" they wanted to use, the result is now frequently called "electronic commerce".

past posts mentioning Jim Gray celebration:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008i.html#32 A Tribute to Jim Gray: Sometimes Nice Guys Do Finish First
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008i.html#36 A Tribute to Jim Gray: Sometimes Nice Guys Do Finish First
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008p.html#27 Father Of Financial Dataprocessing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009m.html#78 ATMs by the Numbers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009o.html#51 8 ways the American information worker remains a Luddite
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009r.html#4 70 Years of ATM Innovation
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010m.html#13 Is the ATM still the banking industry's single greatest innovation?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010m.html#21 Mainframe Hall of Fame (MHOF)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010n.html#85 Hashing for DISTINCT or GROUP BY in SQL
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011e.html#80 Which building at Berkeley?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011l.html#32 Selectric Typewriter--50th Anniversary
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012p.html#28 Some interesting post about the importance of Security and what it means for the Mainframe
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012p.html#64 IBM Is Changing The Terms Of Its Retirement Plan, Which Is Frustrating Some Employees
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013g.html#24 Old data storage or data base
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013m.html#45 Why is the mainframe so expensive?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014e.html#24 Tandem Memos
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014f.html#69 Is end of mainframe near ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014k.html#2 Flat (VSAM or other) files still in use?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016b.html#48 Windows 10 forceful update?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016g.html#23 How to Fix IBM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016g.html#91 IBM Jargon and General Computing Dictionary Tenth Edition

past posts mentioning straight-through processing and/or overnight batch settlement
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005u.html#29 AMD to leave x86 behind?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006s.html#40 Ranking of non-IBM mainframe builders?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007c.html#17 Securing financial transactions a high priority for 2007
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007e.html#31 Quote from comp.object
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007l.html#15 John W. Backus, 82, Fortran developer, dies
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007m.html#36 Future of System/360 architecture?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007u.html#19 Distributed Computing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007u.html#21 Distributed Computing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007u.html#37 folklore indeed
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007u.html#44 Distributed Computing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007u.html#61 folklore indeed
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007v.html#19 Education ranking
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007v.html#27 folklore indeed
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007v.html#64 folklore indeed
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007v.html#69 Controlling COBOL DDs named SYSOUT
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007v.html#72 whats the world going to do when all the baby boomers retire
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007v.html#81 Tap and faucet and spellcheckers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008b.html#74 Too much change opens up financial fault lines
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008d.html#30 Toyota Sales for 2007 May Surpass GM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008d.html#31 Toyota Sales for 2007 May Surpass GM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008d.html#73 Price of CPU seconds
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008d.html#87 Berkeley researcher describes parallel path
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008d.html#89 Berkeley researcher describes parallel path
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008g.html#55 performance of hardware dynamic scheduling
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008h.html#50 Microsoft versus Digital Equipment Corporation
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008h.html#56 Long running Batch programs keep IMS databases offline
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008p.html#26 What is the biggest IT myth of all time?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008p.html#30 Automation is still not accepted to streamline the business processes... why organizations are not accepting newer technolgies?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008r.html#7 If you had a massively parallel computing architecture, what unsolved problem would you set out to solve?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009.html#87 Cleaning Up Spaghetti Code vs. Getting Rid of It
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009c.html#43 Business process re-engineering
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009d.html#14 Legacy clearing threat to OTC derivatives warns State Street
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009f.html#55 Cobol hits 50 and keeps counting
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009h.html#1 z/Journal Does it Again
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009h.html#2 z/Journal Does it Again
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009i.html#21 Why are z/OS people reluctant to use z/OS UNIX?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009i.html#23 Why are z/OS people reluctant to use z/OS UNIX? (Are settlements a good argument for overnight batch COBOL ?)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009i.html#26 Why are z/OS people reluctant to use z/OS UNIX?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009i.html#30 Why are z/OS people reluctant to use z/OS UNIX?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009i.html#38 Why are z/OS people reluctant to use z/OS UNIX?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009i.html#43 Why are z/OS people reluctant to use z/OS UNIX? (Are settlements a good argument for overnight batch COBOL ?)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009i.html#60 In the USA "financial regulator seeks power to curb excess speculation."
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009l.html#57 IBM halves mainframe Linux engine prices
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009m.html#81 A Faster Way to the Cloud
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009n.html#13 UK issues Turning apology (and about time, too)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009o.html#81 big iron mainframe vs. x86 servers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009p.html#57 MasPar compiler and simulator
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009q.html#67 Now is time for banks to replace core system according to Accenture
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009r.html#35 70 Years of ATM Innovation
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009r.html#47 70 Years of ATM Innovation
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010.html#77 Korean bank Moves back to Mainframes (...no, not back)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010b.html#16 How long for IBM System/360 architecture and its descendants?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010b.html#19 STEM crisis
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010e.html#77 Madoff Whistleblower Book
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010f.html#56 Handling multicore CPUs; what the competition is thinking
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010g.html#37 16:32 far pointers in OpenWatcom C/C++
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010h.html#47 COBOL - no longer being taught - is a problem
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010h.html#78 Software that breaks computer hardware( was:IBM 029 service manual )
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010i.html#41 Idiotic programming style edicts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010k.html#3 Assembler programs was Re: Delete all members of a PDS that is allocated
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010l.html#14 Age
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010m.html#13 Is the ATM still the banking industry's single greatest innovation?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010m.html#37 A Bright Future for Big Iron?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010o.html#71 They always think we don't understand
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010p.html#48 WikiLeaks' Wall Street Bombshell
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011.html#19 zLinux OR Linux on zEnterprise Blade Extension???
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011.html#42 Looking for a real Fortran-66 compatible PC compiler (CP/M or DOSor Windows
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011c.html#35 If IBM Hadn't Bet the Company
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011e.html#15 At least two decades back, some gurus predicted that mainframes would disappear in future and it still has not happened
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011e.html#19 At least two decades back, some gurus predicted that mainframes would disappear in future and it still has not happened
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011e.html#91 Mainframe Fresher
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011e.html#93 Itanium at ISSCC
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011f.html#32 At least two decades back, some gurus predicted that mainframes would disappear
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011h.html#5 Home prices may drop another 25%, Shiller predicts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011h.html#8 At least two decades back, some gurus predicted that mainframes would disappear in future and it still has not happened
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011i.html#25 Happy 100th Birthday, IBM!
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011i.html#52 At least two decades back, some gurus predicted that mainframes would disappear in future and it still has not happened
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011k.html#15 Is the SEC Covering Up Wall Street Crimes?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011k.html#70 New IBM Redbooks residency experience in Poughkeepsie, NY
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011m.html#71 Don't Dump the Volcker Rule Just Because It's Not Perfect
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011n.html#1 Banks Awash in Cash, Which Isn't Good News
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011n.html#10 Has anyone successfully migrated off mainframes?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011n.html#23 Why are organizations sticking with mainframes?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011o.html#9 John R. Opel, RIP
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011o.html#79 Why are organizations sticking with mainframes?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011p.html#8 Why are organizations sticking with mainframes?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011p.html#12 Why are organizations sticking with mainframes?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#49 No internet in 1984
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#13 Study links ultrafast machine trading with risk of crash
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#25 Goldman Sachs P.R. Chief's Accidental Exit Interview
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012e.html#49 US payments system failing to meet the needs of the digital economy
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012f.html#0 Burroughs B5000, B5500, B6500 videos
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012f.html#24 Time to competency for new software language?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012j.html#69 Monopoly/ Cartons of Punch Cards
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012j.html#77 Monopoly/ Cartons of Punch Cards
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012l.html#19 X86 server
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012l.html#31 X86 server
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012l.html#47 I.B.M. Mainframe Evolves to Serve the Digital World
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012n.html#18 System/360--50 years--the future?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012n.html#24 System/360--50 years--the future?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012n.html#56 Under what circumstances would it be a mistake to migrate applications/workload off the mainframe?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013.html#42 Professor Coffee Hits a Nerve at SEC
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013b.html#42 COBOL will outlive us all
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013c.html#84 What Makes an Architecture Bizarre?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013f.html#57 The cloud is killing traditional hardware and software
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013g.html#6 The cloud is killing traditional hardware and software
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013g.html#50 The cloud is killing traditional hardware and software
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013h.html#30 'Big four' accountants 'use knowledge of Treasury to help rich avoid tax'
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013h.html#42 The Mainframe is "Alive and Kicking"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013i.html#49 Internet Mainframe Forums Considered Harmful
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013m.html#35 Why is the mainframe so expensive?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013o.html#80 "Death of the mainframe"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014b.html#29 Royal Pardon for credit unions
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014b.html#81 CPU time
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014b.html#83 CPU time
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014c.html#22 US Federal Reserve pushes ahead with Faster Payments planning
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014c.html#90 Why do bank IT systems keep failing ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014e.html#10 Can the mainframe remain relevant in the cloud and mobile era?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014f.html#69 Is end of mainframe near ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014f.html#78 Over in the Mainframe Experts Network LinkedIn group
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014g.html#14 Is end of mainframe near ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014j.html#38 Meet Cobol's hard core fans
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014l.html#76 This Was the Very First Website In the US
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014m.html#71 Decimation of the valuation of IBM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014m.html#119 Holy Grail for parallel programming language
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014m.html#170 IBM Continues To Crumble
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015.html#78 Is there an Inventory of the Inalled Mainframe Systems Worldwide
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015c.html#65 A New Performance Model ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015h.html#2 More "ageing mainframe" (bad) press
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015h.html#112 Is there a source for detailed, instruction-level performance info?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016.html#25 1976 vs. 2016?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016b.html#48 Windows 10 forceful update?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016d.html#84 The mainframe is dead. Long live the mainframe!
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016g.html#23 How to Fix IBM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016h.html#72 Why Can't You Buy z Mainframe Services from Amazon Cloud Services?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#82 The ICL 2900
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#58 The ICL 2900
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#63 The ICL 2900

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

What are mainframes

Refed: **, - **, - **
From: lynn@GARLIC.COM (Anne & Lynn Wheeler)
Subject: Re: What are mainframes
Newsgroups: bit.listserv.ibm-main
Date: 6 Apr 2017 09:23:59 -0700
Patrick.Mullen@GWL.CA (Mullen, Patrick) writes:
We had an IBMer give a presentation a couple weeks back, an update on all things z. He mentioned that one of the biggest users of zLinux on the planet was ADP, who of course use it for...payroll.

from a recent IBM discussion on OS2 ....

A non-enduser friendly operating system would have later been up against Linux. One of the reason that prevailed against both m'soft and OS2 in that market was full source being available. A big (early) uptake for Linux was cluster supercomputer "GRID" market ... that also evolves into cloud megadatacenters (claim is that over half of all server chips now ship directly to cloud megadatacenters, likely contributing to IBM selling off its server business; cloud megadatacenter claim they assemble their own systems for 1/3rd the price of brand name systems). Linux was both "free" ... but also there was lots of need for full source to adapt the execution model to large cluster scaleup (both GRID supercomputers and cloud megadatacenters).

recent claim

70% of the total number of "real" computers run linux 10% run msoft 10% run ios 5% run Darwin 5% run other stuff

also embedded & process control industry, autos with ten or more linux systems, settop boxes, TVs, alarm systems (homes may have 30 linux systems)

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

What are mainframes

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **
From: lynn@GARLIC.COM (Anne & Lynn Wheeler)
Subject: Re: What are mainframes
Newsgroups: bit.listserv.ibm-main
Date: 6 Apr 2017 10:26:39 -0700
mike.a.schwab@GMAIL.COM (Mike Schwab) writes:
Android Phones and Pads are derived from Linux, biggest seller in both categories. Apple iPhones and iPads are derived from Darwin (BSD), 2nd biggest seller in both categories.

re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#40 What are mainframes

triva: Darwin derived originally from NextSTEP, original derived from (CMU's) Mach
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Darwin_(operating_system)

in the 80s, IBM's (new academic) ACIS was pouring money into universities ... it funded a lot of corporate sponsored BITNET (which was larger than arpanet/internet for a time)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#bitnet

based on IBM's internal network technology, vm370 vnet/rscs (which was larger than arpanet/internet from just about the beginning until sometime mid-80s)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#internalnet

it also jointly funded MIT's project Athena with DEC ($25M each, DEC and IBM both had assistant directors at project Athena, the IBM assistant director was a former co-worker from the IBM cambridge science center).

IBM also funded $50M Andrew project at CMU, Andrew File System, Mach unix work-alike operating system, camelot (ibm then funded spin-off as TRANSARC and then bought TRANSARC outright), IBM rep was former co-worker at IBM San Jose Research.

Mach
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mach_(kernel)
Mach is a kernel developed at Carnegie Mellon University to support operating system research, primarily distributed and parallel computing. Mach is often mentioned as one of the earliest examples of a microkernel. However, not all versions of Mach are microkernels. Mach's derivatives are the basis of the modern operating system kernels in GNU Hurd and Apple's operating systems macOS, iOS, tvOS and watchOS.

The project at Carnegie Mellon ran from 1985 to 1994, ending with Mach 3.0, which is a true microkernel. Mach was developed as a replacement for the kernel in the BSD version of Unix, so no new operating system would have to be designed around it. Experimental research on Mach appears to have ended, although Mach and its derivatives exist within a number of commercial operating systems. These include NeXTSTEP and OpenStep, upon which macOS is based -- all using the XNU operating system kernel which incorporates an earlier, non-microkernel, Mach as a major component. The Mach virtual memory management system was also adopted in 4.4BSD by the BSD developers at CSRG,[2] and appears in modern BSD-derived Unix systems, such as FreeBSD.

... snip ...

Transarc
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transarc
Andrew File System
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andrew_File_System

Not originally funded by IBM, but there was also UCLA's Locus unix work-alike. However IBM PASC then worked closely with UCLA and Locus was used for IBM's AIX/370 and AIX/386
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LOCUS_(operating_system)

even more trivia, Mach wiki references EROS
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/EROS_(microkernel)
The EROS project started in 1991 as a clean-room reconstruction of an earlier system, KeyKOS. KeyKOS was an operating system developed by Key Logic, Inc., and was a direct continuation of work on the earlier GNOSIS (Great New Operating System In the Sky) system created by Tymshare, Inc. The KeyKOS system offered a degree of security and reliability that remains unduplicated today (2006).[citation needed] The circumstances surrounding Key Logic's unfortunate demise in 1991 made licensing KeyKOS impractical. Since KeyKOS did not run on popular commodity processors in any case, the decision was made to reconstruct it from the publicly available documentation.
... snip ...

capability-based operating systems derived from the IBM 370 GNOSIS operating system developed by Tymshare. when M/D bought Tymshare, I was brought in to evaluate GNOSIS as part of the spin-off as KeyKOS.

Key Logic did some optimization and partly because of the higher-level abstraction, they were able to redevelop (IBM) ACP/TPF applications and show them running faster on KeyKOS than on ACP/TPF (on the same hardware).

recent posts mentioning GNOSIS
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#28 {wtf} Tymshare SuperBasic Source Code
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#100 Trump to sign cyber security order
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#59 The ICL 2900
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#60 [EXTERNAL] ComputerWorld Says: Cobol plays major role in U.S. government breaches

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

What are mainframes

From: lynn@GARLIC.COM (Anne & Lynn Wheeler)
Subject: Re: What are mainframes
Newsgroups: bit.listserv.ibm-main
Date: 6 Apr 2017 12:05:30 -0700
RPINION@FIRSTTENNESSEE.COM (PINION, RICHARD W.) writes:
I hacked my phone, installed Hercules, installed MVS 3.8, and now my phone is controlled by MVS.

But, I'm sure the Wheeler's would suggest I use VM/370 instead.


re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#40 What are mainframes
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#41 What are mainframes

in the mid-90s (having left IBM), I was brought into the largest airline res system to look at the ten impossible things they couldn't do. I go away and come back with all ten impossible things implemented (demo on rs/6000 530). A big part was their existing implementation was still based on technology trade-offs made during the 1960s. I could make totally different trade-offs ... including making it run 100 times faster. The processing for all passengers for all airlines in the world could be handled by ten RS/6000 990s (a decade later, a cellphone had the processing power and storage to it).

then the hang-wringing started. it turns out the part of 60s trade-offs involved several hundred people manually prep'ing the data ... the redo could use the full OAG directly w/o needing several hundred people prep'ing the data for use.

however, the last product we did at IBM was (RS/6000) HA/CMP.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#hacmp

We were working with national labs on cluster scaleup for filesystems and scientific/technical and also with the (non-IBM) RDBMS vendors for commercial. Old reference to JAN1992 meeting in (Oracle CEO) Ellison conference room on (commercial) cluster scaleup
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/95.html#13

within a few weeks, cluster scaleup was transferred, announced as the IBM supercomputer (for scientific/technical *ONLY*) and we we were told we couldn't work on anything with more than four processors. Possibly part of the problem was that the (mainframe) DB2 group had been complaining that if I was allowed to go ahead, it would be at least five years ahead of them. Within a few months, we have left IBM.

17Feb1992 press, announced for "scientific and technical" *ONLY*
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001n.html#6000clusters1 11May1992 press,
IBM "caught by *SURPRISE*" by national labs interest in cluster supercomputers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001n.html#6000clusters2

as an aside, early 1979, I was con'ed into doing benchmarks on engineering 4341 for LLNL that was looking at getting seventy for compute farm ... leading edge of the coming cluster supercomputing (cluster supercomputing interest by national labs from more than decade earlier).

in prior life, my wife was con'ed into going to POK to be responsible for loosely-coupled (mainframe for "cluster") ... where she developed peer-coupled shared data architecture ... some past posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#shareddata

however she didn't remain long because 1) poor uptake (except for IMS hotstandby) until sysplex and parallel sysplex and 2) constant battles with the communication group trying to force her into using SNA/VTAM for loosely coupled operation (there would be periodic temporary truce where they said she could use anything within the walls of the datacenter, but they had corporate strategic ownership of everything that crossed the datacenter walls, but then communication group would break the truce and start again).

One of my hobbies (70s through mid-80s) was enhanced operating systems (develop, ship, support) for internal datacenters ... one of the long time customers was world-wide online sales&marketing support HONE system. In the mid-70s, the US HONE datacenters were consolidated in Palo Alto (trivia: when facebook first moved into silicon valley, it was into a new bldg built next door to the former HONE datacenter). In 1979, HONE had largest single-system-image, loosely-coupled mainframe operation in the world with load-balancing and fall-over. In the early 80s, it was replicated in Dallas and then in Boulder with fall-over between datacenters.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#hone

some airlines might have ACP 8-way loosely-coupled (3830 4channel switch with 3330 string switch for up to 8 channels) but didn't get tightly-coupled support until many years later. US HONE had 8-way loosely coupled and each processor complex had 2nd "attached-processor" (for 16 processors total). Whole device reserve/release was performance killer. ACP did have the ACP 3830 "lock" RPQ ... supporting fine-grain logical locking ... but didn't work across 3830 controllers with 3330 string switch (limited to 4channel configurations). HONE instead used a channel program sequence that was the logical equivalent to the compare&swap instruction. past posts mentioning SMP and/or compare&swap
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#smp

"From Annals Of Release No Software Before Its time" 2009 post about IBM press regarding RS/6000 RDBMS cluster scaleup (nearly 20yrs later) and zVM loosely-coupled operation (30 yrs later)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009p.html#43
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009p.html#46

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

The Pentagon still uses computer software from 1958 to manage its contracts

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: The Pentagon still uses computer software from 1958 to manage its contracts
Date: 06 Apr 2017
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#11 The Pentagon still uses computer software from 1958 to manage its contracts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#13 The Pentagon still uses computer software from 1958 to manage its contracts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#15 The Pentagon still uses computer software from 1958 to manage its contracts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#17 The Pentagon still uses computer software from 1958 to manage its contracts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#30 The Pentagon still uses computer software from 1958 to manage its contracts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#35 The Pentagon still uses computer software from 1958 to manage its contracts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#36 The Pentagon still uses computer software from 1958 to manage its contracts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#37 The Pentagon still uses computer software from 1958 to manage its contracts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#39 The Pentagon still uses computer software from 1958 to manage its contracts

Around 2000, I was brought in to look at a 450K statement cobol application that did overnight batch settlement on over 40 max. configured IBM mainframes @$30M, around $1.5B (constantly being upgraded, oldest machine was 18months) ... which was breaking the overnight window. They had a performance group of over 80 people (mostly doing hotspot type monitoring) for better than a decade or two. I semi-facetiously offered in lieu of standard payment take 5% of the improvement. I asked for lots of count activity and using multiple regression analysis turned up 14% improvement (they had been so focused on micro-level improvements that they overlooked some macro structural issues). I didn't get the 5% of the savings.

Also in the 90s, I was completely ignored on some of the ($billion+) straight-through efforts pointing out that their parallel libraries had 100 times the overhead of batch cobal

At the IBM science center in the 70s, we pioneered lots of performance technologies, hotspot monitoring, multiple regression analysis, event-based modeling, and analytical modeling (done in APL), some eventually evolving into things like capacity planning. Also one of my hobbies was doing&supporting enhanced operating systems for internal datacenters ... and one of my long time customers was the internal world-wide online sales&marketing support HONE system. The APL analytical model was enhanced and offered on HONE as the performance predictor. Customer reps could gather customer configuration and workload characteristics and feed it into the performance predictor and ask "what-if" questions as to the effect of changes in configuration and/or workload. In the IBM downturn of the early 90s, lots of stuff was being sold off, and somebody from Europe had acquired a descendant of the performance predictor and ran it through an APL->C convertor ... and was making business with it doing performance consulting at large mainframe datacenters around the world. He had also been brought in to look at the overnight batch settlement and found another 7% improvement.

past posts mentioning 450k statement cobol application
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006u.html#50 Where can you get a Minor in Mainframe?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007l.html#20 John W. Backus, 82, Fortran developer, dies
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007u.html#21 Distributed Computing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008c.html#24 Job ad for z/OS systems programmer trainee
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008d.html#73 Price of CPU seconds
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008l.html#81 Intel: an expensive many-core future is ahead of us
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009d.html#5 Why do IBMers think disks are 'Direct Access'?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009e.html#76 Architectural Diversity
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009f.html#55 Cobol hits 50 and keeps counting
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009g.html#20 IBM forecasts 'new world order' for financial services
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011c.html#35 If IBM Hadn't Bet the Company
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011f.html#32 At least two decades back, some gurus predicted that mainframes would disappear
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012i.html#25 Can anybody give me a clear idea about Cloud Computing in MAINFRAME ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013b.html#45 Article for the boss: COBOL will outlive us all
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014b.html#83 CPU time
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014f.html#69 Is end of mainframe near ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014f.html#78 Over in the Mainframe Experts Network LinkedIn group
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015c.html#65 A New Performance Model ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015h.html#112 Is there a source for detailed, instruction-level performance info?

other posts mentioning performance predictor
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001i.html#46 Withdrawal Announcement 901-218 - No More 'small machines'
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002b.html#64 ... the need for a Museum of Computer Software
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002c.html#45 cp/67 addenda (cross-post warning)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002q.html#28 Origin of XAUTOLOG (x-post)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003g.html#15 Disk capacity and backup solutions
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003p.html#29 Sun researchers: Computers do bad math ;)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004g.html#42 command line switches [Re: [REALLY OT!] Overuse of symbolic constants]
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004k.html#31 capacity planning: art, science or magic?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004o.html#10 Multi-processor timing issue
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005d.html#1 Self restarting property of RTOS-How it works?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005d.html#6 [Lit.] Buffer overruns
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005d.html#33 Thou shalt have no other gods before the ANSI C standard
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005d.html#48 Secure design
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005h.html#1 Single System Image questions
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005h.html#15 Exceptions at basic block boundaries
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005j.html#12 Performance and Capacity Planning
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005k.html#17 More on garbage collection
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005o.html#30 auto reIPL
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005o.html#34 Not enough parallelism in programming
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006b.html#15 {SPAM?} Re: Expanded Storage
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006b.html#17 {SPAM?} Re: Expanded Storage
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006f.html#22 A very basic question
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006f.html#30 A very basic question
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006g.html#34 The Pankian Metaphor
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006h.html#25 The Pankian Metaphor
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006l.html#3 virtual memory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006o.html#23 Strobe equivalents
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006o.html#25 CPU usage for paging
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006s.html#24 Curiousity: CPU % for COBOL program
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006t.html#28 Why these original FORTRAN quirks?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007k.html#65 Non-Standard Mainframe Language?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007r.html#68 High order bit in 31/24 bit address
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007s.html#41 Age of IBM VM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007u.html#21 Distributed Computing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008c.html#24 Job ad for z/OS systems programmer trainee
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008l.html#81 Intel: an expensive many-core future is ahead of us
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008m.html#42 APL
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008p.html#41 Automation is still not accepted to streamline the business processes... why organizations are not accepting newer technologies?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009d.html#5 Why do IBMers think disks are 'Direct Access'?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009h.html#76 A Math Geek's Plan to Save Wall Street's Soul
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009l.html#43 SNA: conflicting opinions
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009r.html#17 How to reduce the overall monthly cost on a System z environment?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010d.html#62 LPARs: More or Less?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010j.html#81 Percentage of code executed that is user written was Re: Delete all members of a PDS that is allocated
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010k.html#8 Idiotic programming style edicts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010l.html#15 Age
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010n.html#17 What non-IBM software products have been most significant to the mainframe's success
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010o.html#48 origin of 'fields'?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011e.html#63 Collection of APL documents
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011f.html#41 CPU utilization/forecasting
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011g.html#49 My first mainframe experience
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011m.html#63 JCL CROSS-REFERENCE Utilities (OT for Paul, Rick, and Shmuel)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011o.html#53 HONE
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#50 Can any one tell about what is APL language
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012f.html#60 Hard Disk Drive Construction
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012n.html#27 System/360--50 years--the future?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013g.html#6 The cloud is killing traditional hardware and software
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014b.html#81 CPU time
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014b.html#83 CPU time
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015c.html#65 A New Performance Model ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015c.html#71 A New Performance Model
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015f.html#69 1973--TI 8 digit electric calculator--$99.95
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015h.html#112 Is there a source for detailed, instruction-level performance info?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016b.html#36 Ransomware
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016b.html#54 CMS\APL
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016b.html#109 Bimodal Distribution
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016c.html#5 You count as an old-timer if (was Re: Origin of the phrase "XYZZY")
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#27 Virtualization's Past Helps Explain Its Current Importance

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

360 announce day

From: lynn@GARLIC.COM (Anne & Lynn Wheeler)
Subject: 360 announce day
Newsgroups: bit.listserv.ibm-main
Date: 7 Apr 2017 09:15:08 -0700
360 announce day
http://www-03.ibm.com/ibm/history/exhibits/mainframe/mainframe_PR360.html

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

FW: What are mainframes

From: lynn@GARLIC.COM (Anne & Lynn Wheeler)
Subject: Re: FW: What are mainframes
Newsgroups: bit.listserv.ibm-main
Date: 7 Apr 2017 20:41:26 -0700
dboyes@SINENOMINE.NET (David Boyes) writes:
Which is still alive and well and in production use at dozens of sites. It's now supported on System z hardware as well. AFS offers a lot of cool stuff that make continuous availability a reality on relatively cheap hardware. It implements a unified directory tree across organization, architecture specific substitution of binaries (allows you to provide different binaries for a range of CPU architectures using the same path to the binaries), replication of read-only data (read-write coming soon), relocation of data volumes transparently while in production, strong authentication, and a whole lot more.

AFAIK, AFS can claim to be the first commercial application available for Linux on System z. It was needed for a POC at one of the Wall Street banks, and IBM and the bank shared the cost of a port to make it happen. Total changes: 11 lines of code to implement an atomic compare and swap in the kernel module (needed for any new architecture).

AFS was rare in that all the academic sites that used it heavily had a source license (from the CMU days). IBM and Transarc were forced to preserve that in the subsequent products, and IBM turned over the AFS source to the open source community early in the Linux effort. It's continued to be actively developed ever since.


re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#40 What are mainframes
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#41 What are mainframes
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#42 What are mainframes

part of the reason that IBM went with UCLA Locus for aix/370/386 ... say instead of mach/afs ... is that Locus did things like transparent process migration (even across differeent architectures under some restrictions) as well as partial file replications.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Locus_Computing_Corporation
AIX of IBM PS/2 and System/370
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Locus_Computing_Corporation#AIX_for_IBM_PS.2F2_and_System.2F370

For OSF/1 there were attempts to try and merge features of CMU mach/afs and UCLA Locus
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open_Software_Foundation

computeworld 18May1992
https://books.google.com/books?id=PUMJFIR4RGcC&pg=PA12&lpg=PA12&dq=ibm+osf/1&source=bl&ots=yVK5vEotYF&sig=W10rQG0pUJTnotiGvXgdD6nQg7E&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwj2vdqe7pPTAhVK4WMKHQiKAgYQ6AEIZDAQ#v=onepage&q=ibm%20osf%2F1&f=false
Although IBM had once planned to run OSF/1 on its Personal System/2 line, today only OSF/1 commands and libraries are integrated in the AIX/ESA
... snip ...

trivia ... the following computerworld page above has article about "meaner, leaner PC strategy" by head of Boca/PC ... formally POK mainframe executive.

The Locus AIX/370/PS2 reference providing "single system image"
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Single-system_image

upthread I mention "single system image" which been done in the 70s for internal worldwide sales & marketing HONE system
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#42 What are mainframes

and then above also references to "From Annals Of Release No Software Before Its Time" ... sort of also referenced here (next to last entry)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Single-system_image#Some_example_SSI_clustering_systems

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

ARM Cortex A53 64 bit

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: ARM Cortex A53 64 bit
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Sat, 08 Apr 2017 09:21:13 -0700
Gareth's Downstairs Computer <headstone255.but.not.these.five.words@yahoo.com> writes:
As was said ...

NTSC ... Never Twice the Same Colour

SECAM ... System Essentially Contrary to the American Method

PAL ... Peace at last.

At Uni, '69 to '72, had a 5 week course on the technology behind the PAL system. How much of the electronics studied then has gone the way of the Dodo. As I've said before, half-select noise anybody?


I'v mentioned that in the late 80s & early 90s ... dept of commerce meetings was constantly fiddling the HDTV standard ... apparently in an attempt to give US manufacturers a leg up over foreign competition ... issue was that it was believed that there was so much advanced electronics required for HDTV ... that whoever came to dominate the HDTV industry (and because of the projected HDTV volumes) would come to dominate the rest of the electronics industry (supercomputers, advanced digital signal processing, etc).

about that time, my oldest came back from overseas with TV that handled automatically all the existing TV standards ... and reports that foreign makers were working on HDTV electronics that could adapt to whatever standards fiddling that the US was up to.

however, some of that changed in the 1st part of the 90s, with the rush to the bottom with commodity clone PCs and the rise of online/internet that gave big explosion in the consumer PC market ... starting to rival consumer TVs (some of this has been discussed recently in online forums about 30th anniversary of OS2, and why it lost out; aka in part tied to PS2 which wasn't really playing in the consumer commodity clone PCs). also
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#25 ARM Cortex A53 64 bit

past HDTV refs:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000e.html#11 Is Al Gore The Father of the Internet?^
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001.html#73 how old are you guys
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001b.html#2 FCC rulemakings on HDTV
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001j.html#23 OT - Internet Explorer V6.0
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006.html#45 IBM 610 workstation computer
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006q.html#62 Cray-1 Anniversary Event - September 21st
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007d.html#50 Is computer history taugh now?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007q.html#50 US or China?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008.html#43 dig. TV
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008.html#47 dig. TV
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008f.html#61 Primaries (USA)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008f.html#85 Primaries (USA)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008n.html#4 Michigan industry
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010.html#72 Korean bank Moves back to Mainframes (...no, not back)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010b.html#20 Happy DEC-10 Day
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010o.html#22 60 Minutes News Report:Unemployed for over 99 weeks!
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012i.html#69 Is there a connection between your strategic and tactical assertions?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012k.html#87 Cultural attitudes towards failure
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016g.html#41 President Obama announces semiconductor industry working group to review U.S. competitiveness

other posts in this thread:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#21 ARM Cortex A53 64 bit
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#22 ARM Cortex A53 64 bit
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#23 ARM Cortex A53 64 bit
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#26 ARM Cortex A53 64 bit
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#28 ARM Cortex A53 64 bit
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#29 ARM Cortex A53 64 bit
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#31 ARM Cortex A53 64 bit
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#33 ARM Cortex A53 64 bit
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#34 ARM Cortex A53 64 bit
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#46 ARM Cortex A53 64 bit

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Optimizing the Hard Disk Directly

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Optimizing the Hard Disk Directly
Newsgroups: comp.arch
Date: Sat, 08 Apr 2017 09:57:50 -0700
Stephen Fuld <SFuld@alumni.cmu.edu.invalid> writes:
You will never achieve that. And that is by design and has nothing to do with OSs, device drivers, file systems and higher level stuff like that.

Imagine you are a disk manufacturer. As was pointed out above, the limit to transfer rate is based on how fast the bits can be recovered off the spinning disk. This is based on various technologies such as read head design, read channel capabilities, coding, etc. These are all improving incrementally over time. As a disk manufacturer, you want to be able to take advantage of each of these improvements as they become available. That means you don't want anything else to limit the transfer rate, or making such improvements wouldn't be of any benefit. Specifically, you don't want the transfer rate to the host to be the limiting factor in performance. Furthermore, while you are in full control of the components within the disk, interfaces have to be coordinated with external chip manufacturers, and perhaps others such as cable and connector manufacturers, etc. So, while you could change the internal stuff say several times a year, changes to the interface can take place only every several years or so. This means you want to insure that the interface is enough faster than what you can get off the disk such That it isn't a current bottleneck, and isn't likely to be one in next few years. The result is the interface speed is essentially always faster than the best achievable disk speed, so you will never achieve the interface speed. By the time you get close, there will be a new interface that is faster!

A word about SSDs. While SSDs are getting close to being able to saturate a 6 GB/sec connection, you can see the effect I mentioned above. As that becomes a bottleneck, high end manufacturers are moving toward a newer, faster interface, M2(?), essentially putting the SSD almost directly on the PCI bus.


several SSD products:
http://www.anandtech.com/tag/pcie-ssd

and recent Intel Optane
http://www.anandtech.com/show/11208/intel-introduces-optane-ssd-dc-p4800x-with-3d-xpoint-memory

recent posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#36 The Pentagon still uses computer software from 1958 to manage its contracts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#37 The Pentagon still uses computer software from 1958 to manage its contracts

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

360 announce day

Refed: **, - **, - **
From: lynn@GARLIC.COM (Anne & Lynn Wheeler)
Subject: Re: 360 announce day
Newsgroups: bit.listserv.ibm-main
Date: 8 Apr 2017 15:18:48 -0700
0000000433f07816-dmarc-request@LISTSERV.UA.EDU (Paul Gilmartin) writes:
Not in that article, but I see:
http://www.computerhistory.org/revolution/mainframe-computers/7/161

... -- six computers with a performance range of 50 to 1, ...

Did they follow Grosch's Law: "There is a fundamental rule, which I modestly call Grosch's law, giving added economy only as the square root of the increase in speed ..."

What's the "performance range" of currently marketed z models?

(Just pondering the availability of entry-level systems.)

-- gil


re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#44 360 announce day

there tends to be "knee of the (technology/performance, price/performance) curve". These days you see it in the large cloud operations with multiple megadatacenters each with hundreds of thousands of systems ... they tend to very carefully optimize ... price/performance, power/performance, cooling/performance, MTBF, etc (system costs have so drastically dropped that power&cooling is increasingly major factor).

as undergraduate in the 60s, I rewrote a lot of CP/67-cms, improving various pathlengths by factor of 100 times, how virtual paging working, ordered seek queueing and multiple i/o requests per sio ... with careful rotational ordering, and dynamic adaptive resource management.

other trivia, old post with part of SHARE presentation I made as undergraduate on the pathlength work running OS/360 under CP/67
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/94.html#18 CP/67 & OS MFT14

it also mentions that I manually took apart OS/360 stage-2 sysgen and reordered it to carefully place files and PDS members improving seek access and rotation ... getting nearly three times improvement in (bare machine) throughput. Problem was that several months of PTFs could upset the careful PDS member placement ... and I might have to redo sysgen build ... before next release came along.

after joining science center I continued to work on CP/67-CMS ... although a lot of the stuff was dropped in the simplification morph into VM370. During the Future System period,
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#futuresys

I continued to work on CP67 (including hobby of providing production systems for internal datacenters) and periodically ridiculing the FS activity. Old email about migrating a bunch of stuff from cp/67 to VM370 ... and providing production "CSC/VM" systems for internal datacenters.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006v.html#email731212
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006w.html#email750102
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006w.html#email750430

For whatever reason there was deal cut with AT&T Longlines to make a snapshot copy of CSC/VM (along with with source) available to them.

Nearly a decade later, the IBM national account rep for AT&T tracked me down and were still running the same CSC/VM code but had regularly moved it to latest IBM mainframe ... same code continued to run for a nearly a decade across models with performance range of 100.

The "problem" was the CSC/VM that longlines had picked up was slightly before the cp/67 SMP support had been moved to CSC/VM. This was in the 3081 period ... where IBM hadn't planned on offering any more single processor models ... while the clone makers still offerring single processor machines (and CSC/VM was now running on quite a few large IBM mainframes inside AT&T). The problem was similar to that facing the ACP/TPF customers ... because ACP/TPF also didn't have SMP support. In any case, the account rep wanted to see if I would help migrate from 70s CSC/VM to a more current vm370 with SMP support. past posts mentioning SMP &/or compare-and-swap instruction
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#smp

other triva: 23Jun1969 unbundling announcement incldued starting to charge for (application) software, but they managed to make the case that operating system software should still be free
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#unbundling

the lack of 370 offerrings during the FS period is credited with giving the clone makers market foothold. With the demise of FS, there was mad rush to get 370 stuff (hardware & software) back into the product pipelines. There was also a decision to transition to also start charging for kernel/operating system software ... and portion of CSC/VM ... the dynamic adaptive resource manager ... was selected to be the guinea pig.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#fairshare

Some guy in corporate, said he wouldn't sign-off on release because it didn't have any tuning parameters ... and everybody knew that the current state of the art was (manual) tuning parameters. At the time, MVS had enormous number of manual tuning parameters and extensive SHARE presentations on enormous number of benchmarks involving large variety of tuning parameter combinations. The other characteristic was it had a boot/ipl table of processor model numbers and approx. processor rate (I dynamically determined the values).

In any case I had to add some manual tuning parameters, extensively document forumulas (company was deaf to dynamic adaptive resource management). However I managed to pull a joke. In operations research ... there is something about degrees of freedom ... and it turns out that the manual tuning values had less degrees of freedom than the dynamic adaptive resource management ... and the dynamic adaptive resource management could compensate for any manual setting. People could actually see the code corresponded to the documented formulas taking into account the manual tuning parameters ... only if you assumed things were purely static. Almost nobody realized that in a dynamic environment, in the calculations, the dynamic adaptive was offsetting the manual values.

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

IBM Career

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: IBM Career
Date: 08 Apr 2017
Blog: Facebook
For the fun of it, just before I graduated, I went to college job fair and took the IBM programmers test ... I was then told I didn't pass the test and/or wouldn't get job offer. When I told the IBMer (from san jose plant site) that I had already accepted job offer from IBM science center ... and had spent previous three years working fulltime supporting IBM production systems and IBM picking up code I authored and shipping in IBM products ,,, he couldn't understand.

Mid-70s Amdahl was selling its machines to universities and technical institutions but hadn't broken into true blue commercial market. There was lots of customers that liked me to stop by and visit. There was one of the largest financial commercial IBM customer that had enormous machine room with vast sea of "blue" boxes ... the datacenter manager liked me to come by and talk with him and his people. At one point the branch manager did something that horribly offended the customer ... who then said that they were going to order an Amdahl system to teach the branch manager a lesson. I was then asked to go sit onsite at the customer for six months to help obfuscate why the customer was installing an Amdahl system. I refused to go along with the charade, I knew the customer wouldn't change their mind. I was then told that the branch manager was good sailing buddy of the IBM CEO ... if I didn't do this, it would be a black mark on the branch manager's career ... and I could forget about having any career in IBM, promotions or raises.

misc. past posts mentioning branch manager offending customer
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013l.html#22 Teletypewriter Model 33
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014i.html#52 IBM Programmer Aptitude Test
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014i.html#54 IBM Programmer Aptitude Test
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016.html#41 1976 vs. 2016?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016e.html#95 IBM History
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016h.html#86 Computer/IBM Career
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#92 An OODA-loop is a far-from-equilibrium, non-linear system with feedback

A few years later, I wrote a speakup that I was drastically underpaid. I got back written response from head of HR that said that after detailed review of my career, I was paid exactly what I was suppose to. I then took the original speakup, the HR written response and wrote a cover response. I pointed out that I was recently interviewing new graduates to work in a new group under my technical direction. HR was making starting offers that was 1/3rd higher than I was being paid. I never got a written response, but a couple weeks later I got a 1/3rd raise ... putting me on level playing field with new hires. During my career, people have had to remind me that business ethics is an oxymoron.

misc. past posts mentioning speakup about salary
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009h.html#74 My Vintage Dream PC
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010c.html#82 search engine history, was Happy DEC-10 Day
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011g.html#2 WHAT WAS THE PROJECT YOU WERE INVOLVED/PARTICIPATED AT IBM THAT YOU WILL ALWAYS REMEMBER?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011g.html#12 Clone Processors
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012k.html#28 How to Stuff a Wild Duck
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012k.html#42 The IBM "Open Door" policy
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014c.html#65 IBM layoffs strike first in India; workers describe cuts as 'slaughter' and 'massive'
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014h.html#81 The Tragedy of Rapid Evolution?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014i.html#47 IBM Programmer Aptitude Test
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#78 IBM Disk Engineering

not long after 1/3rd raise, I started sponsoring Boyd's briefings at IBM. I originally try to do it through IBM employee education ... but as I provide more information about Boyd, they change their mind. They said that IBM spends a lot of money on training managers on how to do deal with employees and exposing general employees to Boyd would be counterproductive. I should restrict Boyd audience to senior members of competitive analysis departments.

Boyd posts & URLs
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subboyd.html

other posts mentioning business ethics is a oxymoron
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007j.html#72 IBM Unionization
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009.html#53 CROOKS and NANNIES: what would Boyd do?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009e.html#37 How do you see ethics playing a role in your organizations current or past?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009o.html#36 U.S. students behind in math, science, analysis says
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009o.html#52 Revisiting CHARACTER and BUSINESS ETHICS
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009o.html#57 U.S. begins inquiry of IBM in mainframe market
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009r.html#50 "Portable" data centers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010b.html#38 Happy DEC-10 Day
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010f.html#20 Would you fight?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010g.html#0 16:32 far pointers in OpenWatcom C/C++
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010g.html#44 16:32 far pointers in OpenWatcom C/C++
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011b.html#59 Productivity And Bubbles
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012k.html#28 How to Stuff a Wild Duck

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Univ. 709

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Univ. 709
Date: 08 Apr 2017
Blog: Facebook
univ. had 709 tape->tape, with 1401 front end handling tape<->unit record (moving tapes between drives). after intro to fortran class, univ hired me to port 1401 MPIO to 360/30 (part of transition to replacing both 709 & 1401 with 360/67), i got to design/implement my own monitor, storage management, device drivers, error handling, scheduling, etc. Then after the 360/67 was brought in I was hired fulltime to be responsible for os/360 production system. some recent posts mentioning os/360
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#3 Is multiprocessing better then multithreading?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#19 follow up to dense code definition
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#28 {wtf} Tymshare SuperBasic Source Code
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#46 Hidden Figures and the IBM 7090 computer
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#80 Languages
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#28 Virtualization's Past Helps Explain Its Current Importance
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#32 Virtualization's Past Helps Explain Its Current Importance
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#36 IBM LinuxONE Rockhopper
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#26 Multitasking, together with OS operations
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#29 Multitasking, together with OS operations
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#45 The ICL 2900
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#48 The ICL 2900
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#48 360 announce day

univ library got an ONR grant to do online catalog, part of the money was used to get a 2321 datacell. The online catalog was also selected to be betatest site for original CICS product and I had to shoot lots of early CICS bugs (w/o source). One problem was original CICS had hardcoded some BDAM file options (which wasn't documented) and the library had selected some other BDAM file options. bdam &/or cics posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#cics

Most of my time there, univ. datacenter would shutdown from 8am Sat to 8am Monday ... and I could have everything all to myself. 48hrs shift made it little hard to make monday morning class.

other past posts mentioning MPIO
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/93.html#15 unit record & other controllers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/93.html#17 unit record & other controllers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/93.html#23 MTS & LLMPS?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/94.html#53 How Do the Old Mainframes
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/98.html#9 ** Old Vintage Operating Systems **
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/98.html#15 S/360 operating systems geneaology
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#59 Living legends
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/99.html#130 early hardware
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000.html#79 Mainframe operating systems
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000c.html#11 IBM 1460
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000d.html#34 Assembly language formatting on IBM systems
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001.html#11 IBM 1142 reader/punch (Re: First video terminal?)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001b.html#22 HELP
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001b.html#27 HELP
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001k.html#31 Is anybody out there still writting BAL 370.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002b.html#13 Infiniband's impact was Re: Intel's 64-bit strategy
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002b.html#15 Infiniband's impact was Re: Intel's 64-bit strategy
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002f.html#47 How Long have you worked with MF's ? (poll)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002f.html#48 How Long have you worked with MF's ? (poll)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002m.html#3 The problem with installable operating systems
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002o.html#19 The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Mainframe
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003h.html#30 Hardware support of "new" instructions
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003i.html#8 A Dark Day
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003i.html#12 Which monitor for Fujitsu Micro 16s?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003i.html#51 Oldest running software
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003n.html#41 When nerds were nerds
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004d.html#10 IBM 360 memory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004g.html#39 spool
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004k.html#40 Vintage computers are better than modern crap !
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004q.html#66 Will multicore CPUs have identical cores?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005c.html#54 12-2-9 REP & 47F0
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005g.html#52 Software for IBM 360/30
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005n.html#3 Data communications over telegraph circuits
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006b.html#2 Mount a tape
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006g.html#43 Binder REP Cards (Was: What's the linkage editor really wants?)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006l.html#64 Large Computer Rescue
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006n.html#1 The System/360 Model 20 Wasn't As Bad As All That
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006s.html#38 Design life of S/360 components?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006w.html#31 Decimal FP
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007d.html#51 IBM S/360 series operating systems history
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007h.html#52 ANN: Microsoft goes Open Source
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007m.html#73 Operating systems are old and busted
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007n.html#59 IBM System/360 DOS still going strong as Z/VSE
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008.html#17 Usefulness of bidirectional read/write?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008b.html#77 Usefulness of bidirectional read/write?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008k.html#47 IBM 029 keypunch -- 0-8-2 overpunch -- what hex code results?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009.html#18 Magnetic tape storage
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009.html#19 Magnetic tape storage
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009b.html#71 IBM tried to kill VM?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009d.html#55 1401's in high schools?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009e.html#67 Architectural Diversity
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009f.html#19 greenbar
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009h.html#12 IBM Mainframe: 50 Years of Big Iron Innovation
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009h.html#41 Book on Poughkeepsie
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009h.html#52 IBM 1401
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009h.html#56 Punched Card Combinations
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009m.html#38 33 Years In IT/Security/Audit
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009p.html#74 The 50th Anniversary of the Legendary IBM 1401
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009r.html#56 You know you've been Lisp hacking to long when
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009s.html#25 PDP-10s and Unix
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010c.html#73 OT: PC clock failure--CMOS battery?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010f.html#22 history of RPG and other languages, was search engine history
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010h.html#18 How many mainframes are there?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010h.html#38 IBM 029 service manual
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010h.html#78 Software that breaks computer hardware( was:IBM 029 service manual )
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010n.html#66 PL/1 as first language
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010p.html#11 Rare Apple I computer sells for $216,000 in London
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011d.html#73 Multiple Virtual Memory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011d.html#79 Mainframe technology in 2011 and beyond; who is going to run these Mainframes?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011e.html#53 You almost NEVER see these for sale, own a 360 console
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011g.html#70 History of byte addressing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011g.html#80 Got to remembering... the really old geeks (like me) cut their teeth on Unit Record
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011h.html#15 Is the magic and romance killed by Windows (and Linux)?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011i.html#17 Got to remembering... the really old geeks (like me) cut their teeth on Unit Record
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011k.html#17 Last card reader?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011n.html#84 Scanning JES3 JCL
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#56 IBM researchers make 12-atom magnetic memory bit
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#7 PCP - memory lane
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012e.html#98 Burroughs B5000, B5500, B6500 videos
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012i.html#21 IEBPTPCH questions
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012l.html#98 PDP-10 system calls, was 1132 printer history
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012o.html#33 360/20, was 1132 printer history
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013h.html#4 The cloud is killing traditional hardware and software
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013l.html#69 model numbers; was re: World's worst programming environment?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014.html#23 Scary Sysprogs and educating those 'kids'
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014e.html#17 System/360 celebration set for ten cities; 1964 pricing for oneweek
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014h.html#69 The Tragedy of Rapid Evolution?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014j.html#92 curly brace languages source code style quides
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014m.html#139 Is true that a real programmer would not stoop to wasting machine capacity to do the assembly?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014m.html#152 Is true that a real programmer would not stoop to wasting machine capacity to do the assembly?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014m.html#156 Is true that a real programmer would not stoop to wasting machine capacity to do the assembly?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015.html#51 IBM Data Processing Center and Pi
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015b.html#15 What were the complaints of binary code programmers that not accept Assembly?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015c.html#92 DEBE?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016d.html#73 Is it a lost cause?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#73 Movie Computers

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

CPU Timerons/Seconds vs Wall-clock Time

From: lynn@GARLIC.COM (Anne & Lynn Wheeler)
Subject: Re: CPU Timerons/Seconds vs Wall-clock Time
Newsgroups: bit.listserv.ibm-main
Date: 9 Apr 2017 11:09:36 -0700
vbcoen@GMAIL.COM (Vince Coen) writes:
A M/F may not break down CPU time between system and the application depending on O/S used.

as undergraduate in the 60s, I remember rewritting some CP/67 (precursor to vm370) so that it world accurately account for all time. More than a decade later I saw code in unix that was similar to the 60s cp/67 code.

I conjectured that was because some of the CTSS people had gone to the 5th flr to work on multics and others had gone to the ibm science center on the 4th flr and did cp/40-cms, cp/67-cms, invented GML, bunch of online stuff, etc.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech

Folklore that the people that had originally done Unix had previously been working on Multics and "Unix" is a play on simplified Multics.

About the time I encountered the Unix code ... MVS was claiming that unaccounted (cpu) time could easily be 50-60% aka "capture ratio", they calculated wallclock cpu "wait" time, so the inverse was wallclock cpu use, "capture ratio" was the accounted for cpu divided by (wallclock elapsed time minus wait time).

This showed up when internal datacenters were bursting at the seams with largest POK mainframes ... and were looking at offloading lots of the MVS workload to distributed 4341s out in departmental areas ... and were not correctly taking into account "capture ratio".

Some of these very large MVS applications weren't able to run on vm/370-cms. The issue was that the original os/360 system services simulation was only 64kbytes ... and a much more complete implementation somehow got lost when head of POK convinced corporate to kill vm370 product in the mid-70s (and transfer the people to work on MVS/XA) ... Endicott did eventually manage to resurrect the VM370 product administration ... but had to reconstitute a group from scratch.

as referenced in this old email (discussing "capture ratio" and other things) ... it only took another 12kbytes of system services simulation to get the MVS applications into VM/370-CMS production
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006v.html#email800717

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Some IBM Research RJ reports

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Some IBM Research RJ reports
Date: 09 Apr 2017
Blog: Facebook
I have several of the RJ research papers (somewhere in boxes).

Note the Reliability Modifications was suppose to be internal use only. I happened to bring the wrath of MVS group down on my head when I mentioned that the engineering group had earlier tried MVS and found it had 15min MTBF that required manual re-IPL. I was later told that they did their best to have me separated from the IBM company ... and when that didn't work ... they did their best to make my life unpleasant in other ways. The Reliability Modifications allowed the disk engineering development and disk product test labs to go from 7x24 prescheduled stand alone test time to any amount of concurrent on-demand testing greatly improving productivity. The MVS group would block any sort of corporate level OCA/OIA for that or any other work.

past posts getting to play disk engineer in blgs 14&15
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#disk

And the "enhancements" RJ; after Jim Gray left IBM for tandem ... I would go by Tandem to see him and/or see him at other places. I saw Jim at Dec81 ACM SIGOPS at Asilomar and he asked me to help a co-worker get his Stanford PhD. It turns out that the work heavily involved global LRU page replacement aglorithm ... and the "local LRU" page replacement forces were heavily lobbying the thesis advisor to not approve the PhD. I had done most of my global LRU work as undergraduate in the 60s about the same time the "local LRU" forces had papers published in ACM communications and Jim knew I had a bunch of global/local LRU direct comparisons with CP/67 on 360/67 ... showing "global" significantly outperformed "lal". IBM Research management blocked me being able to reply for nearly a year (even tho the work had been done while I was undergraduate). Presumably IBM management was doing it because they thought it was punishment, I was being blamed for online computer conferencing on the internal network in the late 70s and early 80s (and not because they were taking sides in the global/local academic argument). Trivia the thesis advisor went on to be president of Stanford. Old post with copy of reply ... finally allowed Oct 1982 (nearly year later)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006w.html#email821019

past posts mentioning page algorithm work
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#wsclock

Some amount of the enhancement "RJ" I included in the 1986 SEAS presentation on history of VM performance ... it was suppose to be an hour ... but had to be continued in the evening for several more hrs. A couple years ago, I repeated (the short version) at DC Hillgang user group meeting. past posts mentioning VM Performance History talk
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002c.html#45 cp/67 addenda (cross-post warning)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005b.html#44 The mid-seventies SHARE survey
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005k.html#14 virtual 360/67 support in cp67
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006.html#28 DCSS as SWAP disk for z/Linux
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011c.html#72 A History of VM Performance
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011c.html#74 A History of VM Performance
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011c.html#79 A History of VM Performance
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011c.html#81 A History of VM Performance
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011c.html#82 A History of VM Performance
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011c.html#87 A History of VM Performance
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011c.html#90 A History of VM Performance
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011c.html#92 A History of VM Performance
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011e.html#20 Multiple Virtual Memory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011e.html#22 Multiple Virtual Memory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011e.html#25 Multiple Virtual Memory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011e.html#29 Multiple Virtual Memory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012g.html#18 VM Workshop 2012
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014j.html#10 R.I.P. PDP-10?

Control files trivia. I had backup tapes from whole bunch of stuff from cambridge ... triple replicated ... and over the years upgraded from 800 to 1600 to 3250, etc. When Melinda contacted me about sending original multi-level source update "control" files (originally developed for the cp67 virtual 370 work, cp67 on 360/67 providing 370 virtual memory virtual machines ... and then cp67 running in 370 architecture ... all running before 370 virtual memory was announced and year before first 370 engineering machine with virtual memory was operational), I was lucky and was able to retrieve the files. All the tapes were in the IBM Almaden Research tape library ... a couple months later Almaden was having operational problems with (random?) tapes before mounted as scratch ... and all those backups and others were lost. past posts mentioning Almaden Research tape library:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003j.html#14 A Dark Day
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006w.html#42 vmshare
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010e.html#32 Need tool to zap core
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010q.html#45 Is email dead? What do you think?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011b.html#39 1971PerformanceStudies - Typical OS/MFT 40/50/65s analysed
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011c.html#3 If IBM Hadn't Bet the Company
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011c.html#4 If IBM Hadn't Bet the Company
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011g.html#29 Congratulations, where was my invite?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011m.html#12 Selectric Typewriter--50th Anniversary
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011o.html#16 Dennis Ritchie
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012i.html#22 The Invention of Email
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013b.html#61 Google Patents Staple of '70s Mainframe Computing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013e.html#61 32760?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013f.html#73 The cloud is killing traditional hardware and software
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013n.html#60 Bridgestone Sues IBM For $600 Million Over Allegedly 'Defective' System That Plunged The Company Into 'Chaos'
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014b.html#59 write rings
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014d.html#19 Write Inhibit
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014g.html#98 After the Sun (Microsystems) Sets, the Real Stories Come Out
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#87 The ICL 2900

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

ARM Cortex A53 64 bit

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: ARM Cortex A53 64 bit
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Mon, 10 Apr 2017 12:17:11 -0700
scott@slp53.sl.home (Scott Lurndal) writes:
I've mentioned before that Burroughs Medium Systems had two instructions (Write Hardware Register - WHR) and (Search List - SLT).

The spoken instruction names were not politically correct.


MIT Lincoln Labs got SLT RPQ for the 360/67 ... and CP/67 made use of it (kernel storage management, find best fit), if it wasn't available, kernel code simulated it.

Even with SLT, CP/67 storage management was creaping past 20% of kernel cpu use as things scaled up (length of list searches somewhat grew with load, so storage management overhead grew non-linear as scaled).

CP/67 storage management was then rewritten to use list push/pop most common storage sizes, and then only resort to best fit search (with periodic reset/resort).

Original CP/67 used svc call/interrupt for all internal module operations. As undergraduate I had redone the most comingly called internal intra-kernel calls as BALR (reduce linkage time from a 100-200 microseconds to a few microseconds, which was substantial especially for common subroutines that typically otherwise executed only a few tens microseconds).

The combination of BALR calls and "subpools" reduced storage management to around 3-4% constant of kernel time (since most calls were done with linear push/pop rather than list search best fit). With BALR linkage and "subpools" ... the benefit of SLT became negligable.

SLT here on 360/67 "blue card"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/folds.jpg

67 blue & vmshare cards

trivia I had gotten the "blue card" at the science center from the "M" in GML ... i.e. GML
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#sgml
was invented at the science center in 1969
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech

past posts mentioning cp/67 storage management subpools:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000d.html#47 Charging for time-share CPU time
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002.html#14 index searching
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002h.html#87 Atomic operations redux
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004g.html#57 Adventure game (was:PL/? History (was Hercules))
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004h.html#0 Adventure game (was:PL/? History (was Hercules))
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004m.html#22 Lock-free algorithms
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006e.html#40 transputers again was: The demise of Commodore
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006j.html#21 virtual memory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006p.html#11 What part of z/OS is the OS?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006r.html#8 should program call stack grow upward or downwards?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007q.html#15 The SLT Search LisT instruction - Maybe another one for the Wheelers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007u.html#18 Folklore references to CP67 at Lincoln Labs
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008d.html#23 more on (the new 40+ yr old) virtualization
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008h.html#53 Why 'pop' and not 'pull' the complementary action to 'push' for a stack
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010e.html#31 What was old is new again (water chilled)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010e.html#36 What was old is new again (water chilled)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010h.html#21 QUIKCELL Doc
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011e.html#29 Multiple Virtual Memory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#22 Hardware for linked lists
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012e.html#81 Indirect Bit
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012g.html#25 VM370 40yr anniv, CP67 44yr anniv

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

GREAT presentation on the history of the mainframe

From: lynn@GARLIC.COM (Anne & Lynn Wheeler)
Subject: Re: GREAT presentation on the history of the mainframe
Newsgroups: bit.listserv.ibm-main
Date: 10 Apr 2017 13:00:59 -0700
lynn@GARLIC.COM (Anne & Lynn Wheeler) writes:
3090 added vector processing as part of playing in the supercomputer market ... however that required that they also be able to support 100mbyte/sec (and/or 1gbit/sec) I/O. 3090 was barely able to get up to 4.5mbyte/sec transfers ... so what to do?

re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#4 GREAT presentation on the history of the mainframe

as mentioned mainframe bus&tag half-duplex had increasing throughput problems, handling 3mbyte/sec disks and then 4.5mbyte/sec disks ... but unable to handle the engineering&scientific 40mbyte/sec disk arrays. I've also mentioned that ESCON didn't finally get announced until it was already obsolete (1990 w/ES9000) ... at 17mbytes/sec, it couldn't also handle the 40mbyte/sec disk arrays.

This also basically precluded a project that the father of 801/risc roped me into ... doing a "wide" disk head that did 18 tracks in parallel. This is somewhat analogous to the 60s 2301 drum, essentially the same as the 2303 drum but read/wrote four tracks in parallel at a time, four times the transfer rate with 1/4th the number of tracks that were four times larger.

Original 3380 had 20track width spacing between every data track. This was later reduced to 10track width spacings for double density 3380 with twice the number of cylinders ... and the spacing was reduced again for triple density 3380.

Tne 3380 "wide-head" disk would have 16 adjacent data tracks plus a 17th servo track. The "wide-head" would span 18tracks, two servo tracks on either side of the 16 data tracks. It would read/write at 16*3mbytes/sec=48mbytes/sec. The problem for the project was that none of IBM mainframe I/O could handle that data rate.

some old email about the wide-head r/w 16 data tracks.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006s.html#email871122
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006s.html#email871230

following year (1988), I get asked to help LLNL standardize some serial stuff they are playing with ... which quickly evolves into fibre channel standard (initially @1gbit/sec full-duplex, 2gbit/sec aggregate) ... but mainframe heavy-duty protocol running over fibre channel standard isn't available until much, much later
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#ficon

past posts getting to play disk engineer in bldgs 14&15 in the late 70s and much of the 80s
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#disk

past 16+2 disk head posts:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006s.html#30 Why magnetic drums was/are worse than disks ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007m.html#23 Bulkiest removable storage media?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007o.html#64 Toshiba Boosts Hard Drive Density By 50%
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009e.html#41 "A foolish consistancy" or "3390 cyl/track architecture"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009i.html#66 Was there ever a 10in floppy?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009k.html#75 Disksize history question
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009p.html#12 Secret Service plans IT reboot
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010m.html#52 Basic question about CPU instructions
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011g.html#70 History of byte addressing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012e.html#39 A bit of IBM System 360 nostalgia
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012e.html#103 Hard Disk Drive Construction
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013e.html#3 The Big, Bad Bit Stuffers of IBM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013g.html#41 A History Of Mainframe Computing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013o.html#92 Cylinder buffer
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014b.html#17 Quixotically on-topic post, still on topic
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014l.html#78 Could this be the wrongest prediction of all time?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016f.html#2 IBM DASD RAS discussion

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Should America Have Entered World War I?

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Should America Have Entered World War I?
Date: 10 Apr 2017
Blog: Facebook
Should America Have Entered World War I?
https://www.nytimes.com/2017/04/06/opinion/should-america-have-entered-world-war-i.html

from "Triumphant plutocracy" loc6265-74:
XXX. THE LEAGUE TO PERPETUATE WAR The war has just begun. I said that when the Armistice terms were published and when I read the Treaty and the League Covenant I felt more than ever convinced of the justice of my conclusion. The Treaty of Versailles is merely an armistice -- a suspension of hostilities, while the combatants get their wind. There is a war in every chapter of the Treaty and in every section of the League Covenant; war all over the world; war without end so long as the conditions endure which produce these documents.
... snip ...

past posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#perpetual.war

The members of congress behind the 30s neutrality laws claim they were motivated because of the enormous war profiting they saw in the US during WW1. During the 30s & early 40s, it was Soviet Union, industry and the military-industrial complex that were behind spinning it as isolationism

John Foster Dulles was major force in rebuilding Germany's industry and military during the 20s & 30s (from the law of unintended consequences, when the 1943 US Strategic Bombing program needed coordinates of German industry and military targets, they got the information from wallstreet)
http://www.amazon.com/Brothers-Foster-Dulles-Allen-Secret-ebook/dp/B00BY5QX1K/

loc865-68:
In mid-1931 a consortium of American banks, eager to safeguard their investments in Germany, persuaded the German government to accept a loan of nearly $500 million to prevent default. Foster was their agent. His ties to the German government tightened after Hitler took power at the beginning of 1933 and appointed Foster's old friend Hjalmar Schacht as minister of economics.

loc905-7:
Foster was stunned by his brother's suggestion that Sullivan & Cromwell quit Germany. Many of his clients with interests there, including not just banks but corporations like Standard Oil and General Electric, wished Sullivan & Cromwell to remain active regardless of political conditions.

loc938-40:
At least one other senior partner at Sullivan & Cromwell, Eustace Seligman, was equally disturbed. In October 1939, six weeks after the Nazi invasion of Poland, he took the extraordinary step of sending Foster a formal memorandum disavowing what his old friend was saying about Nazism
... snip ...

June1940, Germany had a victory celebration at the NYC Waldorf-Astoria with major industrialists. Lots of them were there to hear how to do business with the Nazis (and circumvent the neutrality laws)
http://www.amazon.com/Man-Called-Intrepid-Incredible-Narrative-ebook/dp/B00V9QVE5O/

Later 5000 industrialists from across the US had conference (also) at NYC Waldorf-Astoria and in part because they had gotten such bad reputation for the depression and supporting Nazi Germany, they approved a major propaganda campaign to equate capitalism with Christianity, in part in the early 50s, it leads to "In God We Trust" on money and "under God" in the allegiance.
http://www.amazon.com/One-Nation-Under-God-Corporate-ebook/dp/B00PWX7R56/

Another part of Bretton Woods is the primary US person, asst SECTREAS White ... was also working on behalf of Stalin. Stalin was dealing with nearly all of German military on one front and was afraid Japan would come in on his other front (already 2/3rds of Japan military was devoted to China). Stalin sent White a draft of demands for US to present to Japan, that Stalin felt would prompt Japan to attack US (which would preclude Japan attacking Soviets)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harry_Dexter_White#Venona_project
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hull_note#Interpretations
http://www.amazon.com/Battle-Bretton-Woods-Relations-University-ebook/dp/B00B5ZQ72Y/

Now, last decade, the military-industrial complex wanted a war so badly that corporate reps were telling former Soviet block countries that if they voted for the invasion in the UN, they would get USAID (that could only be spent on US arms) and membership in NATO.
http://www.amazon.com/Prophets-War-Lockheed-Military-Industrial-ebook/dp/B0047T86BA

past military-industrial complex posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#military.industrial.complex

Originally the Iraq invasion was justified on Iraq supporting Al Qaeda and would only cost $50B. This was later changed to WMDs, even though the administration had been given proof that the WMDs (tracing back to US in the Iran/Iraq war) had been decommissioned. The decommissioned WMDs were found shortly after the invasion, but it was classified until the fall of 2014:
http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2014/10/14/world/middleeast/us-casualties-of-iraq-chemical-weapons.html

past WMD posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#wmds

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Some IBM Research RJ reports

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Some IBM Research RJ reports
Date: 11 Apr 2017
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#52

other trivia: a lot of the stuff covered in the RJ enhancement paper had been in CP/67 ... and dropped in the simplification morph from CP/67 to VM370. This is old email about moving lots of stuff from CP/67 to VM/370 ... and moving to providing CSC/VM to internal datacenters
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006v.html#email731212
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006w.html#email750102
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006w.html#email750430

I continued to work on CP/67 and (then) VM370 all during the FS period (even periodically ridiculing FS activity) when 370 work was being suspended or terminated (the dirth of 370 products during the FS period is credited with giving market foothold for clone processor makers). When FS imploded, there was mad rush to get stuff back into the 370 product pipelines ... contributing to picking up a lot of stuff from CSC/VM and including in VM370 Release 3. The 23Jun1969 unbundling announcement included starting to charge for (application) software (but they managed to make the case that kernel software was still free). The rise of clone processors contributed to the decision to start charging to kernel software (iniitally hardware & device support software would to still be free). Other parts of CSC/VM was selected as the initial guinea pig and came out as the Resource Manager. recent post in ibm-main mailing list
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#48 360 announce day
related
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#54 GREAT presentation on the history of the mainframe

after I transfer to IBM San Jose Research, my internal CSC/VM distribution morphs into SJR/VM.

some FS posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#futuresys
some unbundling posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#unbundle
some Resource Manager posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#fairshare

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

What are mainframes

From: lynn@GARLIC.COM (Anne & Lynn Wheeler)
Subject: Re: What are mainframes
Newsgroups: bit.listserv.ibm-main
Date: 11 Apr 2017 09:32:22 -0700
dcrayford@GMAIL.COM (David Crayford) writes:
On a z13 that's stretching plausibility to breaking point!

last several mainframe generations haven't even bothered to give rate, just relative to previous generation:
z900, 16 processors, 2.5BIPS (156MIPS/proc), Dec2000 z990, 32 processors, 9BIPS, (281MIPS/proc), 2003 z9, 54 processors, 18BIPS (333MIPS/proc), July2005 z10, 64 processors, 30BIPS (469MIPS/proc), Feb2008 z196, 80 processors, 50BIPS (625MIPS/proc), Jul2010 EC12, 101 processors, 75BIPS (743MIPS/proc), Aug2012

z13 is 30% increase (system) throughput (over EC12) or about 100BIPS with 40% increase in no. of processors or about 710MIPS/proc.

23,000 TIPS would be around 230,000 max. configured z13s

a cloud megadatacenter staple has been e5-2600 blade, current e5-2600v4 blade is somewhere around 1.5TIPS ... so that would be 15333 systems (a cloud megadatacenter tends towards half million systems), in high-density configurations might be around 300-400 racks. There have been past articles about organizations spinning up supercomputer for a couple hrs (that would rank in the top 50 in the world) from cloud operator (automated, w/o manual intervention), using online credit card transactions.

HPC configurations have been juiced with graphic co-processors ... lots of discussion, depending on application can be 100-400 times speedup
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/General-purpose_computing_on_graphics_processing_units
some benchmarks
http://wccftech.com/ultimate-cpu-gpu-floating-point-performance-battle-amd-intel/
http://www.tomshardware.com/reviews/geforce-gtx-750-ti-review,3750-16.html

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Paging subsystems in the era of bigass memory

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Paging subsystems in the era of bigass memory
Newsgroups: bit.listserv.ibm-main
Date: Tue, 11 Apr 2017 10:06:42 -0700
pinncons@ROCHESTER.RR.COM (Tom Conley) writes:
Oh, a wiseguy (nyuk nyuk). How much real memory and how much SCM? And is the price point for SCM competitive with a similar amount of DASD? It might be if you go with the old 2-3X real (e.g. 4-6TB of DASD just to back 2TB real).

real DASD hasn't been made for decades ... it is all being simulated on indusry standard disks. some industry standard "electronic"/SSD disks
http://www.anandtech.com/tag/pcie-ssd
latest in the category
http://www.anandtech.com/show/11208/intel-introduces-optane-ssd-dc-p4800x-with-3d-xpoint-memory

up to 1.5TB, 2GB/sec transfer, about 500k IOPS, under 10microsec latency compared to standard SSD tens of microseconds. four cards would be 6TB, 8GB/sec aggregate and 2M IOPS. 375GB currently priced $1520.

however, latest published mainframe "peak I/O" was for z196, 2M IOPS using 104 FICON (running over 104 fibre channel standard). About the same time fibre channel announced for e5-2600 blade claiming over million IOPS (native, two would have higher throughput than 104 FICON; aka FICON protocol drastically reduces the native throughput).
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#ficon

past posts getting to play disk engineer in bldgs 14&15 in the late 70s and much of the 80s
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#disk

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Breaking: Entire Nation Experiencing Collective Amnesia About Iraq War

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Breaking: Entire Nation Experiencing Collective Amnesia About Iraq War
Date: 11 Apr 2017
Blog: Facebook
Breaking: Entire Nation Experiencing Collective Amnesia About Iraq War
https://medium.com/@caityjohnstone/breaking-entire-nation-experiencing-collective-amnesia-about-iraq-war-af7c8bc6b939

Originally the Iraq invasion was justified on Iraq supporting Al Qaeda and would only cost $50B. This was later changed to WMDs, even though the administration had been given proof that the WMDs (tracing back to US in the Iran/Iraq war) had been decommissioned. The decommissioned WMDs were found shortly after the invasion, but it was classified until the fall of 2014:
http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2014/10/14/world/middleeast/us-casualties-of-iraq-chemical-weapons.html

VP and former CIA director claims no knowledge of
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iran%E2%80%93Contra_affair
because he was fulltime administration point person deregulating financial industry ... creating S&L crisis
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Savings_and_loan_crisis
along with other members of his family
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Savings_and_loan_crisis#Silverado_Savings_and_Loan
and another
http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9D0CE0D81E3BF937A25753C1A966958260

another family member then presides over the economic mess 70 times larger than the S&L crises. S&L crisis had 1000 criminal convictions with jailtime, proportionally the economic mess should have 70,000.

Some of the "Tobacco Smoke"/"Global Warning" (merchants of doubt) scientists were also involved with Team B, helping spin over estimating enemy capability. When director of CIA won't agree to "Team B" Soviet analysis, justifying huge increase in military spending, he is replaced by somebody that would (who later becomes VP and then President)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Team_B

Rumsfeld white house chief of staff (74-75), after replacing CIA director, he becomes SECDEF (75-77), and replaced by one of his staffers, Dick Cheney. He is again SECDEF 2001-2006
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Donald_Rumsfeld

When Rumsfeld was white house chief of staff 74-75, Cheney was on his staff. Cheney then becomes white house chief of staff when Rumsfeld becomes SECDEF. Cheney is then SECDEF from 89-93 and VP 2001-2009
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dick_Cheney

one of the "Team B" members
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul_Wolfowitz
He is a leading neoconservative.[4] As Deputy Secretary of Defense, he was "a major architect of President Bush's Iraq policy and ... its most hawkish advocate."[5] In fact, "the Bush Doctrine was largely [his] handiwork."
... snip ...

Team B was also involved in supplying Saddam with weapons
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iran%E2%80%93Iraq_War
including WMDs
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_support_for_Iraq_during_the_Iran%E2%80%93Iraq_war

however; note both SECDEF (Weinberger) and SECSTATE (Schultz) were Bechtel executives when appointed, then evidence starts to mount of Bush involvement
https://www.amazon.com/Profiteers-Bechtel-Men-Built-World-ebook/dp/B010MHAHV2/

loc2752-54:
Pollard had accidentally "busted the most secret White House operation of modern times," as one account put it. "Neither Pollard nor the government of Israel was aware that they had smashed George Bush's first shipment of arms to Iran."

loc2764-65:
Despite his best efforts to silence Pollard, Weinberger would not escape his own entanglement in the Iran-Contra conspiracy, for which he would ultimately face criminal charges
... snip ...

Then Bush Pardons 6 in Iran Affair, Aborting a Weinberger Trial; Prosecutor Assails 'Cover-Up'
http://www.nytimes.com/books/97/06/29/reviews/iran-pardon.html
https://www.brown.edu/Research/Understanding_the_Iran_Contra_Affair/prosecutions.php

going back further Churchill has account of starting the oil & middle east mess before WW1 (needing to switch from 13.5in to 15in guns which required switching from coal to oil). loc2012-14:
From the beginning there appeared a ship carrying ten 15-inch guns, and therefore at least 600 feet long with room inside her for engines which would drive her 21 knots and capacity to carry armour which on the armoured belt, the turrets and the conning tower would reach the thickness unprecedented in the British Service of 13 inches.

loc2087-89:
To build any large additional number of oil-burning ships meant basing our naval supremacy upon oil. But oil was not found in appreciable quantities in our islands. If we required it, we must carry it by sea in peace or war from distant countries.

loc2123-24:
An unbroken series of consequences conducted us to the Anglo-Persian Oil Convention.
... snip ...

In the early 50s, the elected government wants to revue the contract ... CIA
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kermit_Roosevelt,_Jr.
helps UK with coup
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1953_Iranian_coup_d%27%C3%A9tat
and Schwarzkoph (senior) training secret police to help keep Shah in power
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SAVAK

from the law of unintended consequences, invaders were told to bypass ammo dumps looking for (non-existent) WMDs (except for the previously reported decommissioned).
http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2014/10/14/world/middleeast/us-casualties-of-iraq-chemical-weapons.html

when they got around to going back, over a million metric tons had evaporated. Later large artillery shell IEDs start showing up, even taking out Abram M1s.
http://www.amazon.com/Prophets-War-Lockheed-Military-Industrial-ebook/dp/B0047T86BA

Above also talks about military-industrial complex wanted the Iraq invasion so badly that corporate reps were telling former soviet block countries if they voted for invasion in UN, they would get USAID (that could only be spent on US-made arms) and NATO membership.

Note there have been stories about young people firing off AK47s in the air until all ammo is exhausted. US equivalent is so much 50cal was used in Iraq ... that the huge 50cal stockpiles dating back to WW2, were being used up. More recently stories about so much bombing of Syria over the past couple years, that huge bomb stockpiles have been exhausted. Snide comments about (both) have little to show, except exhausting the stockpiles; however new military-industrial complex contracts now needed to replenish the supplies.

past 50cal reference
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014h.html#98 Firden Flexowriter equipment series

past WMD posts:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#wmds
past "perpetual war" posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#perpetual.war
past military-industrial(-congressional) complex (MICC) posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#military.industrial.complex

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Optimizing the Hard Disk Directly

Refed: **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Optimizing the Hard Disk Directly
Newsgroups: comp.arch
Date: Tue, 11 Apr 2017 15:31:42 -0700
anton@mips.complang.tuwien.ac.at (Anton Ertl) writes:
If there ever was simultaneous reading, that was long ago. Tracks became narrower and narrower, so heads were no longer all well aligned on the tracks, for thermal reasons (and maybe also because the assembly precision is an issue). So, when switching heads, there has to be a small seek to find the right track; at some time that seek as less than a track, so switching heads was cheaper than switching cylinders. But for quite some time, switching cylinders has been more expensive.

re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#47 Optimizing the Hard Disk Directly

60s fixed-head/track drum 2301 was nearly the same as the 2303, but read/write four heads in parallel, four times the data transfer rate, 1/4th the number of tracks, each track four times larger.

3380 disk had 3mbyte/sec transfer and 20 track width gap between each data track (1980). double density 3380 (1985) cut the gap between data tracks to 10 track widths (doubling the number of tracks-cylinders), then triple-density 3380 (1987) cut the gap between data tracks again.
https://www-03.ibm.com/ibm/history/exhibits/storage/storage_3380.html

3390 in 1989 increases transfer rate to 4.2mbyte/sec
https://www-03.ibm.com/ibm/history/exhibits/storage/storage_3390.html

father of 801/risc roped me into a "wide" disk head design that did 18 tracks in parallel.

Tne "wide-head" disk would have 16 adjacent data tracks plus a 17th servo track. The "wide-head" would span 18tracks, the two servo tracks on either side of the 16 data tracks. It would read/write 16 tracks in parallel, i.e. over 64mbytes/sec (at 4.2mbyte/sec/track). The problem was that the IBM mainframe just had 4.5mbyte/sec I/O channels (couldn't handle data rate)

some old 1987 email about the wide-head r/w 16 data tracks.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006s.html#email871122
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006s.html#email871230

the following year, I was asked to help LLNL standardize some serial stuff they were playing with that quickly becomes fibre channel standard, initially 1gbit/sec data rate with concurrent transfer in both directions ... but it would be a long time before IBM mainframe did anything with fibre channel standard.

In the meantime, IBM mainframe did announce fibre ESCON (when it was already obsolete) in 1990 with ES/9000 ... but it was only 17mbyte/sec.

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Paging subsystems in the era of bigass memory

Refed: **, - **, - **
From: lynn@GARLIC.COM (Anne & Lynn Wheeler)
Subject: Re: Paging subsystems in the era of bigass memory
Newsgroups: bit.listserv.ibm-main
Date: 11 Apr 2017 17:48:06 -0700
tony@HARMINC.NET (Tony Harminc) writes:
Not quite sure what you're saying. The old, constrained-memory technique was usually to issue a variable (Vx) GETMAIN, specifying the minimum required size as the low bound, and the maximum useful as the high. Then the system returns the actual amount obtained, or a return code or abend if it can't deliver even the minimum. In pre-MVS systems, the REGION= was a hard control on the max; in MVS, REGION= turned into a per-use limit on Vx GETMAINs, with the hard limit being the available private area.

re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#58 Paging subsystems in the era of bigass memory

pre-MVS, ... the application storage management was so bad it required regions typically four times larger than actually used ... typical 1mbyte 370/165 would only run four regions ... and systems were becoming increasingly I/O bound (i.e. CPUs were getting increasingly faster than disks were getting faster, keeping high-end CPUs buzy required lots more concurrent multitasking).

justification for moving all 370 to virtual memory was that it would be possible to increase the number of regions on 1mbyte 370/165 by a factor of four times with little or no paging. old post with excerpts with person involved in decision
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011d.html#73 Multiple Virtual Memory

trivia: I had big argument with the POK people doing the page replacement algorithm. They eventually said it didn't matter anyway ... because there would be almost *NO* paging. It was several years into MVS releases, that somebody "discovers" that side-effect of the implementation, MVS was replacing high-used shared LINKPACK pages before low-used application data pages. past posts mentioning paging algorithm implementations
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#clock

MVS ran into a different kind of problem ... os/360 api paradigm was extensively pointer passing. As a result, an 8mbyte image of the MVS system was included in every application 16mbyte virtual address space (pointer passed in system call and since system code was part of every address space, the old os/360 use of directly using pointer address continued to work).

Problem was that subsystem APIs were also pointer based ... and now they were all in their own address space. MVS subsystem calls then invented the common segment area (CSA) that appeared in every address space and was used for allocating space for subsystem API parameters (reducing applications space to 7mbytes, out of 16mbytes). However, CSA size requirements were somewhat proportional to the number of subsystems and the number of concurrent applications .... and CSA frequently became multiple segments and morphed into common system area. By 3033, CSA space requirements was frequently 5-6mbytes for many customers (leaving only 2mbytes for applications) and threatening to become 8mbytes (leaving zero bytes for applications)

Eventually part of 370-xa access registers were retrofitted to 370 as dual-address space mode .... subsystems could be enhanced to directly access application space w/o requiring CSA (person responsible for dual-access retrofit leaves not long after for HP to work on their risc processors).

other triva: early 80s I was saying that disk performance not tracking was so bad that since the 60s, relative disk system throughput had declined by a factor of ten times (i.e. disks got 3-5 times faster, processors got 50 times faster). disk division took exception and assigned division performance organization to refute my claims. after a few weeks, they came back and basically said that I had understated the "problem". They respin the analysis into SHARE presentation (B874 at SHARE 63) recommending disk configurations to improve throughput. old post with part of the early 80 comparison
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/93.html#31
old posts with pieces of B874
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001l.html#56
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006f.html#3

for 3081 & 3880-11 paging caches ... processor memory were becoming compareable in size ... or even larger than paging area ... so I did a variation that dynamically switched between what I called "dup" (duplicate) and "no-dup". "dup", when page was read into processor memory, the original was left allocated (duplicate in memory and on disk), if that page was later replaced and had not been changed, then it could just be invalidated (and didn't have to be written out) since an exact copy was already on disk. For large processor memory, it could dynamically switch to "no-dup" and read into processor would always deallocate the copy on disk (and would use 3880-11 no-cache read, if a copy was in cache, it would be read and removed from cache, if not in cache, it would read from disk bypassing cache).

The "dup" issue was if aggregate 3880-11 wasn't much larger than processor memory, then nearly every page in 3880-11 cache would also be in processor memory. The converse if a page was needed not in processor memory, then it would unlikely be in 3880-11 cache memory (cache filled with pages also in processor memory). Moving to "no-dup" means that a page in processor memory would almost never be in 3880-11 cache, so there is room for pages (not in processor memory) that might be needed in processor memory.

trivia: search engine for 3880-11 turns up mostly my old posts ... but there is this "IBM" item ... pg32 ... but says 3880-11 32mbyte, 3880-11 was only 8mbyte cache, to get 32mbyte required four controllers. Later 3880-21 had 32mbyte cache.
https://www-01.ibm.com/events/wwe/grp/grp019.nsf/vLookupPDFs/7%20-%20VM-45-JahreHistory-EA-J-Elliott%20%5BKompatibilit%C3%A4tsmodus%5D/$file/7%20-%20VM-45-JahreHistory-EA-J-Elliott%20%5BKompatibilit%C3%A4tsmodus%5D.pdf

I've used similar dup/no-dup analysis (for large processor memories) up to current day. past posts mentioning 3880-11/ironwood, dup/no-dup:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000d.html#13 4341 was "Is a VAX a mainframe?"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004g.html#17 Infiniband - practicalities for small clusters
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004g.html#18 Infiniband - practicalities for small clusters
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2004g.html#20 Infiniband - practicalities for small clusters
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005m.html#28 IBM's mini computers--lack thereof
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006c.html#8 IBM 610 workstation computer
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007c.html#0 old discussion of disk controller chache
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010.html#47 locate mode, was Happy DEC-10 Day
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010i.html#20 How to analyze a volume's access by dataset
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011.html#68 Speed of Old Hard Disks
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#47 nested LRU schemes
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015e.html#18 June 1985 email
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#32 Virtualization's Past Helps Explain Its Current Importance

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

People don't actually like creativity

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: People don't actually like creativity.
Date: 11 Apr 2017
Blog: Facebook
People don't actually like creativity.
http://amp.slate.com/articles/health_and_science/science/2013/12/creativity_is_rejected_teachers_and_bosses_don_t_value_out_of_the_box_thinking.html

Most people are secretly threatened by creativity
https://qz.com/929328/most-people-are-secretly-threatened-by-creativity

Teachers Don't Like Creative Students
http://marginalrevolution.com/marginalrevolution/2011/12/teachers-dont-like-creative-students.html

... and former co-worker at science center ...

Cool to be Clever: Edson Hendricks
http://downloads.zdnet.com/product/31709-75651341/
Loads of pre-Internet emails, anecdotes and other computer science archival material, 12 video interviews with Edson Hendricks and 3 audio interviews of author/composer Leanne Jones, exploration of the "genius" and "inventive" mind, predicting the future, first email virus, advice to programmers, the origin of tektites, and so much more. Ideal for all ages, especially clever children 6+ and anyone with an interest in Internet history and inventing. How was the Internet really invented?
... snip ...

It's Cool To Be Clever, The story of Edson C. Hendricks
https://www.amazon.com/Its-Cool-Be-Clever-Hendricks/dp/1897435630/
IT'S COOL TO BE CLEVER tells the true story of an inquisitive boy in the 1950s who doesn't fit in at school. Edson Hendricks is bullied because he is so smart (people accuse him of getting answers from his father who is the principal) and has red hair. He finds comfort in an imaginary world where he has machine parts, and no internal organs or emotions.

Years later, Edson's strange capacity to think like a machine helps him create a new way for computers to communicate. His "connectionless" network design paves the way for today's Internet.

... snip ...

past posts mentioning "It's Cool To Be Clever"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011m.html#10 Selectric Typewriter--50th Anniversary
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011m.html#12 Selectric Typewriter--50th Anniversary
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011m.html#15 Any candidates for best acronyms?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011m.html#16 Two new (internal network related) wiki entries
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011m.html#17 What is IBM culture?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011m.html#29 It's Cool To Be Clever
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011m.html#35 How old is the oldest email in your current email inbox?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011n.html#2 Soups
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011n.html#16 ARPANET's coming out party: when the Internet first took center stage
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011n.html#33 Last Word on Dennis Ritchie
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012e.html#65 Teachers Don't Like Creative Students
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012h.html#73 Interesting News Article
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015f.html#66 1973--TI 8 digit electric calculator--$99.95
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015g.html#80 Term "Open Systems" (as Sometimes Currently Used) is Dead -- Who's with Me?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015g.html#99 PROFS & GML
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015h.html#66 IMPI (System/38 / AS/400 historical)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015h.html#73 Miniskirts and mainframes
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015h.html#96 Systems thinking--still in short supply
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015h.html#103 Median Age of US Managers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015h.html#108 25 Years: How the Web began
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016.html#101 Internal Network, NSFNET, Internet
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016d.html#8 What Does School Really Teach Children
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016e.html#53 E.R. Burroughs
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016g.html#17 Why Large Companies Can't Innovate
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#43 Formed by Megafloods, This Place Fooled Scientists for Decades
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#62 Most people are secretly threatened by creativity

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Paging subsystems in the era of bigass memory

Refed: **, - **, - **
From: lynn@GARLIC.COM (Anne & Lynn Wheeler)
Subject: Re: Paging subsystems in the era of bigass memory
Newsgroups: bit.listserv.ibm-main
Date: 11 Apr 2017 20:28:37 -0700
lynn@GARLIC.COM (Anne & Lynn Wheeler) writes:
The "dup" issue was if aggregate 3880-11 wasn't much larger than processor memory, then nearly every page in 3880-11 would also in processor memory. The converse if a page was needed not in processor memory, then it would unlikely be in 3880-11 cache memory. Moving to "no-dup" means that a page in processor memory would almost never be in 3880-11 cache, so there is room for pages (not in processor memory) that might be needed in processor memory.

re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#58 Paging subsystems in the era of bigass memory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#61 Paging subsystems in the era of bigass memory

dynamically switching between "dup" and "no-dup" ... "no-dup" was when total processor memory was compareable in size to disk cache for paging (or later, processor memory was compareable in size to space available for disk paging) ... then "no-dup" was sort of like treating/optimizing dynamic disk caches analogous to how the later 3090 extended store was directly treated ... a page was either in processor memory or in extended store ... but wouldn't maintain page in both places.

recent posts mentioning 3090 extended store (32M-256N processor storage, 64M-2048M extended storage)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#69 The ICL 2900
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#4 GREAT presentation on the history of the mainframe

long after all memory could be configured as straight processor memory, LPARs continued to offer option of configuring some as extended store ... apparently because system software had been so structured into supporting processor/extended split ... it took quite some time to adapt to efficiently just using large processor storage.

I could also use it for (electronic disk) "1655" ... large number were bought from a vendor for paging use in internal IBM datacenters. It could ran as simulated 2305 (fixed head disk) or as "native" fixed-block device.

Larger memory systems ... possibly much larger than total 1655 space, I could dynamically select "no-dup" ... however in the mid-70s I also did "page migration" (which was also included in my resource manager shipped to customers later in the 70s) ... periodically sweaping low-use pages from "fast" paging devices to slower paging devices (but had to be dragged threw memory to move between devices). For 3090 extended store, I wanted to be able to do direct I/O from 3090 extended store (when cleaning pages w/o having to drag through processor memory).

(other) recent posts mentioning "1655":
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#68 The ICL 2900
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#26 Multitasking, together with OS operations

posts mentioning page management & replacement algorithms
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#clock

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Breaking: Entire Nation Experiencing Collective Amnesia About Iraq War

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Breaking: Entire Nation Experiencing Collective Amnesia About Iraq War
Date: 11 Apr 2017
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#59 Breaking: Entire Nation Experiencing Collective Amnesia About Iraq War

2002, congress lets the fiscal responsibility act lapse (spending can't exceed tax revenue, on its way to eliminating all federal debt). 2010 CBO report 2003-2009, tax revenue dropped by $6T and spending increased by $6T for $12T gap compared to fiscal responsibility budget (first time taxes were cut to not pay for two wars).

Sort of confluence of 1) Federal Reserve and wallstreet wanted huge federal debt, 2) wallstreet and special interests wanted huge tax cut, 3) military-industrial complex wanted huge spending increase.

Also CBO couldn't even find anything to account for over trillion of the DOD spending increase.

fiscal responsibility act posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#fiscal.responsibility.act
military-industrial(-congressional) complex (MICC) posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#military.industrial.complex

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Paging subsystems in the era of bigass memory

Refed: **, - **, - **
From: lynn@GARLIC.COM (Anne & Lynn Wheeler)
Subject: Re: Paging subsystems in the era of bigass memory
Newsgroups: bit.listserv.ibm-main
Date: 12 Apr 2017 08:44:36 -0700
ibmsysprog@IBM-SYS-PROG.COM (Avram Friedman) writes:
While they do not grow in in perfect lock step The presence of Big ass memory comes with big ass dasd volumes (these are the technical terms of course) Do you know 3350's and 2314s were once used as paging devices? For that matter do you no the number 2314 was chosen as the # for a model of disk drive because it was 4 times larger than its asexual parent the 2311.

original CP67 paged on 2301 fixed-head/track drum ... but it was only 4mbytes ... and "overflow" to 2314. The original code did single page transfer per sio and pure fifo. as undergraduate in the 60s ... i redid 2301 support for "chained requests", so it ordered queued request for maximum transfers per revolution and multiple transfer per sio (both 2301 & 2314 for same arm position) and added ordered seek queueing for 2314. 2301 peak transfers went from about 80/sec to nearly media transfer ... around 270/sec. 2314 thruput increased 2-3 times and degradation (service time increase as load increased) was much more graceful.

trivia: later, 3350 had small fixed-head/track option/feature that could be used for paging. however, it didn't have "multiple exposure" like 2305 (fixed-head/track disk, basically multiple subchannel addresses for same device, that could do things like transfers while other requests were still waiting for rotation). I had proposal to do 3350 multiple exposures that would allow doing data transfers for fixed-head area overlapped with arm seek motion.
http://www-03.ibm.com/ibm/history/exhibits/storage/storage_3350.html

however, there was group in POK that was planning on doing "vulcan" ... an "electronic disk" ... on the lines of "1655" mentioned upthread
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#63

and blocked the 3350 multiple-exposure feature. They then got killed when they were told that customers were ordering all the memory that IBM could produce for processor memory (at higher markup) ... but I wasn't allowed to resurrect the multiple-exposure. As it happened, the "1655" vendor was using memory chips that failed processor memory tests, but could be still be used for electronic disk.

longer discussion
http://www.garilc.com/~lynn/2006s.html#45

more 2301 mention in this recent comp.arch post (2301 was sort of 2303 but read/wrote four tracks in parallel, 4 times the data transfer rate, 1/4th the number of tracks, each track four times larger)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#60 Optimizing the Hard Disk Directly

later 2305-1 did something similar ... it put every other head on the same track but offset 180degrees ... resulting in half the number of tracks (and half the total capacity) ... and alternatating bytes were on opposides sides. Avg. rotation delay was then only quarter of track (rather than half) ... and data transfer was twice (3mbytes/sec rather than 1.5mbytes/sec) ... doing read/writes from both heads in parallel (on opposite sides of the track, odd on one side, even on the other side).
http://www-03.ibm.com/ibm/history/exhibits/storage/storage_2305.html

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Paging subsystems in the era of bigass memory

From: lynn@GARLIC.COM (Anne & Lynn Wheeler)
Subject: Re: Paging subsystems in the era of bigass memory
Newsgroups: bit.listserv.ibm-main
Date: 12 Apr 2017 10:51:04 -0700
0000000a2a8c2020-dmarc-request@LISTSERV.UA.EDU (Tom Marchant) writes:
Are you suggesting that before DB2 references a page containing a buffer, it checks to see if it is paged out? And that if it is paged out, it doesn't use the record in the buffer, but instead reads it into a different page? That makes no sense to me.

there is separate problem that i've repeatedly pontificated about since the 70s ... originally involving running MVS in VM370 virtual machine. If VM370 is running a "LRU" (least recently used) replacement algorithm and MVS (in virtual machine) is running a "LRU" (least recently used) replacement algorithm ... then MVS will tend to select to replace and use a virtual machine page that hasn't been used in a long time ... which is also the page that vm370 will have chosen to have replaced and paged-out.

LRU recently used algorithm assumes that a page that hasn't been used for a long time is the most likely not be used for a long time in the future. However, if a LRU is running in memory space managed by a LRU algorithm ... then the 2nd level LRU is likely to choose the next page to use ... the exact same page that the lower level LRU has removed from storage .... a virtual LRU algorithm starts to look like MRU algorithm, aka the least recently used page becomes the page that is most likely to be used next (as opposed to the least likely to be used next).

past posts mentioning page replacement algorithm
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#clock

I was also involved in the original sql/relational implementation, System/R ... some past posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#systemr

which was done on 370/145 running under VM370. The issue was that the RDBMS (system/r) running in virtual address space manages its own cache of records with algorithms similar to LRU ... which is running in virtual memory managed by VM370 with an LRU algorithm. Then the next least recently used cache area that RDBMS is likely to use ... is also the least recently used area that VM370 has likely to have been replaced & removed from real memory (a LRU managed area running in a virtual memory LRU managed area, will violate assumption that the least recently used area is the least likely to be used in the future and can be replaced).

trivia, managed to do System/R technology transfer to Endicott for SQL/DS "under the radar", while the corporation was pre-occupied doing the next official follow-on DBMS "EAGLE". Then when "EAGLE" effort imploded there was request for how fast could SystemR/SQLDS be ported to MVS ... which is then later announced as DB2 (originally for decision support *ONLY*).

DB2 will have its own area for caching DBMS records ... managed with a LRU-like algorithm ... running in an MVS virtual memory managed with an LRU-like algorithm ... assuming the least recently used DB2 cache area is then the least likely to be used in the future and can be removed from processor memory.

When Jim Gray leaves for Tandem ... he palms off some number of things on to me ... included DBMS consulting with the IMS group ... old email
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007.html#email801016

and recent long-winded post (facebook IBM discussion) about Jim Gray (after he left for Tandem) and page replacement/management algorithms
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#52 Some IBM Research RJ reports

At DEC81 ACM SIGOPS, Jim asks if I could help a tandem co-worker get his stanford PHD that involves quite a bit of global LRU ... and some "local LRU" forces were pressuring his thesis advisor to not approve the work.

I had done a lot of work on page replacement as undergraduate in the 60s ... including global LRU about the same time there were academic papers on "local LRU" were being published in ACM Communications ... and I had direct apples-to-apples comparisons between "global" and "local" ... showing global LRU was significantly better than "local LRU". Unfortunately IBM research management prevented me from responding for nearly a year (even tho the work had been done before joining IBM) ... possibly thinking they were punishing me (which would be better than if they were doing it because they were taking sides in the academic dispute). finally was able to send response the following Oct.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006w.html#email821019

trivia: I was being blamed for online computer conferencing (precursor to discussion mailing lists like ibm-main as well as social media) on the IBM internal network (larger than arpanet/internet from just about the beginning until sometime mid-80s) in the late 70s and early 80s ... folklore is that when IBM corporate executive committee was told about online computer conferencing (and the internal network), 5of6 wanted to fire me. i.e. IBM management may have considered that blocking my response for nearly a year was part of punishment for doing online computer conferencing. some past posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#cmc

not getting fired for online computer conferencing ... was possibly partially because one of my hobbies was doing enhanced operating systems that lots of internal datacenters ran ... including the internal, online world-wide sales&marketing support HONE systems ... past posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#hone

other trivia: the stanford thesis advisor went on to be president of stanford

past posts in this thread:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#58 Paging subsystems in the era of bigass memory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#61 Paging subsystems in the era of bigass memory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#63 Paging subsystems in the era of bigass memory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#65 Paging subsystems in the era of bigass memory

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Economists are arguing over how their profession messed up during the Great Recession. This is what happened

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Economists are arguing over how their profession messed up during the Great Recession. This is what happened
Date: 13 Apr 2017
Blog: Facebook
Economists are arguing over how their profession messed up during the Great Recession. This is what happened
https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/monkey-cage/wp/2017/04/12/economists-are-arguing-over-how-their-profession-messed-up-during-the-great-recession-this-is-what-happened/

1999 I was asked to try and help prevent coming economic mess by improving the integrity of securitized mortgage supporting documents. They mentioned that some "investment bankers" had walked away "clean" from the S&L crisis and were currently running Internet IPO mills (invest, hype, IPO, needed to then fail so field was clear for next round, sort of massive pump&dump), and were predicted to get into securitized mortgages next. After the start of the century they found that they could pay the rating agencies for "triple-A" (when the rating agencies knew they weren't worth triple-A, from Oct2008 congressional hearings). Triple-A rating trumps supporting documents and they can start doing no-documentation, liar loans. Triple-A rating significantly contributes being able to do over $27T 2001-2008 ... including selling to investors restricted to dealing in "safe investments", like large pension funds.

"too big to fail"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#too-big-to-fail
toxic CDOs
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#toxic.cdo

Decade later, Jan2009, I'm asked to HTML'ize the Pecora Hearings (30s congressional hearings into '29 crash, resulting in criminal convictions and Glass-Steagall), with lots of internal HREFs and URLs between what happened then and what happened this time (comments that the new congress might have appetite to do something). I work on it for awhile and then get a call that it won't be needed (references to enormous mountains of wallstreet cash totally burying capital hill).

Pecora hearings &/or (repeal) Glass-Steagall
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#Pecora&/orGlass-Steagall

Milton Friedman
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Milton_Friedman
Friedman promoted an alternative macroeconomic viewpoint known as "monetarism", and argued that a steady, small expansion of the money supply was the preferred policy.[12] His ideas concerning monetary policy, taxation, privatization and deregulation influenced government policies, especially during the 1980s.
... snip ...

Milton Friedman's Cherished Theory Is Laid to Rest
https://www.bloomberg.com/view/articles/2017-01-12/milton-friedman-s-cherished-theory-is-laid-to-rest
Even now, when economic models have become far more complex than anything in Friedman's time, economists still go back to Friedman's theory as a mental touchstone -- a fundamental intuition that guides the way they make their models. My first macroeconomics professor believed in it deeply and instinctively, and would even bring it up in department seminars.
... snip ...

The Champions of the 401(k) Lament the Revolution They Started
http://www.wsj.com/articles/the-champions-of-the-401-k-lament-the-revolution-they-started-1483382348?mod=e2fb

Economists and the Powerful: Convenient Theories, Distorted Facts, Ample Rewards
http://www.amazon.com/Economists-Powerful-Convenient-Distorted-ebook/dp/B009K44OW2

loc1200-1206:
There are plenty of examples from other countries to copy: the US individual retirement account system is based on the Chilean pension reform of 1980/81 that in turn was based heavily on proposals made in the book Capitalism and Freedom by Milton Friedman. In response to the Chilean system facing a likely collapse in a few decades time, it was substantially overhauled in 2008 to require mandatory participation of all citizens in exchange for universal pension coverage.
... snip ...

Donald Trump's Executive Order Will Let Private Equity Funds Drain Your 401(k)
https://theintercept.com/2017/02/06/donald-trumps-executive-order-will-let-private-equity-funds-drain-your-401k/
Large firms like Carlyle, Blackstone, Partners Group, and Kohlberg Kravitz Roberts (KKR) have developed a series of 401(k)-friendly products over the past couple years. Most enable plan advisers to offer private equity stakes to investors as part of a "target fund," in a diversified portfolio with other investments.
... snip ...

"The Undoing Project" goes into some detail how Kahneman and Tversky disproved economists' assumption that people make rational decisions ... loc:1155-59:
He had listened to an American economist talk about how so-and-so was stupid and so-and-so was a fool, then said, "All your economic models are premised on people being smart and rational, and yet all the people you know are idiots."
... snip ...

Kahneman (a psychologist) gets Nobel prize in economics, in part for debunking Friedman's theories involving rational man

... and

VP and former CIA director repeatedly claims no knowledge of
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iran%E2%80%93Contra_affair
because he was fulltime administration point person deregulating financial industry ... creating S&L crisis
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Savings_and_loan_crisis
along with other members of his family
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Savings_and_loan_crisis#Silverado_Savings_and_Loan
and another
http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9D0CE0D81E3BF937A25753C1A966958260

another family member presides over the economic mess 70 times larger than the S&L crises. S&L crisis had 1000 criminal convictions with jailtime, proportionally the economic mess should have 70,000.

Reagan's budget director in the 80s takes credit for: 1) accelerating SS contribution increases (for handling future baby boomer retirements and living longer) ... so that the money could be "borrowed" (from the SS Trust fund) for military spending ... and 2) change to taxing SS benefits, SS contributions are originally payed from taxed income, but after the 80s change, then the benefits are taxed again ... increasing money available for military spending.

Baby boomers are four times as many as the previous generation, so during the baby boomer peak earning years, they were making more contributions into the SS Trust Fund than were being paid out in benefits each year, building up principle for baby boomer retirement (which was then being "borrowed" for spending on other items). The following generation is half the size of the baby boomer generation, so as baby boomers retire, the situation inverts (less contributions each year than benefits payed out). The following generation is now faced with being taxed for 1) paying back the borrowed baby boomer benefits and 2) make up what the borrowed baby boomer contributions were previously being spent for.

In 2002, congress lets the fiscal responsibility act lapse (spending can't exceed tax revenue, on its way to eliminating all federal debt). 2010 CBO report was that 2003-2009, tax revenue cut by $6T and spending increased by $6T for $12T gap compared to fiscal responsible budget (first time taxes cut to not pay for two wars). Since then taxes not restored and modest spending cuts so debt continues to increase. Sort of confluence of 1) Federal Reserve and wallstreet wanted huge federal debt, 2) wallstreet and special interests wanted huge tax cut, 3) military-industrial complex wanted huge spending increase.

fiscal responsibility act
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#fiscal.responsibility.act
military-industrial(-congressional) complex posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#military.industrial.complex

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

America Can't Afford to Keep Losing the War in Afghanistan

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: America Can't Afford to Keep Losing the War in Afghanistan
Date: 13 Apr 2017
Blog: Facebook
America Can't Afford to Keep Losing the War in Afghanistan
http://nationalinterest.org/blog/the-skeptics/america-cant-afford-keep-losing-the-war-afghanistan-20127

Imperial Hubris: Why the West Is Losing the War on Terror (ongoing since published in 2004)

pg177/loc3764-67:
n As noted in Chapter 2, the conduct of the Afghan war approaches perfection--in the sense of perfectly inept. But that war is only one example of the U.S. military hierarchy's failed leadership and moral cowardice; indeed, at this writing U.S. military leaders in Iraq are reaching for higher levels of failure. How so? We have declared victory in Afghanistan and Iraq, some troops are home, and generals are planning parades and recommending each other for medals.

pg173/loc3670-71:
Visiting Kabul physically but without ever mentally leaving Washington, for example, then-Treasury Secretary Paul O'Neil l told reporters of his discussions with Karzai and his cabinet about the economic opportunities emerging in Afghanistan.

pg173/loc3674-77:
Before skipping town, O'Neill also confided to the press that he told the Afghans they should build a "five-star hotel in Kabul, which would be a useful addition to the economy"--presumably for the rush of well-off European tourists eager to be targets for rounds from a 122mm rocket launcher.
... snip ...

"perpetual war" posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#perpetual.war
military-industrial(-congressional) complex posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#military.industrial.complex

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Economists are arguing over how their profession messed up during the Great Recession. This is what happened

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Economists are arguing over how their profession messed up during the Great Recession. This is what happened
Date: 13 Apr 2017
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#67 Economists are arguing over how their profession messed up during the Great Recession. This is what happened

this is somewhat assuming that the current results weren't the actual objective

Economics Has Failed America; When it comes to the impact of global trade, the dismal science has done a dismal job explaining how to help workers hurt by globalization.
https://foreignpolicy.com/2016/05/19/economics-has-failed-america-globalization-trade/

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

IBM online systems

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: IBM online systems
Date: 13 Apr 2017
Blog: Facebook
I was blamed for online computer conferencing (early precursor to social networking) on the internal network (larger than arpanet/internet from just about the beginning until sometime mid-80s) in the late 70s and early 80s. Folklore is that when the corporate executive committee were told about online computer conferencing (and the internal network), 5of6 wanted to fire me. There were a number of corporate taskforces about the phenonema, part of which resulted in "official" tool and officially sanctioned discussion groups. One of my hobbies included doing & supporting enhanced operating systems used by many internal datacenters (which may have helped with not actually getting fired) ... including the internal, world-wide, sales&marketing support HONE system. In Aug1976, Tymshare (commercial online service bureau) started offering their VM/370-CMS based computer conferencing system for free to the IBM user group SHARE as VMSAHRE ... archives here:
http://vm.marist.edu/~vmshare

I made arrangements to start making VMSHARE discussions available on HONE and other internal systems. One of the most difficult was IBM lawyers saying that they were afraid that IBMers would be contaminated by customer information. some old HONE-related email
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/lhwemail.html#hone
and some old VMSHARE-related email
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/lhwemail.html#vmshare

posts mentioning online computer conferencing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#cmc
posts mentioning internal network
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#internalnet
posts mentioning HONE
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#hone

In the late 70s we had after work fridays ... and for a time a hot-topic was how to get the mostly computer illiterate managers and executives to use online computers. We finally came up with doing online telephone books. Jim Gray and I established a criteria that it wouldn't take more than two person weeks to write the program, collect the information, and implement distribution process for interal datacenters ... and online telephone lookup response had to be less than it took to lookup from paper copy sitting on the desk. We found out later somebody in corporate headquarters had proposal for $5M, 20 person staff, and dedicated processor to do the equivalent.

About the same time, there was a rapidly spreading rumor that some on the corporate executive committee were using email ... and all of a sudden lots of mid-managment & executives were intercepting 3270 terminal shipments for their desks (at a time when 3270 was part of fall planning cycle and required VP sign-off, we showed business case justification that 3270 terminal capital 3yr write-off was less than monthly business phone) to make it appear like they were computer literate. Turns out that the terminals sat all day with the VM logo and/or the PROFs menu being burned into the screen ... and their assistants actually handling online activity. This phenomena continued up through at least PS2/486 with large screen 8514s being redirected from development projects to management desks (as status symbol, still sitting idle with LOGO and/or MENU being burned into screen all day).

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Software as a Replacement of Hardware

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Software as a Replacement of Hardware
Newsgroups: comp.arch
Date: Thu, 13 Apr 2017 20:42:39 -0700
Seima Rao <seimarao@gmail.com> writes:
I remember mildly that there used to be some thinking into and research on software as an extension or replacement of hardware.

Such a school of thought used to occur during the days when hardware was limited and hardware upgrades appeared infrequently.

Can readers of this forum point me to the documentation or papers on software as an efficient add-on or replacement of hardware ?


I was at interenal adtech conference in the mid-70s where we presented 16-way 370 SMP and the 801 group was presenting risc. The risc people claimed that lots of hardware simplification was compensated by software. for instance the limit of only 16 segment registers and no protection domain was possible because pl.8 would only generate correct programs and cp.r would only load correct programs for execution ... allowing inline switching of segment register values (as easily as changing general register values).

801/risc ROMP running cp.r originally was suppose to be for displaywriter followon ... when that was canceled it was decided to retarget to the unix workstation market ... but required adding hardware system/application protection domain split.

801
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM_801
and some more in this article
http://www-03.ibm.com/ibm/history/ibm100/us/en/icons/risc/
"The main idea is not to add any complexity to the machine unless it pays for itself by how frequently you would use it. And so, for example, a machine which was being used in a heavily scientific way, where floating point instructions were important, might make a different set of tradeoffs than another machine where that wasn't important. Similarly, one in which compatibility with other machines was important or in which certain types of networking was important would include different features. But in each case they ought to be done as the result of measurements of relative frequency of use and the penalty that you would pay for the inclusion or non-inclusion of a particular feature."
... snip ...

another John reference
https://people.cs.clemson.edu/~mark/acs_cocke.html

i recently mentioned some email where he wanted to do disk wide-head
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#60 Optimizing the Hard Disk Directly

unrelated topic drift .... earlier guy doing air-bearing simulation for floating (disk) heads ... was getting a week or two turn-around on SJR's 370/195 OS/MVT system (even with priority, more normal might be 4-5 weeks). We setup some special access on an engineering 3033 test machine so he could get several turn-arounds a day.

(mostly 370) SMP posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#smp
801 posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#801
post mentioning getting to play disk engineer in bldg 14&15
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#disk

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

more IBM online systems

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: more IBM online systems
Date: 14 Apr 2017
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#70

The internal network was larger than the arpanet/internet from just about the beginning until sometime mid-80s. The big change for the arpanet/internet was the 1Jan1983 change-over from IMP-based protocol to internetworking protocol. At the time of the change-over they had approx. 100 network IMP node and 255 connected hosts when the internal network was rapidly approaching 1000 nodes. old post with corporate locations that added one or more nodes during 1983:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006k.html#8

some internal network posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#internalnet

I had a project HSDT (high-speed data transport) project in the 1st half of the 80s and was working with the director of NSF on interconnecting the NSF supercomputer centers. We were suppose to get $20M, when congress cuts the budget, some other things happen and eventually NSF releases a RFP (based in part on what we already had running). Internal politics prevent us from bidding and the NSF director tries to help by writing the company a letter (with support from other agencies), which just makes the internal politics worse (as does comments that what we already had running was at least 5yrs ahead of all bid responses). As regional networks connect into the centers, it grows into the NSFNET backbone, precursor to modern internet.

some HSDT posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#hsdt
some NSFNET posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#nsfnet

The original mainframe TCP/IP was done in VS/Pascal, but had some performance issues (using 3090 processor to get 44kbytes/sec). I then did the RFC1044 (an internet standard) support and in some performance tests at Cray research and got sustain 1mbyte/sec channel speed throughput using only modest amount of 4341 processor (possibly 500 times improvement in bytes moved per instruction executed).

some RFC1044 posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#1044

The IBM internal network was non-SNA ... but was coming under increasing pressure to convert to SNA/VTAM. In HSDT we had T1 (1.5mbits/sec full-duplex, around 300kbytes/sec aggregate) and faster speed links and had done lots of enhancements so that a backbone node might be able to sustain aggregate of multiple mbytes/sec. However in the 2nd half of the 80s, the communication group was increasing spreading misinformation attempting to get the internal network to be converted to SNA/VTAM (37x5 boxes was limited to 56kbit links). I had been trying to get the backbone node upgraded to multiple mbytes/sec ... when communication group got backbone meetings restricted to management only ... they didn't want the SNA/VTAM conversion confused by technical issues. some old email:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006x.html#email870302
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011.html#email870306

the communication group was also spreading misinformation about how SNA/VTAM could even be used for NSF networks. Somebody collected a bunch of the email and forwarded it to us ... heavily snipped and redacted to protect the guilty.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006w.html#email870109

The corporate sponsored university "BITNET" network (using same technology as the internal network), in the late 80s converts to TCP/IP (rather than SNA/VTAM) ... in fact the internal network would have been much better off to have also converted to TCP/IP.

BITNET ref:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BITNET
some past posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#bitnet

Later the communication group pays a contractor to do a TCP/IP implementation within VTAM. When he demo'ed it running significantly faster than LU6.2, he was told that everybody knows that a "proper" TCP/IP implementation runs much slower than LU6.2, and they would only be paying for a "proper" implementation.

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

US NII

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: US NII.
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Fri, 14 Apr 2017 22:58:06 -0700
US NII.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Information_Infrastructure

old email just before cluster scaleup was transferred and we were told we couldn't work on anything with more than four processors (we leave IBM a few months later) ... including references to meetings at LLNL on various aspects of US NII
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006x.html#email920129
in this post
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006x.html#3
17Feb1992 already press about announce as supercomputer
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001n.html#6000clusters1

includes reference to the meeting in Ellison's conference room, earlier in Jan1992
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/95.html#13

I use to download and shadow all the Kahaner reports ... reference to Singapore NII 1st published in 1991:
https://groups.google.com/forum/#!msg/soc.culture.singapore/HIorv1DiYUU/D9buHZpMjGwJ
Many aspects of Singapore's NII will appear similar to those stated in US plans, a high capacity backbone, adherence to standards for networks as well as interfaces and environments, system management and security, distributed computing services, layers of services, and a few significant initial application products. In the case of Singapore these applications include personalized electronic newspaper, media marketplace, distance learning, etc., and others are mentioned, as well as applications of direct value to commercial customers such as a network for procurement, construction, legal network, electronic road pricing, intelligent job placement, on-line income tax info, computerized patenting, geographical information, etc. Many other applications are in the planning or prototype stage.

Note: a difference between US and Singapore NII was that US was asking vendors to participate for "free" while Singapore was contacting the US NII participants and offering full funding for their participation in Singapore NII.

another Kahaner report (singapore HPCC)
https://groups.google.com/forum/#!msg/comp.sys.super/-n3m63N3vD0/6D5kq0enzVkJ

some other past posts mentioning Kahaner reports
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000d.html#79 When the Internet went private
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000d.html#80 When the Internet went private
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009q.html#35 Anyone going to Supercomputers '09 in Portland?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011n.html#60 Two studies of the concentration of power -- government and industry

other cluster scaleup email
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/lhwemail.html#medusa
ha/cmp posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#hacmp

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Trump delay of the 'fiduciary rule' will cost retirement savers $3.7 billion

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Trump delay of the 'fiduciary rule' will cost retirement savers $3.7 billion
Date: 15 Apr 2017
Blog: Facebook
Trump delay of the 'fiduciary rule' will cost retirement savers $3.7 billion
http://www.epi.org/press/trump-delay-of-the-fiduciary-rule-will-cost-retirement-savers-3-7-billion/

Fiduciary responsibility is pervasive ...
https://definitions.uslegal.com/b/breach-of-fiduciary-duty/
When one person does agree to act for another in a fiduciary relationship, the law forbids the fiduciary from acting in any manner adverse or contrary to the interests of the client, or from acting for his own benefit in relation to the subject matter. The client is entitled to the best efforts of the fiduciary on his behalf and the fiduciary must exercise all of the skill, care and diligence at his disposal when acting on behalf of the client. A person acting in a fiduciary capacity is held to a high standard of honesty and full disclosure in regard to the client and must not obtain a personal benefit at the expense of the client.
... snip ...

How economists messed up
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#67 Economists are arguing over how their profession messed up during the Great Recession. This is what happened
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#69 Economists are arguing over how their profession messed up during the Great Recession. This is what happened

other trivia: we were very vocal in criticizing various Internet technology. At a financial standards meeting being hosted by a major lobbying organization in DC, we were asked out of the meeting because there was somebody there to see us. We were taken to an office and introduced to a member of a NJ ethic organization that said some investment bankers had asked him to talk to us. He said that we were criticizing some technology involved in an upcoming Internet IPO and they were expecting $2B but our criticism was projected to result in 10% downside. It wasn't personal, purely business, would we please shut up. We then went to various LEOs ... who told use that yes, "investment bankers" are like that (aka, amoral sociopaths).

earlier, after we leave IBM, two of the Oracle people in the joint IBM/Oracle Ellison meeting on commercial cluster scaleup
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#73 US NII

have left Oracle and are at a small client/server startup responsible for something they called a "commerce server". We are brought in as consultants because they want to do payment transactions on the server, the startup had also invented this technology they called "SSL" they want to use, the result is now frequently called "electronic commerce".

I have absolute authority over the server to payment network gateway operation and by the time I'm done, the things called "SSL digital certificates" are redundant and superfluous, continued to exist for server-to-gateway as purely an artificial artifact of the publickey software library being used, I even start calling them "comfort" certificates ... i.e. purely providing a feeling of security comfort. some past posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subpubkey.html#sslcerts

In part because of having done "electronic commerce", in the mid-90s we get invited to be members of ANSI X9 financial standard meetings (X9 is aslo chair for international ISO financial standards). Also, in part because the "digital certificate" industry is heavily lobbying governments to mandate certificates for "electronic signature", we are brought in to help wordsmith the cal. state electronic signature legislation (which also gets us involved in the cal. state data breach notification legislation) ... some past posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subpubkey.html#signature
and
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#data.breach.notification

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Mainframe operating systems?

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: lynn@GARLIC.COM (Anne & Lynn Wheeler)
Subject: Re: Mainframe operating systems?
Newsgroups: bit.listserv.ibm-main
Date: 15 Apr 2017 15:57:28 -0700
phil@VOLTAGE.COM (Phil Smith) writes:
Today's random wondering: how many operating systems can folks remember having run on S/360 and descendants? I can think of:

OS/360 (including MFT, MVT, MVS, up thru z/OS, including MSP and VOS3) VM (CP/40 up thru z/VM) DOS (or did it start as TOS? Not my turf! up thru z/VSE) ACP (up thru z/TPF) TSS MUMPS MUSIC PICK AIX Linux, of course Solaris, almost ORVYL? WYLBUR? I think ORVYL was the OS and WYLBUR was the user environment - sort of the CP-CMS or z/OS-TSO relationship, but canna remember for sure; someone here will know VICOM

What others? No credit for things like DDR or ICKDSF, which, while IPLable, aren't really "OSes" in any kind of real sense!


trivia: there is card based BPS for 360 ... and science center used BPS loader to generate the CP/40 & CP/67 kernel.

Cambridge Science Center thought they would get the IBM responsibility for dealing with MIT Multics (some of the CTSS/7090 people had gone to 5th flr to do Multics and others went to the science center on the 4th flr)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#545tech

This CTSS wiki entry has longer list of IBM operating systems (not just but including 360)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Compatible_Time-Sharing_System

The TSS group didn't win the Multics bid. TSS/360 was the official operating system for virtual memory version of 360/65, the 360/67 and was sold to a lot of customers. The science center went ahead and did virtual machine CP/40 for a 360/40 with special hardware modifications to support virtual memory. Then when standard 360/67 with virtual memory becomes available, CP/40 morphs into CP/67.

TSS/360 has very difficult time becoming production quality and is decommitted. Many customers reverted to running 360/67 in 360/65 with os/360.

Along the way stanford does (virtual memory) ORVYL for 360/67 (& WYLBUR is text editor)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ORVYL_and_WYLBUR
http://www.slac.stanford.edu/spires/explain/manuals/ORVMAN.HTML
https://web.stanford.edu/dept/its/support/wylorv/

Univ. of Michigan does MTS for 360/67. UM ports MTS to 370 and it is installed at a number of universities ... and Amdahl installations.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michigan_Terminal_System
http://archive.michigan-terminal-system.org/

Recent post about AIX, MACH (unix-like from CMU) and LOCUS (unix-like from UCLA)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#46 The ICL 2900
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#41 What are mainframes

Palo Alto ports UCLA LOCUS to 370 and 386 for AIX/370 and AIX/386
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LOCUS_(operating_system)

recent posts mentioning the poor MVT storage management is motivation for moving all of 370 to virtual memory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#90 The ICL 2900
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#8 BSAM vs QSAM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#80 Great mainframe history(?)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#81 GREAT presentation on the history of the mainframe

trivia: Boeing Huntsville had gotten a smp 2-processor 360/67 to run with tss/360 2250 cad design applications ... but has to revert to running as two 360/65s and 2250 cad applications. MVT storage management problems especially show up with long running applications (one reason why CICS got all the storage it could at startup and did its own management) and it caused lots of problem for the 2250 cad programs. Boeing Hunstville does special modifications to os/360 MVT to support virtual memory running in 360/67 mode. This doesn't do any paging ... but purely reorganizes memory for contiguous allocation to compensate for some of the MVT storage management problems.

As undergraduate at the univ. I'm hired fulltime to be responsible for OS/360 production systems. The univ. library gets ONR grant to do online catalog. Some of the money goes to 2321 datacell. The online catalog is also selected as beta test site for the original CICS product ... and I have to shoot a lot of bugs ... some past posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#cics

Boeing then hires me away to help with the formation of Boeing Computer Services (consolidate all dataprocessing in independent business unit to better monetize the investment, including offering services to non-Boeing entities). The Boeing Huntsville machine is moved to Seattle.

more trivia: CERN does a comparison of VM/CMS and VS2/TSO which is presented at SHARE. Copies of the comparsion circulated inside of IBM are stamped "IBM - Confidential Restricted" ... basically on a need-to-know basis only .... because what CERN found doesn't go along with the official corporate party line (and tried to minimize the exposure to IBM employees).

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Mainframe operating systems?

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **, - **, - **
From: lynn@GARLIC.COM (Anne & Lynn Wheeler)
Subject: Re: Mainframe operating systems?
Newsgroups: bit.listserv.ibm-main
Date: 15 Apr 2017 20:03:08 -0700
phil@VOLTAGE.COM (Phil Smith) writes:
Ah, UTS. Forgot that one! DPPX/370 is its own thing; sounds like BOS and TOS, and ?maybe RTOS? should go in the VSE bucket, no? TSS, yeah, forgot that one, too!

re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#75 Mainframe operating system?

After Houston, many of the HASP went to gburg group to do HASP->JES2, however one of the HASP people to Harrison and did RASP (sort of a virtual memory MFT II) ... mentioned in this discssuion about decision to make all 370s virtual memory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011d.html#73

as mentioned, RASP lost out, he leaves and becomes a Amdahl "Fellow" and redoes (clean room) RASP (at one point IBM sues even tho IBM wouldn't doing anything with it, IBM code review only finds a couple lines similar that have to be redone).

There is unsuccesful effort to convince IBM to hire univ. student that did 370 UNIX port ... and he goes with Amdahl doing what becomes UTS (original code name "gold" ... for "AU" ... amdahl unix).

TSS/370 group is still lingering on and they get involved with AT&T effort to do 370 unix. Rather than doing a straight unix port to 370, they do a stripped down TSS/370 "SSUP" that handles all the low level 370 hardware & device gorp ... with higher levels of UNIX layered on top.

At monthly user group "BAYBUNCH" meetings in silicon valley, some of the Amdahl people like telling stories of what is going on. For awhile there is a battle going on between RASP-redo group and the GOLD group. I recommend why don't they try a merge like the TSS/360 SSUP for AT&T unix.

Another 370 operating system is GNOSIS a 370 operating system done by TYMSHARE specifically targeted at online service bureau operation ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GNOSIS

i've mentioned being brought into audit/review GNOSIS for its spinoff after M/D buys TYMSHARE. ... after spinoff, they do some optimization and redo some ACP/TPF applications and show them running faster in KeyKOS that originals did in ACP/TPF (on same hardware) recent posts mentioning GNOSIS:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#28 {wtf} Tymshare SuperBasic Source Code
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#100 Trump to sign cyber security order
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#59 The ICL 2900
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#60 [EXTERNAL] ComputerWorld Says: Cobol plays major role in U.S. government breaches
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#41 What are mainframes

past posts mentioning TSS/370 stripped down supervisor SSUP (for AT&T unix implementation):
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007m.html#69 Operating systems are old and busted
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010e.html#17 Senior Java Developer vs. MVS Systems Programmer (warning: Conley rant)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010h.html#61 (slightly OT - Linux) Did IBM bet on the wrong OS?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010i.html#44 someone smarter than Dave Cutler
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010l.html#2 TSS (Transaction Security System)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010o.html#0 Hashing for DISTINCT or GROUP BY in SQL
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011.html#73 Speed of Old Hard Disks - adcons
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011.html#96 History of copy on write
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011f.html#85 SV: USS vs USS
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#67 Has anyone successfully migrated off mainframes?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012f.html#28 which one came first
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012o.html#34 Regarding Time Sharing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013n.html#24 Aging Sysprogs = Aging Farmers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013n.html#92 'Free Unix!': The world-changing proclamation made30yearsagotoday
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014f.html#74 Is end of mainframe near ?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014j.html#17 The SDS 92, its place in history?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#20 {wtf} Tymshare SuperBasic Source Code

past pasts mentioning RASP:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000f.html#68 TSS ancient history, was X86 ultimate CISC? designs)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000f.html#69 TSS ancient history, was X86 ultimate CISC? designs)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2000f.html#70 TSS ancient history, was X86 ultimate CISC? designs)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001b.html#73 7090 vs. 7094 etc.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002g.html#0 Blade architectures
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002i.html#63 Hercules and System/390 - do we need it?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002j.html#75 30th b'day
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002q.html#31 Collating on the S/360-2540 card reader?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003e.html#65 801 (was Re: Reviving Multics
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005p.html#44 hasp, jes, rasp, aspen, gold
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006f.html#19 Over my head in a JES exit
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006w.html#24 IBM sues maker of Intel-based Mainframe clones
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006w.html#28 IBM sues maker of Intel-based Mainframe clones
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007m.html#69 Operating systems are old and busted
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010i.html#44 someone smarter than Dave Cutler
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010o.html#0 Hashing for DISTINCT or GROUP BY in SQL
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010p.html#42 Which non-IBM software products (from ISVs) have been most significant to the mainframe's success?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011.html#85 Two terrific writers .. are going to write a book
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011d.html#73 Multiple Virtual Memory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011e.html#26 Multiple Virtual Memory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011e.html#47 junking CKD; was "Social Security Confronts IT Obsolescence"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#67 Has anyone successfully migrated off mainframes?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#69 Has anyone successfully migrated off mainframes?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#33 TINC?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012f.html#78 What are you experiences with Amdahl Computers and Plug-Compatibles?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013i.html#47 Making mainframe technology hip again
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013m.html#51 50,000 x86 operating system on single mainframe
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013n.html#24 Aging Sysprogs = Aging Farmers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013n.html#92 'Free Unix!': The world-changing proclamation made30yearsagotoday
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014i.html#66 z/OS physical memory usage with multiple copies of same load module at different virtual addresses
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014i.html#68 z/OS physical memory usage with multiple copies of same load module at different virtual addresses
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016h.html#101 Multitasking question

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Trump delay of the 'fiduciary rule' will cost retirement savers $3.7 billion

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Trump delay of the 'fiduciary rule' will cost retirement savers $3.7 billion
Date: 16 Apr 2017
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#74 Trump delay of the 'fiduciary rule' will cost retirement savers $3.7 billion

with respect to upthread references to current administration, retirement accounts, fiduciary responsibility, and private equity companies
http://www.epi.org/press/trump-delay-of-the-fiduciary-rule-will-cost-retirement-savers-3-7-billion/
https://theintercept.com/2017/02/06/donald-trumps-executive-order-will-let-private-equity-funds-drain-your-401k/

AMEX is in competition with KKR for private-equity take-over of RJR. KKR wins, but runs into some trouble with RJR and hires away president of AMEX to help turn it around.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barbarians_at_the_Gate:_The_Fall_of_RJR_Nabisco

IBM has gone in the red and was being reorganized into the 13 "baby blues" in preparation to breaking up the company. The board then hires away the former president of AMEX to reverse the breakup and resurrect the comapny ... using some of the same techniques used at RJR (the descendant of the company mentioned here currently runs One Exchange.)
http://www.ibmemployee.com/RetirementHeist.shtml

The former AMEX president then leaves IBM and becomes the head of another large private-equity company ... one of the take-overs is the beltway bandit that will employ Snowden (huge amount of gov. outsourcing last decade, especially to private-equity owned subsidiaries)

private equity posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#private.equity

with respect to (debunking) Friedman, retirement accounts, and the 80s budget director (that takes credit for what was done to SS & SS Trust Fund), the former budget director has more recently written a book about how the business of large corporations is increasingly financial engineering, including stock buybacks where IBM plays a prominent role; Great Deformation; pg464/loc9995-10000:
IBM was not the born-again growth machine trumpeted by the mob of Wall Street momo traders. It was actually a stock buyback contraption on steroids. During the five years ending in fiscal 2011, the company spent a staggering $67 billion repurchasing its own shares, a figure that was equal to 100 percent of its net income.

pg465/10014-17:
Total shareholder distributions, including dividends, amounted to $82 billion, or 122 percent, of net income over this five-year period. Likewise, during the last five years IBM spent less on capital investment than its depreciation and amortization charges, and also shrank its constant dollar spending for research and development by nearly 2 percent annually.
... snip ...

stock buybacks posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#stock.buyback

other recent posts mentioning Milton Friedman
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#17 Destruction of the Middle Class
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#24 Destruction of the Middle Class
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#26 Milton Friedman's Cherished Theory Is Laid to Rest
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#29 Milton Friedman's Cherished Theory Is Laid to Rest
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#31 Milton Friedman's Cherished Theory Is Laid to Rest
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#34 If economists want to be trusted again, they should learn to tell jokes
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#92 Trump's Rollback of the Neoliberal Market State
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#93 The Undoing Project: A Friendship That Changed Our Minds Kindle Edition
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#97 Trump to sign cyber security order
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#101 Trump to sign cyber security order
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#102 Trump to sign cyber security order
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#104 Trump to sign cyber security order
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#11 Trump to sign cyber security order
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#16 Trump to sign cyber security order
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#17 Trump to sign cyber security order
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#24 Disorder
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#25 Trump to sign cyber security order
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#26 Virtualization's Past Helps Explain Its Current Importance
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#43 when to get out???
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#0 Locking our own orientation
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#65 Paging subsystems in the era of bigass memory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#67 Economists are arguing over how their profession messed up during the Great Recession. This is what happened

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Mainframe operating systems?

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **
From: lynn@GARLIC.COM (Anne & Lynn Wheeler)
Subject: Re: Mainframe operating systems?
Newsgroups: bit.listserv.ibm-main
Date: 16 Apr 2017 18:10:37 -0700
00000041d919e708-dmarc-request@LISTSERV.UA.EDU (Thomas Kern) writes:
When I started working on contract to NASA at the Goddard Institute for Space Studies in NYC, June 1976, they ran Scientific Supervisory System/360 (SSS/360) on an IBM 360/95 and a copy under VM/370 R3 on an Amdahl 470/V6. SSS/360 was about 35,000 lines of Assembler code. Its purpose was to load a FORTRAN program into memory and then get out of its way. Running numerical weather prediction models, we were able to run for hours on end with almost no discernible Supervisor Time.

re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#75 Mainframe operating systems?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#76 Mainframe operating systems?

well then in the 80s, SLAC (& CERN) had "168E" ... bitslice 370 problem state sufficient to run 370 fortran programs ... ... with minimum to load program, acquire data, dump data. lots along the accelerator for initial data collection and reduction ... then upgraded to "3081E"
http://www.slac.stanford.edu/cgi-wrap/getdoc/slac-pub-3069.pdf
http://www.slac.stanford.edu/cgi-wrap/getdoc/slac-pub-3680.pdf
http://www.slac.stanford.edu/cgi-wrap/getdoc/slac-pub-3753.pdf

some past 168e/3081e
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002b.html#43 IBM 5100 [Was: First DESKTOP Unix Box?]
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2003n.html#8 The IBM 5100 and John Titor
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012l.html#72 zEC12, and previous generations, "why?" type question - GPU computing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013l.html#27 World's worst programming environment?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014.html#85 the suckage of MS-DOS, was Re: 'Free Unix!
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015.html#69 Remembrance of things past
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015.html#79 Ancient computers in use today
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015.html#87 a bit of hope? What was old is new again
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015b.html#28 The joy of simplicity?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015c.html#52 The Stack Depth
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016b.html#78 Microcode
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016e.html#24 Is it a lost cause?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#10 SC/MP (1977 microprocessor) architecture

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Mainframe operating systems?

Refed: **, - **, - **, - **
From: lynn@GARLIC.COM (Anne & Lynn Wheeler)
Subject: Re: Mainframe operating systems?
Newsgroups: bit.listserv.ibm-main
Date: 16 Apr 2017 22:13:48 -0700
stevet@COPPER.NET (Steve Thompson) writes:
And there was ASPEN (code name?) that was an "MVS" like O/S that Amdahl had.

re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#75 Mainframe operating systems?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#76 Mainframe operating systems?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#78 Mainframe operating systems?

aka RASP redo from IBM ... by one of the former IBMers that had done HASP (aka JES2)

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Mainframe operating systems?

Refed: **, - **, - **
From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Mainframe operating systems?
Newsgroups: bit.listserv.ibm-main
Date: Mon, 17 Apr 2017 09:44:46 -0700
mmassaki@GMAIL.COM (Minoru Massaki) writes:
Is the IBMer Mr. Tom Simpson?

re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#79 Mainframe operating systems?

yes, this discusses more about RASP & UTS and suggesting they something more like AT&T unix on stripped down TSS/370, SSUP
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#76 Mainframe operating systems?

in IBM big part of the issue was that adding mainframe hardware error recording, reporting, recovery, etc to unix was several times larger effort than just the straight unix port to 370. FE had hardline that they wouldn't service machine that didn't have operating system with the necessary error management ... so AIX/370 ran under VM/370 that provided the necessary error management (and internal AT&T built higher levels of UNIX on top of stripped down TSS/370).

slightly related I created & supported enhanced operating systems for internal datacenters, in the initial morph of CP67 to VM370, they dropped & simplified lots of stuff. Shortly after I ported bunch of CP67 to VM370 for intitial CSC/VM (but w/o multiprocessor support), somehow a copy of was made available to AT&T longlines. Over the years, AT&T longlines would migrate that CSC/VM to newer generation of mainframes. Later into the 3081 period, the IBM AT&T national account rep tracked me down to asked about help with migrating to recent vm system (that included multiprocessor support). The problem was similar to ACP/TPF (that also didn't have multiprocessor support). Originally there were no longer going to be any more single processor machines ... and they were concerned that ACP/TPF (and AT&T longline csc/vm) would all move to newer clone processors that continued to offer single processor machines. recent post in another thread
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#48 360 announce day

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Mainframe operating systems?

Refed: **, - **, - **
From: lynn@GARLIC.COM (Anne & Lynn Wheeler)
Subject: Re: Mainframe operating systems?
Newsgroups: bit.listserv.ibm-main
Date: 17 Apr 2017 10:41:49 -0700
dboyes@SINENOMINE.NET (David Boyes) writes:
What about things like RSCS v1? I think it could run on bare metal in its early days (morphed later into becoming GCS-dependent in RSCS v2).

Original CPREMOTE ... straight point-to-point might run on bare metal ... but vnet/rscs used for the internal network had a least spool block diagnose ... used VM370 spool file for intermediate storage (store&forward) and transfer on local machine.

In the 80s, the CSC co-worker responsible for VNET/RSCS had left IBM and was working on advanced real-time system projects and thot that parts of the dominant industry real-time operating system looked familiar. He compared the real-time system monitor with RSCS monitor and it turned out to be almost line-by-line translation of 370 assembler to "C" ... including all the original comments.

The original announcement in 1976 was joint with JES2 NJI. The problem was that mainstream IBM was still having problems adapting to unbundling announcement and charging for application software. Process was forecast at high, middle, low price and price*numbers had to cover deevelopment and support of the product. There was no forecast for NJI that covered cost. On the other hand VNET/RSCS could get away with $30/month. They fiddled the announcement as combined NJI & VNET at $600/month ... where the VNET revenue covered the NJI shortfall.

VNET/RSCS had correctly layered ... but NJI intermixed network fields with job control fields. The result was that VNET/RSCS easily supported both NJI drivers and native drivers (that had much higher throughput than NJI drivers). The intermixing of JES2/NJI fields that traffic between different releases of JES2 could crash the host MVS. The internal network was larger than arpanet/internet from just about the beginning until sometime mid-80s ... mostly RSCS/VNET ... with sprinkling of MVS/JES2. NJI implementation came from HASP (the source carried "TUCC" in cols 68-71) and used spare entries in the 255 psuedo device table to define network nodes ... maybe 150-200 max. nodes ... and would trash traffic if either origin or destination nodes weren't locally defined. By the time NJI/VNET shipped to customers, the internal network had passed 255 nodes ... so there issue that JES2 would discard traffic (when it wasn't crashing MVS).

Internally, MVS/JES2 were restricted to edge nodes (to minimize trashing traffic) fronted by RSCS/VNET with special NJI driver that could rewrite NJI header information to match the directly connected JES2/NJI release.

At the time arpanet/internet had great switch-over to internetworking protocol on 1Jan1983, it had around 100 IMP network nodes with around 255 connected hosts ... while the internal network was rapidly approaching 1000 (which it passed couple months later).
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#internalnet
and
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#hasp

The corporate sponsored university network used similar RSCS/VNET technology as the internal network
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BITNET
and
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#bitnet

but were increasingly being forced to only ship NJI drivers (even tho native drivers had much better performance ... and then later were later being forced to SNA/VTAM (GCS).

Inside IBM I had HSDT project
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#hsdt

in early 80s, starting to support full T1 and faster speed links. This caused lots of problems in the communication group since 37x5 boxes only supported 56kbits/sec. I also had problems with the RSCS 4k block spool file diagnose interface ... since it was synchronous (RSCS didn't execute while diagnose was in operation) ... and with competition from other users of spool file ... RCSC might only get 3-8 4k blocks/sec (12kbytes-30kbytes) ... and I needed aggregate of couple mbytes/sec. I needed asynchronous, non-blocking diagnose interface, and I needed vm370 spool file to do contiguous allocation, read-ahead, write-behind, multi-block, even full track transfers, old mentioning SFS (spool file system rewrite)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005s.html#28 MVCIN instruction

After the mid-80s, I was trying to get the internal network backbone enhanced to support T1 & faster-speed links as well as enhanced spool file operation. The communication group then got the backbone meetings restricted to management only ... as part of forcing move to SNA/VTAM ... not letting technical people confuse the issues. recent discussion
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#72 more IBM online systems
old email
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011e.html#email870204
and then
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006x.html#email870302
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011.html#email870306

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Mainframe operating systems?

From: lynn@GARLIC.COM (Anne & Lynn Wheeler)
Subject: Re: Mainframe operating systems?
Newsgroups: bit.listserv.ibm-main
Date: 17 Apr 2017 11:29:17 -0700
sipples@SG.IBM.COM (Timothy Sipples) writes:
4. I don't think anybody mentioned VM/IX and IX/370 yet, from Interactive Systems Corporation (ISC). Those were different than AIX/370 and AIX/ESA, based on Locus Computing's work. Bell Labs had a UNIX operating system for System/370 even before ISC's products, but I don't know much about that. MVS OpenEdition was the successor to these efforts, although with yet another, different, much better technology base. MVS OpenEdition begat z/OS UNIX System Services.

IBM Palo Alto was also working on VM/370 for USC (Berkeley) BSD unix ... lots of unix functions directly supported by vm/370 operating system ... sort of similar to the AT&T unix being done for TSS/370 SSUP (things like unix fork, creating multiple address spaces would be done by vm/370). However before its ships ... the palo alto group got redirected to port BSD to PC/RT as AOS (as alternative to AIXV2 ... an AT&T Unix port also done by interactive, interactive had also done PC/IX for IBM/PC). IBM Palo Alto also does work with UCLA Locus turning out AIX/370 & AIX/PS2

I had internal adtech conference spring 82, week before spring SHARE
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/96.html#4a John Hartmann's Birthday Party
other refs:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/94.html#22 CP spooling & programming technology
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010c.html#46 Mythical computers and magazine reviews

that had presentations on several of the items. Part of the issue was during the Future System period, 370 efforts were being shutdown (lack of 370 credited with giving clone processor makers, market foothold). When FS imploded, then there was mad rush to get stuff back in product pipelines. Normal development is 1-2yrs out, and adtech is 3-5yrs out (and research 5+yrs out). There was one last internal adtech conference where we presented 16-way SMP and the 801 group presented 801/risc ... and then many of the adtech groups were thrown into the development breach to churn out 370 products. The next adtech conference was spring 82.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#futuresys
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#smp
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#801

I've periodically pontificated on senior disk engineer getting talk at late 80s internal, worldwide, annual communication group confereince supposedly on 3174 performance but opened talk with comment that communication group was going to be responsible for demise of disk division.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#terminal

The disk division came up with number of products to try and address distributed computing but were constantly being vetoed by the communication group (that "owned" corporate strategic responsibility for everything that crossed the datacenter wall). As a work around, the disk division VP then started providing startup funding for non-IBM operations that would use IBM disks in distributed computing environments. He also funded MVS OpenEdition ... and the VP would periodically ask us to go by some of these startups to lend a hand and/or consult on MVS OpenEdition.

posts in this thread:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#75 Mainframe operating systems?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#76 Mainframe operating systems?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#78 Mainframe operating systems?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#79 Mainframe operating systems?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#80 Mainframe operating systems?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#81 Mainframe operating systems?

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Mainframe operating systems?

From: lynn@GARLIC.COM (Anne & Lynn Wheeler)
Subject: Re: Mainframe operating systems?
Newsgroups: bit.listserv.ibm-main
Date: 17 Apr 2017 12:13:18 -0700
Bill.Hitefield@DINO-SOFTWARE.COM (Bill Hitefield) writes:
Perhaps I did not accurately read the introductory post for this topic, but if we are considering 360 and its descendants, I am surprised no one has mentioned either SVS or VS1 (though I did see where MVS was mentioned). One of my first jobs out of college (70s) involved a conversion from SVS to VS2. A later job involved bringing a site from VS1 to MVS/370.

VS1 was MFT layed out in 4mbyte virtual address space.

VS2 started out MVT layed out in 16mbyte virtual address space (SVS). VS2 was then enhanced to multiple 16mbyte virtual address spaces (MVS) and VS2 designation was droped, just being refereed to as MVS.

The initial VS2 development work was done on 360/67 ... a little bit of code to build a 16mbyte virtual memory table at startup .. and then a little bit of code to handle page faults. Not a whole lot of difference from running MVT in a 16mbyte virtual machine. The biggest effort was because applications built channel programs (now with virtual addresses and CCW execution required real addresses) and passed the channel program with EXCP/SVC0 for execution. To do this they borrowed the CP/67 CCWTRANS channel program translator that created a copy of the channel program, substituting real addresses for virtual addresses (CCWTRANS was the largest amount of code moving from MVT to SVS). Discussed in this old post about motivation for moving all of 370 to virtual memory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011d.html#73 Multiple Virtual Memory

the above references that VS2 release 1 was SVS, VS2 release 2 was MVS and VS2 release 3 was suppose to be the first Future System release
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#futuresys

with the failure of FS, 303x (repackaged 158 & 168 as 3031 & 3032, and 3033 was 168 logic remapped to 20% faster chips) and 370XA (3081) were kicked off in parallel ... some additional discussion
http://www.jfsowa.com/computer/memo125.htm

Endicott did "E-architecture" (as alternative to POK's XA architecture). This was primarily moving (single) virtual memory address space management into microcode ... which then was VS/E and DOS/VSE.

The first endicott machines after FS was 138/148 ... which had VM/370 microcode assest ... and Endicott tried to have VM/370 shipped on every machine from the factory (sort of like LPAR currently ships). However POK managed to get corporate to overrule that ... since POK was in the process of getting VM/370 product killed and all the development people moved to POK and assigned to MVS/XA (Endicott eventually saved the VM/370 product mission, but had to reconstitute a development group from scratch). Old post about Endicott suckers me into working on ECPS, the VM microcode assist.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/94.html#21 370 ECPS VM microcode assist

Note: with ECPS and VS1/VM370 handshaking, VS1 would run faster under vm370 than it ran on bare machine.

A little garbled here ...
https://www-03.ibm.com/systems/z/os/zvse/about/history1970s.html
During this period, the practice of charging for IBM software became widespread.
... snip ...

Application software started being charged for after the 23Jun1969 unbundling announcement, but they managed to make the case that system software would still be free.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#unbundle

It was in the wake of Future System failure along with the clone processor makers getting market foothold (because of lack of 370 products during the FS period) ... that the decision was made to transition to start charging for operating system software.

posts in this thread:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#75 Mainframe operating systems?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#76 Mainframe operating systems?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#78 Mainframe operating systems?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#79 Mainframe operating systems?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#80 Mainframe operating systems?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#81 Mainframe operating systems?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#82 Mainframe operating systems?

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Hottest Editors

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Hottest Editors
Date: 17 Apr 2017
Blog: Facebook
Hottest Editors
https://xkcd.com/1823/

In late 70s I was heavy user of RED ... and when I learned that endicott was doing XEDIT, I provided them when detailed analysis showing Endicott that RED was much more mature, much more function, much better performance. Endicott came back saying that it was the RED author's fault that RED was much better than XEDIT and the RED author should correct the fault by improving XEDIT. Endicott goes ahead and announces XEDIT anyway. Email to RED author
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006u.html#email800311
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006u.html#email800312
some earlier comparison
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006u.html#email790606
earlier email with RED author about putting RED in shared segment
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006u.html#email781103
in this old post
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006u.html#26

Somebody else comment (from "tandem memos")
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006n.html#email810531

from IBM Jargon:
Tandem Memos - n. Something constructive but hard to control; a fresh of breath air (sic). That's another Tandem Memos. A phrase to worry middle management. It refers to the computer-based conference (widely distributed in 1981) in which many technical personnel expressed dissatisfaction with the tools available to them at that time, and also constructively criticised the way products were are developed. The memos are required reading for anyone with a serious interest in quality products. If you have not seen the memos, try reading the November 1981 Datamation summary.
... snip ...

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Mainframe operating systems?

From: lynn@GARLIC.COM (Anne & Lynn Wheeler)
Subject: Re: Mainframe operating systems?
Newsgroups: bit.listserv.ibm-main
Date: 17 Apr 2017 13:45:21 -0700
sipples@SG.IBM.COM (Timothy Sipples) writes:
7. VP/CSS, developed by National CSS, was an evolution of CP/CMS. VP/CSS had some efficiency advantages back in the 1970s.

early comercial online service bureau spin-offs of science center were NCSS & IDC ... both enhanced CP-67/CMS. IDC then migrated VM/370 ... and made some number of enhancements.

IDC enhanced VM/370 to support single system image in loosely-coupled environment ... akin to what internal world-wide online sales&marketing support system did with load-balancing and fall-over ... HONE posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#hone

I had done CSC/VM enhancements to migrate some of virtual machine operating system control blocks to paging systems. One of the BU co-op students helping me ... referenced here:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006v.html#email731212

when he graduates, joins IDC and extends the migration to all control blocks .... enabling non-distribtive execution process migration (in loosely-coupled configuration) between systems. These online service bureaus were providing 7x24 ... and enabled non-disruptive taking a system offline for scheduled maintenance (sort of like what can be done with the later locus-based aix/370), currently logged on users are transparently, non-disruptively migrated to different system.

other trivia: Both NCSS and IDC move up the value chain targeting financial industry. One of the other people that went out to IDC in the 70s ... then does
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/VisiCalc

misc. past (virtual machine based) commercial online service bureaus posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#online

re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#75 Mainframe operating systems?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#76 Mainframe operating systems?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#78 Mainframe operating systems?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#79 Mainframe operating systems?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#80 Mainframe operating systems?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#81 Mainframe operating systems?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#82 Mainframe operating systems?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#83 Mainframe operating systems?

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

[CM] What was your first home computer?

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: [CM] What was your first home computer?
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Mon, 17 Apr 2017 14:30:01 -0700
hancock4 writes:
To me, the significant question is: What was the first computer you used?

Personally, I was using computers for about 20 years until I got one at home.

(FWIW, the first computer I used was a GE Timesharing System.)


my first "personal" computer was 360/30 ... I got (student) programming job ... and they normally shutdown the datacenter from 8am sat. until 8am monday ... and I got the whole datacenter to myself ... although 48hrs w/o sleep made monday morning classes a little hard. It was then upgraded to 360/67 and univ hired me (still undergraduate) fulltime to be responsible for production systems (and I could still have the datacenter from 8am sat. until 8am monday).

I have had online terminal at home since March1970 .... terminal didn't turn into home computer until early 80s.

recent posts mentioning my 1st programming job
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#46 Hidden Figures and the IBM 7090 computer
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#80 Languages
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#73 Movie Computers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#50 Univ. 709

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Dodd-Frank Was Designed to Fail - and Trump Will Make it Worse

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Dodd-Frank Was Designed to Fail - and Trump Will Make it Worse
Date: 17 Apr 2017
Blog: Facebook
Dodd-Frank Was Designed to Fail - and Trump Will Make it Worse
http://neweconomicperspectives.org/2017/04/dodd-frank-designed-fail-trump-will-make-worse.html

past posts referencing Dodd-Frank
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010m.html#62 Dodd-Frank Act Makes CEO-Worker Pay Gap Subject to Disclosure
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011f.html#86 Bank email archives thrown open in financial crash report
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011i.html#48 Happy 100th Birthday, IBM!
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011k.html#43 I don't work for IBM and I don't make promises I can't deliver on
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011o.html#83 The banking sector grew seven times faster than gross domestic product since the beginning of the financial crisis and Too-Big-to-Fail: Banks Get Bigger After Dodd-Frank
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011p.html#34 21st Century Management approach?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011p.html#63 21st Century Management approach?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012b.html#54 The New Age Bounty Hunger -- Showdown at the SEC Corral
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#5 Too big not to fail
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#39 Greek knife to Wall Street
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#54 PC industry is heading for more change
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#16 IBM cuts more than 1,000 U.S. Workers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012e.html#86 CISPA legislation seen by many as SOPA 2.0
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012g.html#12 JPM LOSES $2 BILLION USD!
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012g.html#16 Psychology Of Fraud: Why Good People Do Bad Things
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012g.html#56 Why Hasn't The Government Prosecuted Anyone For The 2008 Financial recession?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012h.html#64 Monopoly/ Cartons of Punch Cards
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012l.html#48 The Payoff: Why Wall Street Always Wins
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013d.html#71 What Makes an Architecture Bizarre?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013d.html#73 What Makes an Architecture Bizarre?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013e.html#45 What Makes bank regulation and insurance Bizarre?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013g.html#86 How Wall Street Defanged Dodd-Frank
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013l.html#14 What Makes a Tax System Bizarre?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013m.html#76 The Scholars Who Shill for Wall Street
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013o.html#81 Academics Who Defend Wall St. Reap Reward
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014b.html#3 Royal Pardon For Turing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014c.html#68 Economists and our responsibilities to society
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014m.html#126 Wall Street's Revenge
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014m.html#150 LEO
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015.html#25 Gutting Dodd-Frank
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015e.html#47 Do we REALLY NEED all this regulatory oversight?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016.html#102 Thanks Obama
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016f.html#69 IBM Buying Promontory Clinches It: Regtech Is Real
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016f.html#73 IBM Buying Promontory Clinches It: Regtech Is Real
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016g.html#8 Wall Street Preparing Dodd-Frank Rule Workaround
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016g.html#9 Wall Street Preparing Dodd-Frank Rule Workaround
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016g.html#10 Wall Street Preparing Dodd-Frank Rule Workaround
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016g.html#58 Drafting of Dodd-Frank
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016g.html#78 More Dodd-Frank
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016h.html#15 BREAKING: Trump Announces Big Gift To Banks Despite His Campaign Rhetoric Against Wall Street
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016h.html#41 Are We Nearing a Cyber Sarbanes-Oxley?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#95 Trump, Wall Street and the "banking caucus" ready to rip apart Dodd-Frank
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#96 Trump, Wall Street and the "banking caucus" ready to rip apart Dodd-Frank
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#3 Trump, Wall Street and the "banking caucus" ready to rip apart Dodd-Frank
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#4 OT: Trump Moves to Roll Back Obama-Era Financial Regulations
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#5 Trump to sign cyber security order
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#11 Trump to sign cyber security order
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#13 Trump to sign cyber security order
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#48 Janet Yellen debunks Trump's case for killing Dodd-Frank

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Paging subsystems in the era of bigass memory

From: lynn@GARLIC.COM (Anne & Lynn Wheeler)
Subject: Re: Paging subsystems in the era of bigass memory
Newsgroups: bit.listserv.ibm-main
Date: 18 Apr 2017 09:58:23 -0700
d10jhm1@US.IBM.COM (Jim Mulder) writes:
it might be faster to read it from the DB2 data set, because DB2 (via Media Manager) uses zHPF, but z/OS has not been enhanced to use zHPF for page data sets.

in 1980, I got con'ed into doing channel-extender for STL that was moving 300 people from the IMS group to offsite bldg. with service back to STL datacenter. It had channel emulator box at the offsite bldg with local channel attached 3270 controllers at the offsite bldg. there was full-duplex streaming protocol with the offsite channel emulator with channel programs downloaded ... significantly mitigated the latency of the heavy duty half-duplex channel protocol chatter.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#channel.extendeer

The vendor tries to get IBM to release my support ... but there was group in POK that was playing with some serial stuff that blocked it because they were afraid that it would make it more difficult to get their stuff released.

In 1988, I'm asked to help LLNL get some stuff they are playing with standardized ... which quickly becomes fibre channel standard ... it includes full-duplex streaming (initially 1gbit/sec in both directions) and downloading i/o programs (countermeasure to protocol chatter latency).

In 1990, the POK serial stuff is finally released as ESCON, when it is already obsolete.

Later some POK people become involved in fibre channel standard and define a heavy weight, high latency protocol chatter protocol that significantly cuts native throughput that is eventually released as FICON
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#ficon

Most recent published "peak I/O" benchmark I've seen is for z196 that got 2M IOPS with 104 FICON (running over 104 fibre channel standard). About same time there was a fibre channel standard announced for e5-2600 blade that claims over million IOPS (for single FCS, two would have higher native throughput than 104 FICON).

zHPF w/TCW describes something a little like what I originally did back in 1980 ... but says it only provides 30% improvmeent over standard FICON (possibly only 70 FICON to get 2M IOPS, compared to only two fiber channel getting over native 2M IOPS).

This recent post about 1987 (IBM) disk "wide-head" proposal capable of something like 48-67mbytes/sec transfer ... by 1990, FCS would have over 100mbyte/sec (1gibt/sec) full-duplex. At the time standard IBM had 3mbyte/sec channel moving to 4.5mbyte/sec ... and ESCON in 1990 would only be be 17mbytes/sec ... so as an IBM product, "wide-head" wasn't feasible.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#54 GREAT presentation on the history of the mainframe
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#60 Optimizing the Hard Disk Directly

recent paging subsystem posts here
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#58 Paging subsystems in the era of bigass memory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#61 Paging subsystems in the era of bigass memory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#63 Paging subsystems in the era of bigass memory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#65 Paging subsystems in the era of bigass memory
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#66 Paging subsystems in the era of bigass memory

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Understanding decisions: The power of combining psychology and economics

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Understanding decisions: The power of combining psychology and economics
Date: 18 Apr 2017
Blog: Facebook
Understanding decisions: The power of combining psychology and economics
https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2017-04/cmu-udt041817.php

past posts referencing "Undoing project" &/or Kahneman (psycologist gets Nobel prize in economics)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011p.html#147 The Myth of Work-Life Balance
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012b.html#59 Original Thinking Is Hard, Where Good Ideas Come From
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012e.html#57 speculation
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012g.html#16 Psychology Of Fraud: Why Good People Do Bad Things
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012i.html#92 Naked emperors, holy cows and Libor
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014b.html#53 Royal Pardon For Turing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#14 Japanese company replaces office workers with artificial intelligence
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#24 Destruction of the Middle Class
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#26 Milton Friedman's Cherished Theory Is Laid to Rest
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#29 Milton Friedman's Cherished Theory Is Laid to Rest
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#66 Deep learning algorithm does as well as dermatologists in identifying skin cancer
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#92 Trump's Rollback of the Neoliberal Market State
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#93 The Undoing Project: A Friendship That Changed Our Minds Kindle Edition
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#97 Trump to sign cyber security order
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#101 Trump to sign cyber security order
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#102 Trump to sign cyber security order
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#11 Trump to sign cyber security order
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#17 Trump to sign cyber security order
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#24 Disorder
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#26 Virtualization's Past Helps Explain Its Current Importance
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#43 when to get out???
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#0 Locking our own orientation
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#67 Economists are arguing over how their profession messed up during the Great Recession. This is what happened
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#77 Trump delay of the 'fiduciary rule' will cost retirement savers $3.7 billion

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Old hardware

From: lynn@GARLIC.COM (Anne & Lynn Wheeler)
Subject: Re: Old hardware
Newsgroups: bit.listserv.ibm-main
Date: 19 Apr 2017 08:44:51 -0700
Kees.Vernooij@KLM.COM (Vernooij, Kees - KLM , ITOPT1) writes:
It sounds like when I started my job, with SVS on 370/158-168 machines. When during IBM courses the teacher asked what we systems we were using and I said we also had 2 360/65's running, everybody turned to see where I came from. After a few times, I decided to skip these machines.

when I was undergraduate, the univ. hired me fulltime to be responsible for IBM production mainframe systems. Then Boeing hired me to help with the formation of Boeing Computer Services (one of the first half dozen employees; consolidate all dataprocessing in independent business unit to help monetize the investment, even offering services to non-Boeing entities). I thought that the Renton datacenter was possibly the largest in the world ... at the time 360/65s were arriving faster than they could be installed (boxes consantly staged in the hallways around the machine room). There was also plans to replicate Renton datacenter at the new 747 plant up in Everett (disaster scenario where Mt. Rainier heats up and mudslide takes out Renton datacenter). 747#3 was flying the skies of seattle getting FAA flt. certification. Tour of the 747 passenger mockup included statement that there would be so many passengers on 747, that it would never be served by fewer than four jetways (how many people have been on 747 that were even served by 4 jetways?)

Much later I sponsored Boyd's briefings at IBM ... and he would refer to being put in charge of "spook base" (possibly as punishment because he would talk about constantly claiming that it wouldn't work) about the time I was at Boeing. One of his biographies claims that "spook base" was $2.5B windfall for IBM (approx ten times the late 60s estimate of mainframe computers in Renton datacenter), "spook base" reference gone 404, but lives on at wayback machine ... including drones:
http://web.archive.org/web/20030212092342/http://home.att.net/~c.jeppeson/igloo_white.html

a little other Boyd drift:

IBM revenue has fallen for 20 quarters -- but it used to run its business very differently
http://www.businessinsider.com/ibm-corporate-america-history-2017-4

In the 80s, Boyd would include in briefings that former military officers were starting to contaminate US corporate culture. The issue was that officers had been indoctrinated in rigid, top-down, command&control with only those at the very top knew what they were doing. However, about the same time, articles were starting to appear that MBAs, with myopic focus on quarterly numbers were starting to destroy US businesses. Then there is this recent article:

Harvard Business School and the Propagation of Immoral Profit Strategies
http://www.newsweek.com/2017/04/14/harvard-business-school-financial-crisis-economics-578378.html

past posts and URLs from the WEB referencing Boyd
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subboyd.html

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

A Whirlwind History of the Computer

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: A Whirlwind History of the Computer
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Wed, 19 Apr 2017 19:42:24 -0700
Dan Espen <despen@verizon.net> writes:
There are also some S/360 instructions (TRT for example) that are not easy to get an HLL to use. TRT searches up to 256 bytes for from 1 to 255 characters. So, depending on the data you are parsing, you might be able to scan 100s of characters in one machine instruction. Of course, it depends on the input data. Even if the microcode for TRT takes a fair amount of time, it's going to seriously outperform character at a time parsing. (I implemented just the scanning part in HLASM as part of a parser and cut parsing time around 40%.)

TRT in recent history got a fix ... turns out starting with 360 instructions (and later 370 except for interruptable, MVCL, CLCL) have to precheck start & ending fields for access (before starting execution). Turns out TRT was automagically pretesting ending fields as start+255 ... and some were failing when they shouldn't (a specific TRT might not involve the whole 256. So the instruction fix was if start of TRT field was within 256 of end of page ... the microcode pre-executes the TRT instruction to see if it actually requires something crossing page boundary (which might not be available).

past reference
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011b.html#2 History of copy on write
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011g.html#14 Is the magic and romance killed by Windows (and Linux)?

On 360&370 I was always able to generate assembler instruction sequence that always outperformed TRT (things are even worse now unless the fields are forced at least 256 bytes from page end).

other past posts that happen to mention TRT
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001d.html#23 why the machine word size is in radix 8??
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001d.html#28 Very CISC Instuctions (Was: why the machine word size ...)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001d.html#31 Very CISC Instuctions (Was: why the machine word size ...)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001e.html#21 High Level Language Systems was Re: computer books/authors (Re: FA:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001n.html#44 PC/370
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001n.html#49 PC/370
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2002j.html#9 "Clean" CISC (was Re: McKinley Cometh...)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005r.html#47 MVCIN instruction
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006.html#12 Zeroing core
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006h.html#21 Binder REP Cards
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2006p.html#42 old hypervisor email
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007d.html#69 IBM S/360 series operating systems history

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Old hardware

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: Old hardware
Newsgroups: bit.listserv.ibm-main
Date: Wed, 19 Apr 2017 19:18:09 -0700
d10jhm1@US.IBM.COM (Jim Mulder) writes:
It may depend on which types of risks are being considered. For example, would you consider it risky to run a stable but unsupported version of Windows on a machine which is connected to the internet, since no new security fixes are being provided for that version?

re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#90 Old hardware

we were doing HA/CMP ... some past posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subtopic.html#hacmp
more recent IBM
https://www.ibm.com/developerworks/aix/library/au-hacmpcheatsheet/
https://www.ibm.com/developerworks/aix/library/au-powerhaintro/

I'm out marketing and coin the terms disaster survivability and geographic survivability and I get asked to do a section for the corporate continuous availability strategic document ... but the section gets pulled when both Rochester (as/400) and POK (mainframe) complain that they can't meed the objectives. some past posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submain.html#available

we are doing both technical scaleup ... recent post & ref email end jan1992
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#73 US NII

and post about earlier Jan 1992 meeting in Ellison's conference room on commercial scaleup
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/95.html#13

by the end of Jan1992, cluster scaleup is transferred, announced as IBM supercomputer ("technical/scientific *ONLY*") and we are told we can't work on anything with more than four processors ... we leave a few months later. IBM press 17Feb1992
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001n.html#6000clusters1
IBM press 11May1992
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2001n.html#6000clusters2

two of the oracle people (in the ellison meeting) leave and show up at small client/server startup responsible for something called "commerce server" and we are brought in as consultants because they want to do payment transactions on their server, the startup had also invented this technology called "SSL" that they want to use, the result is now frequently called "electronic commerce". I have absolute authority over the servers to internet gateway to payment networks, but can only make recommendations about the client<->server interface ... some of which are almost immediately violated, accounting for some number of exploits that continue to this day. some past posts touching on some client<->server issues
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subpubkey.html#sslcerts

A couple yrs later at 1996 Moscone MDC, all the banners say "Internet", but the constant refrain in the sessions say "preserve your investment". The scenario was paradigm that adds automatically executed scripts to application datafiles in the days of small, safe, business LANs ... but then extended to the wild anarchy of the Internet w/o any additional countermeasures (eventually they add checkers for specific exploit script signatures, while leaving the underlying paradigm unchanged, however the exploit scripts evolve/mutate much faster than the checkers)

At financial conferences later that year, start seeing presentations by dailup online banking operations explaining why they are moving to the internet (savings on enormous customer support costs associated with proprietary dialup infrastructures). However in the same conferences, the dialup commercial, cash-management operations say they will never move to the internet because of a long list of vulnerabiities.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#dialup-banking

In this period the Internet standards (RFC) author lets me help him with periodically updated/released STD1. He then asks me to do a talk on electronic commerce for USC/ISI and USC computer security graduate department ... which I call Why the Internet isn't Business Critical Dataprocessing.
http://www.postel.org/postel.html
some stuff I still do
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/rfcietff.htm

Later the dialup commercial, cash-management operations also start moving to Internet. Because of exploits the Feds release guidelines that businesses have a dedicated PC for (internet) online banking ... that is *NEVER* used for any other purpose.

past posts mentioning the internet
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#internet
past email mentioning original objective interconnecting the NSF supercomputer centers ... as the regional networks connect into the centers, it evolves into the NSFNET backbone, precursor to modern internet.
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/lhwemail.html#nsfnet

in part because of having been involved in "electronic commerce", I'm ask to participate in (US Financial Standards) X9 organization and the X9A10 financial standard working group that had given the requirement to preserve the integrity of the financial infrastructure for *ALL* retail payments (not just internet). The resulting standard eliminates nearly all existing exploits (breaches, skimming, evesdropping, etc) by eliminating the ability of criminals to use previous transaction information for fraudulent transactions (a major use of SSL in the world today is blocking evesdropping on "electronic commerce" financial transactions, which also would no longer be needed). The problem now is it would be extremely disruptive to existing electronic payment stakeholders.

The current solution seems to be adding ever increasing layers of encryption to hide the information ... we periodically comment that even if the world was buried under miles of information hiding encryption, it still wouldn't stop leaks ... because there are dozens of business processes at millions of locations around the world that require previous transaction information (currently, the data has to be simultaneously readily available at all times and also kept absolutely confidential and never divulged, a dual-use conflict; aka the standard eliminated the dual-use conflict).

old NACHA RFI response (on our behalf by NACHA member)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/nacharfi.htm
old reference (gone 404 but lives on at wayback machine) where NACHA (succesfully) pilots (for debit) but then no follow-on; 23July2001 item
http://web.archive.org/web/20070706004855/http://internetcouncil.nacha.org/News/news.html
current nacha
https://www.nacha.org/

The TD for the information assurance directorate is doing an assurance session in the trusted computing tract at 2001 intel developer's forum and asks me to do a talk on security chip I've designed; gone 404 but lives on at the wayback machine
http://web.archive.org/web/20011109072807/http://www.intel94.com/idf/spr2001/sessiondescription.asp?id=stp+s13

The guy running TPM-chip is sitting in the front row and I quip that it is nice to see that TPM is starting to look more and more like my chip, he quips back that I don't have 200 people helping me with design.

I was planning on getting EAL5 or EAL6 evaluation for the chip ... but then (I believe the agency is behind) pull of the crypto evaluation test cases from NIST ... and since I have crypto built into the silicon, the best I can do is EAL4-high evaluation (compareable chips are getting EAL6 on silicon and then loading crypto and other software after evaluation).

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

United Air Lines - an OODA-loop perspective

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: United Air Lines - an OODA-loop perspective
Date: 19 Apr 2017
Blog: Slightly East of New
United Air Lines - an OODA-loop perspective
https://slightlyeastofnew.com/2017/04/14/united-air-lines-an-OODA-loop-perspective/

In the 80s, Boyd would include in briefings that former military officers were starting to contaminate US corporate culture. The issue was that officers had been indoctrinated in rigid, top-down, command&control with only those at the very top knew what they were doing. However, about the same time, articles were starting to appear that MBAs, with myopic focus on quarterly numbers were starting to destroy US businesses. Then there is this recent article:

past Boyd posts (and URLs from around the web)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subboyd.html

Harvard Business School and the Propagation of Immoral Profit Strategies
http://www.newsweek.com/2017/04/14/harvard-business-school-financial-crisis-economics-578378.html

Note re "immoral profit", in the late 80s some large corporations (with lots of employees) started restructure to move profit out of human intensive operations into separate subsidiary. In the 90s, airlines were moving profit out of airline operations subsidiary into ticket sales & reservation subsidiary ... even when airline operations showed significant loss, the parent company could show significant profit from the reservation subsidiary. Then you have cases where they declare bankruptcy for the airline operations and dump the employee pension plans on the government.
https://www.pbgc.gov/

Then last decade, the refinement was to move the subsidiary where the profit is being booked to offshore tax haven. the poster child is large equipment manufacturer that builds and delivers to customers in the US. Last decade they create a distributor subsidiary in offshore tax haven and sell to the distributor at cost. The distributor then sells to US customers ... and all the profit is booked offshore (equipment is still made in the US and delivered in the US). some refs:
https://www.icij.org/project/luxembourg-leaks

tax evasion, tax avoidance, tax havens, etc
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#tax.evasion

and even more ...

United Air Wins Right to Default on Its Employee Pension Plans
http://www.nytimes.com/2005/05/11/business/united-air-wins-right-to-default-on-its-employee-pension-plans.html
Although the ruling freed United from $3.2 billion in pension contributions over five years, even that amount would not fully finance the plan. If United had been able to pay it, the amount would have simply brought it into compliance. The government measures United's pension shortfall at close to $9.8 billion.
....
United plans to switch its current employees from traditional retirement programs, which are called defined-benefit plans, to defined-contribution plans like 401(k) programs. The federal pension agency will assume responsibility for United's plans, which cover about 134,000 workers. ...
... snip ...

Trump delay of the 'fiduciary rule' will cost retirement savers $3.7 billion
http://www.epi.org/press/trump-delay-of-the-fiduciary-rule-will-cost-retirement-savers-3-7-billion/

Former president of AMEX, AMEX, then goes to KKR/RJR,
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barbarians_at_the_Gate:_The_Fall_of_RJR_Nabisco
then IBM ... with
http://www.ibmemployee.com/RetirementHeist.shtml
then Carlyle. KKR & Carlyle and retirement plans:

Donald Trump's Executive Order Will Let Private Equity Funds Drain Your 401(k)
https://theintercept.com/2017/02/06/donald-trumps-executive-order-will-let-private-equity-funds-drain-your-401k
Large firms like Carlyle, Blackstone, Partners Group, and Kohlberg Kravitz Roberts (KKR) have developed a series of 401(k)-friendly products over the past couple years. Most enable plan advisers to offer private equity stakes to investors as part of a "target fund," in a diversified portfolio with other investments.
... snip ...

some Gerstner posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#gerstner

Milton Friedman
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Milton_Friedman
Friedman promoted an alternative macroeconomic viewpoint known as "monetarism", and argued that a steady, small expansion of the money supply was the preferred policy.[12] His ideas concerning monetary policy, taxation, privatization and deregulation influenced government policies, especially during the 1980s.
... snip ...

Milton Friedman's Cherished Theory Is Laid to Rest
https://www.bloomberg.com/view/articles/2017-01-12/milton-friedman-s-cherished-theory-is-laid-to-rest
Even now, when economic models have become far more complex than anything in Friedman's time, economists still go back to Friedman's theory as a mental touchstone -- a fundamental intuition that guides the way they make their models. My first macroeconomics professor believed in it deeply and instinctively, and would even bring it up in department seminars.
... snip ...

The Champions of the 401(k) Lament the Revolution They Started
http://www.wsj.com/articles/the-champions-of-the-401-k-lament-the-revolution-they-started-1483382348?mod=e2fb

Economists and the Powerful: Convenient Theories, Distorted Facts, Ample Rewards
http://www.amazon.com/Economists-Powerful-Convenient-Distorted-ebook/dp/B009K44OW2

loc1200-1206:
There are plenty of examples from other countries to copy: the US individual retirement account system is based on the Chilean pension reform of 1980/81 that in turn was based heavily on proposals made in the book Capitalism and Freedom by Milton Friedman. In response to the Chilean system facing a likely collapse in a few decades time, it was substantially overhauled in 2008 to require mandatory participation of all citizens in exchange for universal pension coverage.
... snip ...

"The Undoing Project" goes into some detail how Kahneman and Tversky disproved economists' assumption that people make rational decisions ... loc:1155-59:
He had listened to an American economist talk about how so-and-so was stupid and so-and-so was a fool, then said, "All your economic models are premised on people being smart and rational, and yet all the people you know are idiots."
... snip ...

Kahneman (a psychologist) gets Nobel prize in economics, in part for debunking Friedman's theories involving rational man

and more recent, Understanding decisions: The power of combining psychology and economics
https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2017-04/cmu-udt041817.php

another take on United case, Pilots: United Airlines bankruptcy never should have happened
http://www.washingtonexaminer.com/pilots-united-airlines-bankruptcy-never-should-have-happened/article/5954
In a scenario eerily reminiscent of Enron, top-level corporate officers cashed out as their lower-level employees lost billions. The pension liabilities were then transferred to taxpayers via PBGC, which is now close to insolvency itself.
... snip ...

ENRON related posts
http://www.garilc.com/~lynn/submisc.html#enron

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

A 40-year "conspiracy" at the VA

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: A 40-year "conspiracy" at the VA
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Thu, 20 Apr 2017 08:46:03 -0700
RS Wood <rsw@therandymon.com> writes:
By the end of the article, you find yourself sympathizing with the planners. These days, you really seem to need a vendor you can turn to to operate and maintain the system. The fact that all the original programmers disappeared and no one remained who understood the system would seem to support that. But the price you pay for the vendor - unless you write the scope of work very carefully, which no one bothers to do anymore - is vendor lock in, and probably a proprietary database you'll be stuck with. Then of course, you'll pay more still to unlock it if you ever change vendor. Oracle might know something about this, not sure myself.

re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#79 A 40-year "conspiracy" at the VA

we had bascially consulted for free on backend dataprocessing for 2000 census, and then talked to hill staffer responsible for VA about doing something similar ... it was coming off a failed billion effort and gearing up for a couple billion dollar effort. As referenced ... there has been a whole slew of gov failed dataprocessing modernization ... all across the gov ... apparently motivated by beltway bandits make a whole lot more money from series of failed projects (than an immediate success).
http://www.govexec.com/excellence/management-matters/2007/04/the-success-of-failure/24107/
posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#success.of.failure

accelerated last decade with huge uptic in outsourcing (frequently to private-equity subsidiaries under intense pressure to generate profits) ... not just intelligence reference in the success of failure article ... 70% of the budget and over half of the people (including apparently responsible for majority of leaks/breaches)
http://www.investingdaily.com/17693/spies-like-us

private-equity posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#private.equity

other trivia ... we did some work with person trying to improve dataprocessing for a consortium of hospitals in NYC and New Jersey ... that had a number of different proprietary, isolated operations that are unable to talk with each other. he was attempting to talk the vendors into opening up their data formats so that the information could be shared ... with objective of improving over all service. Administration, financial, medical record, etc were all isolated proprietary systems that couldn't exchange information (for instance it was impossible to use and effectiveness information about lots of extremely expensive diagnostic equipment installed across the consortium).

note the above shouldn't be confused with private-equity buying up a lot of for-profit and non-profit hospitals and clinics and milking them for every penney they could extract.

other past posts mentioning failed dataprocessing modernization:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2005.html#37 [OT?] FBI Virtual Case File is even possible?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007e.html#52 US Air computers delay psgrs
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2007i.html#38 John W. Backus, 82, Fortran developer, dies (Actually, Working under the table!)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008m.html#41 IBM--disposition of clock business
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2008m.html#45 IBM--disposition of clock business
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010b.html#19 STEM crisis
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012g.html#89 FAA air traffic facility consolidation effort already late
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012i.html#42 Simulated PDP-11 Blinkenlight front panel for SimH
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012i.html#45 Simulated PDP-11 Blinkenlight front panel for SimH
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013m.html#69 PDCA vs. OODA
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015b.html#59 A-10
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015d.html#76 Greedy Banks Nailed With $5 BILLION+ Fine For Fraud And Corruption
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015h.html#17 the legacy of Seymour Cray
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016b.html#39 Failure as a Way of Life; The logic of lost wars and military-industrial boondoggles
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016b.html#107 Qbasic - lies about Medicare
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016d.html#38 [BBC] US nuclear force 'still uses floppy disks'
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016f.html#40 Misc. Success of Failure
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016f.html#76 GLBA & Glass-Steagall
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016f.html#104 How to Win the Cyberwar Against Russia
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#71 ComputerWorld Says: Cobol plays major role in U.S. government breaches

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Vendor Licensing Frustrations

From: lynn@GARLIC.COM (Anne & Lynn Wheeler)
Subject: Re: Vendor Licensing Frustrations
Newsgroups: bit.listserv.ibm-main
Date: 20 Apr 2017 15:58:52 -0700
Jesse1.Robinson@SCE.COM (Jesse 1 Robinson) writes:
Unfortunately legislative bodies are dominated by lawyers, especially in the U.S. Sarbanes-Oxley (SOX), Congress's blunderbuss response to the Enron debacle, achieves maximum burden with minimal protection. A classic case of lawyers meddling in IT.

the rhetoric on flr of congress was that it would guarantee that executives and auditors went to jail (but it required SEC to do something) ... the joke was that congress felt so bad about accounting firm going under ... it was full employment gift to the audit industry.

possibly even GAO didn't believe SEC was doing anything, it started doing reports of public company fraudulent financial filings ... even showing uptic/increase after SOX goes into effect (and nobody doing jailtime).

After SOX goes into effect, there is EU conference of CEOs and exchange presidents in Liechtenstein about how SOX audit requirements were leaking into EU companies (that had contracts with US companies) ... and I'm asked to talk about how it wasn't really meaningful (as well as being able to program corporate computers to beat SOX audit).

enron posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#enron
sarbanes-oxley posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#sarbanes-oxley

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Cognitive Bias Codex, 2016

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Cognitive Bias Codex, 2016
Date: 21 Apr 2017
Blog: Facebook
Cognitive Bias Codex, 2016
http://ritholtz.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/1-71TzKnr7bzXU_l_pU6DCNA.jpeg

In briefings Boyd would emphasize always observing from every possible facet/aspect as countermeasure to orientation basis. More recent is Kahneman's "Thinking Fast and Slow".

"Undoing Project" has several examples of Kahneman working for Israeli military, observing (and orientating) several times, things that everybody else is apparently oblivious to. Kahneman (a psychologist) also gets Nobel prize in economics (in part for debunking several of most cherished economic theories).

Boyd posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subboyd.html

past posts mentioning Kahneman, "Thinking Fast and Slow"< and/or "Undoing Project":
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011p.html#138 Thinking, Fast & Slow
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011p.html#147 The Myth of Work-Life Balance
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012.html#1 The war on terabytes
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012b.html#29 The speeds of thought, complexities of problems
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012b.html#35 Entropy and #SocialMedia
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012b.html#44 What's the most interesting thing you do in your non-work life?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012b.html#59 Original Thinking Is Hard, Where Good Ideas Come From
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012e.html#57 speculation
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012g.html#16 Psychology Of Fraud: Why Good People Do Bad Things
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012h.html#67 Monopoly/ Cartons of Punch Cards
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012i.html#65 Thousands Of IBM Employees Got A Nasty Surprise Yesterday: Here's The Email They Saw
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012i.html#87 Naked emperors, holy cows and Libor
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012i.html#92 Naked emperors, holy cows and Libor
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012j.html#4 Interesting News Article
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012j.html#74 What voters are really choosing in November
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012m.html#64 Guest Post: Beakley on Boyd, Aerial Combat and the OODA-Loop
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013d.html#41 Computer Simulations Reveal Benefits of Random Investment Strategies Over Traditional Ones
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013d.html#72 What Makes an Architecture Bizarre?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013k.html#52 The agency problem and how to create a criminogenic environment
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013o.html#15 IBM Shrinks - Analysts Hate It
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014b.html#29 Royal Pardon for credit unions
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014b.html#53 Royal Pardon For Turing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016d.html#2 Does OODA-loop observation carry a lot of baggage
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#14 Japanese company replaces office workers with artificial intelligence
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#24 Destruction of the Middle Class
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#26 Milton Friedman's Cherished Theory Is Laid to Rest
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#29 Milton Friedman's Cherished Theory Is Laid to Rest
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#66 Deep learning algorithm does as well as dermatologists in identifying skin cancer
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#92 Trump's Rollback of the Neoliberal Market State
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#93 The Undoing Project: A Friendship That Changed Our Minds Kindle Edition
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#97 Trump to sign cyber security order
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#101 Trump to sign cyber security order
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#102 Trump to sign cyber security order
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#11 Trump to sign cyber security order
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#17 Trump to sign cyber security order
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#24 Disorder
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#26 Virtualization's Past Helps Explain Its Current Importance
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#43 when to get out???
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#0 Locking our own orientation
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#67 Economists are arguing over how their profession messed up during the Great Recession. This is what happened
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#77 Trump delay of the 'fiduciary rule' will cost retirement savers $3.7 billion
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#89 Understanding decisions: The power of combining psychology and economics
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#93 United Air Lines - an OODA-loop perspective

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

IBM revenue has fallen for 20 quarters -- but it used to run its business very differently

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: IBM revenue has fallen for 20 quarters -- but it used to run its business very differently
Date: 21 Apr 2017
Blog: Facebook
IBM revenue has fallen for 20 quarters -- but it used to run its business very differently
http://www.businessinsider.com/ibm-corporate-america-history-2017-4

In the 80s, Boyd would include in briefings that former military officers were starting to contaminate US corporate culture. The issue was that officers had been indoctrinated in rigid, top-down, command&control with only those at the very top knew what they were doing. However, about the same time, articles were starting to appear that MBAs, with myopic focus on quarterly numbers were starting to destroy US businesses. Then there is this recent article:

Harvard Business School and the Propagation of Immoral Profit Strategies
http://www.newsweek.com/2017/04/14/harvard-business-school-financial-crisis-economics-578378.html

I first tried to get Boyd's briefings done thru IBM employee education .... then as I provided more information about Boyd (lots about how to deal in competitive environment), they changed their minds. They said IBM spends a lot of money training managers on how to deal with employees, and exposing general employees to Boyd would not be in the best interests of the IBM company, I should restrict audience to senior members of competitive analysis departments

When I joined IBM in 1970, IBM was going through rapid expansion and nearly everybody was eventually being asked to be manager ... including me one friday. I asked to read the manager's manual over the weekend. On monday I came back and said that I wouldn't be a good candidate. I had worked construction in high school and summer after Freshman year in college, I was foreman on job with about 30 people. My background in doing attitude readjustment in parking lot after work probably wouldn't be compatible with IBM culture. Nobody ever asked me to be a manager again.

I was blamed for online computer conferencing on the internal network during the late 70s and early 80s (early precursor to social media). Folklore is that when the corporate executive committee was told about online computer conferencing (and the internal network), 5of6 wanted to fire me. During that period, nearly every morning I woke up and asked myself was I willing to bet my job.

IBM Jargon, from long ago and far away:
Tandem Memos - n. Something constructive but hard to control; a fresh of breath air (sic). That's another Tandem Memos. A phrase to worry middle management. It refers to the computer-based conference (widely distributed in 1981) in which many technical personnel expressed dissatisfaction with the tools available to them at that time, and also constructively criticised the way products were are developed. The memos are required reading for anyone with a serious interest in quality products. If you have not seen the memos, try reading the November 1981 Datamation summary.
... snip ...

some posts mentioning Boyd (and some URLs from around the web)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subboyd.html

past posts mentioning "Tandem Memos"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011b.html#25 Melinda Varian's history page move
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011c.html#31 If IBM Hadn't Bet the Company
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011c.html#32 If IBM Hadn't Bet the Company
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011c.html#33 If IBM Hadn't Bet the Company
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011d.html#5 Is email dead? What do you think?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011f.html#21 WHAT WAS THE PROJECT YOU WERE INVOLVED/PARTICIPATED AT IBM THAT YOU WILL ALWAYS REMEMBER?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011f.html#36 Early mainframe tcp/ip support (from ibm-main mailing list)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011f.html#78 Wylbur, Orvyl, Milton, CRBE/CRJE were all used (and sometimes liked) in the past
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011g.html#21 program coding pads
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011g.html#43 My first mainframe experience
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011j.html#42 assembler help!
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011l.html#25 computer bootlaces
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011p.html#81 Has anyone successfully migrated off mainframes?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012b.html#31 PC industry is heading for more change
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012b.html#88 Original Thinking Is Hard, Where Good Ideas Come From
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012b.html#90 IBM Doing Some Restructuring?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012b.html#93 Original Thinking Is Hard, Where Good Ideas Come From
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012c.html#17 5 Byte Device Addresses?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012d.html#16 IBM cuts more than 1,000 U.S. Workers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012e.html#6 Origins of "User-friendly"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012e.html#67 Typeface (font) and city identity
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012e.html#78 Time to Think ... and to Listen
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012f.html#90 How do you feel about the fact that India has more employees than US?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012f.html#92 How do you feel about the fact that India has more employees than US?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012g.html#13 Organizational Hierarchy; Adapting Old Structures to New Challenges
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012g.html#21 Closure in Disappearance of Computer Scientist
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012g.html#25 VM370 40yr anniv, CP67 44yr anniv
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012g.html#65 Monopoly/ Cartons of Punch Cards
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012i.html#65 Thousands Of IBM Employees Got A Nasty Surprise Yesterday: Here's The Email They Saw
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012j.html#55 Transition to Retirement
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012j.html#74 What voters are really choosing in November
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012k.html#65 How do you feel about the fact that India has more employees than US?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012l.html#1 Time to choose the Knights of 2012
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012m.html#0 PDP-10 system calls, was 1132 printer history
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012o.html#5 node names
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012p.html#6 Real Hackers use Big Iron (Humor)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012p.html#7 Why former IBMers who left maybe years ago for any reason are still active on the Greater IBM Connection?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012p.html#46 How do we fight bureaucracy and bureaucrats in IBM?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012p.html#64 IBM Is Changing The Terms Of Its Retirement Plan, Which Is Frustrating Some Employees
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013.html#11 How do we fight bureaucracy and bureaucrats in IBM?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013.html#43 AT&T Holmdel Computer Center films, 1973 Unix
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013.html#47 AT&T Holmdel Computer Center films, 1973 Unix
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013b.html#23 AT&T Holmdel Computer Center films, 1973 Unix
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013b.html#25 Still think the mainframe is going away soon: Think again. IBM mainframe computer sales are 4% of IBM's revenue; with software, services, and storage it's 25%
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013b.html#26 New HD
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013b.html#58 Dualcase vs monocase. Was: Article for the boss
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013b.html#75 Fortran
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013e.html#58 As an IBM'er just like the Marines only a few good men and women make the cut,
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013e.html#81 How Criticizing in Private Undermines Your Team - Harvard Business Review
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013f.html#19 Where Does the Cloud Cover the Mainframe?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013f.html#58 The cloud is killing traditional hardware and software
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013h.html#19 It was 30 Years Ago Today
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013i.html#49 Internet Mainframe Forums Considered Harmful
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013n.html#11 50th anniversary S/360 coming up
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013n.html#52 Bridgestone Sues IBM For $600 Million Over Allegedly 'Defective' System That Plunged The Company Into 'Chaos'
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013n.html#57 rebuild 1403 printer chain
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014e.html#21 23Jun1969 Unbundling Announcement
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014e.html#24 Tandem Memos
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014e.html#26 23Jun1969 Unbundling Announcement
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014f.html#35 upcoming TV show, "Halt & Catch Fire"
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014h.html#31 The Designer Of The F-15 Explains Just How Stupid The F-35 Is
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014h.html#47 Are you tired of the negative comments about IBM in this community?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014h.html#81 The Tragedy of Rapid Evolution?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014i.html#7 You can make your workplace 'happy'
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014i.html#102 A-10 Warthog No Longer Suitable for Middle East Combat, Air Force Leader Says
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014l.html#49 IBM's Ginni Rometty Just Confessed To A Huge Failure -- It Might Be The Best Thing For The Company
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014m.html#68 Decimation of the valuation of IBM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014m.html#140 IBM Continues To Crumble
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014m.html#170 IBM Continues To Crumble
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015.html#80 Here's how a retired submarine captain would save IBM
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015b.html#48 IBM's One Hundred Year History Is About Cash, Culture and Mutualism
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015c.html#107 crash, restart, and all that, was Your earliest dream?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015d.html#9 PROFS
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015e.html#20 1973--TI 8 digit electric calculator--$99.95
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015g.html#60 [Poll] Computing favorities
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015g.html#80 Term "Open Systems" (as Sometimes Currently Used) is Dead -- Who's with Me?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015g.html#98 PROFS & GML
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015h.html#67 IMPI (System/38 / AS/400 historical)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015h.html#113 Is there a source for detailed, instruction-level performance info?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016.html#25 1976 vs. 2016?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016.html#49 Strategy
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016c.html#4 You count as an old-timer if (was Re: Origin of the phrase "XYZZY")
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016c.html#72 Fridays
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016e.html#76 PROFS
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016e.html#106 Blogs
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016f.html#0 IBM is Absolutely Down For The Count
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016f.html#9 IBM email
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016g.html#56 Is the IBM Official Alumni Group becoming a ghost town? Why?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016g.html#91 IBM Jargon and General Computing Dictionary Tenth Edition
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016h.html#31 Erich Bloch, IBM pioneer who later led National Science Foundation, dies at 91
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#10 IBM 1970s
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#47 Subscription to Usenet groups
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#81 The ICL 2900 Buying a computer in the 1960s
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#39 The Pentagon still uses computer software from 1958 to manage its contracts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#84 Hottest Editors

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virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

I.R.S. Enlists Debt Collectors to Recover Overdue Taxes

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: I.R.S. Enlists Debt Collectors to Recover Overdue Taxes
Date: 21 Apr 2017
Blog: Facebook
I.R.S. Enlists Debt Collectors to Recover Overdue Taxes
https://www.nytimes.com/2017/04/20/business/dealbook/taxes-debt-collection-internal-revenue-service.html

Spring 2009, IRS announces it is going after 52,000 wealthy Americans that owe $400B in taxes on money (illegally) hidden overseas, then in spring 2011, Speaker of the House announces that congress is cutting the budget for the department responsible for recoverying that money. Since then there have been a couple articles about a few billion in fines on the Too Big To Fail that facilitated the tax evasion, but little about recoverying the money.

First American Client Charged in UBS Tax-Shelter Probe
https://blogs.wsj.com/law/2009/04/03/first-american-client-charged-in-ubs-tax-shelter-probe/

Policing Tax Evasion Could Save Billions, But Republicans Won't Fund Enforcement
http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/04/28/irs-budget-cuts-deficit_n_850243.html
The U.S. government loses around $300 billion in revenue each year because of tax cheats, some of whom hide their earnings in offshore accounts or disguise them using complicated business structures, according to the Internal Revenue Service. Since 2001, tax evasion has cost as much as the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, the Bush tax cuts and the 2009 stimulus combined, according to the financial-services analysis firm The Motley Fool.
... snip ...

No Jail In UBS Tax Evasion Case
https://www.forbes.com/sites/robertwood/2011/12/03/no-jail-in-ubs-tax-evasion-case/#10c421f46886

past posts tax evasion, tax avoidance, tax havens
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#tax.evasion
TBTF
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#too-big-to-fail

posts specifically mentioning the 52,000 wealthy Americans that owe $400B
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012h.html#27 Monopoly/ Cartons of Punch Cards
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012h.html#30 Monopoly/ Cartons of Punch Cards
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012h.html#39 Monopoly/ Cartons of Punch Cards
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2012h.html#64 Monopoly/ Cartons of Punch Cards
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013d.html#36 Bank Whistleblower Claims Retaliation And Wrongful Termination
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013e.html#70 What Makes an Architecture Bizarre?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013e.html#86 What Makes a thread about the European debt crisis Bizarre?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013f.html#6 What Makes an Architecture Bizarre?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013f.html#11 Secrecy for Sale: Inside the Global Offshore Money Maze
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013f.html#13 What Makes an Architecture Bizarre?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013f.html#69 The cloud is killing traditional hardware and software
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013g.html#86 How Wall Street Defanged Dodd-Frank
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013j.html#26 What Makes an Architecture Bizarre?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013j.html#27 What Makes a Tax System Bizarre?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013k.html#32 What Makes a Tax System Bizarre?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013k.html#38 What Makes a Tax System Bizarre?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013k.html#64 What Makes a Tax System Bizarre?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013k.html#73 What Makes a Tax System Bizarre?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013l.html#64 OT: NYT article--the rich get richer
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013l.html#68 OT: NYT article--the rich get richer
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014c.html#98 Credit Suisse 'cloak-and-dagger' tactics cost US taxpayers billions
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014g.html#58 Credit Suisse, BNP Paribas at Risk of Criminal Charges Over Taxes, Business With Banned Nations
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014g.html#100 After the Sun (Microsystems) Sets, the Real Stories Come Out
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014m.html#75 LEO
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2014m.html#99 US Debt In Public Hands Doubles Under Barack Obama
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015.html#52 Report: Tax Evasion, Avoidance Costs United States $100 Billion A Year
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015b.html#3 About This Project: Swiss Leaks
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015b.html#5 Swiss Leaks lifts the veil on a secretive banking system
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015d.html#75 Greedy Banks Nailed With $5 BILLION+ Fine For Fraud And Corruption
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015d.html#76 Greedy Banks Nailed With $5 BILLION+ Fine For Fraud And Corruption
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015e.html#97 1973--TI 8 digit electric calculator--$99.95
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016b.html#12 Thanks Obama
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016b.html#34 Here's Why (And How) The Government Will "Borrow" Your Retirement Savings
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016b.html#64 Qbasic
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016b.html#108 Qbasic
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016c.html#17 Globalization Worker Negotiation
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2016f.html#17 UBS whistleblower exposes 'political prostitution' all the way up to President Obama
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017b.html#19 Trump to sign cyber security order
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#41 Profitable Companies, No Taxes: Here's How They Did It

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virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

United Air Lines - an OODA-loop perspective

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: United Air Lines - an OODA-loop perspective
Date: 19 Apr 2017
Blog: Slightly East of New
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.htm#93 United Air Lines - an OODA-loop perspective

other (private-equity) trivia:

after former president of AMEX, leaves IBM to head up Carlyle, Carlyle will acquire major beltway bandit ... which will employee Snowden. There is enormous uptic in government outsourcing last decade, frequently to beltway bandits owned by large private equity companies (gov. agencies can't lobby congress, also companies can't lobby congress with money from gov contracts, but private equity companies are free to lobby congress on behalf of companies they own).

spies like us, 70% of intelligence budget and half the people
http://www.investingdaily.com/17693/spies-like-us/

companies in the private equity under heavy pressure to generate revenue for their parents, including cutting corners every way possible. Private equity subsidiaries doing outsource security clearances were found to filling out the paperwork, but not actually doing background checks.

more recent leakers have also been found to be employed by some company that employed Snowden. Also OPM was another private equity subsidiary

OPM Contractor's Parent Firm Has a Troubled History
https://firstlook.org/theintercept/2015/06/24/opm-contractor-veritas/

It also contributes to rapidly spreading Success of Failure culture, series of failures generates far more profit than immediate success
http://www.govexec.com/excellence/management-matters/2007/04/the-success-of-failure/24107/

over half of corporate defaults are companies currently or formally in private equity mill
http://www.nytimes.com/2009/10/05/business/economy/05simmons.html?_r=0

Mitt Romney Is The Real Super-Fraud: Here's The Proof, Chapter And Verse
http://davidstockmanscontracorner.com/mitt-romney-is-the-real-super-fraud-heres-the-proof-chapter-and-verse/
During his 16-years at Bain Capital, fully one-fourth or $600 million of the firms cumulative $2.5 billion of profits were scalped from companies which went bankrupt soon after Mitt and his partners got out of town with the loot.
... snip ...

private-equity has also gotten into buying hospitals, clinics and medical practices and milking them for every penny possible.

private-equity posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#private.equity
success of failure posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#succes.of.failure

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

[CM] What was your first home computer?

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Re: [CM] What was your first home computer?
Newsgroups: alt.folklore.computers
Date: Fri, 21 Apr 2017 09:22:07 -0700
Charlie Gibbs <cgibbs@kltpzyxm.invalid> writes:
Blast from the past! I used to drop eight or nine bucks at the local arcade playing Tempest until I finally posted high score. A computer club buddy had a sit-down version of the game and I borrowed the schematics and ROM listings, hoping to write a 6502 emulator, but that fell through the cracks. I think someone eventually did do a multi-game emulator that could have done it. It would be nice to play it again; I'll have to look up that emulator in my copious free time (hah!).

re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#86 [CM] What was your first home computer?

on Kooser in south san jose in what was old supermarket bldg, not quite the first ... but close
http://showbizpizza.com/info/promo/ptt/ptt_ad_1977winchester.pdf

several of us spent a lot of time playing space invaders
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Space_Invaders

Also on periodic visit to Tymshare ... they show a game of adventure that they had gotten from SAIL PDP10 and port to vm370/cms. I have process where they mail me a monthly tape of VMSHARE files ... tymshare made their cms-based online computer conferencing sysetms free to user group SHARE as VMSHARE starting in AUG1976 ... archives here
http://vm.marist.edu/~vmshare

... in any case, I get a copy of adventure with source. I make the executable available on the internal network ... and will send source to anybody getting all the points
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colossal_Cave_Adventure

internal network was larger than the arpanet/internet from just about the beginning until sometime mid-80s ... some past posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subnetwork.html#internalnet

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Electronic Payments

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Electronic Payments
Date: 21 Apr 2017
Blog: Facebook
more than you might want to know ... first got sucked into electronic commerce ... and then because did electronic commerce con'ed into x9a10 financial standards working group which had been given the requirement to preserve the integrity of the financial infrastructure for *ALL* retail payments (not just internet). some recent posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#16
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#10
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#92

financial institutions have very heavy fraud surcharge on interchange fees (that merchants pay) ... such that many US institutions have 40-60% of their bottom line coming from those surcharges. eliminating that fraud could mean a 90% reduction (over 1/3rd-1/2 of bottom line)

some of about original data breach notification act (california)
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#7
data breach notification posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#data.breach.notification

after cal. state notification passes, industry generates PCI standard and then lobbies for federal (preemption) data breach notification act that would effectively eliminate notification requirement because the industry had voluntary industry security standard (at the time, merchant paid for certification ... and if then had breach, the PCI certification would be revoked).

long-winded discussion that wanders around a bit ... but includes discussion about financial transaction vulnerabilities, replay attack, dual-use, security proportional to risk, etc
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015.html#54

aka replay attacks mean that crooks can use information from previous attacks to perform fraudulent transactions. profit for merchant on transaction can be a couple dollars ... the "profit" for crook on transaction information can be account balance or (open to buy) credit limit ... so a crook may afford to spend 100 times more attacking a merchant than merchant can spend defending (security proportional to risk). security proportional to risk posts
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/submisc.html#security.proportional.to.risk

"dual-use" vulnerability ... transaction information is required for dozen of business processes at millions of location around the world ... but since the same information can be used by crooks ... it must be kept completely confidential and never divulge (diametrically opposing requirements) ... I pontificate that even if the world was buried under miles of information hiding crypto, it still wouldn't stop info leakage
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subintegrity.html#harvest
and
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/subintegrity.html#secrets

x9a10 did detailed end-to-end threat and vulnerabilities studies for many payment types ... and basically came up with standard that tweaked existing infrastructure that eliminates the dual-use vulnerability ... crooks can no longer use info from previous transactions for fraudulent transactions (it doesn't eliminate breaches, but eliminates the risk from breaches).
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/x959.html#x959

--
virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970

Electronic Payments

From: Anne & Lynn Wheeler <lynn@garlic.com>
Subject: Electronic Payments
Date: 23 Apr 2017
Blog: Facebook
re:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017d.html#101 Electronic Payments

an example was early in this century a set of internet "safe" payment products were developed that were shopped around to major internet merchants (accounting for something like 70% of online internet payment transactions) ... which saw very high acceptance. Merchants had been indoctrinated for decades that the interchange fee (they pay on every electronic payment transactions) has very high "fraud" surcharge (proportional to fraud for various kinds of fraud activity) that included very high profit for the financial institutions (initial internet "electronic commerce" adopted earlier "MOTO" rates ... mail-order/telephone-order that had highest fraud surcharge)

Merchants were anticipating that "safe" products would result in substantial reduction in interchange transaction fee. Then the cognitive dissonance sets in, financial institutions instead of reducing fee, effectively decided to add another surcharge (for the "safe" products) on top of the highest fee already being charged. Then the whole effort collapses.

trivia: at financial industry critical infrastructure protection meetings (in white house annex)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Critical_infrastructure_protection

one of the major issues was to make sure the ISAC wasn't a government operation subject to FOIA ... minimize public hearing about things going on
https://www.fsisac.com/

past posts mentioning fsisac:
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009f.html#48 Bankers as Partners In Crime Stopping
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009n.html#11 Banks should share cyber crime information IT PRO
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009p.html#27 FBI: National data-breach law would help fight cybercrime
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2009p.html#45 ATM machines are increasingly attractive to hackers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010j.html#19 Personal use z/OS machines was Re: Multiprise 3k for personal Use?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010n.html#76 Mainframe hacking?
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010o.html#18 Electronic Theft Costs Businesses More Than Physical Theft
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2010p.html#40 The Great Cyberheist
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2011o.html#27 Measuring Cyberfraud, the fall rate of sky, and other metrics from the market for Silver Bullets
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013h.html#20 How about the old mainframe error messages that actually give you a clue about what's broken
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2013i.html#10 EBCDIC and the P-Bit
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015.html#15 Banking Culture Encourages Dishonesty
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015b.html#14 President to Issue Executive Order Encouraging Threat Intelligence Sharing
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015c.html#74 N.Y. Bank Regulator Says Third-Party Vendors Provide Backdoor to Hackers
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2015c.html#99 Cyber Threat Sharing is Great in Theory, But Tough in Practice
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017.html#8 "Too big to fail" was Malicious Cyber Activity
http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/2017c.html#96 ComputerWorld Says: Cobol plays major role in U.S. government breaches

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virtualization experience starting Jan1968, online at home since Mar1970







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